CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW OF POWER SECTOR

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1.1. INTRODUCTION
An economy’s growth, development, ability to handle global competition is all dependent on the availability, reliability and quality of the power sector. As the Indian economy continues to surge ahead, electrification and electricity services have been expanding concurrently to support the growth rate. The demand for power is growing exponentially and the scope of growth of this sector is immense. Existing generation suffers from several recurrent problems. The efficiency and the availability of the coal power plants are low by international standards. A majority of the plants use low-heat-content and high-ash unwashed coal. This leads to a high number of airborne pollutants per unit of power produced. Moreover, past investments have skewed generation toward coal-fired power plants at the expense of peak-load capacity. In the context of fast-growing demand, large T&D losses and poor pooling of loads at the national level exacerbate the lack of generating capacity. India is one of the main manufacturers and users of energy. Globally, India is presently positioned as the 11th largest manufacturers of energy. It is also the worlds’ 6th largest energy users. In spite of its extensive yearly energy output, Indian power sector is a regular importer of energy because of huge disparity. Global and Indian economy have decelerated, but power is one of the few commodities in short supply in India. So, despite the sluggishness in production and demand for manufactured products, India remains power hungry, both in terms of normal and peak power demand. Power is derived from various sources in India. These include thermal power, hydropower or hydroelectricity, solar power, biogas energy, wind power etc. The distribution of the power generated is undertaken by Rural Electrification Corporation for electricity power supply.

1.2. GLOBAL OVERVIEW
The energy required to support our economies and lifestyles provides tremendous convenience and benefits. Energy consumption is reportedly higher in countries where less
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than 5 % of the population lives below the poverty line than it is in countries where most people live in poverty -- four times higher. For example, Americans make up less than 5 % of the world’s population yet consume 26 % of the world’s energy. World electricity generation rose at an average annual rate of 3.7% from 1971 to 2004, greater than the 2.1% growth in total primary energy supply. This increase was largely due to more electrical appliances, development of electrical heating in several developed countries and rural electrification programmes in developing countries. De-regulation in areas of the global energy markets has led to fierce competition. Now more than ever electricity has to be produced at a lower cost with many countries imposing ever tightening environmental legislation to reduce the impact power generation has on the environment. The enormous challenges are recognised in providing electricity as efficiently as possible and strive to develop technology to meet your needs. Collectively, developing countries use 30% of the world's energy, but with projected population and economic growth in those markets, energy demands are expected to rise 95 %. Overall global consumption is expected to rise 50 % from 2005 to 2030. World energy consumption is projected to expand by 50% from 2005 to 2030 in the IEO2008 reference case projection. Although high prices for oil and natural gas, which are expected to continue throughout the period, are likely to slow the growth of energy demand in the long term, world energy consumption is projected to continue increasing strongly as a result of robust economic growth and expanding populations in the world’s developing countries. Energy demand in the OECD economies is expected to grow slowly over the projection period, at an average annual rate of 0.7%, whereas energy consumption in the emerging economies of non-OECD countries is expected to expand by an average of 2.5 % per year. China and India—the fastest growing non-OECD economies—will be key contributors to world energy consumption in the future. Over the past decades, their energy consumption as a share of total world energy use has increased significantly. In 1980, China and India together accounted for less than 8 % of the world’s total energy consumption. In 2005 their share had grown to 18 %. Even stronger growth is projected over the next 25 years, with their combined energy use more than doubling and their share increasing to one-quarter of world energy consumption in 2030 in the IEO2008 reference case. In contrast, the U.S. share of total world energy consumption is projected to contract from 22 % in 2005 to about 17 % in 2030. Energy consumption in other non-OECD regions also is expected to grow strongly from 2005
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1980 . with increases of around 60 % projected for the Middle East. The share of coal remained stable. which fell from 20. at 40% while that of natural gas increased from 13. This decrease was due to a progressive move away from oil. the share of new and renewable energies. Due to large programmes to develop wind and solar energy in several OECD countries.7%. The share of electricity production from fossil fuels has gradually fallen.to 2030. A smaller increase. Page | 4 . which rose from 2.7% in 2004. such as solar. Fig .0% to 16. and Central and South America. is expected for non-OECD Europe and Eurasia (including Russia and the other former Soviet Republics). The share of hydro-electricity decreased from 23.1%.1% of total electricity production. as substantial gains in energy efficiency result from the replacement of inefficient Soviet-era capital stock and population growth rates decline.3% to 19. these energy forms remain limited: in 2004.9% to 6. geothermal.1% in 1971 to 15. Africa. biomass and waste increased. wind. they accounted for only 2. from just under 75% in 1971 to 66% in 2004.1: World Marketed Energy Consumption. about 36 %.6%. However.2030 Source: EIA International Energy Annual 2005(June-October 2007) Oil for power generation has been displaced in particular by dramatic growth in nuclear electricity generation.

which is forcasted to reach $1. As per the recent survery.216.025. which is forecasted to grow to $ 1.051. the industry accounted for $1.038. Pakistan. Pakistan. Page | 5 . the global electrical & electronics market is worth $1. Singapore. Sri Lanka China. Guam China. Laos. Vietnam China. Laos Philippines. India. Australia Philippines Australia Australia.5 billion in future.8 billion at the end of the year 2008.Table 1: OECD Multinational Electricity Companies Company Activity Assets Countries Active AES EDF Tractebel Enron Intergen Mirant Transalta IP CDC Generation Generation Generation supply Generation Generation Generation Generation Generation Generation & 1666MW 1684MW 848MW 204MW 1830MW 2261MW 280MW 3817MW 810MW China. If electrical & electronics production statistics are considered. Thailand.8 billion in 2006.8 billion. Malaysia Bangladesh Philippines. Thailand.

Fig.2: Comparative Per Capita Consumption Of Electricity (Kwh) The per capita consumption is seen to be far behind from the world average and very less when compared to other countries. Page | 6 . This is the most important issue to be concerned. Though India has achieved many milestones in generation still the there is a wide gap between demand and supply of power. So there is a need to improve it.

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Page | 7 .

the ongoing reforms since the passage of the Electricity Act 2003. and with rational elements to the regulations. secondly. privatization of generation. he talks about RAO UES which controls all the transmission. competitive parts – generation companies. functionally and regulatory. state sector restructuring and finally. distribution companies and system Operator Company. Consequently. Remes (2007) talks about Russia fourth largest user of electricity in the world. UES is suggesting a change in the law allowing the Antimonopoly Agency to interfere immediately when the share of any company in any regional free-flow markets. distribution and supply of electricity. concluding it can be said that Russia is ahead of the EU in the reform of the power sector and power sector monopolies. Finally. Page | 8 . with new elements. While acknowledging positive elements like increase in transparency and participation. The article questions the success of the process in solving the crisis.2. The very core of the reform has been to separate competitive businesses from natural monopolies. Russia has been able to create very sophisticated markets. The article concludes with some thoughts on developing an alternate reform approach.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Sreekumar (2008) reviews the market-oriented power sector reforms initiated in India in the early 1990s. Anatoly Chubais. supply/sales companies and service companies – have been separated into legally different companies from natural monopolies – from Transmission Company. It brings out a public interest oriented critique of the three phases of the reforms —firstly. both legally. Reforms were taken up as a response to the crisis in the sector. it criticizes the process for neglect of development issues like rural electrification and energy efficiency. it controls everything except nuclear power. to prevent the creation of any monopoly structures on the markets. It is of utmost importance for the future.

The paper also illustrates changes in the market structure as we move along the reform process. The failure of the large structure and the changing global scenario has forced Government to think of ways to revive this fundamental infrastructure sector. The paper discusses major policy and regulatory changes undertaken since the early 1990s. This further created the problem that Indian entrepreneurs didn’t have enough knowledge and experience in developing power projects. Some of the bold steps taken in the Act were moving generation and distribution out of ‘License Raj’. This paper takes stock of pre-reform situation in Indian power sector and identifies key concerns that led to initiation of the process of reform. opening access to national grid and demolishing the ‘Single Buyer’ model. In this context. Page | 9 . it discuss two issues arising out of it. The system demanded financial. A whole new system was evolved where private players were invited to be an active participant. Singh and Kumar (2004) . political and other major requirement in roads and communication.describes there were many inhibitors to growth in power sector but the main problem in the growth was Government Policy. Finally. the paper briefly discusses the issues involved in introduction of competition in the power sector primarily through development of a market for bulk power. which made it difficult for a private player to enter. Swain. Two ways that government can count on for future growth of this sector are “Small Power Plants” and “Clean Development Mechanism”. namely open access and multi-year tariff that we think would have a significant bearing on the performance of the sector in the near future. Investment in the sector was not able to keep pace with growing demand for electricity.Singh (2006) address the Power sector reforms in India. The paper also evaluates the reform process in the light of some of the regulatory changes undertaken. Reforms were initiated at a juncture when the sector was plagued with commercial losses and burgeoning subsidy burden. It also discuss some of the major provisions of the recently enacted Electricity Act 2003 that aims to replace the prevailing acts which govern the functioning of the power sector in the country.

CHAPTER 3 POWER SECTOR IN INDIA Page | 10 .

3. In the year 1947.1. paving the way for establishing Electricity Boards in the states of the Union. It was thought by policy makers that as the private players were small and did not have required resources for the massive expansion drive. enormous impetus was given for the expansion of distribution of electricity in rural areas. the production of power was reserved for the public sector in the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956. a second Act . in Calcutta (now Kolkata). Power was available only in a few urban centers. POWER SECTOR IN INDIA The process of electrification commenced in India almost with the developed world. 1910. Generation and distribution of electrical power was carried out primarily by private utility companies such as Calcutta Electric.The Electricity (Supply) Act. with the establishment of a small hydroelectric power station in Darjeeling. In 1960s and 70s. However. Since then. transmission and distribution in the rural sector and the urban centers (which was not served by private utilities) came under the purview of State and Central government agencies. almost Page | 11 . State Electricity Boards (SEBs) were formed in all the states. commercial production and distribution started in 1889. in the 1880s. 1948 was formulated.362 MW. After 1947. Shortly after independence. the country had a power generating capacity of 1. all new power generation. rural areas and villages did not have electricity. Legal provisions to support and regulate the sector were put in place through the Indian Electricity Act.

From the installed capacity of only 1. With the proposed inter-regional links being developed it is envisaged that it would be possible for power to flow any where in the country with the concept of National Grid becoming a reality during 12th Plan Period. Most of the private players were bought out by state electricity boards. The number of consumers connected to the Indian power grid exceeds is 75 million.000 MW mark India has become sixth largest producer and consumer of electricity in the world equaling the capacities of UK and France combined. The planning was so far based on a region as a unit for planning and accordingly the power systems have been developed and operated on regional basis. 3. A paradigm shift is in escapable.1. mismanagement. the Eastern & North-Eastern Regions are operating in parallel. Indian power sector is at the cross road today.1. Today. political interference and corruption for decades. Presently. EMERGENCE OF REGIONAL POWER SYSTEMS In order to optimally utilise the dispersed sources for power generation it was decided right at the beginning of the 1960’s that the country would be divided into 5 regions and the planning process would aim at achieving regional self sufficiency.362mw in 1947. has millions of kilometers of T & D lines criss-crossing diverse topography of the country. the achievements of India's power sector growth looks phony on the face of huge gaps in supply and demand on one side and antediluvian generation and distribution system on the verge of collapse having plagued by inefficiencies. However.for better or may be for worse. India's power system today with its extensive regional grids maturing in to an integrated national grid. on the other. GENERATION Page | 12 . strong integrated grids exist in all the five regions of the country and the energy resources developed are widely utilised within the regional grids.all new investment in power generation. has increased to 97000 MW as on March 2000 which has since crossed 100. transmission and distribution has been made in the public sector.

which is about 100 times the installed capacity of 1362 MW in the year 1947.33% respectively.624 BU import from Bhutan. Power generation has showcased a robust growth rate which is steadily improving year after year. 118. 2008. As compared to annual growth rate of about 3. Abbreviation:      SHP BG BP = = = Small Hydro Project Biomas Gasfier Biomass Power Urban & Industrial Water Power Renewable Sources.41.079. U&I = RES = Table.2: Gap Between Demand And Supply Of Power Page | 13 .84 MW as on January 31.1% at the end of 9th Plan and initial years of 10th Plan. 19. the growth in generation during 2006-07 and 2007-08 was of the order of 7.344 BU comprising of 631. The electricity generation target for the year 2008-09 has been fixed at 744.India has installed power generation capacity of 1.450 BU hydro.270 BU thermal.000 BU nuclear. There has been significant improvement in the growth in actual generation over the last few years. and 5.3% and 6.

optimization of fuel mix.The table shows the average shortage of electricity in India every year to be approximately between 7-8%.1. Page | 14 . Technology up gradation & optimization of transmission cost. Power Generation Strategy with focus on low cost generation. optimization of capacity utilization.1.1. 3. STRATEGIES The various strategies followed to achieve the goal in power sector are. Technology up gradation and utilization of Nonconventional energy sources Transmission Strategy with focus on development of National Grid including Interstate connections. controlling the input cost.

consumer service orientation. To achieve the above objectives National Electric Policy has been designed.577 MW has been proposed for the 11 th plan.920 million being required for the state sector and Rs. a capacity addition of 78. Communication Strategy for political consensus with media support to enhance the general public awareness. The Tenth Plan for fiscal years 2002 to 2007 targeted a capacity addition of 41.641 MW.1. 1. however at the end of the Tenth Plan period. Rs. 3. only 21.370 million being required for the private sector. Regulation Strategy aimed at protecting Consumer interests and making the sector commercially viable. INVESTMENTS IN GENERATION The total fund requirement for generation projects.180 MW of capacity was added. theft control. quality power supply commercialization.670 million being required for the central sector. Load management and Technology up gradation to provide energy efficient equipment gadgets.108.020. The total fund requirement includes the fund requirement Page | 15 .Distribution strategy to achieve Distribution Reforms with focus on System up gradation.5 % to the power sector.960 million.237. This capacity addition is expected to provide a growth of 9. Decentralized distributed generation and supply for rural areas.1. during the Eleventh Plan period is estimated at Rs. Financing Strategy is to generate resources for required growth of the power sector. 4. To fulfill the objectives of the NEP.110 MW. This shows that India is not upto the mark in achieving the targets of generation. Conservation Strategy to optimize the utilization of electricity with focus on Demand Side management. 2. 850. loss reduction.2. which was subsequently revised to 30. Our planning is perfect but our path to achieve the target is not perfect. with Rs.

00. In India bulk transmission has increased from 3708 ckm in 1950 to more than 256. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology has also been used for interconnection of all regional grids across the country and for bulk transmission of power over long distances.950 million for start-up generation projects benefiting in the Twelfth Plan. This had necessitated backing down of generation and operating at a lower load generation balance in the past. Transmission planning has therefore moved away from the earlier generation evacuation system planning to integrated system planning.estimated at Rs. noncommissioning of load centre generating units originally planned and deficit in reactive compensation. recognition of power trading as a distinct activity.000 ckm today. TRANSMISSION Transmission of electricity is defined as bulk transfer of power over a long distance at high voltage. due to various reasons such as spatial development of load in the network. certain pockets in the power system could not safely operate even under normal conditions. Ability of the power system to safely withstand a contingency without generation rescheduling or load-shedding was the main criteria for planning the transmission system. generally of 132 kV. This mission would require that our installed generation capacity should be at least 2.000 MW by 2012 from the present level of 1. Certain provisions in the Electricity Act 2003 such as open access to the transmission and distribution network.891.000 MW. The latter is required because resources are unevenly distributed in the country and power needs to be carried great distances to areas where load centres exist. The Government of India has an ambitious mission of ‘POWER FOR ALL BY 2012’. 14. While the predominant technology for electricity transmission and distribution has been Alternating Current (AC) technology. However. the liberal definition of a captive generating plant and provision for supply in rural areas are expected to introduce Page | 16 . To be able to reach this power to the entire country an expansion of the regional transmission network and inter regional capacity to transmit power would be essential. 1.

500kV HVDC 200kV Monopole 400kV 230kV/220Kv Total Transmission Line SUBSTATIONS HVDC BTB HVDC Bipole+Monopole Total-HVDC Terminal Capacity 765kV 400Kv 230/220Kv Total-AC Subtation Capacity ckm ckm ckm ckm ckm ckm VIII Plan 409 3138 0 36142 79601 119290 IX Plan 971 3138 162 49378 96993 150642 X Plan 1704 58728 162 75772 114629 198089 XI Plan 7132 11078 162 125000 150000 293372 MW MW MW VIII Plan 1500 1500 3000 IX Plan 2000 3200 5200 0 60380 116363 176743 X Plan 3000 5200 8200 2000 92942 156497 251439 XI Plan 3000 11200 14200 53000 145000 230000 428000 MVA 0 MVA 40865 MVA 84177 MVA 125042 Page | 17 . transmission and distribution front would result in formation of a robust electricity grid in the country.and encourage competition in the electricity sector.3: CUMLATIVE GROWTH IN TRANSMISSION SECTOR & PROGRAMME FOR 11th PLAN At the end of At the end of At the end of At the end of VIII Plan ie IX Plan ie X Plan ie XI Plan ie March 1997 March 2002 March 2007 March 2012 Unit TRANSMISSION LINES 765 kV HVDC +/. It is expected that all the above measures on the generation. GROWTH OF TRANSMISSION Table.

3.4: Details of Existing Lines and Sub-Stations Region Details of Existing Lines and Sub-Stations Region HVDC 1 Northern Region J&K HP Delhi Haryana Punjab Rajasthan UP Total NR 2 Western Region MP Maharashtra Gujarat Total WR 3 Southern Region AP Karnataka 2762 965 3150 NIL 5791 1127 1195 8113 852 852 0 945 NIL 630 1575 817 817 300 572 397 1789 1170 791 2933 7952 687 192 66 401 1032 870 3248 0 1260 1575 2025 1130 630 6620 400KV 220KV 132KV (MVA) Page | 18 .1.3. TRANSMISSION NETWORK Table.1.

3 5 1126 21711 According to this table about 2. In addition to state boards Power Grid Corporation of India Limited has a major role in transmission Page | 19 .E.Region Assam Maghalaya Nagaland Manipur Mizoram Tripura Arunachal Pradesh Total NER Total All India - 260 1647 5634 156 64 220 0 630 1575 5355 - 1057 1034 1287 344 3722 82 872 952 333 333 1860 2520 2025 630 7035 817 1978 333 2311 27732 171 320 491 5763 79 67 189 443 178 147 42 1145 1478 1015 100 6.Kerala Tamil Nadu Total SR 4 Eastern Region Bihar Orissa West Bengal DVC Total ER 5 N.5% of Indian villages still remain unelectrified.

notified as the Central Transmission Utility of the country. 1991 and it took over transmission assets from NTPC.000 Crore as a public limited company. Based on its performance POWERGRID was recognized as a Mini-ratna company by the Government of India in October 1998. is also responsible for Establishment and Operation of Regional and National Power Grids to facilitate transfer of power within and across the Regions with Reliability. Such an integrated grid shall carry 60% of the power generated in the country. 1989 with an authorized share capital of Rs.000 ckm of Transmission Network by 2012. POWERGRID is working towards achieving its mission of “Establishment and Operation of Regional and National Power Grids to facilitate transfer of power within and across the regions with reliability. an investment of about 75. The existing inter-regional power transfer capacity is 17. According to its mandate. FUTURE PLANS FOR POWER FOR ALL BY 2012 The country’s transmission perspective plan for eleventh plan focuses on the strengthening of National Power Grid through addition of over 60. 65. the Corporation. NEEPCO and other Central/Joint Sector Organizations during 1992-93 in a phased manner. security and economy. it also took over the operation of existing Regional Load Dispatch Centers from CEA. is playing a major role in Indian Power Sector and is also providing Open Access on its inter-State transmission system.2. In addition to this. NHPC. Based on the expected generation capacity addition in XI plan. in a phased manner.000 MW by 2012 through creation of “Transmission Super Highways”.000 MW. 3. Page | 20 . which is to be further enhanced to 37.000 Crore is envisaged in Central Sector and Rs. POWERGRID started functioning on management basis with effect from August. Security and Economy on sound commercial principles.000 Crore is envisaged in the State Sector. wholly owned by the Government of India.1. on sound commercial principles". which has been upgraded with State of-the-art Unified Load Dispatch and Communication (ULDC) schemes. apart from providing transmission system for evacuation of central sector power. POWERGRID.Power Grid Corporation of India limited (POWERGRID) was incorporated on October 23. 5.

Formation of such a National Power Grid has been envisaged in a phased manner. especially in eco-sensitive areas like North-Eastern Region. inter-regional connectivity is planned to be strengthened with hybrid system consisting of high capacity EHV/UHV AC and HVDC links. primarily HVDC interconnections were established between the regions. Such a National Power Grid is envisaged to disperse power not only from Mega sized generation projects but also to enable transfer of bulk power from one part of the country to another in different operational scenarios say. these areas are also endowed with major hydro potential of the country. In the next phase. acquiring Right of Way (ROW) for constructing transmission lines is getting increasingly difficult. formation of National Power Grid is an effective tool to achieve this as various countries have adopted the model of interconnecting power grid not only at national level but also at international level. This necessitates creation of “Transmission Super Highways”. hilly areas in Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. some regions do not have adequate natural resources for setting power plants to meet their future requirements whereas others have abundant natural resources. Winter.The exploitable energy resources in our country are unevenly distributed. Raipur – Rourkela 400kV D/C AC transmission line Page | 21 . Monsoon etc. This was completed in the year 2002. This calls for optimal utilization of generating resources for sustainable development. Demand for power continues to grow unabated. developments in power sector emphasize the need for accelerated implementation of National Power Grid on priority to enable scheduled/unscheduled exchange of power as well as for providing open access to encourage competition in power market. constraints in ROW do not cause bottleneck in harnessing generating resources. Thus. At the same time. Further. Initially. so that in future. in varying climatic conditions across the country: Summer. considering wide variations in electrical parameters in the regional grids. West Bengal and Hydro Resources are mainly concentrated in Northern and North-Eastern Regions. Thus. Inter-connection of these highways from different part of the country would ultimately lead to formation of a high capacity “National Power Grid”. Commissioning of links under this phase has already begun with the commissioning of 2000 MW Talcher-II HVDC Bipole. like Coal resources are abundant in Bihar/Jharkhand. Chicken neck area. thereby achieving inter-regional power transfer capacity of 5000 MW. Orissa. As a result.

and lack of adequate reactive power support. augmentation of Gazuwaka HVDC (500MW) back to back link and Tala transmission system. theft & pilferages.having Series Compensation. overloading of the system elements like transformers and conductors. The programme. The commercial losses are mainly due to low metering efficiency. 3.1.The reduction of these losses was essential to bring economic viability to the State Utilities. proper energy accounting & auditing and improved billing & collection efficiency. AT&C loss captures technical as well as commercial losses in the network and is a true indicator of total losses in the system. 765 kV UHV AC lines/ HVDC lines. The inter-regional transfer capacity of 16. The main objective of the programme was to bring Aggregate Technical & Commercial (AT&C) losses below 15% in five years in urban and in high-density areas. With the initiative of the Government of India and of the States. High technical losses in the system are primarily due to inadequate investments over the years for system improvement works. due to lack of adequate investment on T&D works. depending upon planned growth of generation capacity. However. As the T&D loss was not able to capture all the losses in the net work. A vast network of sub transmission in distribution system has also come up for the utilization of power by the ultimate consumer. Further strengthening of National Power Grid is envisaged through high capacity AC EHV lines.86% in the year 2000-01. concept of Aggregate Technical and Commercial (AT&C) loss was introduced. for the strengthening of Sub – Transmission and Distribution network and reduction in AT&C losses.200 MW is available as on date. 35. the Accelerated Power Development & Reform Programme (APDRP) was launched in 2001. the T&D losses have been consistently on higher side. and reached to the level of 32. This phase is planned to be implemented by 2012 when inter-regional power transfer capacity will be enhanced to about 37.700 MW by the end of XI Plan.000 MW and the total number of consumers is over 144 million. which has resulted in unplanned extensions of the distribution lines. Fixing of accountability of the personnel feeder managers may help considerably in reduction of AT&C loss. DISTRIBUTION The total installed generating capacity in the country is over 1.3. This may be eliminated by improving metering efficiency. Page | 22 .

the loan component has been discontinued from FY 200506. To begin with the Govt. the original APDP was rechristened to Accelerated Power Development & Reforms Programme (APDRP) during 2002-03 for 10th five year plan. Now utilities have to arrange remaining 75% of the project cost from FIs like PFC/REC or their resources. Since incentive financing is proposed to be integrated with the existing investment program to achieve commercial viability of SEBs / Utilities and link it to the reform process.P. 19546 Crore. The commercial loss of the State Power Utilities reduced significantly during this period from Rs. However in accordance with the recommendation of 12th finance commission. The APDRP programme is being restructured by the Government of India. Page | 23 . 25% of the project cost is provided as Additional central plan assistance in form of Grant to the state utilities. Uttaranchal and Sikkim) are entitled for 90% assistance in form of grant and balance 10% fund.along with other initiatives of the Government of India and of the States. Special category state (like NE states. J&K. also provided loan to the tune of 25% of the project cost. Investment component – Government of India provides Additional Central Assistance for strengthening and up gradation of sub-transmission and distribution network. H. has led to reduction in the overall AT&C loss from 38. The objectives of APDRP are:  Improving financial viability of State Power Utilities  Reduction of AT & C losses  Improving customer satisfaction  Increasing reliability &quality of power supply The scheme has two components as below: a. The loss as %age of turnover was reduced from 33% in 2000-01 to 16.60% in 2005-06. so that the desired level of 15% AT&C loss could be achieved by the end of 11th plan. 29331 Crore to Rs.86% in 2001-02 to 34.54% in 2005-06.

63 State Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Haryana Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Rajasthan West Bengal Punjab Schemes undertaken under APDRP are for renovation and modernization of sub-stations.03 105. The year 2000-01 is the base year for the calculation of loss reduction.94 82. The cash losses are calculated net of subsidy and receivables. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Total Claim Year 2002-03 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2001-02 2002-03 2004-05 2002-03 2001-02 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2003-04 Incentive Amount Amount Released by Recommended for MoF released to MoF 265.94 2879.11 236.82 288.71 73 302.99 297. Project Formulation Page | 24 . 1.1 251.61 137.An incentive equivalent to 50% of the actual cash loss reduction by SEBs/ Utilities.5: The details of the cash loss reduction and incentives released to various states under APDRP (As on 31 March 2008) Sl.08 366. Incentive component .76 5. computerized billing etc.88 115.71 73 302.94 2879. No.63 265.89 137.38 148. Funds Released: Table.1 251. SCADA. augmentation of feeders & transformers.49 64.11 236. consumer indexing.94 82.76 5. is provided as grant.b. transmission lines & distribution transformers.08 366. feeder and consumer meters.88 115.82 288. high voltage distribution system (HVDS).38 148.03 105.49 64.61 137. in subsequent years.89 137.99 297.

Technical Loss reduction measures Page | 25 . 11 kV Feeder as Profit Centre Administrative measures are considered a powerful tool in our overall reform strategy because of the tremendous benefits it can provide in a short time span and with least burden to the SEB's. Karnataka has come out with the program of Grama Vidyut Pradhinidhis for distribution in selected 11kv feeder areas. These DPRs are to be vetted by NTPC or PGCIL and put up to MOP for sanction.The State utilities to prepare for each of the high-density areas in order of priority. Andhra Pradesh has planned to entrust the distribution in selected 11 kV feeders and below levels to selected agencies with the requisite capabilities and have invited tenders for such tasks. Detail Project Reports (DPRs). Success of such endeavors would go a long way in finding a solution to the issues of the Indian power sector. Recently. Actions for procurement & installation of these are being pursued vigorously. constituted by the Ministry of Power. continuous data from all the substations are made available without manual intervention. 3. Energy meters on Feeders Static meters on 11 kV out-going feeders and HT consumers have been contemplated. Though the Chief Minister’s conference held in March 2001 decided to complete the implementation of the feeder meters by December 2002. due to various reasons their procurement and installation is yet to be completed. Since these feeders provide the metering at the points of bulk deliveries in the distribution system. The different project components shall include: 2. Energy meters on DTs & Consumers and energy accounting In many areas it has been planned to install suitable energy meters at distribution transformers to facilitate detailed accounting of energy flows and these have to be planned with suitable data transmission / collection facilities convenient to the utilities. based on the Technical Manual prepared by the Expert Committee on Distribution. these are of paramount importance for carrying out energy audits. Such meters can also help in keeping track of the distribution transformer loading and thereby reduce their outages apart from providing useful information on consumption patterns for demand side management. It is also necessary that the meters be provided with on-line communication facility so that reliable. 5. 4.

Computerization Creation of comprehensive. Page | 26 . In addition provisions of computerized automatic data acquisition at the substations are planned. billing and revenue management platforms are also planned under the APDRP program for realizing the objectives outlined above and provide better services to the customers. Further. Implementations for these are under various stages in different areas.   Re-conductoring of over loaded sections Re-configuration of feeder lines & distribution transformers so as to reduce the length of LT lines  Make the system less LT oriented by installation of smaller size energy efficient distribution transformers so that each transformer supplies power to 10 to 15 households only  Development of digital mapping of the entire assets of distribution system Computerized load flow studies so that investments could be undertaken for longterm strengthening of the distribution system. These necessarily call for technical intervention in firstly ensuring that the assets already created are maintained in proper working condition and secondly through augmenting the system. The energy accounting. Based on the needs these would be hooked up to suitable Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems. up to date consumer index and system databases on computerized platforms are essential for creation of platforms for efficient commercial and technical operation and management of any distribution system. The system should be capable enough to meet the growing demand of information conscious customers.Measures for technical loss reduction include Installation of capacitors at all levels. Improving customer satisfaction Customer satisfaction can be improved through providing better quality power in terms of voltage fluctuations and reliability by reducing outages. customer complaint redressal mechanisms are to be made more responsive and proactive through building transparent and reliable system with the help of computerization.  6. The APDRP program has laid emphasis on this basic need and actions are on in many areas for creation of such databases. 7.

reduction in AT&C losses. Performance Guarantee Mechanism having adopted a turnkey concept for execution it would be possible to bind the contractor in terms of . Hence turnkey packaging concept would be adopted for execution of works preferably through empanelled turnkey contractors to expedite project implementation schedule. The returns are expected from the guaranteed incremental loss reduction.Equipment performance. Therefore. Turnkey Implementation The schemes proposed under APDRP have to be implemented in a very short time frame so that benefits of the investments are perceived and confidence is generated in the FIs that investments in the distribution sector can be bankable.Work completion schedule .Overall costs . With the present day manpower position in most of the SEBs it would also not be practical to coordinate the efforts of multiple agencies.8. the SEBs/State Utilities shall be urged to implement projects sanctioned under this programme on turnkey basis through pre-qualified turnkey contractors selected on a competitive basis to ensure quality and expeditious implementation. increase in revenues and reduction in outages. Execution of the scheme adopting conventional arrangement of ordering each of the components separately would be time consuming and delay in arranging any one component could lead to overall time delays. Page | 27 . If required performance guarantee contract mechanisms will be introduced whereby the turnkey companies would implement projects with guaranteed AT&C loss reduction with their own investments. By awarding the works under a turnkey contract the scheduling of equipment would be the responsibility of the contractor and shall keep in adhering to the time schedules. A scheme of incentives for early completion and penalties for delays or failure to meet performance guarantees can also be worked out in the turnkey contracts. Implementation of various activities / interventions will be prioritized to ensure quick improvements in reliability and quality of power supply. Distribution transformers and the Consumers. The focus will be on 11 KV feeders.

A Committee with members from NTPC. if they so desire. SEBs /Utilities. within the next 4 to 5 years. will be constituted to accredit reputed agencies for the above purpose..  Project Monitoring Agencies: To review the physical and financial progress of the project and bring out concern areas to the notice of the MOP for immediate resolution to avoid time and cost over . would be able to outsource the implementation to accredited agencies for quick formulation of quality projects and their implementation. SEBs / Utilities. PGCIL. may like to acquire the expertise and skills on an outsourcing basis. therefore. it is essential to make available a number of accredited specialized agencies for the purposes of energy audit & accounting. project monitoring and project evaluation. turnkey implementation. Technical Specification & Standardization The Expert Committee has also recommended standardization of technical specifications of equipment used in the distribution sector. FIs etc.runs. insulators etc.9. The SEBs may or may not have adequate skills in the area and. Page | 28 . and oversee the proposals & implementation by the states who are well equipped:  Engineering Agencies: To formulate and appraise the DPRs for augmentation of sub- transmission and distribution system and oversee implementation including quality checks. with the assistance of the Indian Electrical and Equipment Manufacturing Association. credit rating agencies. In order to cover a large number of urban & industrial areas in the country. the Confederation of Indian Industry and the Bureau of Indian Standards etc. transformers. NTPC and PGCIL have also prepared model bidding documents which are available for use by the utilities. conductors. Appropriate Expert Committees have been set up for this purpose. capacitors. PFC. This would require engagement of agencies that are specialists in the fields of work given below in assisting the states which lack internal capabilities or manpower. 10. Accreditation Project formulation for up gradation of distribution network is a highly specialized job that involves detailed energy balancing and network reconfiguration necessary for a high voltage or low voltage distribution system. CEA. Specifications are being drawn up for energy efficient and standardized equipments like electronic and static meters. project formulation.

The MOU with the States has a provision for conducting energy audit on each feeder. This would facilitate in reduction of bidding time. erection. play a vital role in distribution management. IT applications will be used in such processes in the distribution sector to ensure higher revenues as a result of segregation of T&D losses. For the other activities especially those involving HR initiatives at SEB level and DSM and distributed generation concepts. supply. discussions are being held with international financing agencies to support the programme. For carrying out the detailed activities at field level agencies with sufficient experience in the respective areas of work are proposed to be identified and accredited.  Energy Accounting & Audit Agencies: The key success of distribution sector lies in bridging the gap between the energy drawn from the system and the metered energy supplied to the customers. proposed to have a technology mission for customizing / development of cost effective and relevant solutions for consumer and control point data communications. testing & commissioning and provide maintenance facilities and performance warranty for the various components involved in the sub-transmission and distribution system. Involvement of IT industries in this effort is envisaged. Any SEB can invite quotations from the accredited parties for the specific work and immediately place an award thereby saving considerable time and effort. outage reduction. collection and outage reduction. Turnkey Contractors: To undertake design. operation and control. 11. It is. etc. for the distribution network. and controlling commercial losses. therefore. Project Evaluators: To conduct concurrent and post execution evaluation of the anticipated and actual benefits accrued consequent upon execution of the project. For success of the program and improving revenue realization it is essential that all energy transactions are adequately metered and properly accounted. monitoring and control. bring in uniformity of terms of reference and work content. Application of Information Technology Information technology and computer aided tools for revenue increase. meter reading. billing. But the results of the audit have shown that a fair amount of energy accounted for as supplied is based on assessment. especially for metering. remote monitoring. manufacture. Just as any business would have to get its accounts audited it is necessary that this energy accounting is audited by eminent third parties so that the programme can sustain on its own strength in the coming years. Page | 29 .

Most SEBs. information management required for monitoring and decision-making will be different at various levels in hierarchy. Management Information System for the SEBs/ Utilities should provide relevant information at each level of the organization in timely and accurate manner. Otherwise huge data generated from MIS will not be of any significant use. Capacity Building within SEBs/Utilities Even though SEBs have expertise in different fields. It was considered necessary to promote capacity building exercise in the SEBs/State Power Utilities to enable SEB personnel to prepare detailed project reports for each of the districts/ circles and implement the project using APDRP funds at a later stage. For real time information flow. 13. during the regional meetings held in April and then later in June. strengthening of sub-transmission & distribution network on a scientific basis using computer aided tools requires an integrated knowledge. A generalized framework of MIS is presented which may be tailored to suit the needs of a specific SEB/utilities. an effective Management Information System (MIS) is required to ensure effective flow of information to facilitate quick decisionmaking at various levels of organization and to improve the operation and management of the distribution system. Management Information System (MIS) Operational efficiency improvement and customer servicing also need to be addressed at various levels in the organization. This is proposed to be achieved through computerization and networking. networking within the organization is needed. The structure of MIS should be SEB specific because of difference in their organizational structures and responsibilities at various levels across the organization. For MIS.12. MIS should be able to take care of different needs at various levels. information flow is required from lower level to higher levels with some information in real time and some in batch mode. In addition to this. 2001 expressed their inability to take up such work with their own manpower. The timeliness and accuracy of information improves decision-making. In this regard. Capacity building exercise is to cover:   Training the manpower Energy audit & accounting studies Page | 30 .

Page | 31 . Making the SEB officials collect relevant data from each 11 KV feeder in the identified circle. Capacity building is envisaged as a continuous exercise to ensure that the latest developments are internalized. /SEBs which agree to certain precedent conditions through an Agreement The SEBs / State Distribution Utilities will execute a SEB/Utilityspecific Memorandum of Agreement [MOA] with the Ministry of Power. National Power Training Institute. The Ministry of Power will also monitor implementation of the precedent conditions before releasing funds. The efficiency gains on account of APDRP investments shall be intimated to the regulatory commission to ensure that the benefits and reliefs are passed on to the customer by the private utilities. It is proposed to provide extensive training to the staff of SEBs / Utilities at all levels to so as enable them to develop bankable project reports covering techno-commercial activities for each circle and manage electricity distribution with a commercial orientation.  Analysis of the data using computer tools to prepare feeder wise computer aided least cost project report. It is planned to further strengthen our efforts in imparting quality training to bring about changes in business perspective crucial to the success of our power reform programme. PGCIL etc. Distribution reforms require a structural change in the existing set up of the SEBs. and several working level officers from the various SEBs benefited from such programmes. In order to enable them to manage distribution on a profit centre approach and to improve their performance on the basis of certain benchmarks. funds under APDRP will be provided only to those State Govts.  Supervision of implementation Several training programmes were organized by the training institutions such as Power Management Institute (NTPC)..

CHAPTER 4 SEGMENTS IN POWER GENERATION SEGMENTS IN POWER GENERATION 4. THERMAL Current installed capacity of Thermal Power (as of 12/2008) is 93392.3% of total installed capacity.1.64 MW which is 63. Page | 32 .

75 which is .88MW which comes to 53. 3: Comparison of Energy Intensity 4.5% of total installed base.01MW which is 10. Fig.09% of total installed base. Maharashtra is the largest producer of thermal power in the country. Current installed base of coal based thermal power is 77458. HYDRO POWER Page | 33 .  Current installed base of gas based thermal power is 14734.3% of total installed base.2.  Current installed base of oil based thermal power is 1199.

India is blessed with a rich hydro power potential. In the exploitable potential terms, India ranks fifth in the world. Less than 25% of the potential has been developed as of now. A large hydro has four main advantages.     It is a source of green energy. It has low variable cost. It is grid friendly. It can also can sub serve other purposes by irrigation, flood control, etc.

India has 3 major rivers: the Indus, the Brahmaputra, and the Ganga. It also has three major river systems? Central Indian, west flowing rivers of south India, and east flowing rivers of south India with a total of 48 river basins. The total potential from these river basins is 600TWh (Terawatt Hours) of electricity. Hydroelectric projects can be classified on the basis of purpose, hydraulic features, capacity, head, constructional features, mode of operation, etc. The main types are

ROR (Run of River) There are not large reservoirs; a part of water flow is diverted to

the plant which is adjacent to the river. After generation the flow is diverted back to the main flow through the tail race. This type of hydro plants requires a diversion dam and has unregulated water flow.

Dam Storage In these types of hydro plants, large reservoirs are created by the

construction a sizeable dam across the river and the plants is situated at the toe of the dam. Here, water could be regulated to generate electricity depending upon the demand

Pumped Storage These types of plants have two reservoirs, one at the upstream of

the power plant and one at the downstream. When there is low peak demand, the water from the reservoir situated downstream is pumped0020back to the upstream reservoir. As of today, the total identified hydro potential is 1 48 701 MW (mega watt). According to the list of hydro electric projects in the country, a total of 29 572 MW,19.9% of the total? Has been harnessed and 13 286 MW is under construction. A total of 3 660 MW of pumped storage schemes have also been developed. Various initiatives for accelerated development have been taken up by the central government to harness the hydro potential in India. Some of these are
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      

Hydro Power Policy (1998) 50 000 MW initiative Preparation of viable models for private sector participation Ranking of projects R&M up gradation and life extension programmes Facilitation for trading and co-operation with other countries Execution of projects with interstate aspects by Central Public Sector Units

Fig.4: State wise Hydro-power generation

Source: http://www.marketresearch.com/product/display.asp?productid=1695991

4.3. NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION
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In India, out of total installed capacity of 126993.97 MW (as on 31 August 2006); the share of nuclear power is 3% at 3900 MW. From the electricity generation point of view, nuclear power plants contributed 17 238.89 GWh out of total electricity generation of 6 17 510.44 GWh during April 2005 - March 2006, amounting to 2.79% of total generation. However, with exponential growth in energy demand coupled with a finite availability of coal, oil, and gas; there is a renewed emphasis on nuclear energy. Moreover, nuclear energy is considered to be an environmentally benign source of energy. Department of Atomic Energy is carrying out nuclear energy programme in India. The Indian Nuclear Power Programme has the following three stages.

The first stage, already commercial now, comprised setting up of PHWRs (pressurised heavy water reactors) and associated fuel cycle facilities. PHWRs use natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator and coolant. The design, construction, and operation of these reactors is undertaken by public sector undertaking the NPCIL (Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd). The company operates 16 reactors (2 Boiling Water Reactors and 14 PHWRs) with a total capacity of 3900 MWe. In the second stage, it was envisaged to set up FBRs (fast breeder reactors) along with reprocessing plants and plutonium-based fuel fabrication plants. Plutonium is produced by irradiation of Uranium-238. The Fast Breeder Programme is in the technology demonstration stage. Under this stage, the IGCAR (Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research) has completed design of a 500 MWe PFBR (prototype fast breeder reactor) being implemented by BHAVINI (Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam). The third stage of the Indian Nuclear Power Programme is based on the thoriumuranium-233 cycle. Uranium-233 is obtained by irradiation of thorium. Presently this stage is in technology development phase. The ongoing development of 300 MWe AHWR (advanced heavy water reactor) at BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre) concerns thorium utilization and its demonstration.

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the energy actually available would be order of magnitude lower than the aforementioned estimates. large scale cooking.. in theory. fallow lands. this amounts to 657. solar water heater. Therefore. solar energy is a dilute source.5% of the land is used for agriculture. which is equivalent to 5 909 mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent) per year. With a geographical area of 3. 6.287 million km square.4. there are applications such as industrial process heat. the range of solar energy is very large. and passive solar architecture.. water pumping. Solar energy technologies consists of  Solar thermal technologies.8% is either barren. refrigeration and air-conditioning.4 million MW. Those technologies that use solar energy resource to generate energy are known as solar energy technologies.5% of the land area amounting to 0. domestic power systems. be used for solar energy installations. The average intensity of solar radiation received on India is 200 MW/km square (megawatt per kilometer square). snow bound. Solar energy can be harnessed to supply thermal as well as electrical energy. However.413 million km square can. desalination. etc. Thus.7% for housing. While at the high end there are megawatt level solar thermal power plants. industry. in between. large areas are needed for collection. SOLAR India is endowed with rich solar energy resource. etc. Besides. which utilize sun's thermal energy and  Solar photovoltaic technology. On the applications side. The energy collected by 1 m square of a solar collector in a day is approximately equal to that released by burning 1 kg of coal or 1/2 litre of kerosene. forests. only 12. Page | 37 . and PV lanterns. or generally inhabitable. the efficiency of conversion of solar energy to useful energy is low. it is obvious that solar energy can be a good source of meeting energy demands. Then. drying. Thus. Even if 10% of this area can be used. at the lower end there are domestic appliances such as solar cooker. Nonetheless. and 5. which convert solar energy directly in to electricity. However.4. the available solar energy would be 8 million MW. 87.

the gross as well as the technical potential would increase in the future. It may be noted that this potential estimation is based on certain assumptions. Wind energy is extracted by turbines to convert the energy into electricity. The large-scale industry is directed towards contributing to countrywide energy supply. This potential is distributed mainly in the states of Tamil Nadu. Andhra Pradesh. In India.2. etc. extension of grid. With ongoing resource assessment efforts. Karnataka.3. buildings. TECHNOLOGY TRENDS Page | 38 . 4. 4.5. STATUS Wind power has become one of the prominent power generation technologies amongst the renewable energy technologies. Gujarat. The technical potential that is based on the availability of infrastructure. A small-scale and large-scale wind industry exists globally. the wind power density being in the range of 250 -450 W/m 2. Solar energy resource assessment becomes an essential activity of any solar energy programme.1.5.5. Maharashtra. which are also influenced by small scale flows caused by local conditions such as nature of terrain. the wind resources fall in the low wind regime. 4.Solar energy resource: Since the accurate information about solar energy resource at a specific location is crucial for designing appropriate solar system. 4. WIND RESOURCE IN INDIA The wind resource assessment in India estimates the total wind potential to be around 45 000 MW (mega watt).5. and sophisticated techniques for the wind farm designing. for example the availability of grid. is estimated to be around 13 000 MW. water bodies. improvement in the wind turbine technology. and Rajasthan. WIND The sun’s energy falling on the earth produces large-scale motions of the atmosphere causing winds. The small-scale wind industry caters for urban settings where a wind farm is not feasible and also where there is a need for household electricity generation.

The vertical axis turbines have structural as well as aerodynamic limitations and. which is 46% of the total capacity of renewable resources based power generation. depending on the resources available and the prevalent national perspective.4. It is the first renewable energy source to be tapped essentially to produce electricity Hydro power currently suffices one fifth of the global electricity supply. 4. The small hydro atlas shows that the largest of the projects (30 MW) is in US and Canada. the total installed capacity in the country was 5340 MW. As of 31 March 2006.100 kW . Horizontal axis wind turbines are most commonly used for power generation.2 MW . Small hydro . SMALL HYDRO The word hydro comes from a Greek word meaning water.2 MW Page | 39 . There are 7 manufacturers of wind turbine generators in India. also improving the electrical system reliability and stability throughout the world.Use of wind energy started long ago when it was used for grinding. mini/micro and Mico hydro. The definition of small hydro differs from country to country. although some vertical axis wind turbine designs has been developed and tested. thus complimenting the measures taken towards the climate change issues.30 MW Mini . it is being classified as follows. are not commercially used.6. It also substantially avoids the green house gas emissions. hence. The commercial use of wind energy for electrical power generation started in 1970s. 4. small hydro power is classified into small. The energy from water has been harnessed to produce electricity since long. WIND POWER IN INDIA Wind turbines offered in India range from 250 kW to 2 MW capacities.5.  According to the power generated. In India. Hydro projects below a specified capacity are known as small hydro. Small hydro power has emerged as one of the least cost options of harnessing green energy amongst all the renewable energy technologies.

1.1. Since after Electricity (supply) Act 1948.Micro . the power sector was mainly under the government control which owned 95 % of distribution and around 98% of generation through states' and central government utilities.10 kW .1 kW .10 kW CHAPTER 5 REFORMS IN POWER SECTOR REFORMS IN THE POWER SECTOR 5. PRE REFORM STAGE Confronted with unprecedented economic crisis in 1991. the power sector was chiefly funded by support from government budgets in the form of long term. Government of India embarked upon a massive cleanup exercise encompassing all policies having financial involvement of Governments.100 kW Mico hydro . These utilities were made to carry forward the political agenda of the ruling parties of the day and the crossPage | 40 .both at the level of Union and States. concessional interest loans.

Neyveli (CMS). 1910 and the Electricity (Supply) Act. Appeals against orders of SERCs to be in respective High Courts SERC to determine retail tariffs.50 Kwh and to be brought to 50% of the average costing not more than three years. but no sector to pay less than 50% of the average cost of supply ( cost of generation plus transmission and distribution). Cross -subsidization between categories of consumers may be allowed by SERCs. Package of incentives and disincentives to encourage and Page | 41 1992 1992-97 1995-96 1996 .First Test Case Orissa Orissa Electricity Reform Act passed Establishment of Orissa Electricity Regulatory Commission SEB unbundled into Orissa Power Generating Company (OPGC). import duties slashed on power projects Intensive wooing of foreign investors in US.subsidization i. Table. Fuel Adjustment Charges (FCA) to be automatically incorporated in the tariff.. but financial implications any deviations made by State/UT Government. Europe & Japan 8 projects given "fast-track" status. Vishakapatnam (Hinduja). charging industrial and commercial consumers above the cost of supply and to charge agricultural and domestic consumers below cost of supply was an integral part of the functioning of the utilities. Jegurupadu (GVK). Tariffs for agricultural sector not to be less than Rs. 1991--Notification.e. Sovereign guarantees from Central Government. to be provide for the explicitly in the State budget. 1948 by Private Sector allowed to establish generation projects of all types (except nuclear) 100% foreign investment & ownership allowed New pricing structure for sales to SEBs. Ib Valley (AES). 5 Year Tax holiday. Orissa Hydel Power Corporation (OHPC) and Grid Corporation of Orissa (GRIDCO) Distribution privatized Chief Ministers Conference: Common Minimum Action Plan for Power: Recommend policy to create CERC and SERCs Licensing. Seven reached financial closure Dabhol (Enron). planning and other related functions to be delegated to SERCs. Bhadravati (Ispat). including wheeling charges etc. Amends the Indian Electricity Act.6: POWER SECTOR REFORMS YEAR 1991 MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS The Electricity Laws (Amendment) Act.0. Recommendations of SERCs to be mandatory.Mangalore (Cogentrix) World Bank Reform Model . which will ensure a minimum overall 3% rate of return.

a GENCO. States to allow maximum possible autonomy to the SEBs.Power Grid notified as Central Transmission Utility Haryana Electricity Reforms Act: HSEB unbundled into Haryana Vidyut Prasaran Nigam Ltd. . CIDA technical assistance of Canadian $ 4 million. Uttar Haryana Bijli Vitaran Nigam Ltd. (APGENCO) and Andhra Pradesh Transmission Company Ltd. Karnataka Electricity Reforms Act KEB and KPCL transformed into new companies: Karnataka Power Transmission Corporation Ltd. SEBs to professionalize their technical inventory manpower and project management practices. 1998 and Electricity Regulatory Commissions Ordinance -Notification. Re organization and restructuring of the State Electricity Boards Page | 42 . Creation of Central Transmission Utility STUs to be set up with government companies Establishment of CERC and SERCs Rationalization of electricity tariffs. DFID's technical co-operation grant of 15 million pounds available for reforms. Power Ministers' Conference and Electricity Bill 2000 (draft): Functional disaggregation of generation. (UHBVNL) and Dakshin Haryana Bijli Vitaran Nigam (DHBVNL) have been established. Policies regarding subsidies Promotion of efficient and environmentally benign policies . Andhra Pradesh Electricity Reforms Act APSEB unbundled into Andhra Pradesh Generation Company Ltd. Creation of HERC Two Government owned distribution companies viz. (HVPNL) and Haryana Power Corporation Ltd.naphtha allocations to IPPs Mega-Power Policy: special incentives for the construction and operation of hydro-electric power plants of at least 500 MW and thermal plants of at least 1.. transmission and distribution with a view to creating independent profit centres and accountability.The Electricity Laws (Amendment) Act. CEA Clearance exempted for projects under 1000MW but State Government environment clearance required up to 250-500 MW Liquid fuel policy -.000 MW. which are to be restructured and corporatized and run on commercial basis.1997 1998 1999 2000 facilitate the implementation of tariff rationalization by the States. (VVNL) Creation of KERC Other Developments: KPTCL has carved out five Regional Business Centers (RBC) for five identified zones. a Trans Co. (APTRANSCO for transmission & distribution) Creation of APERC Other Developments: World Bank loan of US $ 210 million under the APL DFID's 28 million pounds as technical co-operation grant. (KPTCL) and Visvesvaraya Vidyut Nigama Ltd..

rationalisation of electricity tariff. State Regulatory Commissions enjoined to recognize in their functioning the need for equitable supply of electricity to rural areas and to weaker sections. trading and use of electricity and generally for taking measures conducive to development of electricity industry.pdf 5. supervision and control of the Central/State Transmission Utilities.nic. (public sector entities may continue if the States find them sustainable). Present entitlements of States to cheaper power from existing generating stations to remain undisturbed. 5. Amendments to the Indian Electricity Act. promotion of efficient and environmentally benign policies constitution of Central Electricity Authority.2. Regulatory Commissions and establishment of Appellate Tribunal and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. protecting interest of consumers and supply of electricity to all areas.1. Transmission to be separated as an independent function for creation of transmission highways that would enable viable public and private investments. 1910 made in 1998 for facilitating private investment in transmission have been broadly retained except that the private transmission companies would be regulated by the Regulatory Commissions and Transmission Centers inst under the direction. transmission. promoting competition therein. distribution. Stringent provisions to minimize theft and misuse. 1998. ensuring transparent policies regarding subsidies.1. Source: www. Central and State Electricity Regulatory Commissions to continue broadly on the lines of the Electricity Regulatory Commissions Act.2. GENERATION: Page | 43 . nature and pace of privatization. phasing and sequencing to be determined by the respective State Governments States to determine the extent. ELECTRICITY ACT 2003 An Act to consolidate the laws relating to generation.in accordance with the model.cea.in/power_sec_reports/general_review/0405/index.1. Provision of compulsory metering for enhancing accountability and viability.

(ii) transmission. distribution or trading by any Govt. LICENSING  Trading has been recognized as a separate licensed activity along with transmission and distribution. RURAL ELCTRIFICATION/GENERATION/DISTRIBUTION  Government of India will have to formulate a National Policy after consulting State Governments & CEA.  Govt. tie lines etc. Page | 44 .3.  Electricity Regulatory Commission (ERC). No cross-subsidy surcharge would be levied on the persons who have established CGP for carrying electricity to destination of his own use. on the recommendation of Government. association or body of individuals (even unincorporated) can generate electricity without requirement of techno-economic clearance of CEA. (company.1.2. operate and maintain sub-stations. a license is not required in respect of (i) trading by a distribution licensee.2. Open access is to be provided to all CGPs. or approval of State Government or regulator. as the Govt.. 5. No license is required for generating or distributing in rural areas notified by the State 5. would be deemed a licensee. to govern (i) rural electrification and local distribution through local bodies5.2.1. However. except in case of hydropower station for which written consent of Central Electricity Authority is required.  Captive Generation Plant (CGP) primarily for its own use without any entry barriers.  A Generating Company can supply electricity directly to more than one consumer and Any entity. and (ii) rural off-grid supply including those based on renewable/nonconventional energy resources. Any Company. in accordance with the national electricity policy and public interest can exempt any of the local bodies6 from requiring license. co-operative society or association of persons) can establish a is vested with the duty to establish.

TRADING AND CAPTIVE GENERATION  Trading.    Policy. for open access.6.5. 5. to the extent of surplus capacity.1.  ERC may order any licensee owning intervening transmission facilities to provide use A State Transmission Utility is obliged to provide non-discriminatory open access to of facilities to any other licensee. except for distribution licensees who do not require a separate trading licence.4.1. subject to which open access would be introduced. supply and trading in electricity to be discharged by a trader. distribution system Duties re. OPEN ACCESS  Open access means non-discriminatory use of transmission lines.  its transmission system for use by a licensee or Genco forthwith.2. and credit-worthiness.. capital adequacy Requirement. ERC has to determine by June 10. or by any consumer once distribution level open access has been provided. 5.1.2. is a separate licensed activity. and Fix trading margin in intra-state trading if considered necessary. ERCs have to develop trading market and have to be guided by National Tariff and associated facilities by any licensee/consumer/Genco in accordance with ERC regulations.2. i.   The Appropriate Commission may specify The entry barriers for traders – technical requirements. purchase of electricity for resale. 2004 the phases and conditions.  There is no statutory time limit for introduction of open access.e. Consumers has to also pay a surcharge (to be utilized to meet cross subsidy) determined by ERC. Traders can enter into direct contracts with the consumers and determine its terms and conditions (including tariff). DISTRIBUTION Page | 45 .  The licensees. consumers and Gencos have to pay transmission/wheeling charges for open access.5.

 Distribution licensee is free to undertake distribution for a specified area within his area of supply without need for a separate license.7. creditworthiness. Central transmission utility (CTU) and all State transmission utilities (STUs) are deemed licensee.1. and maintains separate accounts for the same. (iv) providing non-discriminatory open access to the system. charges.2. transmission has been segregated as a wires function without any trading (buying and selling). TRANSMISSION  To secure non-discriminatory open access. To get a subsequent distribution license any person will have to comply with additional requirements prescribed by GoI regarding capital adequacy. If an applicant meets such requirements. (ii) planning & co-ordination of transmission system. Licensees. Provided that the distribution licensee shall remain liable for the supply.  ERCs may permit by regulations a consumer/class to receive supply of electricity from anyone other than the distribution licensee of the area of supply – against payment of wheeling charge & surcharge in lieu of cross subsidy. or Code of Conduct etc. Page | 46 .  CTU and STUs functions are (i) Transmission. Distribution licensee is empowered to recover charges/expenses/security and disconnect supply for non-payment of dues. The distribution licensee has a mandatory duty to supply on request of consumer in a time bound manner if the consumer agrees to pay the applicable tariff. efficiency & economy of grid operation in the region and the State respectively. Discoms can engage in other businesses but have to share revenue to reduce wheeling ERCs may grant more than one distribution licenses can be issued in a given area. ERC is empowered to suspend or revoke license of a Discom for failure to maintain  Uninterrupted supply. 5.   Discoms can enter into direct contracts with consumers. he shall not be denied grant of the license. (iii) development of efficient and economical transmission lines from generating stations to load centers. SLDC shall ensure compliance with RLDC directions. and exercise supervision & control to ensure stability.  permitting them to supply electricity through their own distribution system.  RLDCs and SLDCs are empowered to issue directions.. generating companies and other persons connected with operation of power system shall comply.

levy fees. There is no express provision enabling ERCs to depart from such directions. directions of GoI/State Government concerned.9.2. ERCs shall be guided by – National Electricity Policy. fix trading margins in interstate trading. the same shall be adopted by the ERCs. Joint Commission can be constituted for two or more States or Union territories or both by mutual agreement. CERC’s principles and methodologies for setting tariff and principles rewarding efficiency and multiyear tariff. Pending creation of separate RLDCs & SLDCs. the ERC may fix only maximum ceiling of tariff for retail sale. the CTU and the STU shall perform the role. tariff policy (formulated by Central Government). where there are 2 or more guidelines. 5. Supply Code (only SERC).  In case tariff is determined through transparent bidding as per Government of India To promote competition among distribution licensees.1.  The new functions to be performed by CERC/ SERC include specifying Grid Code.1. 2003. Page | 47 . REGULATORY COMMISSIONS  It is mandatory to establish SERCs within 6 months from 10th June.8.  In exercise of their functions.  distribution licensees supplying in an area. 5. National Electricity Plan & Tariff Policy.2. in matters of policy involving public interest – where such Government’s decision shall be final as to whether the directions relates to a policy involving public interest.  The PPAs/BSAs entered into before 10th June. TARIFF  Government has been distanced from determination of tariff. This power has been vested in the CERC/SERC.  Provision for separate ERC funds (not consolidated funds) for finance of ERC expenditures. 2003 have not been explicitly saved or granted a protection from regulatory intervention. In determination of tariff CERC/SERC shall be guided by factors including National Electricity Policy.

grid operations.2.  diverse policy instruments to be issued by Government. RLDC. Market development. Failure of distribution licensee to supply within said time period would attract penalty.1. Role and functioning of CEA. It is noteworthy that these instruments will have a bearing are:     Role and functioning of ERCs. safety issues. SLDC.1.2. SERCs and SEB successors to be constituted by Government’s.11. and Enforcement.10. Appellate Electricity Tribunal.  relating to theft of electricity.5. Governance of the sector – regulation.1. publish and revise National Electricity Policy and The implementation of the Act is largely dependent on the nature and scope of the Tariff policy in consultation with State Governments and CEA9. POLICY ISSUES  Central Government shall prepare. NLDC.12. except where capital works are required for connectivity. and institutions like Special Courts. The consumers aggrieved from CRF can approach to an ‘ombudsman’10. ENFORCEMENTS  Suitable provisions for provisional assessments and recovery of compensatory fines Special Courts are to be established by Government’s for speedy disposal of cases may be able to address a long-standing vacuum in law. Page | 48 .  for supply. 5. CONSUMER INTERESTS  Creation of a Consumer redressal forum (CRF) by Distribution licensee in a time Distribution licensee has to supply electricity within 1 month from the date of request bound manner. 5.2.

The provisions for Definition of theft expanded to cover use of tampered meters and use for unauthorized reduction of cross subsidies would continue. with the objective of altering the end-use of electricity .1.13.  purpose.06. beyond the customer's meter. Deletions of the provisions for elimination of cross subsidies.   No License required for sale from captive units. 2003. or manage it when there are Page | 49 . 5.whether it be to increase demand. to endeavor to provide access to electricity to all areas including villages and hamlets through rural electricity infrastructure and electrification of households. The Electricity (Amendment) Act.1.3.  limited to substantial question of law.f. The appeal to Supreme Court is Appellate Tribunal (an expert body). DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT Demand-side management is used to describe the actions of a utility. jointly with State Governments.2007. The scope of offences has been expanded and enhanced punishments have been Stronger powers (accompanied with better safeguards) have been provided for prescribed for subsequent or continuing offences.3. DISPUTE RESOLUTION  The appeal against all orders of ERC/adjudication officer would lie to an expert Appeal from appellate tribunal lies to Supreme Court.e. has been enacted on 29th May.  conducting inspections/search/seizure. 15. Theft made explicitly cognizable and non-bail able. 2007 and brought into force w. 5. ELECTRICITY (Amendment) ACT. decrease it. amending certain provisions of the Electricity Act. 2007. The main features of the amendment Act are:  Central Government.2. shift it between high and low peak periods.1.1. 5. 2007. which shall dispose appeals within prescribed time.

interruptible tariffs. system conversion losses. Developing and promoting energy efficient technologies. also includes options such as renewable energy systems. However. combined heat and power systems. Energy efficiency issued in an all encompassing sense and includes any activity that would directly or indirectly lead to an increase in energy efficiency. To make this distinction precise. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). an autonomous body under the MoP. etc. There has been growing recognition of the importance of energy efficiency in India's electricity sectors. a program that encourages customers to install energy efficient lighting systems through a rebate program would fall under DSM. The Ministry of Power (MoP) is the nodal agency for energy conservation in the country. that utility to meet the customer's demand at the lowest possible cost.   DSM. some of which have been assisting industries in conducting energy audits. it is important to point out that DSM explicitly refers to all those activities that involve deliberate intervention by the utility in the marketplace so as to alter the consumer's load profile. In terms of Page | 50 . The National Energy Efficiency Program (NEEP) of the Government of India(GOI) has targeted savings of about 5000 MW to be realized by the end of the Eighth plan through both demand (2750 MW) and supply side (2250 MW) efficiency improvements. and Demand management through adopting soft options like higher prices during peak hours. In other words DSM is the implementation of those measures that help the customers to use electricity more efficiency and it doing so reduce the customers to use the utility costs. DSM can be achieved through.intermittent load demands . Several reports have been attempted to estimate the potential for energy conservation in various consuming sectors and have also identified various Energy Efficiency technologies (EETs) for important end-uses. Several state electricity boards( SEBs) have also set up Energy Conservation Cells. Often the terms energy efficiency and DSM are used interchangeably. etc. in a wider definition.  Improving the efficiency of various end-uses through better housekeeping correcting energy leakages. On the other hand. etc . concessional rates during off-peak hours seasonal tariffs. customer purchases of energy efficient lighting as a reaction to the perceived need for conservation is not DSM but energy efficiency gains. was set up in 1989 to coordinate initiatives and activities on energy conservation. independent power purchase.in the overall interests of reducing utility costs.

1. assessment of the barriers encountered.2. These countries generate 68% of the electricity generated in developing Asia. the costs of impact mitigation are typically not included in electricity prices. In approaching the problem of environmental protection in the power sector in rapidly developing country. varying by the technologies employed and their locations. have large unmet needs. the negative impacts not directly affecting or being restricted to those involved.4 billion. and finally recommendations of likely solutions to circumvent these problems. Consideration for the environment has therefore to be forced into the reckoning. Environmental Reform in the Electricity Sector: Enhanced economic activity and population growth have led to increasing energy demand that in turn has spurred electricity generation.3. beginning with general direction. subsidies for energy audits. within our ecological footprints. but with a total population of about 2. there are special equipment in the first year. hence the importance of environment policy in the context of the power sector. These need to be addressed so that energy services can be enhanced in harmony with the environment. But large-scale electricity generation and distribution have adverse environmental impacts. both directly and indirectly. that is. CHAPTER 6 STUDY OF SELECTED COMPANIES Page | 51 . 5. Focusing on environmental issues and policies applicable to the power sector in China and India. Due to the “externalities” of electricity generation. This leads to the problems that beset effective policy implementation. proceeding to specific rules and standards and then to alternatives to conventional electricity generation. The focus is on to list the national environmental policies that affect these impacts. Let us consider the impacts of electricity generation on the environment. and so on. or preferably integrated into the system. reduced customs duty for selected control equipment for managing energy use.Government policies. our analytical framework consists of identification of those state environmental policies and regulations that pertain to the power sector.

1. NTPC Ltd. Page | 52 . the comparative and analytical study of the Top 5 listed firms of power sector in India is done.STUDY OF SELECTED COMPANIES To study and analyze the power sector better. The below are the firms selected by us for the study. TOP 5 NTPC Reliance Infra Tata Power Power Grid Torrent      6. The firms are chosen based on their sales turnover.

MOUs had signed with M/s. and M/s. UPSEB and GAIL for direct power supply to GAIL during the year of 1994. it was incorporated in the year 1975 as National Thermal Power Corporation Private Limited to accelerate power development in the country. NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company. the company commissioned first gas based combined cycle plant (88MW) at Anta. the company commissioned the first Singrauli unit. In the year 1989. In the year of 1982. The first gas turbine was synchronized in 1991-92 and the Unit-I of the company was synchronized in March of the year 1992. Rajasthan and its consultancy services division was commissioned during the same year. The Company's status was converted into a public limited in the year 1985 and the name was changed to National Thermal Power Corporation Limited. NTPC's core business is engineering. The Company's three gas turbines and two steam turbines were commissioned in the 1992-93. With its experience and expertise in the power sector. As a wholly owned company of the Government of India. In 1998. Coal mining. also NTPC is extending consultancy services to various organizations in the power business. It provides consultancy also in the area of power plant constructions and power generation to companies in India and abroad. It is providing power at the cheapest average tariff in the country. Maharashtra State Electricity Board has signed separate power purchase Page | 53 . the transmission systems owned by the company was transferred to Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd during the year of 1992. which was owned by UP RajyaVidyut Utpadan Nigam of Uttar Pradesh. NTPC as an integrated Power Major with presence in Hydro Power. construction and operation of power generating plants.NTPC Limited is the largest power generating and Navratna status company of India. Ria-Shelcon for setting up ash based products manufacturing units with ash from Ramagundam and Farakka Power Stations. the company commissioned the first Naptha based plant at Kayamkulam with a capacity of 350MW. The Company had taken over the 2x210 Mw Feroze Gandhi Unchahar Thermal Power Station in the year 1991. A tripartite agreement was signed between NTPC. with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country. Oil & Gas exploration. Pursuant to legislation by Parliament of India. The consulting Wing of NTPC is an ISO 9001:2000 accreditation. NTPC had undertook the 4x60 MW + 2x110 MW Talcher Thermal Power Station during the year of 1995 from the Orissa State Electricity Board. Nagarjuna Litecrete Ltd. Power Distribution & Trading and also enter into Nuclear Power Development.

the UP State Electricity Board formerly owned it. During the year 2002. The Company had taken over the Badarpur Thermal Power Station with the capacity of 705MW in the year 2006 from Central Electricity Authority.000 million units of electricity during 2001-2002. Gujarat. The 4x110 MW of Tanda Thermal Power Station.. During the March of the year 2006. The Company forayed into wind power segment. (DTL) on 10th February 2006 for expansion of one of its stations namely National Capital Power Station Stage-II at Dadri (U. The Company has established a 2000MW gas-based power plant near Mangalore.Stage II (TSTPP-II) of THE COMPANY has been successfully synchronized on 6th February 2005. NTPC Electric Supply Company Limited. NTPC Hydro Limited and NTPC Vidyut Nigam Limited. Unit IV (500 MW) of Talcher Super Thermal Power Project . NTPC established the medium Term Note ('MTN') Programme in February of the year 2006 to facilitate the raising of funds on a regular basis from the international debt capital markets and also signed an MOU with Delhi Transco Ltd. which used to overcome shortage of gas at the existing gas power stations of NTPC. started the preliminary work on two projects in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu each with a capacity of 20 MW. NTPC and Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL) have signed an MOU.agreement with the company for the total power supply of 1. The Company has signed a memorandum of understanding with the government to generate 121. Golden Peacock Award conferred to the company for Corporate Social Responsibility in14th November of the year 2003.). NTPC Ltd has entered into a Memorandum of Understanding with Petro net LNG Limited for arranging one MMTPA of LNG. Goa. P. which was taken by the company in the year 2000. Gandhar-II. Vindhyachal -II and Siptat power stations in the year of 2000. the company incorporated three wholly owned subsidiary of the company viz. NTPC has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Ministry of Power for generating 9. The 500 MW Unit at Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Station has commenced commercial operation on 25th March 2005.400 million units of electricity during the year. NTPC has launched a drive to recover arrears from the electricity boards of Maharashtra.345 mw from Kawas-II. The Company had signed a Memorandum of Page | 54 . Madhya Pradesh. In May of the year 2005. NTPC has bagged IPMA International Project Management Award 2005 for its Simhadri Thermal Power project on 15th November 2005. Daman and Diu and Dadra Nagarhaveli.

the MOU was signed with ADB for establishment of power generation capacity of about 500 MW through Renewable Energy Sources. The MOU was signed with Bharat Forge Limited for setting up a new facility to take up Page | 55 . operation & maintenance of coal blocks and integrated coal based power plants.03. 2006 with Haryana Power Generation Corporation Ltd (A Government of Haryana Undertaking). The Company has signed a MoU in February 14th of the year 2007 with Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) for collaborating and associating with NTPC for a long-term mutually beneficial business. Bihar and also another one JVA was signed with UPRVUNL to set-up 2x660 MW power project at Meja Tehsil in Allahabad. NTPC had formed a joint venture Company under the name and style of 'Aravali Power Company Pvt Ltd' on December 21. NTPC signed an agreement for a term loan of USD 100 million with KFW of Germany on March 23. Business Collaboration and Share Holder's Agreement signed with Govt. The Company has signed a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) in September 21st of the year 2006 with the Government of Arunachal Pradesh for implementation of the following two hydroelectric power projects in the States of Arunachal Pradesh. Stage III of NTPC Limited located in the state of Madhya Pradesh has been successfully (test) synchronized in the night of 8th March 2007. The Joint Venture Company (Subsidiary of NTPC) under the name of 'Bhartiya Rail Bijlee Company Limited' incorporated with Railways for setting up 1000 MW coal based power plant at Nabinagar. UP. A 500 MW unit of Vindhyachal Super Thermal Power Project. Signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Coal India Limited on 15. development and operation of integrated coal based plants and providing consultancy services.Stage III of NTPC Limited located in the state of Madhya Pradesh has been successfully synchronized on 27th July 2006.2007 for undertaking development. of Kerala and TELK to acquire around 44. 2007 at Frankfurt am Main.Understanding in 11th March of the year 2006 with the Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) for implementation of distributed generation projects in villages in India. for creation of a Joint Venture Company to undertake various activities in coal and power sectors including acquisition of coalmines. The JVA was signed between NTPC and BSEB for setting up 3x660 MW at Nabinagar. NTPC Limited and Singareni Collieries Company Limited have signed a Memorandum of Understanding during August of the year 2006. Bihar. A 500 MW unit of Vindhyachal Super Thermal Power Project .6% stake of TELK. During the year 2007-08.

09 billion units of Electricity during the financial year 2008-09.5: Growth of NTPC COMPANY PROFILE: Company name Address : : NTPC Ltd NTPC Bhawan Scope Complex. Government of India for generating 2. NTPC would continue to speedily implement projects and introduce stateof-art technologies. Stage-II has commenced commercial operation in June of the year 2008. Developing and operating world-class power stations is NTPC's core competence. Page | 56 .manufacture of Balance of Plant equipments. Fig. To meet the objective of making available reliable and quality power at competitive prices. Its scale of operation. The 500 MW Unit-I at Sipat Super Thermal Power Project. castings. NTPC has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Secretary (Power). fittings etc. financial strength and large experience serve to provide an advantage over competitors. forgings. JVA signed with BHEL for taking up activities related to carrying out EPC and manufacturing of equipments in the period of 2007-08.

BSES Telecom. Ticapco. It ranks among India's top listed private companies on all major financial parameters.510 MW.Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group. Arunachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal with aggregate capacity of over 13.co.394 MW 6. BSES Kerala Power.net. coal. At the time of incorporation REL was called as Bombay Suburban Electric Supply Limited (BSES).2. The company has been in the field of power distribution for nearly eight decades and with its emphasis on continuous improvements. Year of Establishment Chairman E-mail Website Production Capacity : : : : : 1975 Mr.in 29. transmission and distribution of electricity. A key constituent of the Reliance . including assets. Page | 57 . wind and hydrobased power generation projects in Maharashtra. Uttar Pradesh. profits and market capitalization.ntpc. sales. Reliance Energy is also active in the trading and transmission of power sector and has forayed as an equity investor in to the infrastructure business. R S Sharma info@ntpc.ST-BSES Coal Washery (Joint Venture). REL is a fully integrated utility engaged in the generation. Reliance Energy has emerged as one of the leading players in India in the Engineering.7-Institutional Area Lodi Road. Utility Powertech (Joint Venture). BSES Infrastructure Finance. Reliance Energy company currently pursue several gas. with its corporate lineage going back to 1929. New Delhi.co. Procurement and Construction (EPC) segment of the power sector. RELIANCE INFRASTRUCTURE LTD Reliance Energy Limited (REL). India's third largest business house. REL (BSES) has several group companies . REL has also entered into the Internet service provider business in a big way by the name of powersurfer. New Delhi .110003.in http://www. including in the prestigious Mumbai metro rail project and various road projects of the National Highways Authority of India.

Dahanu Power Station achieved a plant load factor (PLF) of 82. RE L's Wind Energy has one of the highest PLF in the country in the wind farm segment. which was presented by the Honorable Prime Minister of India. the Company was renamed to Reliance Energy Ltd from its old name BSES. The company has a strategy of adding value by strategic alliances within the group. 2001. Contracts and EPC Division was instrumental in construction and erection works of 5. In March 2000 company has been operated "BSES Telecom" as an Internet service provider (ISP) in Mumbai and has a fiber optic network to support its last mile services and also exploring alliances for providing utility solutions. Utility Powertech is a JV with National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) has 250 operational sites. During the year 2006-07. During the year 2003-2004. the company has successfully commissioned 210 MW Gas Based Combined Cycle power plants for BSES Andhra Power and 24 MW Bagasse fired Power Plant for Godavari Sugar Mills Ltd and 20 MW for Suryachakra Power Corporation Ltd. International Quality Crown Award London 2006 in Gold category.500 crore. During the year 2002-2003.BSES Andhra Power and three new companies of Orissa. The Dahanu Power Station received the National Award for Excellence in Energy Management and National Award for Excellence in Water Management from the Confederation of Indian Industry and also company got the Maharashtra safety award-2004 from the Maharashtra Chapter of National Safety Council. BSES Infrastructure Finance has tied up funds for various projects to the tune of over Rs 1.000 mw in Indian and other industrial and infrastructure projects. Srishti Good Green Governance (G-Cube) Page | 58 . Versova and Dahanu was successfully completed. Reliance energy continues to receive prestigious awards and recognitions for its outstanding performance in various fields and through various sources. OFGW of 220 KW transmission line between Ghodbunder. the BSES Kerala Power Ltd had commissioned the power station in the Combined Cycle mode but due to various reasons the BKPL has suspended its operations from October. In April 2003 Andhra Power Ltd and Reliance Salgocar Power Company Ltd were amalgamated with the company. In 2001-02.68% during 2000-01. The power station also obtained OSHAS 18001 certification from BVQI during the year of 2005-06. Gold Shield for Meritorious Performance by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) of the Government of India for its excellent performance amongst Indian thermal power plants in the year 2004-05. Reliance Energy had received many awards such as Golden Peacock Award for its pursuit of excellence in corporate governance.

Santa Cruz (East). reliable and clean power to millions of customers.500 crore. Kerala. In April 2007 REL planned to set up a 1. which will make Reliance Energy the first utility in the country to achieve these certifications. quality. in that the notable two big projects are engineering. ETP pump modification to reduce auxiliary power consumption.000 MW of power. In 2008 company engaged in several mega projects under implementation and under consideration in different functional areas. Company wants to attain global best practices and become a world-class utility and to provide uninterrupted.400 Mw gas-based power project in Delhi and also company has estimated that it would have to invest Rs 60. Energy savings by installation of energy efficient blades on cooling tower fans. PROFILE: Company name Address : : Reliance Infrastructure Ltd Reliance Energy Centre. Andhra Pradesh.300 sq. procurement and construction (EPC) contract from Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) to set up the 2 x 600 MW coal based power station at Raghunathpur in West Bengal worth of Rs 3.locking facility of energy meters at midnight to facilitate simultaneous logging of energy meter readings. Future plan and action of the company is installation of third cooling tower cell to improve plant reliability and output. Delhi project on BOOT basis for a concession period of 30 years worth of Rs 2. Reliance Energy distribute more than 28 billion units of electricity to cover 25 million consumers across different parts of the country including Mumbai and Delhi in an area that spans over 1. Auto .Award and participated in the prestigious Ramakrishna Bajaj National Quality Awards. through its power stations located in Maharashtra. Karnataka and Goa. The company has targeted to complete all activities under the six sigma project. procurement and construction (EPC) division into a new company. It generates 941 MW of electricity. Page | 59 . As on September 2007 REL considered to hive off its engineering. These projects are at various stages of development.725 crore and Airport Metro Express Line. the company was awarded a commendation certificate for the same.24. ISO 27001 and OHSAS certifications during 2007-08. kms.000 crore in next five years to add a capacity of 15. These initiatives are aimed to cater the market and at further promoting business excellence in all functional areas of the company. affordable.

400055. The core business of Tata Power Company is to generate. six new outlets for BEST at 33 KV from Carnac receiving stations were commissioned Page | 60 . a new company under the name Chemical Terminal Trombay Ltd was formed in participation with other Tata Companies and Elephanta India Private Ltd to installation of storage tanks on a part of the Company's ash disposal area at Trombay and the laying of a pipeline connecting the storage tanks with the Mumbai Port Trust's pier at Pir Pau. transmit and distribute electricity. transmission and distribution of electricity.3. TPC sets up its new manufacturing facility at Bangalore during the year 1980.in/rel. The Company operates in two business segments: Power and Other.Mumbai .com http://www. The other segment deals with electronic equipment. Ltd for consulting engineering together with its two associated companies in the year 1961. India's largest integrated Electric Power Utility in private sector with a reputation for reliability. TPC has undertaken a 180 MW combined cycle plant at Trombay using gas turbines. TPC pioneered the generation of electricity in India nine decades ago. for commercial production of electronic items designed by its R&D laboratory.com 941 MW 6. project consultancy.co. The Power segment is engaged in generation.investor@relianceada. In the year 1969. incorporated in the year 1919 at Mumbai.rinfra. The Tata-Ebasco Consulting Engineering Services' was established based on partnership with Ebasco India. In 1989. Maharashtra Year of Establishment Chairman E-mail Website Production Capacity : : : : : 1929 Anil D Ambani helpdesk@rel. TATA POWER COMPANY LTD Tata Power Company Limited (TPC).

. Vikhroli and Salsette receiving stations and extension of fibre optic communication network were also carried out during the same year. 150MW Pumped Storage Unit at Bhira and a gas-based 180 MW Combined Cycle Plant at Trombay Thermal Power Station in case of a major system disturbance and supply power to essential consumers. In the same year the company also associated with Siemens in the erection and commissioned the mechanical and electrical equipment for the 4 x 130 MW gas turbines and 2 x 150 MW steam turbines at NTPC's combined cycle power plant at Dadri in Uttar Pradesh. which comprised 3 x 250 MVA. During the year.549 Global Depository Shares. Apart from these.9%. the Trombay Unit-7 steam turbine generator of the company was harmonized. The second 500 MW units 6 at Trombay was trial synchronized with the grid on 23rd March 1990. replacement of 110 KV oil circuit breakers by modern SF6 breakers at Kalyan.3%. viz. The Company took up two major generation projects. the generating station five 25 MW units were refurbished by installation of new modern turbine runners of higher efficiency at Bhira. In the year 1996. which comprised 2 x 90 MVA. A MoU was signed between TEC and the Tennesse Valley Authority of USA for renovation and modernisation of power plants. In the same year 1994. The thermal Units at Trombay operated by the company in the year 1997 based on-line availability of about 74% and utilization of about 64. TPC Page | 61 . TPC started one new 110 KV substation at Versova during 1991. Ambernath. space saving 245 KV gas insulated switchgear and supervisory control and data acquisition system. the Company bagged the Multi-fuel based 80 MW power project from the Government of Karnataka. In 1994. BARC. The Government of Maharashtra had accorded its permission for rebuilding a dam at Somwadi. The 150 MW Pumped storage unit was commissioned in the year 1995. Railways.. 110/33 KV power transformers along with 33 KV indoor SF6switchgear and supervisory control and data acquisition system and also another one switching station was established in the same year.during the year. During same the year. The modern 22 KV indoor SF6switchgear was installed at Salsette and also the 60 MVAR new capacitor banks were installed during the year 1992 at Versova and Malad. based on the synchronous condenser mode and also the Company undertook the work of modernisation and renovation of old 12 MW hydro units at Bhivpuri and Khopoli Generating Stations. the Company undertook the work of strengthening dams as per designs codes in respect of earthquakes. 220/110/33 KV autotransformers. viz. BMC. the Company issued 91. etc. which generated 650 MUS with PLF of 61.

Tata Power signed a generation pact with DVC on Maithon Project in the year 2005 and entered into an agreement for sale of shares in Tata Power Broadband. A MoU was signed with National Power Company of Al-Zamil Group. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Pvt Ltd in the year 2004. The company Page | 62 . (Discom-III). The 120 MW Unit 3 at the Jojobera Power Plant of the Company situated in Jamshedpur was commenced its commercial production. The Andhra Valley Power Supply Company Ltd and Tata Hydro Electric Supply Company Ltd were merged with the company in the same year 2000.5 MW Unit at Wadi. Tata Power Company has obtained A' licence as Internet service provider that enables it to operate throughout the country in the year 2000. a distribution company belonging to the Delhi Vidyut Board (DVB). During 1999. the company acquired a generating station consisting of 37. The company bagged the 2nd Wartsila . The company ties up with the UK-based energy major British Petroleum to jointly work on 2. Karnataka was signed with Karnataka Electricity Board. Karnataka and also in the year the Power Purchase Agreement for 81. The Company signed an agreement with Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd for 'Tala Transmission Line' in the year 2002. decided to sell its stake consisting of 45 lakh shares in Tata Liebert Ltd (TLL) considering of Rs 170 per share to Emerson Electric (Mauritius) Ltd. TPC has signed a Development Agreement with GAIL India Ltd & BP to jointly participate in evaluating the Dabhol gas and power opportunity. Ltd. Tata Power acquired 100% equity stake in Tata Power Trading Co.184 mw Dabhol power project during the year 2003. The company received CII EXIM Bank Award 2005 for 'Certificate for Strong Commitment to Excel'. Tata Power infuses Rs 352 crore in the group's telecom businesses.3 MW Dieselbased Power Plant at Belgaum. Tata Power Company Ltd on September of the year 2001. the company joined hands with Siemens. During the same year 2003. TPC has signed the share acquisition agreement with Gvt of National Capital Territory of Delhi to acquire the North North-West Delhi Distribution Co. TPC awarded the contract for supply and construction of 180 KM long 400 KV Double Circuit Transmission Line from Palandur to Chandrapur (Maharashtra) By Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd.entered into a Joint Venture Agreement with Total Gas and Power India in the year 1998 for establishment of LNG Terminal at Trombay. During the period of 2006. which supplies power to north and northwestern Delhi. The Christened Tata Power Trading Company was incorporated in the year as a subsidiary of the company.Mantosh Sondhi Award for outstanding contribution to the Indian Power Sector in 2004.

Gujarat. coming up at Mundra. TPC has signed an EPC contract for supply of five (5) 800 MW Steam Turbine Generators with Toshiba Corporation for the first 4000 MW Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP) in India to be located at Mundra. The acquisition of Coastal Gujarat Power Ltd was med by the company and a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) formed for Mundra Ultra Mega Power Project (UMPP).4 per cent stake in Geodynamics Ltd. In the year 2007. As on February 2008. Gujarat in August 2007. being set up in Dhanbad District of Jharkhand State. for Rs 165 crore. lighting up lives through its activities from its inception. Tata Power is surging ahead. The company has roped in Koreabased Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Ltd for supercritical boilers for its Mundra ultra mega power project. transmission. it would acquire a 11. TPC has signed a MoU with the Government of Chhattisgarh for the setting up of a 1000 MW coal fired mega power plant in the State. PROFILE: Company name : Tata Power Company Ltd Page | 63 .signed a joint venture agreement with Tata Steel to set up a Captive Power plants in Chattisgarh. The challenge of fulfilling the ever growing needs of power have been met by Tata Power through efficient generation. Tata Power completes the Signing of Financial Agreements for 4000 MW Ultra Mega Power Project. The cost of the project is estimated at INR 17000 crores (USD 4. The Tata Power Company Limited (Tata Power) and Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) jointly completed its financing for the 1050 MW coal based thermal power project. April of the year 2008.2 billion). Ministry of Commerce and Industry. distribution and constant upgradation of its technology in every aspects. The company received seven licenses from the Gvt of India. Tata Power announced in September of the year 2008. the Central Electricity Authority has awarded Tata Power's Bhira Hydro generation facility with the Silver Shield award for the meritorious performance in March 2008. an Australian company specialising in geothermal energy. Orissa and Jharkhand. Dept of Industrial Policy & Promotion for its Strategic Electronics Division (Tata Power SED). Recognising the steady and stable performance in generating quality and reliable energy.

It is the first stage of planning and helps marketers to focus on key issues.1 SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT analysis is a tool for auditing an organization and its environment. External factors – The opportunities and threats presented by the external environment to the organization Page | 64 . Mumbai. opportunities. and threats. Maharashtra Year of Establishment Chairman E-mail Website Production Capacity : : : : : 1919 Mr.com 2300MW CHAPTER-7 ANALYSIS 7. These come from within the company's unique value chain. The aim of any SWOT analysis is to identify the key internal and external factors that are important to achieving the objective.tatapower.com http://www.Address : Bombay House. R N Tata investorcomplaints@tatapower. 400001. weaknesses. SWOT analysis groups key pieces of information into two main categories:   Internal factors – The strengths and weaknesses internal to the organization. SWOT stands for strengths. 24 Homi Mody Street.

solving problems.6: SWOT Analysis The SWOT analysis provides information that is helpful in matching the firm's resources and capabilities to the competitive environment in which it operates. As such.SWOT analysis is a flexible concept that can be used in various scenarios from assessing projects or business ventures. making decisions. it is instrumental in 5into an environmental scan: Fig. evaluating candidates for a position to marketing strategy formulation. Fig.7: SWOT Analysis Framework Page | 65 .

 Regulatory framework is further facilitated with enactment of Electricity Bill.  Highly qualified engineering and technical personnel. 2003.  India has substantial non-conventional energy resource base and technologies to meet growing power requirements by tapping this energy.Environmental Scan / Internal Analysis /\ Strengths Weaknesses | SWOT Matrix \ External Analysis /\ Opportunities Threats STRENGHTS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF POWER SECTOR:  Well established and vast transmission and distribution network.  Emergence of strong and globally comparable central utilities (NTPC. 2003 holds promises for the power sector and certainly for the consumer by way of competition reliability and rationalized tariff structure.  The Electricity Bill. POWERGRID). WEAKNESSES AND THREATS TO POWER SECTOR: Page | 66 .

      Page | 67 . Adding to the problems. Old and poor transmission and distribution network has led to frequent power outages and poor quality of power Lack of proper metering and theft has led to large scale losses. The new Electricity Act does not provide any specific financial incentives for private players to address public issues The SBEs which are right now holding 60% of total installed capacity. as most of the SEBs is on the verge of bankruptcy due to poor operational performance. This will not only affect SEB’s but also the entire power sector for near term. there by such units will take away the most lucrative customers (like industrial and commercial users) from the SEBs. approximately Rs 1. Poor infrastructure has led to heavy T&D losses. All these factors have resulted in financial disorder of the State Electricity Boards (SEBs). will be hit adversely by some provisions of the new electricity act such as delicensing of generation and open access for IPPs and CPPs.  Restoration of SEBs financial health and improvement in their operating performance continues to be a critical issue.10/ unit Managerial and financial inefficiencies in state sector utilities have adversely affected capacity addition and systems improvement Non-availability of quality coal may hamper thermal plants’ efficiency in power generation Inability of SEBs to raise funds. SEBs need huge money to measure up competition from efficient private players The major risk of privatizing a critical sector like power is the precedence of commercial over public interest. Government provides power to agricultural sector at subsidized rates and also free of cost in some states. which affect their profitability and capacity to make further investments Increasing gap between unit cost of supply & revenue. The Government of India has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with various states reflecting the joint commitment of centre and states to undertake reforms in a time bound manner  Poor return to utilities. Only 51% of the power generated is billed and only 41% is realized   Moreover. Some of these interests that will take a back seat include development of environment friendly generation and provision of electricity for rural areas.

indirect calculations show T&D losses to be much higher in the range of 40-50%. The primary reason of the widening gap lies in the distribution link in the value chain. a very high level by any standard. The peaking shortage is much more in every region and it is about 12% on all India basis.1 While India has made impressive progress in the Power Sector since independence. 26.000 crore. To meet the Page | 68 . To make the matter worse. demand has far outstripped the supply leading to a widening gap. In terms of generation. the losses have reached an alarming Rs. 8. frequent interruption in supply and poor voltage. SEBs suffer huge financial losses every year due to power theft and ineffective practices of billing and collection. The generation companies have not found it easy to recover their dues from their biggest buyers. the distribution system in India is often characterized by inefficiency. Apparently. The energy shortages on regional basis are varying in magnitude and overall shortage on all India basis is about 7%. In addition. It is clear that the biggest fundamental issue hampering the viability of the Indian Power Sector is the sheer volume or level of Transmission and Distribution (T&D) losses that amount to 25%. it has not been sufficient.2 The power supply position is characterized by shortages both in terms of demand met during peak time and overall energy supply.CHAPTER 8 Issues and challenges 8 ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 8. low productivity. while new capacity has been added. mainly the State Electricity Boards (SEBs).

Better management and lowering the cost of generation d. Reduction in the cost of supply through reduction in technical losses. Eight fast track projects were even offered counter guarantees for payment by the Central Government in addition to the guarantees of the State Governments. Control of theft of electricity b. generation capacity is required to be doubled in 10 years. so that the total demand both in terms of peak and energy can be met 8. Towards the latter half of 1990s. c. 8.000 MW of projects were proposed by potential developers and 27. Restoration of the financial health of the State Electricity Boards / State Utilities was recognized as the most critical challenge facing the sector.5 The decade of the 1990s also saw the gradual deterioration of the financial health of State Electricity Boards.000MWhad received technoeconomic clearance from the Central Electricity Authority. By 1995-96. Payment of user charge and Tariff rationalization Page | 69 . Since 1990 till date only 9922MWof generation has come in the private sector. Due to lack of adequate payment security mechanisms. The reversal would need a combination of the following key measures:a. the power sector was the focus of attention for attracting private investment specially FDI in generation. many of these had high costs.4 bidding. In the absence of a transparent process of 8. These were all MOU based projects with negotiated costs and tariffs . 57.growing demand and shortages encountered in various regions. In this context it becomes clear that the distribution sector needed urgent attention if the trend of deteriorating financial health had to be reversed. combined in some cases with public perceptions of high cost in tariffs. most of these projects did not get implemented.3 With the advent of economic liberalization in 1991. it was apparent that the deterioration in the finances of the State Electricity Boards was becoming unsustainable.

The Government proposes to enhance public funding for the sector as well as encourage the public sector undertakings to take up projects in joint Page | 70 . Significant impetus by successive Governments has resulted in increase in capacity from 1. With reforms in this sector gaining pace. The per capita consumption is among the lowest in the World at 408 kwh/year (as on 2001). despite the significant progress in capacity addition. However.CONCLUSION & FINDINGS: Power is one of the prime movers of economic development. transmission and distribution sectors have been thrown open to competition along with the ushering in of a de-regulated regime. there has also been a phenomenal increase in the transmission and distribution capacity. while ensuring reliability and quality of supply.CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION & FINDINGS 9. With the passing of the Electricity Act 2003. many structural changes are taking place both at the policy and technical levels. Along with the growth in installed generation capacity. the Government of India has placed increased emphasis on improving the efficiency of supply.300 MW during independence to more than 100. The basic responsibility of power supply industry is to provide adequate electricity at economic cost. the demand for electricity continues to outstrip supply with the result that energy and peaking shortages continue to plaque the economy. Significant reforms are being undertaken in power sector management and financing at the state level. With responsibility for electricity supply shared constitutionally between the central government and the states. consumption. and pricing of electricity. generation.000 MW today.

India possesses a vast opportunity to grow in the field of power generation.  India is going to build an additional capacity of 1 lakh MW by 2012 including private sector contribution. and divesting existing distribution assets to private operators.6 MAJOR FINDINGS:  Most of the SEBs though are supported by state government. regulation.  In a bid to bring structural transformations. Although electricity generation has increased substantially. There is also a focus on initiating suitable policy measures to accelerate the pace of hydro power development as well as to make nuclear power generation as competitive as power generation from other fuels. transmission. transmission losses. The Indian power sector is undergoing a crucial phase of transition. are emerging as important areas of reforms in the sector.000 MW of hydel power germination is yet to be Page | 71 . with World Bank assistance. are running under loss. rapid capacity addition. it has not been able to meet the demand. with a specific focus on improving revenues from the distribution segment. necessary reform programs should be carried out in distribution and transmission process. progressively reducing subsidies and restoring the creditworthiness of the utilities through financial restructuring and cost-recovery based tariffs. The financial weakness of the SEBs has been one of the major stumbling blocks in achieving financial closure of Independent Power Producers (IPPs). This is because of power theft. and SEBreform.ventures with private investors and state governments in the 10th and 11th Plan period.  Indian power sector has been witnessing a wide demand – supply gap. The Government of India. Both the Central and State governments are actively engaged in finding viable solutions to achieve sustainable development of the power sector. 8. establishing an independent regulatory framework for the sector. and distribution. This involves distancing the state government from operation of the power sector. use of conventional methods for power generation and transmission and out dated management policies. has been encouraging the states to undertake in depth power sector reforms. The target of over 150. As of now.

topnews.Ibef.in WEB PAGES: • • • • • http://www. By the year 2012.com www. “Russia forerunning EU in power sector forum”.achieved.org.org www.com/India/electricity_consumption. REFERENCE WEBSITES: • • • • • www. This has welcomed numerous power generation.in/business-news/power-sector.2007.000 MW of generation capacity.fi/FI/yksikot/erillislaitokset/pei/Documents/bre/expert_article154_62007.coreinternational.in http://www.indexmundi.in LITERATURE REFERENCE: Remes .M (2007).india.tse.energywatch.energywatch. This has called for an effective consideration of some of strategic initiatives.000 circuit kilometers of transmission network is expected by 2012 with a total investment opportunity of about US$ 200 billion.indexmundi.html http://www.gov.org www. transmission. 21st December.additional 60. India requires an additional 100. pp: 20-21 http://www.html http://www.org. A huge capital investment is required to meet this target.html http://www. The power sector is still experiencing a large demand-supply gap.pdf Page | 72 .teriin. and distribution companies across the globe to establish their operations in the country under the famous PPP (public-private partnership) programmes.com/India/electricity_production. Journal of Baltic Rim Economies. There are strong opportunities in transmission network ventures .nic.cea. Expert article 154.in www.

html Swain.repec.html Sreekumar. Vol: 34 (16) http://ideas.org/s/eee/enepol.pdf Page | 73 . http://ideas. Elsevier in its journal Energy Policy. J P Singh and D. Kumar (2004) “Analysis of Power Sector in India: A Structural Perspective”.org/ESDVol5No2/indianreform. “Power sector reform in India: current issues and prospects”. “Market-Oriented Power Sector Reforms: A Critique”.ieiglobal. A (2006).repec. Journal of Governance and Public Policy.org/s/icf/icfjgp. http://www. N (2008).Singh. N.

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