About the Author

Dr. John versity. from Hagelin is Professor of Physics and Director of the in Physics received in the the became of 1981, at 1975. Dr. Maharishi International Cum UniLaude his A.B. Summa Doctoral Program Dr. Dartmouth

Hagelin

College at

After completing his Ph.D. Hagelin joined the theoretLaboratory for engaged symmetric in Particle Center field Dr. Linear Accelerator unified

at Harvard University in ical physics Physics (SLAC), research theories. Hagelin sity, particle Hagelin metric groups he (CERN) where at joined he physics unified the and

European Stanford actively super

fundamental

forefront

Following his positions the faculty established and quantum a

at CERN and at SLAC, International in field area such in doctoral program quantum in the theories

of Maharishi

Univerelementary Dr. as

where

unified field

theories. journals

has published

extensively

of supersym-

P h y s i c s Letters, N u c l e a r P h y s i c s , and T h e Physical R e v i e w . In addition, scientist into ics and the Dr. Hagelin has gone more deeply than any other the profound connections between modern physYogi. Vedic Science of Maharishi Mahesh

2

Restructuring Physics From Its Foundation in Light of Maharishi Vedic Science
John S. Hagelin Maharishi International University Fairfield, Iowa, U . S . A .

Abstract In this article, on the in we present unified field. our and its and in and a This new understanding is and language by begins analysis particles of physics through the by with to the based latest

directly and Vedic the

understanding of the of the

made possible

developments Science

understanding experiential behavior. of which its we

unified field provided Our its own discussion this known

superstring Maharishi a cona and specific of physof in

understanding

experience

unified field provided level and in elementary and

technologies. viewed from We fundamental explicitly are special developed subjective a subsequently

sideration systematic forces ics this field in

of the unified field itself investigation

terms of its own include particles with

intrinsic properties of nature, which they is the

extend all the

modes—the identify new language

vibrational states the field

of the field. correspond explained society to. and

We propose The fully the

terminology Vedic

elementary particles

named for significance We

specific with of a Vedic

vibrational states terminology of the consideration Science

of the and

context made

discussed.

conclude science approach

of the unified and its

implications for applied,

of a through

technology

possible experiential

technologies.

Address correspondence to: Department of Physics Maharishi International University, Fairfield, IA 52557 Modern Science and Vedic Science, Volume 3, Number 1, 1989 © 1989 Maharishi International University

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M O D E R N SCIENCE A N D VEDIC SCIENCE

Contents I. II. Introduction T h e Essential Characteristics of the Unified Field and the T h r e e - I n - O n e D y n a m i c s of Intelligence I V . T h e E l e m e n t a r y Particles and F o r c e s of Nature as M o d e s of the Unified Field V. Q u a n t u m C o s m o l o g y and V e d i c C o s m o l o g y V I . Unified Field B a s e d Civilization Acknowledgements A p p e n d i x A : Field Effects o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s Appendix B: The Vacuum Wave Functional A p p e n d i x C : D e r i v i n g Flipped S U ( 5 ) from String References 25 36 44 49 49 61 61 68 4 8 13

III. T h e Hilbert S p a c e F o r m u l a t i o n o f Q u a n t u m M e c h a n i c s

I. I n t r o d u c t i o n It w a s E i n s t e i n ' s d e e p c o n v i c t i o n that the l a w s of nature had a simple, g e o m e t r i c , unified foundation, and that this unification could be understood by the h u m a n intellect. W i t h i n the past t w o d e c a d e s , a n u m b e r of important b r e a k t h r o u g h s in this area h a v e led to a p r o g r e s s i v e l y m o r e unified u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the l a w s of nature, c u l m i n a t i n g in the recent d i s c o v e r y of c o m p l e t e l y unified field theories. T h e s e theories afford, for the first t i m e , a self-consistent and c o m p l e t e l y unified description of the elementary particles and forces in t e r m s of a single, self-interacting field. T h e heterotic superstring w i t h an internal E x E g a u g e s y m m e t r y , in particular, unifies all k n o w n forces in a consistent
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q u a n t u m theory of gravity. R e c e n t formulations of the heterotic string, including m a n i fold c o m p a c t i f i c a t i o n s [1], orbifold compactifications [2], and especially string formulations directly in four d i m e n s i o n s [3], h a v e p r o d u c e d impressive derivations of the o b s e r v e d l o w - e n e r g y S U ( 3 ) x S U ( 2 ) x U ( l ) g a u g e g r o u p a n d all k n o w n m a t t e r fields directly from the u n d e r l y i n g , unified superstring field. T h e s e a c h i e v e m e n t s m a r k the b e g i n n i n g of a n e w era in p h y s i c s — o n e in w h i c h the unified s o u r c e and foundation of the entire discipline is fully in v i e w . T h i s u n p r e c e d e n t e d situation calls for a n e w u n d e r s t a n d i n g and l a n g u a g e of p h y s i c s — o n e in w h i c h the e l e m e n t a r y particles and forces, and i n d e e d the entire discipline, are clearly understood a n d e x p r e s s e d in relation to their unified source in the unified field. Until n o w , the u n d e r s t a n d i n g and associated t e r m i n o l o g y of p h y s i c s has b e e n d o m i n a t e d by historical a n d / o r r a n d o m influences. An e x a m p l e of the former is the t e r m " l e p t o n " ( m e a n i n g " l i g h t " ) w h i c h is used today to d e n o t e t h e electron, m u o n , and tauon and their associated n e u t r i n o s . In fact, the tau lepton is actually heavier than m o s t b a r y o n s — a term that m e a n s " h e a v y . " T h e t e r m " q u a r k , " w h i c h i s used t o denote the elementary s u b c o n stituents of b a r y o n s a n d m e s o n s , is a p r i m e e x a m p l e of the randomness of the n o m e n c l a ture. Originally taken from J o y c e ' s Finnegans Wake, the term c o m m o n l y refers to a breakfast c h e e s e found in G e r m a n y a n d S w i t z e r l a n d .

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T h e term " l e p t o - q u a r k " is used in p h y s i c s to denote the p r o p o s e d unification of l e p t o n s a n d q u a r k s at the level of grand unification. It illustrates the historical tendency to b a s e the understanding and interpretation of deeper, m o r e unified levels of n a t u r e ' s d y n a m i c s (i.e., grand unification) in terms of m o r e superficial, incomplete and fragmented levels (i.e., electroweak unification). It also illustrates the proliferation of terminology that w a s already inappropriate (i.e., historical, as in lepton, or r a n d o m , as in quark) to increasingly fundamental scales. A m o r e illuminating perspective w o u l d be o n e in w h i c h the m o r e superficial and diversified levels of the discipline w e r e b a s e d u p o n m o r e fundamental levels, a n d w h e r e t h e s e m o r e fundamental levels w e r e in turn c o n n e c t e d to their unified source in the unified field. All aspects of the discipline w o u l d then be seen in t e r m s of their sequential u n f o l d m e n t from the unified field, p r o v i d i n g a natural logic and organization to the entire discipline. P r o v i d e d the t e r m s w e r e chosen accordingly, each aspect of the discipline w o u l d indicate its position and p u r p o s e with respect to the w h o l e . T h e vision of t h e w h o l e w o u l d , in turn, give significance to each part. T h i s foundational a p p r o a c h to k n o w l e d g e has b e e n applied at M a h a r i s h i International University by faculty from n u m e r o u s different disciplines through their d e v e l o p m e n t of " U n i f i e d Field C h a r t s . " T h e s e charts p r o v i d e a c o n c e p t u a l m a p of an entire discipline. T h e y illustrate the interrelation of all the different parts of the discipline, from the m o s t abstract foundational levels to the m o s t superficial and applied levels, and s h o w h o w t h e w h o l e discipline sequentially e m e r g e s from a unified source (e.g., the u n i v e r s e of sets in m a t h e m a t i c s , the transition state in c h e m i s t r y , or the s u p e r s t r i n g in p h y s i c s ) . By relating the parts of k n o w l e d g e to the w h o l e n e s s of k n o w l e d g e , these c h a r t s b e s t o w k n o w l e d g e at a g l a n c e . T h e y also p r o v i d e a powerful research p e r s p e c t i v e : a n y g a p s in t h e c u r r e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the discipline tend to be starkly e x p o s e d as a r e a s r e q u i r i n g further study. S o m e shift t o w a r d s this n e w , unified field-based perspective is already o c c u r r i n g in t h e c o n t e x t of the string. T h e l o w - e n e r g y effective field theory g o v e r n i n g p h y s i c s at o b s e r v a b l e scales (i.e., the k n o w n particles and forces) are n o w b e i n g described as the " m a s s l e s s m o d e s " o f the string. T h e s e m a s s l e s s string m o d e s , and thus the e l e m e n t a r y particles and forces they represent, can be classified a c c o r d i n g to their purely stringy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — t h e i r periodicity conditions on the string w o r l d sheet. For e x a m p l e , the g r a v i t o n , the dilaton, a n d the t w o - i n d e x a n t i s y m m e t r i c tensor b e l o n g to the N e v e u S c h w a r z (antiperiodic) sector of the string, and so forth. H o w e v e r , the c h o i c e of lang u a g e (e.g., " N e v e u - S c h w a r z " sector) is m o r e historical than descriptive, a n d r e m a i n s the e x c l u s i v e p r o v i n c e of string theorists. M a n y students and lay physicists with a sincere desire to u n d e r s t a n d the m o s t f u n d a m e n tal k n o w l e d g e of natural law n o w available through m o d e r n science h a v e expressed frustration at the inappropriate and often confusing l a n g u a g e of fundamental particle p h y s i c s . In the following sections, we will begin to d e v e l o p a n e w perspective and t e r m i n o l o g y of p h y s i c s based directly on the unified field, and not primarily u p o n historically prior levels of p h y s i c s . We will b e g i n this analysis w i t h a consideration of the unified field itself, v i e w e d from its o w n level and in t e r m s of its o w n intrinsic properties and behavior. In this a n a l y s i s , in a d d i t i o n to the latest d e v e l o p m e n t s in our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the

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unified field provided by the superstring, we m a k e use of the very complete description of the unified field and its self-interacting d y n a m i c s provided by V e d i c Science as recently formulated by Maharishi M a h e s h Y o g i [4]. Maharishi V e d i c Science is based u p o n the ancient V e d i c tradition of gaining k n o w l e d g e through the exploration of consciousness. M a n y thousands of years ago, the seers of the H i m a l a y a s discovered, through the exploration of the silent levels of their o w n a w a r e n e s s , a unified field w h e r e all the laws of nature are found together in a state of w h o l e n e s s . T h i s unity of nature w a s directly experienced to be a self-interacting field of consciousness w h i c h is u n b o u n d e d , all-pervading, u n c h a n g ing, a n d the self-sufficient source of all existing things. T h e y experienced and g a v e expression to the self-interacting d y n a m i c s through w h i c h this unified field sequentially gives rise to the diversity of all the laws of nature. T h e expression of this k n o w l e d g e , and the t e c h n i q u e s by w h i c h it is gained, has b e e n p a s s e d on over t h o u s a n d s of years in w h a t is n o w the oldest c o n t i n u o u s tradition of k n o w l e d g e in existence [5]. In the past three d e c a d e s , M a h a r i s h i h a s reformulated this k n o w l e d g e in a scientific f r a m e w o r k that is both accessible a n d empirically testable, p l a c i n g the V e d i c k n o w l e d g e in the intellectual m a i n s t r e a m of the W e s t and reviving it in the East as well. T h i s revival of the V e d i c k n o w l e d g e h a s g i v e n rise to a n e w , quantitative science of c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h practical applications a n d p r o v e n t e c h n o l o g i e s in every major area of h u m a n concern, including health, e d u c a t i o n , rehabilitation, and w o r l d p e a c e [ 4 - 7 ] . V e d i c S c i e n c e , like m o d e r n s c i e n c e , s e e k s t o identify a n d e x p l o r e the m o s t fundam e n t a l a n d u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e s of intelligence at the basis of n a t u r e ' s functioning. In a d d i t i o n , V e d i c S c i e n c e (unlike m o d e r n s c i e n c e ) p r o v i d e s s y s t e m a t i c experiential techn o l o g i e s w h i c h a l l o w the direct e x p l o r a t i o n of these m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l and universal p r i n c i p l e s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s [ 8 - 1 0 ] . T h e s e subjective t e c h n o l o g i e s a l l o w the m i n d to e x p e r i e n c e deeper, m o r e f u n d a m e n t a l and unified states of a w a r e n e s s . T h e s e f u n d a m e n t a l states of a w a r e n e s s h a v e b e e n found to p o s s e s s a close structural c o r r e s p o n d e n c e to the p h y s i c a l structure of natural l a w at f u n d a m e n t a l s c a l e s [ 1 1 ] . T h i s d e e p parallel b e t w e e n t h e structure o f h u m a n intelligence and the intelligence o f n a t u r e is w e l l k n o w n to p h y s i c i s t s . W i g n e r referred to this c o n n e c t i o n as " t h e u n r e a s o n a b l e effectiveness of m a t h e m a t i c s in the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s , " i.e., the subtle structures of h u m a n intelligence codified in m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a s c o r r e s p o n d precisely to the s u b t l e s t r u c t u r e s of intelligence d i s p l a y e d in nature. F o r Einstein, this c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n h u m a n i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d the intelligence o f nature also h a d d e e p significance. F o r h i m " t h e eternal m y s t e r y of the u n i v e r s e [was] its c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y " by the h u m a n m i n d . T h i s d e e p parallel b e t w e e n h u m a n intelligence a n d the intelligence o f n a t u r e m a k e s it p o s s i b l e to g a i n p r o f o u n d p h y s i c a l insight into the m e c h a n i c s of nature t h r o u g h the u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e of the m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l m e c h a n i c s of h u m a n intelligence. T h i s i m p o r t a n t realization fulfills a principal need of m o d e r n p h y s i c s . It is c o m m o n l y stated that there is no c o m m o n - s e n s e basis for the u n d e r s t a n d i n g and teaching of m o d ern p h y s i c s . T h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a d v a n c e d c o n c e p t s in p h y s i c s has historically b e e n b a s e d on the classical intuitions g a i n e d from the e x p e r i e n c e of s i m p l e m e c h a n i c a l syst e m s a n d w a v e tanks e n c o u n t e r e d i n m o r e e l e m e n t a r y c o u r s e s . H o w e v e r , these concrete classical c o n c e p t s no longer p r o v i d e an a d e q u a t e basis for u n d e r s t a n d i n g p h y s i c s at the

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q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l or q u a n t u m field-theoretic levels, and are often m o r e confusing than illuminating. If o n e ' s outer, sensory experience fails to p r o v i d e a viable c o m m o n sense basis for p h y s i c s , then the only o b v i o u s alternative is the inner experience of the d y n a m i c s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s itself. F r o m the a r g u m e n t s presented a b o v e , it is already clear that such an a p p r o a c h c a n indeed p r o v i d e an effective intuitive foundation for p h y s i c s w h i c h e x t e n d s to the d y n a m i c s of fundamental scales. ( A s our analysis p r o c e e d s , this point will b e c o m e increasingly clear.) U s i n g this c o n s c i o u s n e s s - b a s e d a p p r o a c h , the M I U faculty h a v e d e v e l o p e d a twenty-lesson introduction to the c o n c e p tual f o u n d a t i o n s of unified field theories w h i c h is taken by all first-year students, in w h i c h we h a v e found that e v e n the most abstract principles of the discipline are easily g r a s p e d by students w i t h no prior scientific b a c k g r o u n d . T h e experiential t e c h n o l o g i e s o f M a h a r i s h i V e d i c S c i e n c e — w h i c h include the T r a n s c e n d e n t a l M e d i t a t i o n a n d T M - S i d h i programs—have revealed a single, unified field of intelligence at the foundation of c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . In this fundamental state of a w a r e n e s s , the k n o w e r , the k n o w n , and the p r o c e s s of k n o w i n g are united in a state of p u r e , self-interacting c o n s c i o u s n e s s , in w h i c h c o n s c i o u s n e s s k n o w s itself alone. T h i s inner subjective e x p e r i e n c e is m a r k e d by the onset of a u n i q u e constellation of p h y s i o logical [ 1 2 ] , n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l [13], and b i o c h e m i c a l c h a n g e s [14], consistent w i t h the p r o p o s a l [15] that the e x p e r i e n c e of pure c o n s c i o u s n e s s c o r r e s p o n d s to a fourth major state of c o n s c i o u s n e s s distinct from w a k i n g , d r e a m i n g and d e e p sleep states of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . F r o m this e x p e r i e n c e , w e c o n c l u d e that h u m a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s , like material creation, h a s at its basis a unified field of intelligence. T h e m o s t p a r s i m o n i o u s explanation, p r o v i d e d by M a h a r i s h i V e d i c Science [4], is that these t w o fundamental fields of intellig e n c e are not i n d e p e n d e n t , but o n e and the s a m e , p r o v i d i n g a profound and previously u n e x p e c t e d unification of subjective and objective r e a l m s of e x p e r i e n c e . Indeed, such a f r a m e w o r k a p p e a r s to be required [11] to account for experimentally o b s e r v e d field effects of c o n s c i o u s n e s s * and other p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l aspects of higher states of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . It also e x p l a i n s the o t h e r w i s e " u n r e a s o n a b l e " parallel b e t w e e n h u m a n intellig e n c e and the intelligence of nature. W h e n first p r o p o s e d , s u c h a f r a m e w o r k s e e m e d to require a radical rethinking of p h y s i c s a n d / o r the relationship of c o n s c i o u s n e s s to the physical w o r l d . In retrospect, it s e e m s rather natural that the m o s t fundamental level of h u m a n e x p e r i e n c e — t h e unified field of p u r e self-interacting c o n s c i o u s n e s s — w o u l d be the s a m e unified field found at the b a s i s of all other f o r m s and p h e n o m e n a in nature. A c c o r d i n g to this perspective, the u n i fied field is the unified s o u r c e of both subjective and objective r e a l m s of existence. As such, the unified field is fundamentally as m u c h a field of subjectivity as it is a field of objectivity. F r o m this perspective, the use of a subjective a p p r o a c h to k n o w l e d g e a p p e a r s both justified and natural. Indeed, o n e m i g h t w o r r y that the purely objective a p p r o a c h of m o d e r n science w o u l d fail to apply at the level of super-unification, both in principle and in practice. In principle, since by a s s u m p t i o n there is only o n e d y n a m i c a l degree of freedom at the scale of super-unification (the unified field), a subject-object relationship m i g h t be difficult to

See Appendix A on field effects of consciousness.

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sustain. In practice, the time and distance scales characteristic of super-unification are far b e y o n d the range of any c o n c e i v a b l e accelerator technology. As the principal focus of theoretical p h y s i c s has shifted to the experimentally inaccessible d o m a i n s of g r a n d unification a n d super-unification, already theorists h a v e had to rely increasingly on their analytic a n d intuitive abilities—subjective c o m p e t e n c i e s of their o w n cons c i o u s n e s s . T h u s the d e v e l o p m e n t and application of a subjective a p p r o a c h s e e m s not only natural, but increasingly necessary. T h e viability of the subjective approach is amply demonstrated by the precision a n d d e p t h o f i n s i g h t into the m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l m e c h a n i c s o f n a t u r e ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e — the s t r u c t u r e a n d d y n a m i c s of the unified field a n d the m e c h a n i c s of s y m m e t r y b r e a k i n g — w h i c h is a v a i l a b l e in the V e d i c texts. In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , we will therefore i n c o r p o r a t e insights from b o t h the objective approach of m o d e r n theoretical p h y s i c s and t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y subjective a p p r o a c h of M a h a r i s h i unified field. V e d i c S c i e n c e to u n f o l d a m o r e c o m p l e t e a n d a p p r o p r i a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d terminology o f p h y s i c s b a s e d u p o n the

II. T h e E s s e n t i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Unified Field We will b e g i n o u r analysis of the discipline of p h y s i c s w i t h a consideration of the unified field itself. In the interest of generality, we will resist the t e m p t a t i o n to p l a c e u n d u e e m p h a s i s on the m o d e l - d e p e n d e n t features of the E x E heterotic string. Instead, we will
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focus on universal properties w h i c h are characteristic of any unified q u a n t u m field. S u c h an a n a l y s i s , in p r i n c i p l e , is rather difficult to contain: a c o m p l e t e description of the u n i fied field w o u l d p r o b a b l y entail a full analysis of the entire, diversified structure of m a n i fest creation, since the totality of natural l a w is ultimately contained within the structure a n d d y n a m i c s of the unified field. T h e discriminating intellect will therefore discern, w i t h i n the structure of the unified field, the potential for the entire universe, as a tree is c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the seed. (Indeed, we will argue in a later section that the p r o c e s s of creation c a n be v i e w e d as n o t h i n g m o r e than a sequentially m o r e elaborated c o m m e n t a r y on the structure of the unified field itself.) We will, nonetheless, attempt to limit our discussion to the m o s t b a s i c and fundamental properties of the field and reserve, until a later section, the s u b s e q u e n t u n f o l d m e n t of further details concerning the structure of the universe. We will b e g i n our discussion w i t h a c o n c i s e review of the essential characteristics of the unified field as described by M a h a r i s h i V e d i c Science, w h i c h will provide a useful direction a n d f r a m e w o r k for our s u b s e q u e n t physical analysis. A c c o r d i n g to Maharishi V e d i c S c i e n c e , the unified field is fundamentally a field of c o n s c i o u s n e s s [4]. T h e field is k n o w n as atman, m e a n i n g " p u r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s , " or "self," since the unified field constitutes the deepest reality and h e n c e the true identity of everything in nature. T h e t e r m " c o n s c i o u s n e s s " i s c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a n d a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c sense of the t e r m c o m m o n to everyday experience: it is used to d e n o t e a c o m p l e t e l y u n i v e r s a l field o f " p u r e , s e l f - i n t e r a c t i n g " c o n s c i o u s n e s s — c o n s c i o u s n e s s a w a r e of itself a l o n e , d e v o i d of any individualizing influence or external objects of e x p e rience [4,5]. D u e to its essential nature as c o n s c i o u s n e s s , Maharishi explains, the unified field h a s the dual characteristics of existence a n d intelligence [6,16]. C o n s c i o u s n e s s

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exists—all f o r m s a n d p h e n o m e n a in the u n i v e r s e , w h i c h constitute its v a r i o u s e x p r e s sions, c a n be said to exist by virtue of its existence. T h e existence of c o n s c i o u s n e s s is an e m p i r i c a l reality w h i c h is self-evident in higher states of c o n s c i o u s n e s s [ 1 0 ] , if not n e c e s sarily in the w a k i n g state, in w h i c h c o n s c i o u s n e s s , b e i n g o u t w a r d l y directed, is n e v e r the object of e x p e r i e n c e . T h e intelligence property of c o n s c i o u s n e s s is associated w i t h its self-interacting n a t u r e : d u e to its essential nature as c o n s c i o u s n e s s , c o n s c i o u s n e s s is a w a r e of its o w n e x i s t e n c e — i . e . , c o n s c i o u s n e s s " w i t n e s s e s " itself [6,9]. T h i s highly n o n linear p r o p e r t y of a w a r e n e s s sets up within the field of c o n s c i o u s n e s s a t h r e e - i n - o n e structure of k n o w e r , k n o w n , a n d p r o c e s s of k n o w i n g : c o n s c i o u s n e s s (the k n o w e r ) is a w a r e of c o n s c i o u s n e s s (the k n o w n ) through the a g e n c y of c o n s c i o u s n e s s (the p r o c e s s of k n o w i n g ) . T h i s self-interacting d y n a m i c s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s k n o w i n g itself and its a s s o ciated t h r e e - i n - o n e structure of k n o w e r , k n o w n , and process of k n o w i n g is called the Ved [ 4 ] . T h i s self-interacting d y n a m i c s is responsible for the s p o n t a n e o u s and sequential e m e r g e n c e of the diversified structure of the l a w s of nature from the field of p u r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s : o n e ( c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) b e c o m e s three ( k n o w e r , k n o w n , and process o f k n o w ing), and these in turn b e c o m e m a n y through a precise and s p o n t a n e o u s s e q u e n c e of expression d e s c r i b e d in M a h a r i s h i V e d i c Science and o p e n to direct experience t h r o u g h its applied, experiential t e c h n o l o g i e s , the T r a n s c e n d e n t a l Meditation and T M - S i d h i p r o grams. T h i s inherent capacity for c o n s c i o u s n e s s to k n o w itself, or " w i t n e s s i n g " property of the field, is k n o w n as buddhi ( m e a n i n g " i n t e l l i g e n c e " or "intellect") in the l a n g u a g e of Maharishi V e d i c S c i e n c e [9]. It refers to the highly dynamic, discriminative ( c o n s c i o u s ness discriminates b e t w e e n itself as knower, k n o w n , and process of k n o w i n g ) and creative (it creates three from the state of unity) property of the field responsible for the s p o n t a n e o u s and sequential e m e r g e n c e of the diversified structure of the l a w s of nature. A m o r e c o m p l e t e d i s c u s s i o n of this self-interacting d y n a m i c s and its associated three-in-one structure will be p r e s e n t e d in the following section. For the m o m e n t , we will focus on the t w o essential characteristics of existence and intelligence, and their s e e m i n g l y f u n d a m e n tal role in the unified q u a n t u m field theories of m o d e r n theoretical p h y s i c s . In any unified q u a n t u m field theory, the m o s t o b v i o u s and essential property of the unified field is that it exists. As in M a h a r i s h i V e d i c Science, e v e r y t h i n g else m a y be said to exist by virtue of its existence. F o r this existence to be substantial, it m u s t be p e r m a nent, i.e., the field should exist eternally. T h i s property is e x p r e s s e d in physics as the time-translational i n v a r i a n c e of the L a g r a n g i a n d e n s i t y — a n essential characteristic of a n y realistic unified field theory. T h e s e c o n d major property of the unified field w h i c h o n e is led to expect on the basis of o u r p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s is intelligence. By assumption, the unified field is the unified s o u r c e of all the l a w s of nature g o v e r n i n g physics at every scale. T h e s e l a w s of nature formally e x p r e s s the order a n d intelligence inherent in natural p h e n o m e n a . If there w e r e no laws of n a t u r e , there w o u l d be no consistent patterns of natural behavior, and nature w o u l d be unintelligible. If, as particle physicists believe, all the l a w s of nature h a v e their d y n a m i c a l origin in the unified field, then the unified field m u s t itself e m b o d y the total intelligence of n a t u r e ' s functioning. To s o m e extent, we can trace this property of intelligence to the fact that the unified field, b e y o n d its m e r e existence, has a very precise and definite mathematical structure.

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it is clear that the q u a n t u m principle a d d s t r e m e n d o u s d y n a m i s m to the rather abstract a n d inert characteristic of intelligence available in the classical description. B e s i d e s a d d i n g a d e g r e e of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and d y n a m i s m to the abstract p r o p e r t y of i n t e l l i g e n c e available at the classical level, the q u a n t u m principle also e n d o w s the field w i t h a creative c a p a c i t y w h i c h is far b e y o n d that of any classical field theory. For e x a m p l e , the d y n a m i c a l self-interaction of the g l u o n field i n d u c e d by q u a n t u m effects l e a d s to s t r o n g c o u p l i n g a n d h e n c e to the highly nonlinear p r o c e s s of color confinem e n t . T h u s the entire s p e c t r u m o f b o u n d - s t a t e h a d r o n s results from the q u a n t u m i n d u c e d self-interaction of the g l u o n field. T h e d y n a m i c a l b r e a k i n g of s u p e r s y m m e t r y a n d the r e s u l t i n g m a s s e s for sparticles and h i g g s b o s o n s p r o b a b l y results from a s i m i lar, q u a n t u m - i n d u c e d s t r o n g c o u p l i n g p h a s e i n the h i d d e n sector g a u g e g r o u p . T h e s p o n t a n e o u s b r e a k i n g of g a u g e s y m m e t r i e s like the e l e c t r o w e a k s y m m e t r y is also d u e to a q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l m e c h a n i s m . In this c a s e , radiative c o r r e c t i o n s to the h i g g s m a s s a t r e n o r m a l i z a t i o n - g r o u p scales M g e n e r a l l y , the e m e r g e n c e of _
w

<< M

P 1

trigger s p o n t a n e o u s s y m m e t r y b r e a k -

ing, g i v i n g m a s s e s t o q u a r k s a n d l e p t o n s and t o the i n t e r m e d i a t e v e c t o r b o s o n s . M o r e discrete q u a n t a from the c o n t i n u o u s d y n a m i c s of a field is i m p o s s i b l e in the c o n t e x t of classical field theory [ 1 7 ] . Q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c s is n e e d e d to g e n e r a t e q u a n t a (i.e., particles) from the field, and t h u s to create the material u n i v e r s e a s w e k n o w it. T h u s w e c o n c l u d e that the q u a n t u m principle introduces qualitatively n e w b e h a v i o r w h i c h is not found at the level of classical field theory. In particular, it introduces a d e g r e e of discrimination, dynamism, and creativity not present at the classical level. and creative, w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s preT h e s e characteristics m a k e the rather abstract and inert quality of intelligence present in the classical description dynamic, discriminative, f o u n d in our p r e v i o u s discussion of M a h a r i s h i cisely to the d y n a m i c , discriminative, a n d creative quality of intelligence, or buddhi, V e d i c S c i e n c e . For this reason, we will associate the q u a n t u m principle with the intelligence (or b u d d h i ) characteristic of the unified field—that property of the unified field w h i c h , c o m b i n e d with its classical s y m m e tries a n d structure, is responsible for the creative dynamics of nature—the spontaneous and sequential e m e r g e n c e of the diversified structure of the laws of nature g o v e r n i n g life on all levels of the p h y s i c a l universe. In this section, we h a v e identified t w o essential properties of the unified field— existence and intelligence. C o n c e r n i n g existence, very little can b e , or need b e , said. Its reality can be inferred from the existence of the universe. T h e intelligence property is a b u n d a n t l y d i s p l a y e d in the i n n u m e r a b l e l a w s of nature g o v e r n i n g natural p h e n o m e n a at every scale of the p h y s i c a l universe. We h a v e traced this property of intelligence to the unified field itself—to its classical s y m m e t r i e s and structure, and especially to the q u a n t u m principle, w h i c h e n d o w s the field w i t h a degree of intelligence—of discrimination, d y n a m i s m and creativity—not present at the classical level.

supersymmetry. In the limit of exact supersymmetry, the positive vacuum energy contributed by the vacuum fluctuations of bose fields is cancelled by the negative energy associated with the vacuum fluctuations of fermi fields. Since supersymmetry is necessarily broken at some level, this cancellation cannot be exact, and some additional cancellation mechanism is needed. There is some evidence to suggest that this mechanism could be provided by wormhole interactions.

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It is interesting to n o t e that in M a h a r i s h i

V e d i c Science, b e c a u s e the unified field is

f u n d a m e n t a l l y a field of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , it automatically incorporates both characteristics of e x i s t e n c e a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e [ 6 , 1 6 ] . In the unified field t h e o r i e s of m o d e r n t h e o r e t i c a l p h y s i c s , t h e q u a n t u m p r i n c i p l e is a l w a y s i n t r o d u c e d as an extra, ad hoc a s s u m p t i o n . T h e r e is no u n d e r s t a n d i n g in p h y s i c s c o n c e r n i n g the origin of the q u a n t u m p r i n c i p l e , a n d t h e r e i s little h o p e that q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c s will b e derivable from string t h e o r y . O n e c a n therefore a p p r e c i a t e the e l e g a n c e a n d e c o n o m y o f V e d i c S c i e n c e , i n w h i c h o n e fundamental postulate (consciousness) automatically incorporates both characteristics o f e x i s t e n c e a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e — b o t h t h e field a n d the q u a n t u m p r i n c i p l e . In the l a n g u a g e of V e d i c S c i e n c e , these t w o are k n o w n as atman a n d buddhi (see Figure 1). The t e r m Samhita, m e a n i n g " c o l l e c t e d n e s s " or " u n i t y , " is also u s e d to d e s c r i b e t h e unified field [ 4 ] . W h e r e a s a t m a n b r i n g s out the essential n a t u r e of the uni­ fied field as c o n s c i o u s n e s s , S a m h i t a e m p h a s i z e s its f u n d a m e n t a l l y unified n a t u r e . T h e special significance of t h e s e V e d i c t e r m s will be discussed in S e c t i o n IV. In this s e c t i o n , we h a v e identified the essential characteristics of the unified field b a s e d on an e l e m e n t a r y a n a l y s i s of the a l g e b r a i c form of the c a n o n i c a l c o m m u t a t i o n relation ( 1 ) . In the n e x t s e c t i o n , we will p r e s e n t a m o r e c o m p l e t e , g e o m e t r i c f o r m u l a t i o n of q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c s in H i l b e r t s p a c e . We will find that the Hilbert s p a c e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o v i d e s a far m o r e explicit a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e v i e w of the self-interacting d y n a m i c s of n a t u r e ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e g o v e r n i n g the m e c h a n i c s of c r e a t i o n from the unified field. It t h e r e b y also affords a m o r e c o m p l e t e and satisfactory f r a m e w o r k for m a k i n g p r e c i s e , q u a n t i t a t i v e c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n the unified q u a n t u m field t h e o r i e s of m o d e r n theoreti­ c a l p h y s i c s a n d the V e d i c S c i e n c e o f M a h a r i s h i M a h e s h Y o g i .

III. T h e Hilbert S p a c e Formulation of Q u a n t u m M e c h a n i c s and the Three-in-One Dynamics of Intelligence In the p r e v i o u s section, we traced the d y n a m i c a l origin of n a t u r e ' s intelligence to the structure a n d d y n a m i c s of the unified field. At the classical level of description, this intelli­ g e n c e is c o n t a i n e d in the precise m a t h e m a t i c a l form of the unified field—its classical sym­ m e t r i e s a n d s t r u c t u r e — w h i c h p r o v i d e s the unmanifest " b l u e p r i n t " of the laws of nature gov­ e r n i n g p h y s i c s at every scale. W i t h the introduction of the q u a n t u m principle, this passive, classical v i e w of intelligence a c q u i r e s a level of d y n a m i s m , discrimination and creativity not p r e s e n t at the classical level. T h i s d y n a m i c a n d creative v i e w of intelligence afforded by the q u a n t u m p r i n c i p l e is sufficient to explain the s p o n t a n e o u s and sequential e m e r g e n c e of the entire, diversified structure of the laws of nature from the unified field, as h a s b e e n expli­ citly d e m o n s t r a t e d by the latest unified q u a n t u m field theories, particularly the superstring. W e h a v e also n o t e d that the clear d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b e t w e e n the field a n d its c a n o n i -

cally c o n j u g a t e m o m e n t u m П i n t r o d u c e d by the q u a n t u m p r i n c i p l e (1) s u g g e s t s a wit­ n e s s i n g quality of the field, in w h i c h the field stands clearly d i v o r c e d from its o w n activity. T h e t e r m " w i t n e s s i n g " t e n d s to i m p l y a d e g r e e of a l e r t n e s s not g e n e r a l l y a s c r i b e d to a classical field t h e o r y , b u t it is precisely this quality of d y n a m i c intelligence t h a t the q u a n t u m p r i n c i p l e p r o v i d e s . T h i s d y n a m i s m h a s its r o o t s i n the a l g e b r a i c f o r m of the c a n o n i c a l c o m m u t a t i o n relation (1) a n d in the resulting infinite-dimensional Lie

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a l g e b r a of q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l o b s e r v a b l e s , and achieves its full physical significance in the H e i s e n b e r g uncertainty principle (2), w h i c h e n d o w s the field with t r e m e n d o u s d y n a m i s m at fundamental s p a c e t i m e scales. In the fundamental a p p r o a c h of M a h a r i s h i V e d i c Science, this highly d y n a m i c and alert quality of the field is present ab initio—the unified field is defined as a field of d y n a m i c intelligence, or consciousness [4]. H e r e , as we h a v e previously noted, the term c o n s c i o u s n e s s is clearly distinguished from the highly individualized and a n t h r o p o c e n tric s e n s e of the term c o m m o n to everyday experience. It is used to denote a c o m p l e t e l y u n i v e r s a l field of " p u r e , self-interacting" c o n s c i o u s n e s s — c o n s c i o u s n e s s a w a r e of itself a l o n e , devoid of any individualizing influence or external objects of e x p e r i e n c e [4,5]. T h i s , h o w e v e r , does not imply that this m o s t fundamental and universal v a l u e of cons c i o u s n e s s is b e y o n d the r a n g e of h u m a n experience. T h e experiential technologies of V e d i c S c i e n c e are precisely formulated to bring this fundamental state of a w a r e n e s s w i t h i n the r e a l m of h u m a n e x p e r i e n c e [ 4 ] . In this m o s t fundamental and universal structure of experience, k n o w n as " t r a n s c e n dental c o n s c i o u s n e s s " or " p u r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s , " consciousness is isolated in its p u r e form, d e v o i d of thought or any concrete object of experience. H o w e v e r , due to its intrinsic n a t u r e as c o n s c i o u s n e s s , c o n s c i o u s n e s s is a w a r e of its o w n existence—i.e., c o n s c i o u s n e s s " w i t n e s s e s " itself [6,9]. T h i s highly nonlinear, self-interacting property of a w a r e n e s s sets up within the field of c o n s c i o u s n e s s a three-in-one structure of k n o w e r , k n o w n , a n d p r o c e s s o f k n o w i n g : c o n s c i o u s n e s s (the k n o w e r ) i s a w a r e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s (the k n o w n ) t h r o u g h t h e a g e n c y o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s (the p r o c e s s o f k n o w i n g ) . T h i s s e l f - i n t e r a c t i n g d y n a m i c s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , or w i t n e s s i n g quality of the field, is t e r m e d the intelligence a s p e c t of the unified field, or buddhi in the l a n g u a g e of V e d i c Science [4,9]. It is dynamic, discriminative (consciousness discriminates between itself as k n o w e r , k n o w n , a n d p r o c e s s of k n o w i n g ) a n d c r e a t i v e (it c r e a t e s t h r e e from a state o f u n i t y ) , a n d c o r r e s p o n d s p r e c i s e l y t o the d y n a m i c , d i s c r i m i n a t i v e , a n d c r e a t i v e q u a l i t y of i n t e l l i g e n c e found in o u r e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n of the q u a n t u m p r i n c i p l e . T h i s highly nonlinear, self-interacting quality of c o n s c i o u s n e s s is a familiar p r o p e r t y of a n y unified n o n - A b e l i a n g a u g e field. A n o n - A b e l i a n (i.e., n o n l i n e a r ) field p o s s e s s e s a d e g r e e of self-interaction not p r e s e n t in an A b e l i a n field, such as e l e c t r o m a g n e t i s m . B e c a u s e the e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c field e q u a t i o n s are linear in the field strength, t w o b e a m s of light p a s s t h r o u g h e a c h o t h e r w i t h no interaction and h e n c e no a w a r e n e s s of e a c h o t h e r ' s p r e s e n c e . A n o n - A b e l i a n field, s u c h as the g l u o n field of q u a n t u m c h r o m o d y n a m i c s , the unified e l e c t r o w e a k field, or a superunified g a u g e field, p o s s e s s e s the n o n linear p r o p e r t y of self-interaction w h i c h is l a c k i n g in an A b e l i a n field. As a c o n s e q u e n c e of its o w n self-coupling, a n o n - A b e l i a n field r e s p o n d s d y n a m i c a l l y to its o w n p r e s e n c e — t h e field interacts w i t h the field t h r o u g h the a g e n c y of the field. It is this h i g h l y n o n l i n e a r , self-interacting or "self-referral" property of the field, w h i c h a c h i e v e s its full significance in the p r e s e n c e of the q u a n t u m principle, that m a k e s t h e unified field a field of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a c c o r d i n g to M a h a r i s h i V e d i c Science.*

In fact, it is essential for this argument that the field be purely self-interacting, as in the case of a unified quantum field, and thus the self-sufficient source of all created things. —Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, private communication.

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* See footnote on previous page.
+

Or possibly some subset of that structure, depending on whether the transformation is differentiable, linear, or unitary.

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*The need to consider states of infinite norm in quantum mechanics introduces a further degree of liveliness not present in the classical structure of a Hilbert space. It changes the structure of the space to what is called a "rigged" Hilbert space, which involves a highly dynamic interplay between several different function spaces. For a detailed discussion, see ref. [18].
+

In general, more than one observable may be needed to completely specify a set of basis vectors. In this case, the set of observables needed to define the basis vectors is called a maximal commuting set.

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v e c t o r s s p a n s the Hilbert space and thereby p r o v i d e s a c o m p l e t e characterization of q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l k n o w l e d g e . A l t h o u g h each, in itself, is entirely self-sufficient, the availability of several different b a s e s presents a variety of distinct but c o m p l e m e n t a r y p e r s p e c t i v e s . For e x a m p l e , in o n e basis, energy serves as the defining characteristic of the s y s t e m ; in a s e c o n d , its position in s p a c e , and so on. T h i s " c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y " of different v i e w p o i n t s is o n e of the m o r e striking characteristics of the q u a n t u m theory, and has its clear c o r r e s p o n d e n c e in the different qualities of the k n o w e r or Rishi in M a h a r i shi Vedic Science. If t h e p r o p e r t y of " k n o w e r " in t h e s t r u c t u r e of q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l k n o w l e d g e is p r o v i d e d b y the H i l b e r t s p a c e o f s t a t e s , t h e n the " p r o c e s s o f k n o w i n g " i s p r o v i d e d b y t h e quantum-mechanical observables. These quantum-mechanical observables represent all t h e p r o p e r t i e s of a q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m that c a n be k n o w n — i t s e n e r g y , m o m e n t u m , a n g u l a r m o m e n t u m , etc., d e p e n d i n g o n the d e t a i l s o f the q u a n t u m mechanical system. These quantum-mechanical observables correspond to operators in Hilbert s p a c e , a n d c a n therefore b e v i e w e d a s i n f i n i t e - d i m e n s i o n a l m a t r i c e s . T h e s e o p e r ators, it m u s t be e m p h a s i z e d , are distinct from the classical q u a n t i t i e s they r e p r e s e n t . T h e latter d e p e n d i n t i m a t e l y u p o n the state o f the s y s t e m , w h e r e a s the q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c a l o b s e r v a b l e s do not. T h e y h a v e a m o r e u n i v e r s a l status, a n d are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r o c e s s of gaining knowledge, i.e., of e x t r a c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m . T h e v a l u e of s o m e classical o b s e r v a b l e ( r e p r e s e n t e d by a l o w e r c a s e o) in a q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m is c o m p u t e d by t a k i n g the inner p r o d uct of the state v e c t o r |W) w i t h the state v e c t o r acted u p o n by the c o r r e s p o n d i n g q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l o b s e r v a b l e ( r e p r e s e n t e d by a capital O ) : (6) T h e v a l u e of the quantity (o) is well defined only if the s y s t e m is in an eigenstate of the c o r r e s p o n d i n g o b s e r v a b l e ( O ) ; i.e., if (7) O t h e r w i s e , the q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l system d o e s not generally p o s s e s s a definite v a l u e of the o b s e r v a b l e , and a s e q u e n c e of m e a s u r e m e n t s p e r f o r m e d w i t h identically prepared s y s t e m s will yield different v a l u e s . T h e a v e r a g e or expected v a l u e of o, averaged over m a n y trials, is g i v e n by the expectation v a l u e (6).* T h u s the q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l o b s e r v a b l e ( O ) is clearly distinct from its classically m e a s u r e d quantity (o); the latter d e p e n d s intimately u p o n the state of the s y s t e m , w h e r e a s the former is an operator in Hilbert s p a c e associated w i t h the process of g a i n i n g k n o w l e d g e . T h e q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l notion of an o b s e r v a b l e ( O ) is a far m o r e d y n a m i c concept than the classical quantity (o) it represents. D u e to their status as operators, these q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l o b s e r v a b l e s are the d y n a m i c a l g e n e r a t o r s of transformations in Hilbert s p a c e . T h e y actively transform o n e q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l state into another and, m o r e

* A more detailed discussion of the quantum measurement process will be presented in Section V.

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The Three-in-One Structure of Quantum-Mechanical Knowledge

Figure 2.

p r o v i d e d by the Hilbert s p a c e formulation of the q u a n t u m theory and e x a m i n e d this f u n d a m e n t a l k n o w l e d g e in the light of M a h a r i s h i close correspondence between the three-in-one V e d i c S c i e n c e . We o b s e r v e d a structure of quantum-mechanical

k n o w l e d g e a n d the self-interacting d y n a m i c s o f n a t u r e ' s intelligence (Rishi, D e v a t a , a n d C h h a n d a s ) d e s c r i b e d b y V e d i c S c i e n c e . W e h a v e p r e v i o u s l y s h o w n that the highly n o n l i n e a r d y n a m i c s o f self-interaction i n t r o d u c e d b y the q u a n t u m principle e n d o w s the field w i t h a d e g r e e of d y n a m i s m , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , a n d a creative capacity w h i c h is essential for the e m e r g e n c e of creation as we k n o w it. We h a v e therefore identified the q u a n t u m principle w i t h the " i n t e l l i g e n c e " aspect of the unified field—that p r o p e r t y of t h e unified field w h i c h , a l o n g w i t h its classical s y m m e t r i e s and structure, is responsible

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for the s p o n t a n e o u s and sequential e m e r g e n c e of the diversified structure of the l a w s of n a t u r e . In Maharishi V e d i c Science, this intelligence aspect of the unified field, or buddhi, is considered equally fundamental: it is this d y n a m i c , discriminative, and creative p r o p e r t y of the field w h i c h allows the field to k n o w itself, i.e., to interact w i t h itself in a h i g h l y d y n a m i c and nonlinear w a y . T h i s self-interacting d y n a m i c s of the unified field h a s , in fact, b e e n called by Maharishi the "first principle of n a t u r e ' s functioning" [4]. It sets up within the unmanifest field the three-in-one structure of k n o w e r , k n o w n , and p r o c e s s of k n o w i n g , w h o s e d y n a m i c a l interactions sequentially unfold the diversified structure of the laws of nature g o v e r n i n g life at all levels of the physical universe. In the following section, we will present a systematic analysis of the fundamental m o d e s of the unified field—the e l e m e n t a r y particles and forces of nature. T h r o u g h the c o m b i n e d understanding p r o v i d e d by Maharishi V e d i c S c i e n c e and the latest fourd i m e n s i o n a l string formulations, we will develop a m o r e natural u n d e r s t a n d i n g of, and t e r m i n o l o g y for, the e l e m e n t a r y particles b a s e d directly on the unified field.

IV. T h e Elementary Particles and Forces of Nature as M o d e s of the Unified Field In the p r e v i o u s sections, we presented a detailed analysis of the essential characteristics of the unified field and its self-interacting d y n a m i c s . In this section, we will e x p a n d this analysis to include a systematic investigation of its fundamental m o d e s — t h e elem e n t a r y particles and forces of nature. We h a v e already seen that unified q u a n t u m field theories provide a natural u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the e l e m e n t a r y particles and forces as the stable vibrational states of the field. T h e s e natural resonant frequencies, k n o w n as e n e r g y eigenstates, p o s s e s s certain properties of stability and discreteness that lend t h e m s e l v e s naturally to an interpretation in t e r m s of particles, and w h i c h are indeed r e s p o n s i b l e for the classical u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the u n i v e r s e as c o m p o s e d of particles.* D u e to their physical interpretation as particles, these energy eigenstates are also k n o w n as " p h y s i c a l particle s t a t e s " of the field. We have previously identified these particle states with the " k n o w n " or Chhandas quality of the field in Section III. In the simplest theories, these physical particle states exist in simple, o n e - t o - o n e corr e s p o n d e n c e with the fundamental d y n a m i c a l degrees of freedom of the u n d e r l y i n g field. For e x a m p l e , in q u a n t u m e l e c t r o d y n a m i c s , electrons and p h o t o n s respectively corr e s p o n d to excited states of the electron a n d photon field. In m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d , nonlinear field t h e o r i e s , this is g e n e r a l l y not the c a s e . In q u a n t u m c h r o m o d y n a m i c s , for instance, the c o m p l e x spectrum of physical particles (the b a r y o n s and m e s o n s ) bears no s i m p l e r e s e m b l a n c e to the fundamental d e g r e e s of freedom of the underlying f i e l d s — the q u a r k and gluon fields. T h e r e m a y be m a n y layers of q u a n t u m d y n a m i c s separating the fundamental degrees of freedom of the u n d e r l y i n g field and its e m e r g e n t , physical s p e c t r u m of stable vibrational states.

*The discreteness of the energy levels of a quantum field results from the fact that the amplitude of vibration associated with each of these resonant modes is constrained by the quantum principle to be in discrete multiples of Planck's constant. For a more complete introduction, see ref. [11].

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U n t i l r e c e n t l y , t h e r e w a s n o k n o w n field t h e o r y w i t h a p h y s i c a l s p e c t r u m rich e n o u g h t o a c c o m m o d a t e the great diversity o f e l e m e n t a r y p a r t i c l e s a n d f o r c e s o b s e r v e d i n n a t u r e . P r e v i o u s unified field t h e o r i e s b a s e d on e x t e n d e d s u p e r g r a v i t y h a d a p h y s i c a l s p e c t r u m r i c h e n o u g h t o i n c l u d e s o m e , b u t n o t all, o f the k n o w n f o r c e s — t h e strong, e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c a n d g r a v i t a t i o n a l forces, b u t n o t the w e a k force. I t w a s o n c e h o p e d that t h e r e m a i n i n g forces a n d p a r t i c l e s c o u l d b e e x p l a i n e d t h r o u g h a m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d d y n a m i c s involving b o u n d states of the fundamental c o m p o n e n t s of the underlying t h e o r y ( b i l i n e a r s i n t h e N = 8 supergravity multiplet), b u t t h e s e efforts m e t w i t h severe t e c h n i c a l difficulties. It is only w i t h the r e c e n t d i s c o v e r y of the s u p e r s t r i n g that a com­ p l e t e l y unified field t h e o r y of all t h e e l e m e n t a r y particles a n d forces h a s b e c o m e p o s s i b l e . N o w , for t h e first t i m e i n history, all k n o w n p a r t i c l e s a n d forces o f n a t u r e c a n b e explicitly identified w i t h m o d e s of the unified field. A detailed investigation i n t o the s t r u c t u r e a n d d y n a m i c s of the s u p e r s t r i n g field r e v e a l s a rich s p e c t r u m of v i b r a t i o n a l states i n direct c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h the o b s e r v e d e l e m e n t a r y p a r t i c l e s a n d forces: the g r a v i t o n , t h e spin-1 force fields, chiral m a t t e r fields, a n d all their s u p e r s y m m e t r i c part­ n e r s . W i t h i n the f r a m e w o r k p r o v i d e d b y t h e superstring, all the n e c e s s a r y b u i l d i n g b l o c k s o f c r e a t i o n c a n b e clearly u n d e r s t o o d a s the n a t u r a l r e s o n a n t m o d e s o f the unified field. In o u r effort to c o n n e c t all a s p e c t s of p h y s i c s to their unified s o u r c e in the unified field, w e w i l l briefly e x p l a i n h o w all the k n o w n forces a n d p a r t i c l e s o f n a t u r e arise from t h e s u p e r s t r i n g , c l e a r l y identifying e a c h o f t h e s e p a r t i c l e s w i t h specific v i b r a t i o n a l states o f t h e field. T h i s identification h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r a b l y simplified b y t h e r e c e n t d e r i v a t i o n [3] o f s u p e r s y m m e t r i c F l i p p e d S U ( 5 ) x U ( l ) from t h e s u p e r s t r i n g u s i n g the free-fermionic f o r m u l a t i o n i n four d i m e n s i o n s [ 1 9 ] . T h i s d e r i v a t i o n p r o v i d e s the m o s t direct link b e t w e e n the h e t e r o t i c s t r i n g a n d t h e o b s e r v e d e l e m e n t a r y p a r t i c l e s a n d forces o f n a t u r e , while naturally avoiding the problems of cosmological baryogenesis, rapid proton d e c a y , tree-level f l a v o r - c h a n g i n g n e u t r a l c u r r e n t s , a n d C a b i b b o u n i v e r s a l i t y g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a n i f o l d and/or orbifold c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n ten s p a c e t i m e d i m e n s i o n s . I n d e e d , t h e d i s c o v e r y of a fully r e a l i s t i c g r a n d unified t h e o r y , w h i c h is w h a t supers y m m e t r i c F l i p p e d S U ( 5 ) x U ( l ) r e p r e s e n t s , c a n b e c o u n t e d a s o n e o f t h e m a j o r achieve­ m e n t s of this c u r r e n t project to r e s t r u c t u r e all a s p e c t s of p h y s i c s in light of t h e unified field. P r i o r t o t h e k n o w l e d g e p r o v i d e d b y the s u p e r s t r i n g , i t w a s i m p o s s i b l e t o k n o w , based on the partial and fragmented understanding of physics available at the electrow e a k s c a l e , e x a c t l y w h a t n e w forces a n d n e w g a u g e s y m m e t r i e s w e r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e p h y s i c s o f f u n d a m e n t a l s c a l e s . A s a c o n s e q u e n c e , g r a n d unified m o d e l b u i l d i n g w a s l a r g e l y a m a t t e r of g u e s s w o r k , a n d in t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e s e t h e o r i e s , Flipped S U ( 5 ) x U ( l ) w a s essentially overlooked.* N o w , based on the k n o w l e d g e of the u n i f i e d field p r o v i d e d b y the s u p e r s t r i n g , o n e c a n easily s h o w that F l i p p e d S U ( 5 ) x U ( l ) i s t h e o n l y v i a b l e g r a n d unified t h e o r y t h a t c a n arise f r o m t h e unified field i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s t r i n g t h e o r y . T h e c a n o n i c a l g r a n d unified t h e o r i e s , b a s e d o n c o n v e n t i o n a l S U ( 5 ) , S O ( 1 0 ) , o r E 6 , all r e q u i r e adjoint o r l a r g e r self-conjugate H i g g s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o b r e a k t h e m , a n d t h e s e are n o t a v a i l a b l e i n s t r i n g t h e o r i e s ( s e e A p p e n d i x C ) . I n c o n t r a s t , Flipped S U ( 5 ) x U ( l ) breaks uniquely to the Standard Model using just antisymmetric

* See, however, ref. [СЗ].

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* In the interest of technical completeness, we note that the specification of these periodicity conditions is performed not on the string per se, but on the string world sheet. The world sheet is the 1 + 1 = 2 dimensional spacetime surface that describes the classical history of a string as it evolves through time. At the one-loop (quantum) level of the string dynamics, these world sheets have the topological structure of a torus. The periodicity conditions described above actually refer to the behavior of these world-sheet fermions under parallel transport around this one-loop string world torus.

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F r o m this a n a l y s i s , w e c o n c l u d e that w i t h i n the f r a m e w o r k p r o v i d e d b y t h e supers t r i n g , all the e l e m e n t a r y p a r t i c l e s and forces of nature can be clearly u n d e r s t o o d in t e r m s o f the unified field. W e h a v e explicitly identified all k n o w n p a r t i c l e s w i t h s p e cific v i b r a t i o n a l states of the string ( 1 0 ) . T h u s , the e l e m e n t a r y p a r t i c l e s and forces of n a t u r e , w h i c h p r o v i d e the stable b u i l d i n g b l o c k s for the w h o l e material u n i v e r s e , stand clearly r e v e a l e d for w h a t they a r e — t h e natural r e s o n a n t m o d e s of the unified field. T h i s clear u n d e r s t a n d i n g p r o v i d e d by t h e s u p e r s t r i n g lays the f o u n d a t i o n for a n e w interpretation and l a n g u a g e of p h y s i c s , in w h i c h the e l e m e n t a r y particles a n d forces of n a t u r e , and i n d e e d the entire d i s c i p l i n e , are clearly c o n n e c t e d to their unified s o u r c e . In t h e light of this n e w u n d e r s t a n d i n g , m a n y of the historical p e r s p e c t i v e s a n d lang u a g e of p h y s i c s will g i v e w a y to a m o r e natural u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t e r m i n o l o g y b a s e d directly on the unified field. Instead of their currently r a n d o m and/or historical n a m e s , the e l e m e n t a r y particles will be n a m e d for the specific v i b r a t i o n a l states they c o r r e s p o n d to: p e r i o d i c , antiperiodic, etc., r e v e a l i n g their rightful p l a c e in the internal structure a n d d y n a m i c s of the unified field. T h i s natural l a b e l i n g of all a s p e c t s of the discip l i n e in t e r m s of the unified field p r o v i d e s a natural order and o r g a n i z a t i o n to the entire d i s c i p l i n e w h i c h w a s not p o s s i b l e a s l o n g a s its unified f o u n d a t i o n w a s h i d d e n from v i e w . At the present t i m e , we h a v e also seen that the labeling of m o d e s p r o v i d e d by the free-fermionic string formulation is rather a w k w a r d . D u e to the n u m b e r of string degrees

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of freedom, the m a n y possible choices of periodicity conditions, and the richness of the resulting s p e c t r u m , the labeling of these string m o d e s (10) is necessarily s o m e w h a t c u m b e r s o m e . V e d i c Science, in c o m p a r i s o n , p r o v i d e s a very natural and c o m p a c t language of nature w h i c h is also b a s e d directly on the unified field. In the l a n g u a g e of Maharishi V e d i c S c i e n c e , the five fundamental categories of matter and energy (10) responsible for material existence are called tanmatras ( m e a n i n g elementary in the sense of n o n c o m p o s i t e ) [6,9]. Respectively they are k n o w n as akasha, vayu, tejas, apas, and prithivi. T h e r e is a striking c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n these five t a n m a t r a s and the five q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c a l spin types of a unified q u a n t u m field theory: b e t w e e n the akasha or " s p a c e " t a n m a t r a and the gravitational field; b e t w e e n the v a y u or " a i r " tanmatra, w h i c h stands as a link b e t w e e n space and the other tanmatras, and the gravitino field; b e t w e e n the tejas or "fire" tanmatra, responsible for chemical transformations and the sense of sight, and the spin-1 force fields; and b e t w e e n the apas and prithivi ("water" and "earth") t a n m a tras and the spin-1/2 and spin-0 matter fields, respectively. T h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e is e v e n m o r e striking in the c o n t e x t of a s u p e r s y m m e t r i c u n i fied field t h e o r y , such as the s u p e r s t r i n g . In a s u p e r s y m m e t r i c t h e o r y , there is a natural p a i r i n g o f the five spin t y p e s into three t y p e s o f N = 1 superfields (see F i g u r e 3 ) . T h e s p i n - 2 g r a v i t o n and the s p i n - 3 / 2 g r a v i t i n o b e c o m e unified in the c o n t e x t of the gravity superfield, the s p i n - 1 force fields and s p i n - 1 / 2 g a u g i n o s c o m b i n e to form gauge superfields, and the s p i n - 1 / 2 m a t t e r fields a n d their s p i n - 0 s u p e r s y m m e t r i c p a r t n e r s g i v e rise to matter superfields. T h e s e s a m e p a i r i n g s are also c o n s i d e r e d f u n d a m e n t a l in V e d i c S c i e n c e , w h e r e i n a k a s h a a n d v a y u a p p e a r unified in the structure of vata prakriti, tejas and a p a s b e c o m e united in the s t r u c t u r e of pitta prakriti, and a p a s and prithivi c o m b i n e to form kapha prakriti [ 2 0 ] . L i k e the N = 1 superfields, the prakritis p e r t a i n to the structure of natural l a w at fundamental s p a c e t i m e s c a l e s — a t or near the scale of super-unification. T h i s striking c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , w h i c h has b e e n discussed in greater detail e l s e w h e r e in the literature [11], a d d s further w e i g h t to the fundamental identity b e t w e e n the unified field of pure, self-interacting c o n s c i o u s n e s s and the unified field of m o d e r n theoretical p h y s i c s : not only do they p o s s e s s identical properties and characteristics (see S e c t i o n s II and III) but they share the s a m e s p e c t r u m of excitations. It is v e r y interesting in this context that the unified field or atman (self) is also k n o w n as sutratma (literally, string-self) [21]:

L i k e the heterotic string, this string ( s u t r a t m a ) h a s the t o p o l o g y of a circle, or mandala [4]. T h e self-interacting d y n a m i c s of c o n s c i o u s n e s s d e s c r i b e d in the V e d g i v e s rise to several distinct c a t e g o r i e s of m a n d a l a , w h i c h include the five t a n m a t r a s or spin t y p e s introduced a b o v e (10) in addition to others (manas, etc.) w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d to subjective realities that h a v e little t o d o w i t h p h y s i c s b e l o w the Planck scale. H e r e again w e o b s e r v e a close c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n the structure and d y n a m i c s of the unified field described

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by M a h a r i s h i

V e d i c S c i e n c e and the unified q u a n t u m field theory of m o d e r n theoretical

p h y s i c s . T h e essential k n o w l e d g e , and e v e n the technical details, appear to be the s a m e . T h e difference in t e r m i n o l o g y can be naturally understood as a c o n s e q u e n c e of the different a p p r o a c h e s . To u n d e r s t a n d the significance of the V e d i c n a m e s akasha, etc., in relation to the u n i fied field, we first recall w h a t the five f u n d a m e n t a l categories of matter and e n e r g y

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actually represent in the context of a unified field theory. They represent the stable vibrational states, or natural resonant frequencies, of the unified field. We have explicitly identified the five q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l spin types with specific vibrational states of the f i e l d — p e r i o d i c a n d / o r antiperiodic, fundamentals and/or h a r m o n i c s of the string (10). We h a v e therefore discovered a level of n a t u r e ' s d y n a m i c s w h e r e all matter and e n e r g y — t h e e l e m e n t a r y particles and forces—correspond to specific " s o u n d s " or vibrational patterns of the unified field. T h i s s a m e u n d e r s t a n d i n g is considered fundamental in Maharishi Vedic Science. V e d i c S c i e n c e posits an intimate relationship between sound and m e a n i n g , or n a m e and form, at the unified level of n a t u r e ' s functioning: nama ( n a m e ) b e c o m e s identified w i t h rupa (form) at the level of the unified field [10]. This intimate relationship b e t w e e n sound and m e a n i n g , w h i c h we h a v e also seen in the context of the superstring, suggests a profound system of n o m e n c l a t u r e w h i c h is both novel and natural: to n a m e every object or expression of the unified field with the actual sound or vibration of the field w h i c h that object c o r r e s p o n d s to. A c c o r d i n g to Maharishi, this is precisely w h a t the V e d i c n a m e s akasha, v a y u , etc., represent. T h e y are the actual " s o u n d s " or vibrational patterns of the unified field associated w i t h those fundamental objects. The spoken w o r d s (akasha, etc.) directly reflect these fundamental s o u n d s , amplified, translated in frequency, and articulated on the level of speech. D u e to this intimate connection b e t w e e n sound and m e a n i n g , V e d i c Science has b e e n aptly described as a highly refined and sophisticated science of sound. This is p e r h a p s most profoundly illustrated in the case of the Rig-Ved, the most fundamental aspect of the V e d i c S a m h i t a and, a c c o r d i n g to Maharishi, the foundation of the entire V e d i c literature [4]. A c c o r d i n g to M a h a r i s h i V e d i c Science, the R i g - V e d presents a c o m p l e t e record of the structure and d y n a m i c s of the unified field in the form of sound. Indeed, the syllables of the R i g - V e d are the actual sounds generated by the self-interacting d y n a m i c s of the unified field and the m e c h a n i c s of s y m m e t r y breaking through w h i c h the unified field sequentially gives rise to the diversified structure of natural law seen in nature [10]. For this reason, this fundamental aspect of the V e d i c literature is also k n o w n as shruti, w h i c h m e a n s " h e a r d . " This term refers to the m a n n e r in which the V e d w a s c o g n i z e d . T h e s e p r i m o r d i a l s o u n d s , o r m e c h a n i c s o f n a t u r e ' s functioning, w e r e heard by the sages in the most silent, settled state of their o w n a w a r e n e s s — t h e unified field of p u r e , self-interacting consciousness.* T h e s e sounds were subsequently recorded and p r e s e r v e d in the form of speech. T h u s the Rig-Ved, according to Maharishi, is not an intellectual c o m m e n t a r y on the fundamental m e c h a n i c s of n a t u r e ' s functioning. It is an actual acoustic record of the total structure of the unified field and its selfinteracting d y n a m i c s . T h i s explains w h y the V e d is primarily an oral tradition, a tradition of sound painstakingly preserved and passed d o w n from generation to generation. Transcription, translation and interpretation of the V e d is given very little importance in the V e d i c tradition. T h e true m e a n i n g and significance of the Ved is vested in the V e d itself. T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g is aptly s u m m a r i z e d in a verse from the R i g - V e d [6].

*At this fundamental level of awareness, it is more correct to say that the Ved hears itself, since in this unified state of consciousness the knower, the known, and the process of knowing are one and the same. This is why the Ved is called Samhita, meaning unity of knower, known, and process of knowing [4].

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The sounds of the Ved are generated by the collapse of unity within itself, in which reside all the dynamical impulses of natural law responsible for the whole manifest universe. T h i s is the specialty of the V e d i c l a n g u a g e , the intimate connection b e t w e e n sound and m e a n i n g w h e r e b y the n a m e c o r r e s p o n d s precisely to the form of the object. Such a l a n g u a g e , in w h i c h every expression of the unified field is n a m e d w i t h the actual sound of the unified field w h i c h that object c o r r e s p o n d s to, is unified field-based in the fullest possible sense. S u c h n a m e s p o s s e s s a level of authenticity that is not shared by the historical and/or r a n d o m n o m e n c l a t u r e currently in v o g u e . M a h a r i s h i e x p l a i n s that the V e d i c n a m e s are especially significant for an individual p o s s e s s i n g the requisite level of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . D u e to the intimate connection b e t w e e n s o u n d and m e a n i n g at the unified level of n a t u r e ' s functioning, an impulse of s o u n d automatically carries w i t h it the associated form, w i t h all its v a r i o u s properties and characteristics. If the a w a r e n e s s is lively at this fundamental level, the sound automatically structures the c o r r e s p o n d i n g e x p e r i e n c e , w i t h all its associated properties and characteristics. T h i s level of a w a r e n e s s in w h i c h the n a m e automatically i n v o k e s the form of the object is k n o w n as ritam bhara pragya, m e a n i n g "that level of the intellect that c o m p r e h e n d s only t r u t h " [4]. G i v e n a c c e s s to this fundamental level of a w a r e n e s s , the V e d i c terminology p r o v i d e s a powerful research m e t h o d o l o g y . All the fundamental m o d e s of the unified field can be systematically stimulated on the level of consciousness through the introduction of these V e d i c t e r m s [4]. W i t h o u t this ritam level of awareness, the V e d i c n a m e s lose their special significance, m u c h as a h o l o g r a m loses its special significance in the absence of c o h e r e n t light. M a h a r i s h i e x p l a i n s that it w a s the lack of w i d e s p r e a d availability of this f u n d a m e n t a l level of c o n s c i o u s n e s s in recent history that had placed the V e d i c k n o w l e d g e in a state of decline [ 9 ] . T h i s situation is also described by the p r e v i o u s v e r s e from the R i g - V e d , w h i c h c o n t i n u e s [6]

He whose awareness is not open to this field, what can the sounds of the Ved accomplish for him? Those who know this level of consciousness are established in unity, wholeness of life. T h e current revival of the V e d i c k n o w l e d g e by Maharishi has largely been possible through his rediscovery of the specific subjective technologies, the Transcendental Meditation and T M - S i d h i programs, needed to restore this basic experience. T h e Transcendental

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M e d i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e naturally p r o d u c e s this fundamental level of a w a r e n e s s , in w h i c h c o n s c i o u s n e s s is identified w i t h the unified field. T h e T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m then s t i m u lates sequentially all the f u n d a m e n t a l m o d e s of the unified field u s i n g specific m e n t a l f o r m u l a s or i m p u l s e s of s o u n d prescribed by M a h a r i s h i Patanjali t h o u s a n d s of years a g o [4]. T h e resulting e x p e r i e n c e of all the fundamental aspects of natural law as m o d e s of o n e ' s o w n a w a r e n e s s indeed p r o v i d e s the m o s t striking experiential confirmation of the p r o p o s e d identity b e t w e e n the unified field of p u r e , self-interacting c o n s c i o u s n e s s and the unified field n o w b e i n g g l i m p s e d by m o d e r n theoretical physics [11]. T h i s direct e x p e r i e n c e is as r e p e a t a b l e , as striking and u n a m b i g u o u s for the experiencer as any data obtained t h r o u g h the u s e of particle accelerators. It can be replicated at any t i m e by a n y o n e p o s s e s s i n g the requisite apparatus and training. T h i s apparatus and training, respectively, consist of a h u m a n n e r v o u s system and instruction in the experiential t e c h n o l o g i e s of M a h a r i s h i V e d i c S c i e n c e — t h e T r a n s c e n d e n t a l M e d i t a t i o n and T M - S i d h i programs. I n d e e d , the direct experience of the unified field of p u r e , selfinteracting c o n s c i o u s n e s s as the unified field of all the l a w s of nature is self-evidently m o r e real than any e x p e r i e n c e in the d o m a i n of ordinary w a k i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s , for the s a m e reason that w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e is self-evidently m o r e real than d r e a m i n g — i t r e p resents a m o r e integrated, holistic and logically self-consistent state of functioning of the brain p h y s i o l o g y . T h e k n o w l e d g e o f the V e d i c s o u n d s and their classification b y M a h a r i s h i h a s h a d p r o f o u n d a p p l i c a t i o n in m a n y different areas. T h i s k n o w l e d g e p r e s e n t s a c o m p l e t e scie n c e of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n b a s e d on the unified field. T h r o u g h the introduction of specific i m p u l s e s of s o u n d (specific frequencies or patterns of vibration of the unified field), o n e c a n i n d u c e a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from one frequency or pattern to another, in a m a n n e r familiar t o e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t s and theorists w o r k i n g w i t h scattering e x p e r i m e n t s o r F e y n m a n g r a p h s . T h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of a n e w frequency or " p a r t i c l e " into the initial-state configuration l e a d s to a w h o l e n e w r a n g e of final-state possibilities, in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a set of selection rules and c o n s e r v a t i o n l a w s appropriate to p h y s i c s at that level. T h i s h a s o p e n e d up an entire field of " V e d i c e n g i n e e r i n g " or M a h a r i s h i Y a g y a [9], w h i c h applies the k n o w l e d g e of the V e d i c s o u n d s to effect t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s at any and all levels of the p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e . A l t h o u g h V e d i c e n g i n e e r i n g is not a n e w s c i e n c e , it h a d fallen into a state of relative disuse b e c a u s e its application m u s t be from the level o f t h e unified field. W i t h o u t t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l e v e l o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e V e d i c s o u n d s are just g r o s s e x p r e s s i o n s on the level of s p e e c h , and h a v e a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y limited effect. O n e interesting and w i d e s p r e a d application of the V e d i c t e r m i n o l o g y is k n o w n as Maharishi Vedic Vigation Technology, w h i c h addresses specific i m b a l a n c e s in the p h y s i o l o g y t h r o u g h the application of certain s o u n d s . T h i s represents just o n e s m a l l aspect of a c o m p l e t e s c i e n c e of health k n o w n as M a h a r i s h i A y u r - V e d , w h i c h is b a s e d directly on the f u n d a m e n t a l k n o w l e d g e contained in the R i g - V e d [4]. T h e principal focus of M a h a r i s h i A y u r - V e d is on the level of the unified field, i.e., the restoration of b a l a n c e in the p h y s i o l o g y t h r o u g h direct e x p e r i e n c e of the unified field of p u r e , selfi n t e r a c t i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s . H o w e v e r , M a h a r i s h i A y u r - V e d also i n c l u d e s n u m e r o u s approaches based on m o r e expressed levels of natural law if and w h e n necessary,

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i n c l u d i n g the restoration of p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a l a n c e at the level of the three prakritis or superfields t h r o u g h the application of p r i m o r d i a l s o u n d s , herbs or m i n e r a l s with the appropriate b a l a n c e of these prakritis. As in m o d e r n science, there are m a n y different levels of structure on w h i c h any o r g a n or tissue can be described and treated: the gross structural level, the m o l e c u l a r or b i o c h e m i c a l level and, in the case of M a h a r i s h i A y u r V e d , increasingly f u n d a m e n t a l levels including the five spin types, the three superfields, and the unified field itself. A c o m p l e t e discussion of the n u m e r o u s applications and a p p r o a c h e s of Maharishi V e d i c S c i e n c e is b e y o n d the scope of this work. However, the spectacular a c h i e v e m e n t s and p r o v e n effectiveness of the V e d i c l a n g u a g e and approach in the field of health alone [22] clearly d e m o n s t r a t e the practical v a l u e of a unified field-based a p p r o a c h a n d t e r m i n o l o g y in w h i c h all o b j e c t s are n a m e d w i t h the actual sounds or vibrations of the field that they c o r r e s p o n d to. S u c h a level of perfection of n o m e n c l a t u r e is w h a t we w o u l d like to achieve for physics. S u c h a s y s t e m will necessarily include the use of V e d i c t e r m s , since these are the actual s o u n d s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the fundamental objects studied b y p h y s i c s . W e h a v e therefore i n c l u d e d these V e d i c S c i e n c e expressions in our graphical presentation of the structure of a unified q u a n t u m field s h o w n in Figure 1. In this section, we h a v e u n d e r s t o o d all the e l e m e n t a r y particles and forces of nature in t e r m s of the unified field. We h a v e explicitly identified all the e l e m e n t a r y particles and forces, a l o n g w i t h the origin of s p a c e itself, with specific vibrational states of the field u s i n g the f r e e - f e r m i o n i c s t r i n g f o r m u l a t i o n . T h e s e e l e m e n t a r y p a r t i c l e s a n d forces, w h i c h c o m p r i s e the five q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l spin types, are s h o w n in relation to t h e unified field in F i g u r e 1, together w i t h their c o r r e s p o n d i n g V e d i c S c i e n c e e x p r e s sions. T h e addition of these V e d i c S c i e n c e n a m e s should p r o v i d e the student of p h y s ics, as w e l l as the a d v a n c e d researcher, w i t h a powerful research m e t h o d o l o g y w h e n these n a m e s are applied via the T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m at the appropriate, unified level of a w a r e n e s s , w h e r e the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n n a m e and form is lively. In addition to the abstract k n o w l e d g e s u c h e x p e r i e n c e p r o v i d e s , the applied, practical v a l u e of these f u n d a m e n t a l fields is o b v i o u s and a u t o m a t i c at that unified level of a w a r e n e s s . * T h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of a c o m p l e t e science and t e c h n o l o g y of the unified field will be further c o n s i d e r e d in S e c t i o n V I .

V. Quantum Cosmology and Vedic Cosmology T h e m o s t o b v i o u s practical expression of the unified field is the universe itself. T h e study of the origin and evolution of the u n i v e r s e is the science of c o s m o l o g y . In this section, we will review the m e c h a n i c s of creation from the unified field and their implications for a unified field-based c o s m o l o g i c a l theory, u s i n g the c o m b i n e d perspectives of m o d e r n science and the V e d i c Science of M a h a r i s h i M a h e s h Y o g i .

*The practical application of the five tanmatras is described in Patanjali ref. [23]. Research has shown a restoration of physiological balance and efficiency [24], improved health and resistance to disease [25], growth of intelligence [26] and creativity [27], improved moral reasoning [28], and many other benefits [29] from the regular practice of the TM-Sidhi program.

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c o n s c i o u s n e s s and its self-interacting d y n a m i c s ; it results from the discriminative (buddhi) nature of c o n s c i o u s n e s s to k n o w itself m o r e and m o r e completely. F r o m this fundam e n t a l perspective, put forth by the V e d a n t a aspect of the V e d i c literature, the m e c h a n ics of creation do not begin w i t h the field of c o n s c i o u s n e s s and p r o c e e d t o w a r d s matter; the entire s e q u e n c e of e x p r e s s i o n is u n d e r s t o o d to occur within the field of consciousness [4]. T h e p r o c e s s of creation simply represents a sequentially m o r e elaborated selfc o m m e n t a r y on the nature of c o n s c i o u s n e s s itself. S i m i l a r l y in p h y s i c s , the entire d y n a m i c s and s e q u e n c e of e x p r e s s i o n s h o w n in F i g ure 1 can be v i e w e d as a sequentially m o r e e x p a n d e d c o m m e n t a r y on the unified field itself. E v e r y stage in the sequential unfoldment of the l a w s of nature from the unified field is an a u t o m a t i c c o n s e q u e n c e of the detailed structure of the unified field and its selfinteracting d y n a m i c s . At no stage in this sequential u n f o l d m e n t is it necessary to introd u c e additional ad hoc postulates and a s s u m p t i o n s : the creative p r o c e s s o c c u r s entirely by itself in a self-sufficient m a n n e r as a s p o n t a n e o u s and inevitable c o n s e q u e n c e of the unified field itself. Herein lies the predictive p o w e r of a unified q u a n t u m field t h e o r y — the entire diversified structure of the l a w s of nature can be derived from the highly c o m pact a n d unified structure of the unified field—provided o n e p o s s e s s e s the analytic tools n e e d e d to unfold its detailed d y n a m i c s . T h i s spontaneous and sequential m e c h a n i c s of creation is s u m m a r i z e d in a verse from the V e d i c literature describing the m e c h a n i c s of speech. Because the individual and the cosm o s are unified at their basis, the individual awareness (atman) and its self-expression through speech is directly parallel to the m e c h a n i c s of creation in nature. This mechanics is analyzed in shiksha [30], on w h i c h Maharishi has offered the following c o m m e n t a r y : Atman buddhi arthan manas vivarta kayagni vayu akasha S p e e c h is an e x p r e s s i o n of atman, the self. Its d e v e l o p m e n t b e g i n s w h e n t h e intellig e n c e aspect of a t m a n , or buddhi, d i s c r i m i n a t e s the self into the k n o w e r , the k n o w n , a n d the p r o c e s s of k n o w i n g . T h e s e three are represented by arthan, w h i c h m e a n s the " o b j e c t s o f b u d d h i . " A l l p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a m o n g t h e s e three, and their associated s h a d e s of m e a n i n g , constitute the d o m a i n of manas, or " m i n d . " T h e four ( a t m a n , b u d dhi, a r t h a n , m a n a s ) are traditionally a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the subjective aspect of e x i s t e n c e . T h e s e are f o l l o w e d by vivarta, w h i c h means "transformation in a p p e a r a n c e . " It d e s c r i b e s the transition from subjectivity to objectivity w h i c h o c c u r s , a c c o r d i n g to M a h a r i s h i , w h e n the subjective i m p u l s e o f t h o u g h t gets translated, t h r o u g h the D N A , into n e u r o p e p t i d e s a n d o t h e r c o m p l e x p r o t e i n s w h i c h c o m p r i s e the b i o c h e m i s t r y o f t h o u g h t [ 4 ] . T h i s transition also r e p r e s e n t s the j u n c t i o n point b e t w e e n the q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c a l and the classical in the structure of the h u m a n p h y s i o l o g y . It is called a "transformation in appearance" because, according to Maharishi V e d i c S c i e n c e , the transition from q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l to classical, or from c o n s c i o u s n e s s to matter, n e v e r really o c c u r s . N a t u r e is n e v e r s e p a r a t e from c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and the e m e r g e n c e of c l a s s i c a l b e h a v i o r is a m a t t e r of a p p e a r a n c e o n l y . T h e classical v i e w p o i n t merely affords a natural a n d c o n v e n i e n t p e r s p e c t i v e o n c e the s y s t e m a c h i e v e s a certain d e g r e e of c o m p l e x i t y , or o n c e m a t t e r b e c o m e s sufficiently precipitated. On the level of the " c o s m i c p h y s i o l o g y , " this a p p a r e n t transition from q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l t o classical

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b e g i n s at the P l a n c k scale, w h e r e the field of gravity d e c o u p l e s from the rest of p h y s ics a n d s p a c e t i m e b e g i n s to display its classical 3 + 1 d i m e n s i o n a l structure. At the s a m e t i m e , the d y n a m i c s o f the superstring b e g i n s t o b e r e p l a c e d b y a n a p p r o x i m a t e , effective l o w - e n e r g y field theory of elementary particles. N e i t h e r of these transformat i o n s are g e n u i n e : the transition from q u a n t u m gravity to classical gravity and from string d y n a m i c s to field theory are "transformations in a p p e a r a n c e " only. N e x t c o m e s kayagni, or "fire of intelligence." O n c e the i m p u l s e of t h o u g h t enters the b i o c h e m i s t r y , it creates ( a l o n g w i t h other physiological c h a n g e s ) a spur to e x h a l e , leading to a m o v e m e n t of air (vayu) and to the p r o d u c t i o n of s o u n d t h r o u g h the v o c a l c h o r d s w h i c h then p r o p a g a t e s through s p a c e (akasha). H e n c e the e m e r g e n c e of the physical e l e m e n t s ( v a y u , etc.) follows the transformation (vivarta) from q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l to classical, just as the five spin t y p e s follow the transition to classical s p a c e t i m e in the structure of a unified q u a n t u m field theory (see Figure 1). Here again, the key point w h i c h e m e r g e s from M a h a r i s h i V e d i c Science description is that the transition from a t m a n to b u d d h i , to arthan, etc., never really occurs. B u d d h i , arthan, m a n a s , etc., all exist within the nature of a t m a n itself. Intelligence is not outside of c o n s c i o u s n e s s : it is the v e r y nature of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . D i s c r i m i n a t i o n b e t w e e n the k n o w e r , the k n o w n , and the p r o c e s s of k n o w i n g is not outside of intelligence, but is the v e r y nature of intelligence. T h e entire sequential m e c h a n i c s of creation exists within the field of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . It is just a sequentially m o r e elaborated c o m m e n t a r y on the nature of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , as intellectually c o n c e i v e d by its o w n discriminative aspect, or b u d d h i . H e n c e the notion of diversity disconnected from unity is a fundamental m i s c o n ception. T h i s m i s c o n c e p t i o n is k n o w n as pragya-aparadh or " m i s t a k e of the intellect" [4]. B e c a u s e it p l a y s an important role in our s u b s e q u e n t c o s m o l o g i c a l discussion and is c o n s i d e r e d so fundamental in M a h a r i s h i orate on this c o n c e p t here. Pragya-aparadh results w h e n , in the m e c h a n i c s of creation from the field of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , the intellect loses sight of the essential unity w h i c h is the true n a t u r e of the self. D u e to an inflexibility in the n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y , s o m e w h e r e in the sequential p r o g r e s s i o n of unity to diversity the e x p e r i e n c e of unity is lost. T h e intellect g e t s c a u g h t up in its o w n creation, i.e., gets o v e r s h a d o w e d by the p e r c e p t i o n of diversity to the e x c l u s i o n of the unity w h i c h is the actual nature of the self b e i n g d i s c r i m i n a t e d . A c c o r d i n g to M a h a r i s h i , this m i s t a k e of the intellect is so f u n d a m e n t a l to the n a t u r e of h u m a n e x p e r i e n c e that it is r e s p o n s i b l e for all p r o b l e m s and suffering in life. P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , this e x p e r i e n c e of a f r a g m e n t e d a n d d i s c o n n e c t e d e x i s t e n c e c a u s e s d i s o r i e n t a t i o n . U n c e r t a i n t y , instability, isolation a n d l i m i t a t i o n s a u t o m a t i c a l l y result w h e n the unified s o u r c e a n d b a s i s o f e x i s t e n c e i s h i d d e n from v i e w . N e u r o p h y s i o l o g i cally, this f r a g m e n t e d s t r u c t u r e of e x p e r i e n c e g i v e s rise to the h i g h l y u n i n t e g r a t e d style o f b r a i n f u n c t i o n i n g k n o w n a s w a k i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s , w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d n o r m a l t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d . P h y s i o l o g i c a l l y , this f r a g m e n t e d state o f p s y c h o l o g y l e a d s , t h r o u g h i m b a l a n c e d t h i n k i n g and its a s s o c i a t e d n e u r o c h e m i s t r y , t o i m b a l a n c e i n the p h y s i o l o g y , l e a d i n g to a d e g r a d a t i o n of the i m m u n e s y s t e m and a r e s u l t i n g s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to n u m e r o u s d i s e a s e s a n d d i s o r d e r s , and to an a c c e l e r a t i o n of b i o l o g i c a l a g i n g . S o c i o l o g i c a l l y , the lack of u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d clear e x p e r i e n c e of the holistic V e d i c S c i e n c e , we will take a m o m e n t to e l a b -

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a n d u n i f i e d b a s i s o f e x i s t e n c e r e s u l t s i n b e h a v i o r w h i c h i s less t h a n h a r m o n i o u s and u n i v e r s a l in its s c o p e . T h i s fragmented structure of k n o w l e d g e and experience is reflected in the current s y s t e m s o f e d u c a t i o n , a s w e l l a s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c a d e m i c disci­ p l i n e s t h e m s e l v e s . O f all t h e d i s c i p l i n e s , o n l y p h y s i c s h a s a c h i e v e d s o m e p a r t i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f its u n i f i e d s o u r c e i n t h e u n i f i e d field, a n d t h i s r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g h a s h a d little i m p a c t o n t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h p h y s i c s i s u n d e r s t o o d a n d taught. The primary purpose of Maharishi V e d i c S c i e n c e a n d its a p p l i e d , experien­ tial t e c h n o l o g i e s is to r e s t o r e a m o r e i n t e g r a t e d state of n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l function­ i n g i n w h i c h all a s p e c t s o f e x p e r i e n c e a r e c l e a r l y c o n n e c t e d t o t h e i r u n i f i e d s o u r c e i n t h e u n i f i e d field o f p u r e , s e l f - i n t e r a c t i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e T r a n s c e n d e n t a l Medita­ t i o n t e c h n i q u e , for e x a m p l e , b y t a k i n g t h e a w a r e n e s s r e p e a t e d l y f r o m t h e l o c a l i z e d c h a n n e l s o f t h o u g h t a n d p e r c e p t i o n t o t h e silent, u n m a n i f e s t s o u r c e o f t h o u g h t , cul­ t u r e s w i t h i n t h e b r a i n p h y s i o l o g y a flexibility w h i c h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c o m p r e h e n d s b o t h s i l e n c e a n d d y n a m i s m — u n b o u n d e d a w a r e n e s s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e l o c a l i z e d boun­ daries of waking, d r e a m i n g and deep sleep states of consciousness. T h e T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m , b y t a k i n g t h e a w a r e n e s s r e p e a t e d l y t h r o u g h t h e fine m e c h a n i c s o f c r e a t i o n f r o m t h e u n i f i e d field, c l e a r l y r e v e a l s all t h e d i v e r s e a s p e c t s o f n a t u r a l l a w a s v a r i o u s m o d e s o f t h e u n i f i e d field. T h i s e x p e r i e n c e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , d e v e l o p s a n i n t e g r a t e d state o f n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n w h i c h all a s p e c t s o f e x p e r i e n c e a r e d i r e c t l y per­ ceived as m o d e s of o n e ' s o w n intelligence. In this expanded state of awareness, the p s y c h o l o g y , p h y s i o l o g y , a n d s o c i a l b e h a v i o r a r e r e s t o r e d t o a n a t u r a l s t a t e o f integra­ tion, h a r m o n y and balance [ 2 4 - 2 9 ] . T h i s quality of experience is s u m m a r i z e d in a verse from the Bhagavad Gita [9], which Maharishi has described as the encapsulated essence of the V e d i c w i s d o m : He whose self is established in unity, whose vision everywhere is even, sees the Self in all beings, and all beings in the Self. T h i s V e d i c c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e u n i v e r s e r e s i d i n g w i t h i n t h e u n i f i e d field, a s o p p o s e d t o e m e r g i n g f r o m it, h a s its c o r r e s p o n d i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d e x p r e s s i o n i n a relatively recent area of physics k n o w n as quantum cosmology. Q u a n t u m cosmology applies the principles of q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c s to the universe as a w h o l e . B e c a u s e the universe incorporates gravity in addition to the other fundamental forces and particles, a p r o p e r t r e a t m e n t o f t h i s s u b j e c t n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e s a u n i f i e d field t h e o r y s u c h a s the superstring, ning to appear. W e h a v e p r e v i o u s l y s e e n , b a s e d o n g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , that t h e v a c u u m state o f a field, or i n d e e d a n y s t a t e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a finite e n e r g y d e n s i t y , m u s t r e p r e s e n t a s i m u l t a n e o u s c o e x i s t e n c e o f m a n y c l a s s i c a l field s h a p e s . I n d e e d , i n A p p e n d i x В w e s h o w that t h e v a c u u m state of a s c a l a r field is g i v e n by a q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l super­ p o s i t i o n o f all p o s s i b l e s h a p e s . T h e v a c u u m state r e p r e s e n t s t h e n a t u r a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t for a n y c o s m o l o g i c a l s t u d y , s i n c e i t i s t h e o n l y stable, u n b o u n d e d , L o r e n t z - i n v a r i a n t s t a t e o f t h e field. L e t u s n o w c o n s i d e r w h a t w o u l d h a p p e n i f t h e unified field, t h r o u g h since without unification the force of gravity is not q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t . T h e first p a p e r s o n s u p e r s t r i n g c o s m o l o g y a r e n o w begin­

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structure of the R i g - V e d S a m h i t a , w h o s e sequential progression of sound and silence* perfectly reflects the m e c h a n i c s of creation itself [4]. Unfortunately, the available translations of the V e d do not m e a n m u c h , since there are no c o r r e s p o n d i n g English w o r d s that capture all the information stored in the V e d i c p h o n e m e s . M a h a r i s h i has, h o w e v e r , p l a c e d considerable e m p h a s i s on the p h o n e t i c analysis of the R i g - V e d [10], and we will therefore briefly s u m m a r i z e the m e c h a n i c s of creation as revealed t h r o u g h a p h o n e t i c analysis of the first w o r d of the R i g - V e d : AGNIM. According to M a h a r i s h i , the letter A represents fullness—the field of all possibilities. Phonetically, it c o r r e s p o n d s to the m o s t w i d e open and least obstructed position in the p h y s i o g n o m y of s p e e c h . It is the first letter in every major p h o n e t i c (or alphabetic) system and is said to include all other s o u n d s , in the sense that its m o d u l a t i o n by the t o n g u e and lips p r o d u c e s all other s o u n d s . T h e letter G represents its e x t r e m e o p p o s i t e — c o m p l e t e e m p t i n e s s or "point v a l u e " of speech. Phonetically it c o r r e s p o n d s to the m o s t closed or fully obstructed v a l u e of speech. T h e c o m b i n a t i o n AG, a c c o r d i n g to M a h a r i s h i , represents the collapse of fullness to a point, w h i c h occurs w h e n c o n s c i o u s n e s s , the field of all possibilities, b e c o m e s aware of its o w n point v a l u e . It is precisely a n a l o g o u s to the collapse of the v a c u u m w a v e functional w h i c h w o u l d occur if the field w e r e to o b s e r v e its o w n a m p l i t u d e (see Figure 4). T h e letter N represents negation, w h i l e the letter I indicates a leading out. T h e c o m b i n a t i o n NI represents a negation of the p o i n t v a l u e followed by a leading out from the point b a c k in the d i r e c t i o n of infinity. In the w o r d s of M a h a r i s h i , " c o n s c i o u s n e s s recoils from its o w n point value, w h i c h represents a highly restricted and h e n c e unnatural state of the a w a r e n e s s . " T h i s is, again, closely a n a l o g o u s to the situation in q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c s , w h e r e the field r e b o u n d s d y n a m i c a l l y from the highly u n n a t u r a l classical shape state (11) w h i c h results from q u a n t u m m e a s u r e m e n t to a g a i n b e c o m e a q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l s u p e r p o s i t i o n of s h a p e s . Finally the M in AGNIM represents c o n t i n u a n c e , and implies that the m e c h a n i c s of creation, o n c e set into m o t i o n by the collapse of infinity, c o n t i n u e s indefinitely, in direct analogy to the situation described by q u a n t u m m e c h a n i c s . T h e r e are several aspects of this c o s m o l o g i c a l m o d e l b a s e d on the collapse of the v a c u u m w a v e functional that require refinement. First, the collapse of the v a c u u m w a v e functional, w e r e it really to h a p p e n , w o u l d require an e n o r m o u s e x p e n d i t u r e of energy, since it t a k e s the field from the v a c u u m state to a highly excited state of the field, and it is not clear w h e r e this energy w o u l d c o m e from. T h i s , by itself, is not sufficient to invalidate the m o d e l , since it is not clear h o w to interpret or enforce e n e r g y conservation at the superunified scale, given the p r e s e n c e of w o r m h o l e s and other nonperturbative quantum-gravitational effects. S e c o n d , there is no evidence in p h y s i c s for the reduction of t h e w a v e function in closed, q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m s with no external, classical o b s e r v e r . In particular, highly sensitive e x p e r i m e n t a l tests of nonlinear corrections to the S h r o d i n g e r equation of the form that c o u l d lead to a reduction of the w a v e packet h a v e found no evidence for s u c h nonlinear behavior. B o t h a r g u m e n t s indicate that an

* Maharishi explains that much of the creative dynamics of nature is contained in the gaps between the Vedic phonemes, i.e., in the sequential mechanics of transformation from one syllable to the next. The mechanics of collapse of sound to silence, the mechanics of transformation within the silence, and the sequential emergence of sound from silence are all essential components of the Vedic Samhita [4].

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actual collapse of the v a c u u m w a v e functional b a s e d on any intrinsic field-theoretic mechanism appears unlikely. It s e e m s m u c h m o r e plausible, from the standpoints of both m o d e r n science and V e d i c S c i e n c e , that the "collapse of infinity" d o e s not constitute an actual collapse of the v a c u u m w a v e functional, but merely represents a shift in attention—from the q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l superposition of all possible field shapes, w h i c h represents the true structure of the q u a n t u m v a c u u m , to one of the infinite n u m b e r of field shapes w h i c h c o m p r i s e this state. O n c e the a w a r e n e s s has b e c o m e localized on a particular value, the s u b s e q u e n t evolution of that state w o u l d appear to follow in precisely the s a m e d y n a m i cal m a n n e r described above. H o w e v e r , due to the s i m u l t a n e o u s coexistence of all such states, each of w h i c h u n d e r g o e s a highly nontrivial time evolution, the overall structure of the v a c u u m r e m a i n s completely u n c h a n g e d and retains its perfectly balanced and s y m metrical structure. T h i s b a s i c notion of a shift in attention m a y p r o v i d e a more useful interpretation of q u a n t u m m e a s u r e m e n t generally. Besides the fact that there is no physical evidence for w a v e function reduction in closed q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l systems, there are other argum e n t s and e x p e r i m e n t s w h i c h suggest that the reduction of the w a v e function m a y be m o r e a matter of perspective than an actual physical event. First, the reduction of the w a v e p a c k e t has been experimentally s h o w n to violate strong causality: i.e., the collapse e x t e n d s to space-like separated c o m p o n e n t s of a q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l system. T h i s m a k e s any physical interpretation of the collapse of the w a v e function as an actual, c a u sal event e x t r e m e l y difficult. S e c o n d , the collapse of the w a v e function has been s h o w n to obey w e a k causality, w h i c h m e a n s that it cannot be used to c o m m u n i c a t e any inform a t i o n . T h u s there is no indication w h a t s o e v e r for a second observer that a collapse has o c c u r r e d as a result of a m e a s u r e m e n t performed by the first observer, w h i c h also s u g gests that the collapse of the w a v e function is a p h e n o m e n o n in c o n s c i o u s n e s s and not a physical event per se. It a p p e a r s to be intimately associated with a fragmented perspective, in w h i c h the q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l system is a s s u m e d to p o s s e s s an objective e x i s tence i n d e p e n d e n t from the system that m e a s u r e s it.* A c c o r d i n g to this e x p a n d e d c o s m o l o g i c a l framework, the true q u a n t u m v a c u u m is s e e n as a s i m u l t a n e o u s coexistence, or q u a n t u m - m e c h a n i c a l superposition, of all possib l e u n i v e r s e s . S o m e of these universes c o r r e s p o n d to deSitter manifolds in a state of e x p o n e n t i a l inflation, w h i l e others are in a state of contraction. We are the inhabitants of one such inflationary universe. As long as our a w a r e n e s s r e m a i n s p e r m a n e n t l y c o n fined w i t h i n the localized b o u n d a r i e s of thought, speech and action, this will be the extent of the reality we k n o w . If, through proper education, our c o m p r e h e n s i o n is e x p a n d e d to include the w a v e function of the universe, we b e c o m e identified w i t h a m u c h greater w h o l e n e s s in w h i c h t i m e and evolution cease, and the eternal, L o r e n t z invariant reality b e c o m e s the d o m i n a n t perception. T h i s is the k n o w l e d g e and experience provided by M a h a r i s h i V e d i c Science. T h e localization of the a w a r e n e s s within b o u n d a r i e s b e c o m e s a matter of conscious c h o i c e — a shift of the attention from infinity to a point. T h e r e is no h a r m in e x p e r i e n c i n g the

*This view has also been expressed recently by J.S. Bell. [31]

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p o i n t — o f enjoying isolated possibilities in the field of all possibilities—provided the e x p e r i e n c e of the w h o l e is maintained. In this highly flexible state of a w a r e n e s s , in w h i c h the parts are enjoyed w h i l e the w h o l e is maintained, there is no c o l l a p s e and no associated loss of w h o l e n e s s . It is the loss of w h o l e n e s s , not the e n j o y m e n t of the parts, w h i c h is k n o w n as p r a g y a - a p a r a d h . It m a k e s o n e a captive of o n e ' s isolated experiences and a victim of c i r c u m s t a n c e s in the e n d l e s s field of c h a n g e . T h e capacity for localized e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h the m a c h i n e r y of the n e r v o u s system is a precious gift, provided s u c h e x p e r i e n c e is not at the e x p e n s e of the u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e x p e r i e n c e of the u n b o u n d e d w h o l e n e s s w h i c h is the true nature of the self. T h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n of dynam i s m and silence, of c h a n g e and n o n c h a n g e , within the integrated structure of h u m a n e x p e r i e n c e , is the natural state of life in e n l i g h t e n m e n t [9]. Silence w i t h o u t d y n a m i s m , or a t m a n w i t h o u t b u d d h i , is existence w i t h o u t intelligence—flat and inert. D y n a m i s m w i t h o u t silence, or b u d d h i w i t h o u t a t m a n , is intelligence w i t h no stable existence, localized and unstable. Both, together, constitute the true nature of c o n s c i o u s n e s s — e t e r n a l l y existing, eternally creating. T h e availability of this integrated structure of k n o w l ed g e and experience will have a p r o f o u n d i m p a c t on q u a n t u m m e a s u r e m e n t and q u a n t u m c o s m o l o g y , for w h i c h a c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n h a s not b e e n a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the f r a g m e n t e d s t r u c t u r e o f ordinary waking experience.

VI. Unified Field Based Civilization In this article, we h a v e presented a n e w u n d e r s t a n d i n g and l a n g u a g e of p h y s i c s based directly on the unified field. We h a v e b a s e d this analysis on the m o s t recent d e v e l o p m e n t s in our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the unified field provided by the superstring and on the v e r y c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e x p e r i e n c e of the unified field p r o v i d e d by M a h a r i s h i V e d i c S c i e n c e and its applied experiential technologies. Our analysis b e g a n w i t h a consideration of the unified field itself, v i e w e d from its o w n level and in t e r m s of its o w n intrinsic p r o p e r t i e s and b e h a v i o r . In Section IV, we e x t e n d e d this analysis to include a s y s t e m a t i c investigation of its f u n d a m e n t a l m o d e s — t h e elementary particles and forces of n a t u r e . U s i n g the latest, four-dimensional string formulation, we explicitly identified all k n o w n particles and forces w i t h specific vibrational states of the field. We p r o p o s e d a n e w , unified field-based l a n g u a g e and t e r m i n o l o g y in w h i c h the particles are n a m e d for the specific vibrational states they c o r r e s p o n d to: periodic, antiperiodic, etc., revealing their rightful place in the internal structure and d y n a m i c s of the unified field. By conn e c t i n g all aspects of p h y s i c s to their unified source in the unified field, the w h o l e of p h y s i c s can be clearly seen in t e r m s of its sequential unfoldment from the unified field, p r o v i d i n g a natural logic and organization to the entire discipline. A l t h o u g h the l a b e l i n g o f t h e s e s t r i n g m o d e s w a s s o m e w h a t c u m b e r s o m e i n t h e f r a m e w o r k p r o v i d e d b y the free-fermionic string formulation, w e found that M a h a r i shi V e d i c S c i e n c e p r o v i d e s a v e r y natural and c o m p a c t s y s t e m of n o m e n c l a t u r e in w h i c h e v e r y e x p r e s s i o n of the unified field is n a m e d w i t h the actual s o u n d or v i b r a t i o n of t h e field w h i c h that object c o r r e s p o n d s t o . T h e s e V e d i c n a m e s also p r o v i d e a p o w e r ful r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y w h e n applied, v i a the T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m , at the appropriate,

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unified level of a w a r e n e s s w h e r e the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n n a m e and form is lively. T h e experiential technologies of V e d i c Science thereby provide k n o w l e d g e t h r o u g h direct e x p e r i e n c e of the m o s t fundamental m e c h a n i c s of n a t u r e ' s functioning. M a n y p h y s i c i s t s will, at first, v i e w the u s e of a subjective m e t h o d o l o g y and a p p r o a c h t o k n o w l e d g e w i t h s k e p t i c i s m . T h i s i s b e c a u s e , historically, there h a s b e e n n o s t a b l e , reliable b a s i s for subjective k n o w l e d g e . H o w e v e r t h e shift a w a y from t h e p u r e l y o b j e c t i v e m e t h o d o l o g i e s of e l e m e n t a r y particle physics to incorporate m o r e s u b j e c t i v e a p p r o a c h e s is inevitable. A l r e a d y particle theorists are forced to rely increasingly on their analytic and intuitive abilities as the principal focus of theoretical p h y s i c s has shifted to the experimentally inaccessible d o m a i n s of grand unification and superunification. A c c o r d i n g to s o m e well-placed estimates, the practical life span of c o n c e i v a ble accelerator technologies is at m o s t o n e or t w o d e c a d e s . T h e historical basis for rejecting a subjective approach is that there has b e e n no stable foundation to c o n s c i o u s experience that could serve as a basis for reliable k n o w l e d g e . H o w e v e r the rediscovery, through V e d i c Science, of a stable g r o u n d state of cons c i o u s n e s s w h i c h is non-variable and completely universal p r o v i d e s a c o m m o n , stable basis for subjective experience. K n o w l e d g e gained on this basis has b e e n found to be reliable, repeatable, and open to verification at any time by a n y o n e w i t h appropriate training in the relevant experiential p r o c e d u r e s [32,33]. T h e rediscovery of this stable foundation to c o n s c i o u s experience thereby eliminates the historical g r o u n d s for rejecting a subjective approach to k n o w l e d g e . D u r i n g the past twenty years, a large b o d y of p u b l i s h e d scientific evidence has g r o w n to support the efficacy and effectiveness of this subjective a p p r o a c h [ 1 2 - 1 4 , 2 2 , 2 4 - 2 9 , A 1 - A 1 5 ] . To continue to resist this a p p r o a c h in the face of this evidence simply b e c a u s e it stretches the prevailing w o r l d - v i e w m u s t be r e g a r d e d as highly unscientific. S c i e n c e is m e a n t to be beneficial to life. E v e r y step of p r o g r e s s in our scientific u n d e r s t a n d i n g of natural law has found its practical application in a c o r r e s p o n d i n g level o f t e c h n o l o g y : c h e m i c a l , e l e c t r o n i c , n u c l e a r , e t c . T h e s e practical t e c h n o l o g i e s h a v e b r o u g h t great comfort and c o n v e n i e n c e to m a n y areas of life in society. H o w e v e r , the t e c h n o l o g i c a l application of specific, isolated l a w s of nature based on a partial a n d fragm e n t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of natural law h a s resulted in p s y c h o l o g i c a l , sociological, and e c o l o g i c a l i m b a l a n c e , and has e v e n threatened m a n k i n d w i t h annihilation. T h e c o n t i n u e d p r o g r e s s of society n o w d e m a n d s the practical utilization of a level of n a t u r e ' s funct i o n i n g w h i c h is at o n c e m o r e powerful and m o r e h o l i s t i c — a t e c h n o l o g y b a s e d on the total p o t e n t i a l of natural law available in the unified field. T h e practical application of this m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l and profound k n o w l e d g e of natural law has already d e m o n s t r a t e d its c a p a c i t y to create a quality of life [ 2 2 , 2 4 - 2 9 ] and civilization [ A 1 - A 1 5 ] w h i c h w a s not possible based upon prior levels of scientific knowledge. T h r o u g h the k n o w l e d g e and t e c h n o l o g i e s of M a h a r i s h i V e d i c S c i e n c e , e v e r y aspect of life b e c o m e s profoundly unified field-based: the m i n d , b o d y and b e h a v i o r r e m a i n p r o foundly c o n n e c t e d to their unified source in the unified field of p u r e , self-interacting c o n s c i o u s n e s s . W i t h the elimination of pragya-aparadh, the physiological and n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l functioning b e c o m e s integrated and balanced [24]. T h e i m m u n e s y s t e m and other h o m e o s t a t i c m e c h a n i s m s b e c o m e s p o n t a n e o u s l y capable of resisting any

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p h y s i o l o g i c a l i m b a l a n c e or disorder, creating a natural state of health and w e l l - b e i n g [ 2 2 ] . In contrast, m o d e r n m e d i c i n e , w h i c h relies on increasingly exotic and expensive c u r e s , has led to a crisis in health care, w i t h spiraling m e d i c a l expenditures in the U . S . of over $500 billion annually, of which an estimated $125 billion is wasted on u n p r o v e n and/or ineffective treatments [ 3 4 ] . M a n y of these e x p e n s i v e and highly intrusive treatments, such as coronary b y p a s s surgery, h a v e no statistical effect on the future history of the disease [35]. In addition, the p o i s o n o u s side effects of allopathic d r u g s are often m o r e d a n g e r o u s and far-reaching than the diseases they are intended to cure [36]. T h e w i d e s p r e a d u s e o f s o m e o f these m e d i c i n e s , such a s antibiotics, has l e d t o the emerg e n c e of a w h o l e n e w generation of drug-resistant diseases, w h i c h thrive in highly sanitized hospital e n v i r o n m e n t s . Up to 3 6 % of hospitalized patients contract iatrogenic dise a s e s (diseases c a u s e d by the side effects of m o d e r n m e d i c i n e ) , w h i c h h a v e b e e n s h o w n to contribute to m a n y m o r e deaths than A I D S and other diseases at the forefront of p u b lic c o n c e r n [37]. M a h a r i s h i A y u r - V e d , w h i c h is based primarily on prevention and, w h e n n e c e s s a r y , natural and effective c u r e s that are completely free of negative side effects [ 2 2 ] , p r o v i d e s a m o r e h u m a n e and effective health care system, w h i c h is also affordable for the m a n y countries for w h i c h allopathic m e d i c i n e is completely inaccessible. In the field of education, M a h a r i s h i V e d i c S c i e n c e h a s given birth to a highly i n n o v a t i v e , integrated, and successful a p p r o a c h in w h i c h every aspect of every discipline is p r o f o u n d l y linked to its unified source in the unified field. All a c a d e m i c disciplines h a v e their ultimate origin in the d y n a m i c s of h u m a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and the s y s t e m a t i c unders t a n d i n g of the d y n a m i c s of intelligence p r o v i d e d by V e d i c Science thereby p r o v i d e s a natural and m u c h - n e e d e d interdisciplinary foundation for education [38]. T h r o u g h the introduction of unified field charts described in Section I, every aspect of each a c a d e m i c discipline is clearly located w i t h i n the structure of the w h o l e discipline, and the entire discipline is s h o w n sequentially e m e r g i n g from its unified source in the unified field— i.e., t h e p u r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the artist, the pure intelligence of the m a t h e m a t i c i a n , or the heterotic superstring in the l a n g u a g e of p h y s i c s . T h i s m e t h o d of presentation a c h i e v e s its full significance w i t h the introduction of the T r a n s c e n d e n t a l M e d i t a t i o n and T M - S i d h i programs, in w h i c h all streams of k n o w l e d g e are directly e x p e r i e n c e d as m o d e s of o n e ' s o w n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . In this w a y , as students gain k n o w l e d g e of the different disciplines, they automatically a w a k e n m o r e and m o r e to the reality of the creative p o t e n tial of their o w n intelligence, realizing that all fields of k n o w l e d g e are just different e x p r e s s i o n s of their o w n intelligence [ 3 8 ] . In addition, w h i l e the students are g a i n i n g intellectual k n o w l e d g e of the l a w s of nature they are simultaneously g r o w i n g in the ability to act s p o n t a n e o u s l y in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the l a w s of nature: i.e., to not m a k e m i s t a k e s that create the g r o u n d for p r o b l e m s and suffering in their o w n lives or in the life of society. T h i s quality of s p o n t a n e o u s right action [8] is the a u t o m a t i c result of a p r o p e r l y functioning brain p h y s i o l o g y , in w h i c h the unified field of all the l a w s of nature is fully lively in the c o n s c i o u s a w a r e n e s s [28]. T h i s integrated s y s t e m of e d u c a tion, w h i c h c o m b i n e s intellectual u n d e r s t a n d i n g of natural l a w w i t h the direct e x p e r i e n c e of the m o s t fundamental d y n a m i c s of natural l a w in c o n s c i o u s n e s s , has b e e n s h o w n to d e v e l o p the intelligence [26] and creativity [27] of the student, w h e r e a s c o n v e n t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n h a s no impact on basic tests of intelligence or creativity.

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I n t h e field o f b e h a v i o r , M a h a r i s h i e x p l a i n s [8,9] that t h e d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h V e d i c S c i e n c e of a c o m p l e t e l y unified and u n i v e r s a l state of a w a r e n e s s s p o n t a n e o u s l y results in a q u a l i t y of activity w h i c h is n o u r i s h i n g a n d life-supporting for the w h o l e e n v i r o n m e n t . W h e n , t h r o u g h t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of pragya-aparadh, " a l l b e i n g s are s e e n in t h e Self a n d t h e Self in all b e i n g s , " o n e b e h a v e s t o w a r d s oneself and o n e ' s e n v i r o n m e n t in a com­ p l e t e l y h a r m o n i o u s a n d e v o l u t i o n a r y w a y . Short-sighted a n d harmful b e h a v i o r t o w a r d s o t h e r s o r o n e ' s e n v i r o n m e n t i s highly u n n a t u r a l i n that e x p a n d e d state o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n . In a s o c i o l o g i c a l setting, e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h h a s s h o w n that the collective p r a c t i c e of the a d v a n c e d T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m p r o d u c e s a n influence o f h a r m o n y and c o h e r e n c e t h a t e x t e n d s to s o c i e t y as a w h o l e [ А 1 - А 1 5 ] . T h e s e e x t e n d e d , field effects of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , k n o w n as the Maharishi Effect, h a v e b e e n s h o w n to r e d u c e c r i m e , v i o l e n c e , hostility, a n d w a r in r e c a l c i t r a n t a r e a s w h e r e political a n d n e g o t i a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s h a v e historically d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e i r inability to do so.* T h e s e effects result from collective functioning at m o r e funda­ m e n t a l a n d u n i v e r s a l levels of a w a r e n e s s , a n d t h u s far p r o v i d e the m o s t s p e c t a c u l a r exper­ i m e n t a l c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l identity b e t w e e n p u r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d t h e uni­ fied field, a n d of the k n o w l e d g e and a p p l i e d t e c h n o l o g i e s of M a h a r i s h i V e d i c Science.

It is a f o r t u n a t e fact that the utilization of n a t u r a l l a w is often easier t h a n t h e intellec­ t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f n a t u r a l law. T h e p r o f o u n d p r a c t i c a l benefits t o the i n d i v i d u a l a n d s o c i e t y o f t h e k n o w l e d g e a n d t e c h n o l o g i e s o f V e d i c S c i e n c e are n o t g a i n e d o n t h e b a s i s of i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . It is t h e direct e x p e r i e n c e of m o r e unified a n d h o l i s t i c lev­ e l s o f n a t u r a l l a w i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h p r o d u c e s t h e d e s i r e d p h y s i o l o g i c a l , psycholog­ ical a n d s o c i o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s . T h e s e p r a c t i c a l benefits arise l o n g before a d e t a i l e d intel­ l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s t r u c t u r e a n d d y n a m i c s of t h e unified field is g a i n e d t h r o u g h s u c h e x p e r i e n c e . V e r y q u i c k l y , t h e b r a i n p h y s i o l o g y b e c o m e s a c c u s t o m e d t o maintain­ i n g p u r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a n d a m o r e i n t e g r a t e d a n d b a l a n c e d state o f n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l functioning is permanently sustained [24]. T h e restoration of physiological balance and efficiency, improved health and resistance to disease, and harmonious and lifes u p p o r t i n g s o c i a l b e h a v i o r are t h e s p o n t a n e o u s r e s u l t s o f t h i s direct e x p e r i e n c e and its associated physiological correlates [24-29]. T h u s , t h e intellectual u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f n a t u r a l l a w i s q u i t e distinct f r o m t h e spontane­ o u s u t i l i z a t i o n of n a t u r a l l a w in d a i l y l i v i n g . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e f o r m e r is n o t a pre­ r e q u i s i t e for t h e latter. In t h e s p o n t a n e o u s m e c h a n i c s of d e s i r i n g , for e x a m p l e , a s i m p l e mental impulse automatically activates dozens, if not hundreds, of laws of nature. T h r o u g h t h e d e s i r e t o o p e n a w i n d o w , for e x a m p l e , t h e m u s c l e s m o v e a n d t h e b o d y rises a n d w a l k s t o w a r d t h e w i n d o w , g u i d e d b y t h e s e n s e o f sight a n d t o u c h . E v e n a c h i l d w i t h n o i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the l a w s o f n a t u r e k n o w s h o w t o rise a n d m o v e t h r o u g h t h i s s i m p l e a n d s p o n t a n e o u s m e c h a n i c s o f d e s i r i n g . T h i s n a t u r a l ability t o utilize n a t u r a l l a w s p o n t a n e o u s l y i s built i n t o the h a r d w a r e o f t h e h u m a n b r a i n p h y s i o l o g y . T h e think­ ing process has therefore been c o m p a r e d to an automated switchboard, spontaneously a c t i v a t i n g a n d o r g a n i z i n g t h e l a w s of n a t u r e in a c o o r d i n a t e d w a y for t h e fulfillment of a n y specific d e s i r e . Maharishi explains that the range of natural law w h i c h is spontaneously utilized by

* See Appendix A on field effects of consciousness.

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the m i n d d e p e n d s on the natural range of o n e ' s c o m p r e h e n s i o n — t h e degree of alertness at m o r e fundamental levels of n a t u r e ' s functioning [8]. D e s i r i n g from the transcendental level, the level of the unified field, s p o n t a n e o u s l y m a k e s use of the entire range of natural law [9]. D u r i n g the T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m , for e x a m p l e , an impulse of thought p r o j e c t e d from the unified field of p u r e , self-interacting c o n s c i o u s n e s s m o b i l i z e s the total potential of natural law, a c c o m p l i s h i n g the desired result with m a x i m u m efficiency and the least e x p e n d i t u r e of energy [4]. W h e n individual a w a r e n e s s functions from the s a m e , unified and holistic level from w h i c h nature c o n d u c t s the evolution of the entire univ e r s e , the fulfillment of desire b e c o m e s a s p o n t a n e o u s and inevitable p h e n o m e n o n [9]. T h i s s p o n t a n e o u s ability to use natural l a w in a coordinated m a n n e r is already p r o g r a m m e d into the h a r d w a r e of the h u m a n brain physiology. Its utilization simply d e p e n d s on the range of natural law that is lively in the a w a r e n e s s . T h e s p o n t a n e o u s use of natural law to enrich all aspects of life in society is therefore easier, as well as m o r e important, than intellectual understanding of natural l a w . It is not, after all, the intellectual u n d e r s t a n d i n g of natural law that m a k e s natural l a w a living reality in daily life. It is the e x p a n s i o n of the conscious awareness to incorporate m o r e profound and unified levels of natural law by taking the a w a r e n e s s repeatedly to m o r e fundamental and universal levels of consciousness that m a k e s natural l a w a living reality. T h e r e will continue to evolve i n n u m e r a b l e theories of natural l a w and the unified field put forth by all the a c a d e m i c disciplines as they gain an understanding and appreciation of their unified source in the unified field, w h i c h forms the ultimate origin and foundation of every discipline. E v e n within the discipline of physics, there will be m a n y different formulations of the unified field, e.g., vibrating strings in 26, 10 or fewer s p a c e t i m e d i m e n s i o n s , 1 + 1 dimensional conformal field theories, piadic n u m b e r s , etc. All of these different v i e w p o i n t s are correct, and merely provide different, c o m p l e m e n t a r y v i e w p o i n t s of the s a m e , basic underlying reality. There is no harm in this intellectual inquiry, p r o v i d e d it does not preclude the direct utilization and practical application of the unified field n o w , while the fully developed, applied technologies of the unified field are available t h r o u g h Maharishi V e d i c S c i e n c e . W i t h o u t this simple, practical t e c h n o l o g y to utilize the unified field spontaneously on the level of o n e ' s conscious a w a r e n e s s , this m o s t c o m p l e t e and profound k n o w l e d g e of natural law w o u l d remain divorced from p r a c tical life and living, and even the scientists w o u l d remain intellectual w i t n e s s e s to the reality of the unified field. It is this s p o n t a n e o u s and direct utilization of the unified field to enrich all aspects of life w h i c h will m a k e civilization unified field-based. T h i s s p o n t a n e o u s and direct practical application of the unified field to enrich all a s p e c t s of life contrasts w i t h the p r e v i o u s application, t h r o u g h t e c h n o l o g y , of specific, isolated l a w s of nature based on the intellectual u n d e r s t a n d i n g of those l a w s . It w a s this scientific u n d e r s t a n d i n g of specific l a w s of nature and their t e c h n o l o g i c a l application w h i c h laid the foundation for the industrial revolution, in w h i c h m o r e and m o r e rapid d e v e l o p m e n t b e c a m e p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f increasingly sophisticated m a c h i n e s and t e c h n o l o g i e s . T h e industrial r e v o l u t i o n has, h o w e v e r , led to a highly m a c h i n e d e p e n d e n t civilization, to a d e g r e e that h a s r o b b e d life of s o m e of its natural selfsufficiency and dignity. In contrast, the v e r y c o m p l e t e science and practical t e c h n o l o gies of the unified field m a d e possible t h r o u g h the subjective a p p r o a c h of M a h a r i s h i

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V e d i c S c i e n c e a l l o w s the s p o n t a n e o u s utilization of the total potential of natural l a w to e n r i c h all a s p e c t s of life in a c o m p l e t e l y b a l a n c e d and holistic w a y , and p r o v i d e s the m e a n s to a c c o m p l i s h a n y t h i n g t h r o u g h the simple and s p o n t a n e o u s m e c h a n i c s of desiri n g [ 7 , 8 ] . T h i s s u p r e m e level of fulfillment and self-sufficiency b a s e d on the s p o n t a n e o u s utilization of the total potential of natural law, as o p p o s e d to the t e c h n o l o g i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of specific, isolated l a w s of nature, lays the foundation for a post-industrial r e v o l u t i o n to a unified field-based c i v i l i z a t i o n — a civilization b a s e d on the c o m p l e t e k n o w l e d g e and practical application of the unified field of all the l a w s of nature. T h e practical applications of this c o m p l e t e science and t e c h n o l o g y of the unified field to health [ 2 2 ] , e d u c a t i o n [ 2 6 - 2 9 ] , rehabilitation [39] and w o r l d p e a c e [ A 1 - A 1 5 ] h a v e a l r e a d y d e m o n s t r a t e d their capacity to p r o d u c e a quality of life and civilization w h i c h is far b e y o n d that w h i c h is attainable t h r o u g h the objective a p p r o a c h of m o d e r n science a l o n e . To resist s u c h an a p p r o a c h d u e to its subjective m e t h o d o l o g y is therefore not o n l y unscientific, but i n h u m a n e . Fortunately, the empirical approach of m o d e r n science is w e l l equipped to distinguish b e t w e e n fact and fancy, and to evaluate objectively the effectiveness of any a p p r o a c h t h r o u g h its o w n empirical m e a n s of investigation. O n e is therefore optimistic that, in t i m e , m o r e and m o r e scientists will be d r a w n to investigate this subjective a p p r o a c h of V e d i c S c i e n c e and the profound k n o w l e d g e and practical technologies it p r o v i d e s . W i t h the c o m p l e t e k n o w l e d g e of the unified field and its self-interacting d y n a m i c s p r o v i d e d by Maharishi V e d i c Science, m o d e r n p h y s i c s will achieve a level of fulfillment that is u n a t t a i n a b l e t h r o u g h its present, limited objective m e t h o d o l o g i e s . In the p r o c e s s it will raise the quality of life in society to a level of dignity and s u p r e m e fulfillment that is u n p a r a l l e d in the annals of recorded h i s t o r y — a unified field-based civilization enjoying H e a v e n on Earth.

Acknowledgements I w o u l d like to e x p r e s s my sincere gratitude to Maharishi M a h e s h Y o g i for the u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h led to this w o r k . E v e r y t h i n g I k n o w about c o n s c i o u s n e s s and its self-interacting d y n a m i c s , and about V e d i c Science, is d u e directly to M a h a r i s h i or to the experiential technologies of his V e d i c S c i e n c e . I w o u l d also like to thank C. B e c h , J. D a v i e s , M. Dillbeck, T. E g e n e s , A. H a n k e y , R. Ticciati and G. W e l l s for valuable discussions. T h i s w o r k w a s supported in part by a p r i v a t e grant from J o h n Lloyd.

Appendix A: Field Effects of C o n s c i o u s n e s s At present, the m o s t striking empirical e v i d e n c e in support of a unified field-theoretic description of c o n s c i o u s n e s s is the M a h a r i s h i Effect, w h i c h refers to e x t e n d e d field effects of c o n s c i o u s n e s s p r o d u c e d by the collective practice of the T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m . O v e r thirty c o n s e c u t i v e studies provide powerful e v i d e n c e that the g r o u p practice of the T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m by as few as the square root of o n e percent of a population c a n reduce

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political violence, crime, and other manifestations of societal incoherence. T h e s e studies e m p l o y standard sociological m e a s u r e s to assess the influence of g r o u p s of experts collectively practicing the T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m on a s u r r o u n d i n g population. Historical Development In 1960, Maharishi predicted that one percent of a population practicing the TM technique w o u l d produce measurable i m p r o v e m e n t s in the quality of life for the w h o l e population. T h e first study designed to test this prediction [ A l ] analyzed crime rate c h a n g e in 22 U . S . cities (population > 25,000) from 1 9 7 2 - 1 9 7 3 . Crime rates decreased in the 11 cities w i t h one percent of the population practicing the TM technique, while crime rates in the m a t c h e d control cities continued to rise. A more extensive study [A2] analyzed crime rate trends in 48 U . S . cities (population > 10,000) over the e l e v e n - y e a r period from 1 9 6 7 1 9 7 7 . T h i s included all independent cities in this population range with one percent of the population instructed in the TM p r o g r a m . Crime rates decreased significantly in the 24 " o n e p e r c e n t " cities c o m p a r e d with their o w n previous trends and c o m p a r e d with 24 m a t c h e d control cities over the same period. Subsequent replications have analyzed crime rate trends in 160 cities and 80 metropolitan areas in the U . S . using increasingly powerful design and analysis techniques [ A 2 ] , and have further demonstrated M a h a r i s h i ' s prediction that participation in the TM p r o g r a m w o u l d lead to a reduction in crime rate trends. W i t h the introduction of the m o r e a d v a n c e d T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m in 1976, M a h a r i s h i anticipated a m o r e powerful influence of coherence in the collective c o n s c i o u s n e s s of society. He s u b s e q u e n t l y predicted that the g r o u p practice of the T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m by as few as the s q u a r e root of o n e percent of a population w o u l d have a d e m o n s t r a b l e effect on standard sociological measures.* T h e relatively small n u m b e r of participants practicing the T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m predicted to g e n e r a t e this effect of societal c o h e r e n c e has m a d e it possible for m a n y direct e x p e r i m e n t a l studies to be performed, in w h i c h the necessary n u m b e r of participants c o m e together on c o u r s e s in various locations for periods of time r a n g i n g from o n e w e e k to several m o n t h s . M o s t of these studies, including research at the metropolitan, state, national and international scales, h a v e used time series analysis to reliably estim a t e e x p e r i m e n t a l effects independent of cycles and trends in time series data. T h i s type of research design, called an e x p e r i m e n t a l intervention study, constitutes a u n i q u e and r i g o r o u s a p p r o a c h for the social sciences. T i m e Series Analysis T h e effects of the TM and T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m s on quality of life indices are usually assessed w i t h time series analysis using the autoregressive integrated m o v i n g average ( A R I M A ) a p p r o a c h of B o x and J e n k i n s [ A 3 ] . (A t i m e series is a s e q u e n c e of equallys p a c e d m e a s u r e s on s o m e variable, e.g., m o n t h l y c r i m e rate.) T h i s m e t h o d o l o g y has b e c o m e the standard for rigorously estimating the effects of an outside intervention on a t i m e series or for empirically d e t e r m i n i n g the form of causal relationship b e t w e e n t w o

* This prediction is based on a field-theoretic model which assumes a coherent superposition of amplitudes, such that the intensity of the effect generated is proportional to the square of the number of participants.

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c o n t i n u o u s t i m e series [ А 4 ] . T i m e series " i n t e r v e n t i o n a n a l y s i s " i s u s e d t o assess effects o f h y p o t h e s i z e d influences d u r i n g specific t i m e p e r i o d s (e.g., w h e n t h e n u m b e r o f T M S i d h i p a r t i c i p a n t s e x c e e d s a certain critical t h r e s h o l d ) . T i m e series " t r a n s f e r function a n a l y s i s " is u s e d to m o d e l the i n p u t - o u t p u t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a c o n t i n u o u s indepen­ d e n t e x o g e n o u s va r i a b l e (e.g., t h e daily n u m b e r o f T M - S i d h i p a r t i c i p a n t s ) a n d t h e depen­ d e n t o r e n d o g e n o u s va r i a b l e ( a social i n d i c a t o r s u c h a s c r i m e r a t e ) . W i t h b o t h m e t h o d s , t h e t i m e series a p p r o a c h c o n t r o l s for any serial d e p e n d e n c e o f o b s e r v a t i o n s , t r e n d s , o r s e a s o n a l c y c l e s i n t h e d a t a o v e r t i m e b y i n c l u d i n g t h e s e influ­ e n c e s in a " n o i s e m o d e l " of t h e series [ А 4 ] . T h a t is, as part of t h e t i m e s e r i e s a n a l y s i s a m a t h e m a t i c a l m o d e l of t h e t i m e - d e p e n d e n t r e g u l a r i t i e s in t h e e n d o g e n o u s s e r i e s is c o n s t r u c t e d , a n d this m o d e l will a c c o u n t for, and therefore c o n t r o l for, p a t t e r n s in t h e e n d o g e n o u s t i m e series that c a n b e p r e d i c t e d from its o w n past history. T h e n o i s e m o d e l t h u s s e r v e s e s s e n t i a l l y as a " n u l l h y p o t h e s i s " for effects of t h e e x o g e n o u s varia­ b l e . * A n y i n t e r v e n t i o n effects o r transfer function effects o n t h e e n d o g e n o u s v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t e effects of t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e that c a n n o t be p r e d i c t e d either f r o m t h e pre­ v i o u s history o f t h e s e r i e s o r from any u n m e a s u r e d c o n t i n u o u s v a r i a b l e s that m a y b e p a r t i a l l y d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e n d o g e n o u s v a r i a b l e . T h e s e t i m e series m e t h o d s h a v e p r o v e n t o b e ideal for a s s e s s i n g t h e effects o f t h e g r o u p p r a c t i c e o f t h e T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m u p o n sociological indicators. Recent Intervention Studies W i t h i n t h e past few years, there h a v e b e e n a n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s u s i n g t i m e series i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d transfer function analysis to assess t h e effects of t h e g r o u p p r a c t i c e of t h e T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m at t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n , state, n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l scales. At t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n and state levels, time series intervention studies found r e d u c e d c r i m e in M e t r o M a n i l a , Philippines, in N e w D e l h i , India, and in P u e r t o R i c o d u r i n g peri­ o d s in w h i c h large g r o u p s h a d assembled for conferences involving twice daily p r a c t i c e of t h e T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m [ А 5 ] . T i m e series transfer function analysis similarly found a r e d u c t i o n in violent c r i m e in W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , in w e e k s following an inc rease in t h e s i z e of a p e r m a n e n t g r o u p of T M - S i d h i participants [ А 6 ] . O t h e r intervention s t u d i e s in M e t r o M a n i l a and i n R h o d e I s l a n d f o u n d i m p r o v e m e n t s i n holistic i n d i c e s o f t h e quality

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of life c o m p o s e d of available m o n t h l y social i n d i c a t o r s d u r i n g p e r i o d s of a s s e m b l i e s of large groups of TM-Sidhi participants [А5]. T h e m o s t w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d a n a l y s e s a t t h e n a t i o n a l level h a v e b e e n i n t h e U . S . , w h e r e a p e r m a n e n t large g r o u p of p a r t i c i p a n t s in the T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m h a s b e e n estab­ lished a t M a h a r i s h i I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y ( M I U ) . T h e size o f this g r o u p h a s e x c e e d e d the s q u a r e root of o n e p e r c e n t of the U . S . p o p u l a t i o n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s since 1 9 8 2 . An a n a l y s i s of a n n u a l c h a n g e s in a quality of life i n d e x c o m p r i s i n g 11 major v a r i a b l e s s h o w e d a significant i m p r o v e m e n t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e size of t h e g r o u p of T M - S i d h i p a r t i c i p a n t s [ А 7 ] . M o r e d e t a i l e d a n a l y s e s o f the U . S . quality o f life u s i n g t i m e series i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d transfer function a n a l y s i s d u r i n g 1 9 7 9 - 1 9 8 5 f o u n d r e d u c e d w e e k l y fatalities d u e t o v i o l e n c e ( h o m i c i d e s , s u i c i d e s , and m o t o r v e h i c l e a c c i d e n t s ) o n w e e k s i m m e d i a t e l y after t h e size o f t h e M I U T M - S i d h i g r o u p e x c e e d e d t h e s q u a r e r o o t o f o n e p e r c e n t o f t h e U . S . p o p u l a t i o n [ А 8 ] . T h i s a n a l y s i s s h o w e d that t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e o b s e r v e d d e c r e a s e in U . S . v i o l e n t fatalities from 1 9 7 9 to 1985 c o u l d be directly attrib­ u t e d t o t h e g r o u p p r a c t i c e o f t h e T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m . R e d u c e d v i o l e n t d e a t h s w e r e also f o u n d i n C a n a d a w h e n t h e size o f t h e M I U g r o u p e x c e e d e d the s q u a r e root o f o n e p e r c e n t o f t h e c o m b i n e d p o p u l a t i o n s o f t h e U . S . a n d C a n a d a [ А 9 ] . I n a d d i t i o n , t i m e series inter­ v e n t i o n a n a l y s i s o f m o n t h l y U . S . a n d C a n a d i a n e c o n o m i c t r e n d s ( a " m i s e r y " i n d e x com­ b i n i n g inflation a n d u n e m p l o y m e n t ) s h o w e d i m p r o v e d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s i n m o n t h s i m m e d i a t e l y after t h e n u m b e r o f p a r t i c i p a n t s e x c e e d e d t h e r e q u i r e d n u m b e r ( 1 6 0 0 ) for t h e population of the U.S. and Canada [А10]. T h e r e have been three assemblies in which the number of TM-Sidhi participants a p p r o a c h e d o r e x c e e d e d the s q u a r e root o f o n e p e r c e n t o f the w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n — a b o u t 7 0 0 0 i n d i v i d u a l s . D u r i n g e a c h of these a s s e m b l i e s , there w a s a significant r e d u c t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l conflict, as i n d i c a t e d by t i m e series i n t e r v e n t i o n a n a l y s i s of n e w s e v e n t s [ A l l ] . T h e t i m e series o f n e w s e v e n t s w a s c r e a t e d from c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s (rating o f n e w s i t e m s ) o f m a j o r n e w s p a p e r s b y raters w h o w e r e u n a w a r e o f the d a t e s o f t h e n e w s i t e m s b e i n g rated. T i m e series a n a l y s i s also i n d i c a t e d a significant r e d u c t i o n in fatalities and injuries d u e t o t e r r o r i s m d u r i n g and i m m e d i a t e l y after t h e p e r i o d o f t h e s e a s s e m b l i e s ; data on terrorism w a s collected by an independent agency [ A l l ] . R e d u c t i o n o f V i o l e n c e i n t h e M i d d l e E a s t t h r o u g h t h e M a h a r i s h i Effect O n e e s p e c i a l l y critical e x p e r i m e n t a l test o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s that t h e g r o u p p r a c t i c e o f t h e T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m by t h e s q u a r e root of o n e p e r c e n t of a p o p u l a t i o n w o u l d posi­ tively affect s o c i o l o g i c a l m e a s u r e s w a s c o n d u c t e d in Israel in A u g u s t and S e p t e m b e r of 1 9 8 3 [ А 1 2 ] . B a s e d o n t h e results o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i m e n t s , the r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s and t h e specific m e a s u r e s t o b e u s e d i n the s t u d y w e r e l o d g e d i n a d v a n c e o f the e x p e r i m e n t w i t h an i n d e p e n d e n t r e v i e w b o a r d of scientists in the U . S . and Israel. I t w a s p r e d i c t e d that g r o u p p r a c t i c e o f the T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m i n J e r u s a l e m w o u l d r e d u c e stress i n t h e c o l l e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f Israel and L e b a n o n . B o x - J e n k i n s A R I M A i n t e r v e n t i o n , c r o s s c o r r e l a t i o n , a n d transfer function a n a l y s e s w e r e u s e d t o s t u d y t h e effects of c h a n g e s in t h e size of t h e g r o u p on several v a r i a b l e s and c o m p o s i t e indices reflecting t h e quality of life in J e r u s a l e m a n d Israel, and also t h e w a r in L e b a n o n . F i g u r e 5 s h o w s a s t r i k i n g c o v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n the size of the g r o u p of T M - S i d h i par­ t i c i p a n t s ( d o t t e d line) and a c o m p o s i t e i n d e x of quality of life that w a s the a r i t h m e t i c

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Figure 5. This figure illustrates the covariation between the number of TM-Sidhi participants (dashes) and a composite index of quality of life in a study conducted in Israel during August and September of 1983. The composite index was the arithmetic average of standardized scores for crime rate, traffic accidents, fires, stock market, national mood, and the number of war deaths as a measure of war intensity in Lebanon. The sociological parameters employed in this study were lodged in advance of the experiment with an independent review board of scientists in the United States and Israel. (Figure courtesy of D. Orme-Johnson.)

a v e r a g e of s t a n d a r d i z e d s c o r e s for c r i m e rate, traffic a c c i d e n t s , fires, stock m a r k e t , n a t i o n a l m o o d , a n d the n u m b e r of w a r d e a t h s as a m e a s u r e of w a r intensity in L e b a n o n . I n c r e a s e s in t h e size of t h e g r o u p h a d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t effect on t h e indi­ v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s a n d o n t h e c o m p o s i t e quality-of-life i n d e x . C r o s s c o r r e l a t i o n s a n d transfer functions indicated that the group had a leading relationship to change on the quality-of-life i n d i c a t o r s , s u p p o r t i n g a c a u s a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h e r e w a s a 3 4 % reduc­ t i o n i n w a r i n t e n s i t y a n d a 7 6 % r e d u c t i o n i n w a r d e a t h s d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f h i g h num­ b e r s o f T M - S i d h i p a r t i c i p a n t s . T i m e s e r i e s a n a l y s i s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e effect c o u l d n o t b e a t t r i b u t e d t o s e a s o n a l i t y ( s u c h a s w e e k e n d effects o r h o l i d a y s ) o r t o c h a n g e s i n temperature. T h e h y p o t h e s i s that t h e influence o c c u r s on a f u n d a m e n t a l a n d holistic level of n a t u r e is s u p p o r t e d by t h e fact that t h e a r i t h m e t i c a v e r a g e of the different m e a s u r e s p r o d u c e d t h e clearest results a n d by t h e o b s e r v a t i o n that the different s o c i o l o g i c a l m e a s u r e s t e n d e d to c h a n g e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f e a c h o t h e r w h e n t h e g r o u p size w a s small, b u t all c h a n g e d c o h e r e n t l y in a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n as the g r o u p size w a s i n c r e a s e d . A s u b s e q u e n t s t u d y ( F i g u r e 6) assessed the i m p a c t on t h e L e b a n o n w a r of t h r e e suc­ cessive a s s e m b l i e s in w h i c h large g r o u p s p r a c t i c e d t h e T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m d u r i n g a sixm o n t h p e r i o d from N o v e m b e r 1 3 , 1 9 8 3 t o M a y 18, 1 9 8 4 [ А 1 3 ] . T h e a s s e m b l i e s w e r e

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Figure 6. During the six-month period from November 13, 1983 to May 18, 1984 a measure of war intensity in Lebanon was most positive during three assemblies in which the number of TM-Sidhi participants exceeded the predicted thresholds required for an influence on the war. Time series analysis indicates significantly greater progress towards peaceful resolution of the conflict during these assemblies than would have been predicted from the prior history of the Lebanon war (p <. 00005). The particularly large effect coincident with the Lebanon assembly held in the immediate vicinity of the conflict suggests the importance of proximity in the generation of societal coherence. (Figure courtesy of C.N. Alexander.)

h e l d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , L e b a n o n a n d Y u g o s l a v i a , and w e r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o weeks long. T h e authors used a time series intervention analysis of the Lebanon war to c o m p a r e l e v e l s o f conflict d u r i n g t h e d a y s o n w h i c h the a s s e m b l i e s o c c u r r e d c o m p a r e d t o the b a s e l i n e p e r i o d w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f all other d a y s d u r i n g the s i x - m o n t h p e r i o d o f t h e s t u d y . T h e l e v e l of t h e conflict w a s m e a s u r e d by three i n d i c e s : daily l e v e l s of a P e a c e / W a r Index [A14] of events reported in major L e b a n o n newspapers, daily r e p o r t e d w a r d e a t h s , a n d daily injuries d u e t o the w a r . T h e s c o r i n g w a s p e r f o r m e d b y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e different factions i n v o l v e d in the conflict, a n d inter-rater reliability w a s high. A s predicted i n a d v a n c e , the P e a c e / W a r Index s h o w e d that prevailing negative c o n d i tions w e r e abruptly reversed, and greater p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s peaceful resolution of the L e b a n o n conflict w a s o b s e r v e d than w o u l d h a v e b e e n expected b a s e d o n the prior s i x - m o n t h history of the w a r (p < . 0 0 0 0 5 ) . W a r d e a t h s fell by 5 5 % , from a m e a n of 6.5 per day d u r i n g the b a s e l i n e to a m e a n of 2.9 per day during the three a s s e m b l i e s (p < .0005). W a r injuries fell by 3 8 % , from a m e a n of 2 0 . 6 per day during the baseline to a m e a n of 12.7 p e r d a y d u r i n g the a s s e m b l i e s .

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s o c i o l o g i c a l p a r a d i g m . I n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t i s v i t a l t h a t l e a d i n g p h y s i c i s t s , psy­ c h o l o g i s t s and other scholars carefully assess the impact of these findings on our [11],

u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r a l u n i v e r s e . O n e s u c h a n a l y s i s i s p r e s e n t e d i n ref.

w h e r e it is argued that these results are consistent with the current f r a m e w o r k of u n i f i e d q u a n t u m field t h e o r i e s , b u t r e q u i r e a n e x p a n d e d p h y s i c a l f r a m e w o r k for o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . F o r c o m p l e t e n e s s , w e w i l l briefly r e v i e w t h e m a i n e l e m e n t s of that analysis here. A l t h o u g h i t w o u l d b e m o r e a c c u r a t e t o s a y t h a t t h e M a h a r i s h i Effect d a t a consti­ t u t e s e v i d e n c e for a n " a c t i o n a t a d i s t a n c e " w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s r a t h e r t h a n a " f i e l d e f f e c t " per se, p h y s i c s h a s h i s t o r i c a l l y c o m e to a s s o c i a t e a c t i o n at a d i s t a n c e w i t h field p h e n o m e n a . T h e o b s e r v e d a t t e n u a t i o n o f t h e effect w i t h d i s t a n c e (i.e., t h e fact t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l g r o u p in L e b a n o n p r o d u c e d an effect c o m p a r a b l e to a g r o u p of over 7000 halfway around the globe) would support such a field-theoretic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h e q u a d r a t i c d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e effect u p o n t h e s i z e o f t h e c o h e r e n c e - c r e a t i n g g r o u p i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a field p h e n o m e n o n i n w h i c h the radiators are o p e r a t i n g coherently. M o r e specifically, the coherent superposition of amplitudes required to produce such an intense constructive interference suggests t h e b e h a v i o r of a b o s e field. H o w e v e r , t h e r e are c e r t a i n features of t h e M a h a r i s h i Effect that are not easily under­ s t o o d on t h e b a s i s of a c o n v e n t i o n a l field. T h e m a i n difficulty w i t h a s i m p l e fieldt h e o r e t i c m o d e l i s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e o b s e r v e d d a t a o n t h e b a s i s o f any o f the k n o w n fields. T h e o n l y k n o w n c a n d i d a t e s for s u c h l o n g - r a n g e i n t e r a c t i o n s are e l e c t r o m a g n e t i s m a n d g r a v i t y . A n y c o n v e n t i o n a l g r a v i t a t i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s i s pre­ s u m a b l y o r d e r s of m a g n i t u d e t o o w e a k . * M o r e o v e r , it is g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d that t h e elec­ t r o m a g n e t i c i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d also b e t o o w e a k t o give r i s e t o a n y significant effects. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s p r o b a b l y r e a s o n a b l e d e s p i t e n e w e v i d e n c e that t h e p h y s i o l o g y m a y b e sensitive t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l A C electric fields six t o s e v e n o r d e r s o f m a g n i t u d e w e a k e r t h a n h a d b e e n p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d p o s s i b l e [ А 1 8 ] . I n fact, t h e brain appears to be particularly sensitive to E E G - m o d u l a t e d microwave radiation in the 0 . 5 - 1 0 g i g a h e r t z r a n g e , offering a p o t e n t i a l m e c h a n i s m for E E G c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d e n t r a i n m e n t . I t h a s b e e n s h o w n b y T o u r e n n e [ A 1 9 ] that certain cellular s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n t h e c o r t e x that s u p p o r t the p r o p a g a t i o n o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c s o l i t o n s c o u l d p r o v i d e h i g h l y efficient r a d i a t o r s o f m i c r o w a v e r a d i a t i o n , w h i c h w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y b e m o d u l a t e d i n the E E G band. W h i l e w e t h e r e f o r e feel i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o p u r s u e p o s s i b l e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c m e c h a ­ n i s m s for t h e M a h a r i s h i Effect, t h e s e m e c h a n i s m s a t p r e s e n t a p p e a r u n a b l e t o a c c o u n t for t h e o b s e r v e d p h e n o m e n o l o g y . ( M o r e o v e r , t h e r e w a s n o e v i d e n c e o f a t t e n u a t i o n i n an instance w h e r e the c o h e r e n c e creating g r o u p w a s electromagnetically shielded by a metallic enclosure [ A l l ] . )

* This also holds true for possible spin-1 forces that interact with gravitational strength, such as a proposed "fifth force" or the gauge bosons associated with a hidden sector. (The latter would probably operate only at short distances anyway due to confinement effects.) The same is presumably true of other weaklyinteracting bosons that have escaped detection in particle physics experiments.

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I f c o n v e n t i o n a l m e c h a n i s m s are u n a b l e t o a c c o u n t for t h e o b s e r v e d data, t h e n s o m e unconventional m e c h a n i s m involving n e w physics is obviously needed. Since there are n o o t h e r l o n g - r a n g e f o r c e s o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c o r c o m p a r a b l e s t r e n g t h , o n e i s led t o c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k s that c o u l d serve t o b r i d g e t h e substan­ tial d i s t a n c e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . O n e s u c h f r a m e w o r k i s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e s t r u c t u r e o f spacetime geometry at the scale of super-unification—the proposed d o m a i n of pure consciousness. A l t h o u g h w e d o n o t c u r r e n t l y p o s s e s s t h e c a l c u l a t i o n a l tools n e e d e d t o u n f o l d the full d y n a m i c s of q u a n t u m gravity, t h e r e are several i n d i c a t i o n s that the local 3 + 1 d i m e n s i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f c l a s s i c a l s p a c e t i m e g e o m e t r y o b s e r v e d a t e n e r g i e s far b e l o w t h e P l a n c k scale m a y p r o v i d e a totally i n a p p r o p r i a t e f r a m e w o r k for p h y s i c s at the scale of s u p e r - u n i f i c a t i o n . In particular, t o p o l o g i c a l effects in q u a n t u m gravity c o u l d lead to i n h e r e n t l y n o n - l o c a l p h e n o m e n a . F o r i n s t a n c e Ellis e t al. [ A 2 0 ] h a v e s h o w n that w o r m h o l e s m a y c a u s e initially p u r e q u a n t u m s t a t e s t o e v o l v e into m i x e d states. S u c h effects c a n n o t be a c c o m m o d a t e d w i t h i n a local f r a m e w o r k , or e v e n a f r a m e w o r k that is approxi­ m a t e l y l o c a l o n s c a l e s m u c h larger t h a n t h e P l a n c k l e n g t h , for this w o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y lead t o large a n d p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e v i o l a t i o n s o f e n e r g y and m o m e n t u m conservation [А21]. M o r e o v e r , t h e s e n o n - l o c a l effects h a v e b e e n d e r i v e d in a p e r t u r b a t i v e c o n t e x t in w h i c h t h e n o n - l o c a l effects o f gravity are e x p e c t e d t o b e relatively b e n i g n . T h e full, n o n - p e r t u r b a t i v e t h e o r y o f q u a n t u m g r a v i t y c a n b e e x p e c t e d t o c o n t a i n e v e n m o r e pro­ f o u n d l y n o n - l o c a l effects. I n d e e d , t h e r e are s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n s that the P l a n c k scale i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f u n d a m e n t a l p h a s e t r a n s i t i o n in the d y n a m i c s of q u a n t u m gravity and/or t h e s t r u c t u r e of s p a c e t i m e g e o m e t r y (e.g., a transition from four d i m e n s i o n s to ten d i m e n s i o n s ) . S u c h a p h a s e transition w o u l d be e x p e c t e d to p r o d u c e l o n g - r a n g e cor­ r e l a t i o n s that c o u l d e n h a n c e the n o n - l o c a l s t r u c t u r e o f the t h e o r y . H e n c e t h e local s t r u c t u r e of a relativistic field t h e o r y m a y p r o v i d e a totally i n a p p r o p r i a t e f r a m e w o r k for p h y s i c s at t h e super-unified s c a l e . T h e r e f o r e , o n e m i g h t e x p e c t that if the d o m a i n of c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e super-unified scale, t h e n p h e n o m e n a o f conscious­ n e s s w o u l d i n c l u d e influences that are i n h e r e n t l y n o n - l o c a l . T h e M a h a r i s h i Effect d a t a c a n t h u s b e v i e w e d a s e v i d e n c e that i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s c a n a c c e s s t h e scale o f s u p e r - u n i f i c a t i o n , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r o p o s e d identity b e t w e e n p u r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s and the unified field. T h e q u e s t i o n m o s t often raised by p h y s i c i s t s is h o w h u m a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s c o u l d pos­ sibly interact w i t h p h y s i c s at such f u n d a m e n t a l scales. T h i s question s t e m s from a recent b u t w i d e s p r e a d u n d e r s t a n d i n g that c o n s c i o u s n e s s is p u r e l y a p r o d u c t of c o m p l e x bio­ c h e m i c a l and e l e c t r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s in the brain. S u c h a v i e w p o i n t m a y s e e m c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the restricted r a n g e of e x p e r i e n c e available in w a k i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s (in w h i c h c o n s c i o u s n e s s itself is not directly p e r c e i v e d ) , but it is clearly i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h e x p e r i e n c e in h i g h e r states of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . F o r e x a m p l e , in the state of pure conscious­ ness, c o n s c i o u s n e s s e x p e r i e n c e s itself as t h e unified s o u r c e and fountainhead of all the l a w s of n a t u r e : all f o r m s and p h e n o m e n a in the u n i v e r s e are e x p e r i e n c e d to e m e r g e from t h e r e , a n d c a n be g e n e r a t e d at will t h r o u g h the application of the T M - S i d h i p r o g r a m . H e n c e a c c o r d i n g t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d direct e x p e r i e n c e p r o v i d e d b y M a h a r i s h i

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8. 9.

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, The Science of Being and Art of Living, MIU Press, Livingston Manor, NY (1975). Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi on the Bhagavad-Gita—A New Translation and Commentary, Penguin Books, Baltimore, MD (1969).

10. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, 30 Years Around the World—Dawn of the Age of Enlightenment, MVU Press, The Netherlands (1986). 11. J.S. Hagelin, Modern Science and Vedic Science, 1 (1987) 28. 12. R.K. Wallace et al., Scientific American 226 (1972) 84; J. Allison, Lancet 7651 (1970) 833; J.T. Farrow and J.R. Hebert, Psychosomatic Medicine 44 (1982) 133; N. Wolkove, H. Kreisman, D. Darragh, C. Cohen and H. Frank, Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental and Exercise Physiology 56 (1984) 607; R. Jevning, A.F. Wilson, W.R. Smith and M.E. Morton, American Journal of Physiology 235 (1978) R89. 13. K. Badawi, R.K. Wallace, D.W. Orme-Johnson and A.M. Rouzere, Psychosomatic Medicine 46 (1984) 267; C. Gaylord, D.W. Orme-Johnson and F. Travis, International Journal of Neuroscience (in press); R. Lang, K. Dehof, K.A. Meurer and W. Kaufmann, Journal of Neural Transmission 44 (1979) 117; D.W. Orme-Johnson and C.T. Haynes, International Journal of Neuroscience 13 (1981) 211; C.N. Alexander and W.E. Larimore, in Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programme: Collected Papers, Vol. 3, MVU Press, Netherlands (in press); J.P. Banquet, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 33 (1972) 454 and 35 (1973) 143; C.T. Haynes, J.R. Hebert, W. Reber and D.W. Orme-Johnson, in Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, Vol. 1, MERU Press, Livingston Manor, NY (1977) 208. R. Jevning, A.F. Wilson and E.F. VanderLaan, Psychosomatic Medicine 40 (1978) 329; R. Jevning, H.C. Pirkle and A.F. Wilson, Physiology and Behavior 19 (1977) 611; M. Bujatti and P. Riederer, Journal of Neural Transmission 39 (1976) 257; J.P. O'Halloran, R.A. Jevning, A.F. Wilson, R. Skowsky, R.N. Walsh and C.N. Alexander, Physiology and Behavior 35 (1985); K.G. Walton, T. McCorkle, T. Hauser, C. MacLean, R.K. Wallace, J. Ieni and L.R. Meyerson, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 221 (1987) 503. 15. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, ref. 8,132-134; R.K. Wallace, Science 167 (1970) 1251; American Journal of Physiology 221 (1971) 795; D.W. Orme-Johnson, Psychosomatic Medicine 35 (1973) 341; C.N. Alexander, R.W. Cranson, R.W. Boyer and D.W. Orme-Johnson, Sleep and Dreams: A Sourcebook, Garland Publishing, New York (1987) 282. 16. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Science of Creative Intelligence [Course syllabus], Lesson 8. 17. S. Coleman, Communications in Mathematical Physics 55 (1977) 113. 18. A. Bohm and J.D. Dollard, The Rigged Hilbert Space and Quantum Mechanics: Lectures in

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Mathematical Physics at the University of Texas at Austin, Springer-Verlag, New York (1979). 19. I. Antoniadis, C. Bachas, C. Kounnas and P. Windey, Physics Letters 171B (1986) 51; Nuclear Physics B289 (1987) 87; I. Antoniadis and C. Bachas, Nuclear Physics B298 (1988) 586. 20. Hridayam Samhita.

2 1 . Shrimad Devi Bhagavatam, III. 7 . 4 1 . 22. D.W. Orme-Johnson, Psychosomatic Medicine 49 (1987) 493; R.H. Schneider, H.S. Kasture, S. Rothenberg, R. Averbach, K. Cavanaugh, D.K. Robinson and R.K. Wallace, Proceedings of the International College of Psychosomatic Medicine (in press); R.K. Wallace, J. Silver, P.J. Mills, M.C. Dillbeck and D.E. Wagoner, Psychosomatic Medicine 45 (1983) 4 1 ; M.J. Cooper and M.M. Aygen, Journal of Human Stress 5 (1979) 24; R.K. Wallace, M. Dillbeck, E. Jacobe and B. Harrington, International Journal of Neuroscience 76 (1982) 53; B. Blackwell, I.B. Hanenson, S.S. Bloomfield, H.G. Magenheim, S.I. Nidich and P. Gartside, Psychosomatic Medicine 37 (1975) 86; R.W. Honsberger and A.F. Wilson, Clinical Research 21 (1973) 278; Respiratory Therapy: The Journal of Inhalation Technology 3 (1973) 79; A.F. Wilson, R.W. Honsberger, J.T. Chiu and H.S. Novey, Respiration 32 (1975) 74; M. Shafii, R.A. Lavely and R.D. Jaffe, American Journal of Psychiatry 131 (1974) 60 and 132 (1975) 942; R.K. Wallace et al., in Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the International Conference, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia (1972) 369; W. Seeman, S. Nidich and T. Banta, Journal of Counseling Psychology 19 (1972) 184; L.A. Hjelle, Perceptual and Motor Skills 39 (1974) 623; G. Seiler and V. Seiler, Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine 26 (1979) 8. 23. Patanjali, Yoga Sutras, R. Prasada, translator, Oriental Books Reprint Corporation, New Delhi (1912). 24. T.M. McEvoy, L.R. Frumkin and S.W. Harkins, International Journal of Neuroscience 10 (1980)165; D.W. Orme-Johnson and P. Gelderloos, International Journal of Neuroscience 38 (1988) 427; O.R. Werner, R.K. Wallace, B. Charles, G. Janssen, T. Stryker and R.A. Chalmers, Psychosomatic Medicine 48 (1986) 59. 25. R.K. Wallace, M. Dillbeck, E. Jacobe and B. Harrington, International Journal of Neuroscience 16 (1982) 53; R.K. Wallace, J. Silver, P.J. Mills, M.C. Dillbeck and D.E. Wagoner, Psychosomatic Medicine 45 (1983) 4 1 ; J.L. Glaser, J.L. Brind, M.J. Eisner, J. Vogelman, M.C. Dillbeck, D. Chopra and R.K. Wallace, Age 10 (1987) 160; D.E. Smith, J.L. Glaser and M.C. Dillbeck, Age 10 (1987) 160. 26. M.C. Dillbeck, D.W. Orme-Johnson and R.K. Wallace, International Journal of Neuroscience 15 (1981) 151;

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A. Jedrczak, M. Toomey and G. Clements, Journal of Clinical Psychology 42 (1986) 161; S.I. Nidich, P. Moulin, F. Travis and R.J. Nidich, Department of Education, Maharishi International University (1987); D.W. Orme-Johnson and B. Granieri, in Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programme: Collected Papers, Vol. 1, MERU Press, Livingston Manor, NY (1977) 713. 27. D.W. Orme-Johnson and C.T. Haynes, International Journal of Neuroscience 13 (1981) 211; D.W. Orme-Johnson, G. Clements, C.T. Haynes and K. Badawi, in Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, Vol. 1, MERU Press, Livingston Manor, NY (1977) 705. 28. S.I. Nidich, Dissertation Abstracts International 36 (1975) 4361A; S.I. Nidich and D.W. Orme-Johnson, paper presented at the International Symposium on Moral Education, University of Fribourg, Switzerland (1982). 29. M.C. Dillbeck, P.D. Assimakis, D. Raimondi, D.W. Orme-Johnson and R. Rowe, Perceptual and Motor Skills 62 (1986) 731; P. Gelderloos, P.H. Goddard III, H.H.B. Ahlstrom and R. Jacoby, Perceptual and Motor Skills 64 (1987) 1003. 30. Paninaya Siksha, Verse 6. 3 1 . J.S. Bell, Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics: Collected Papers on Quantum Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, New York & Cambridge (1987). 32. C.N. Alexander and R.W. Boyer, Modern Science and Vedic Science 2 (1989) 325. 3 3 . J.T. Farrow and J.R. Hebert, Psychosomatic Medicine 44 (1982) 133; K. Badawi, R.K. Wallace, D.W. Orme-Johnson and A.M. Rouzere, Psychosomatic Medicine 46 (1984) 267. 34. R.W. Dubois et al. (Rand Corporation), Annals of Internal Medicine 109 (1988) 582; M.R. Chassin et al. (Rand Corporation), Journal of the American Medical Association 258 (1987) 2543; S. Wolfe, USA Today, October 31,1983. 35. C.M. Winslow et al., New England Journal of Medicine 318 (1988) 721; Journal of the American Medical Association 260 (1988) 505. 36. K. Melmon, New England Journal of Medicine 284 (1971) 24; Editorial, The Lancet 8061 (1988) 2. 37. K. Steel et al., New England Journal of Medicine 304 (1981) 11; P. Trunet et al., Journal of the American Medical Association 244 (1980) 23. 38. Maharishi International University Bulletin, MIU Press, Fairfield, IA (1986-1988) 14. 39. M.C. Dillbeck and A.I. Abrams, International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 11 (1987) 111; C.R. Bleick and A.I. Abrams, Journal of Criminal Justice 15 (1987) 211; A.I. Abrams and L.M. Siegel, Criminal Justice and Behavior 5 (1978) 3 and 6 (1979) 13. A l . C. Borland and G.S. Landrith, in Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers, Vol. 1, MERU Press, Livingston Manor, NY (1977). A2. M.C. Dillbeck, G.S. Landrith and D.W. Orme-Johnson, Journal of Crime and Justice 4 (1981)25.

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A3. A4. A5. A6. A7. A8. A9.

G.E.P. Box and G.M. Jenkins, Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control, Holden-Day, San Francisco (1976) 337-349. R. McLeary and R.A. Hay Jr., Applied Time Series Analysis for the Social Sciences, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA (1980). M.C. Dillbeck, K.L. Cavanaugh, T. Glenn, D.W. Orme-Johnson and V. Mittlefehldt, Jour­ nal of Mind and Behavior 8 (1987) 67. M.C. Dillbeck, C.B. Banus, C. Polanzi and G.S. Landrith, The Journal of Mind and Behavior (1988) 457. D.W. Orme-Johnson, P. Gelderloos and M.C. Dillbeck, Social Science Perspectives Jour­ nal 2 (1988) 127. M.C. Dillbeck, Social Indicators Research (in press). P.D. Assimakis, doctoral dissertation, Maharishi International University (1989). nomics Statistics Section (1987) 799.

A10. K.L. Cavanaugh, Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Eco­ A l l . D.W. Orme-Johnson, M.C. Dillbeck, C.N. Alexander, H.M. Chandler and R.W. Cranson, presented at the 85th Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta (1989). A12. D.W. Orme-Johnson, C.N. Alexander, J.L. Davies, H.M. Chandler and W.E. Larimore, Journal of Conflict Resolution 32 (1988) 776. A13. C.N. Alexander, T.M. Abou Nader, K.L. Cavanaugh, J.L. Davies, M.C. Dillbeck, R.J. Kfoury and D.W. Orme-Johnson, presented at the Annual Conference of the Midwest Psychological Association, Chicago (1987). A14. E.E. Azar, Journal of Conflict Resolution 24 (1980) 143. A15. J.L. Davies and C.N. Alexander, presented at the Annual Conference of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta, GA (1989). A16. K. Rasler, doctoral dissertation, Florida State University (1981). A17. T.D. Cook and D.T. Campbell, Quasi-Experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings, Houghton-Mifflin, Boston (1979). A18. W.R. Adey, Physical Review 61 (1981) 435. A19. C. Tourenne, Journal of Theoretical Biology 116 (1985) 495. A20. J. Ellis, S. Mohanty and D.V. Nanopoulos, CERN-TH.5260/88. A 2 1 . T. Banks, L. Susskind and M.E. Peskin, Nuclear Physics B244 (1984) 125. C1. M.B. Green and J.H. Schwarz, Physics Letters 149B (1984) 117; D.J. Gross, J.A. Harvey, E. Martinec and R. Rohm, Nuclear Physics B256 (1985) 468. C2. C3. C4. C5. H. Dreiner, J. Lopez, D.V. Nanopoulos and D. Reiss, Physics Letters 216B (1989) 283; Texas A & M preprint CTP-TAMU-06/89 (1989). S.M. Barr, Physics Letters 112B (1982) 219. J. Ellis, J.S. Hagelin, S. Kelley and D.V. Nanopoulos, Nuclear Physics В (1988) 1. M. Dine, N. Seiberg and E. Witten, Nuclear Physics B289 (1987) 585.

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