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Abstract. One of the major routes through which globalisation impacts an economy is technological innovation. This paper tries to investigate the linkages between technological change in agriculture, and health and education status of rural females of agricultural households of Tripura. At the macro level composite index results show that there is no one-to-one correspondence between agricultural development and health and education status of females. Area-yield accounting and coefficient of variation analysis reveal that technological change in rice production began in Tripura at a more rapid pace from the Fifth Plan period. The technological change has been mainly ‘policy driven’ rather than ‘market driven’ and occurred mainly at production and processing level. The health and education status of females of agricultural labourer households is lower than the status of females of owner cultivator households. Like the agricultural labourer households, the cultivator households are dependent on health services provided by the Government, which have high ‘implicit’ cost. The major conclusion of this paper is that limited technological change in agriculture has failed to create a significant positive impact on health and education status of rural females. Therefore, public spending on health and education is crucial for a State like Tripura. Key Words: Gender, Technology, Health, Education.
JEL Codes: J16, O33, P36. I Introduction
In recent years rural development has emerged as an area of concern. The major route through which globalisation impacts on the economy is innovations in the arena of technology (Gomory and Baumol, 2004). Technological change in agriculture is likely to become more and more market driven leading to rise in efficiency in agriculture. Improvement in the standard of living of the people in health and education status in rural areas may follow from this transformation of agriculture. However, the human development approach argues that there is no automatic linkage between the economic domain and the social sector domain consisting of health and education (UNDP, 1990). The social sector is mainly driven by Government policy initiatives in India. If globalisation leads to a withdrawal of state from its social sector commitments as measured by expenditure in social sector then it may have a negative impact on health and education status of the people. However, the market driven component of human development index is income. Here technology plays an important role. Where the pace of technological change is slow the benefits of globalisation are likely to be less1. It is in this specific context that this paper asks the question: what about women? This question arises from a perception that the issue of globalisation is not only one of economic exclusivity. Social exclusivity (in terms of community and caste), cultural exclusivity (in terms of patriarchy) and political exclusivity (in terms of empowerment of women through participation in political process) are also important parameters in the process of globalisation. This paper tries to investigate the role of agricultural development in the specific area of gender dimension of health and education status of females of agricultural households (Engels, 1884; Boserup, 1976; Agarwal). In the context of the regional disparity in rural development, apart from the rural-urban divide, the paper tries to locate Tripura among the different States of India in terms of technological change in agriculture, education status of females and health status of females. The second objective of the paper is to analyse the trend of change in education and health status of females and agricultural development of Tripura. The paper presents two village studies to identify the linkages between technological change in agriculture and health and education status of females in a specific topographical and socio-economic context.
*Reader, Department of Analytical & Applied Economics, Tripura University, Tripura # Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Netaji Subhas Mahavidyalaya, Tripura
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This paper is divided into six sections. The present section presents the perspective of the study and the major objectives of the paper. Section II is devoted in explaining database, design of the study and method of analysis. Section III tries to locate Tripura from the perspective of agricultural development, health and education status of females and public spending in social sector in terms of cluster analysis. Section IV provides the nature, extent and impact of technological change in agriculture, occupational pattern of rural males and females, the trend of change of health status and education status of rural females of Tripura to provide the background of village studies. Section V reports the village studies. Section VI presents the major conclusions of the study and tries to decipher possible policy implications.
II Database, Design of the Study & Method of Analysis
The focus of the study is rural females of Tripura. Thus it is necessary to locate Tripura first. For locating Tripura an attempt is made to provide an All-India scenario of 21 States in terms of four composite indices of: (a) agricultural development (ADCI), (b) rural female health (HCI), (c) rural female education (ECI), (d) public expenditure on health and education (PECI). Agricultural development is considered in terms of five indicators: (a) yield of foodgrains, (b) percentage of area under HYV seeds in total rice area, (c) cropping intensity (d) irrigated area under foodgrains and (e) consumption of fertiliser per hectare. Health status is considered in terms of fifteen indicators : (a) rural total fertility rate, (b) rural female infant mortality rate (IMR), (c) rural female-male ratio (FMR) in the age group (0-6), (d) rural overall FMR, (e) median age at first birth for (40-49) age women, (f) median age at last birth for (4049) age women, (g) female age at effective marriage in the rural areas, (h) percentage of births attended by health professionals in the rural areas, (i) percentage of birth delivered in medical institutions in the rural areas, (j) percentage of no attendance received by mothers at child birth in the rural areas, (k) percentage of mothers received attention of government appointed nurse/midwife at child birth in the rural areas, (l) percentage of two doses or more of TT vaccination received during pregnancy in the rural areas, (m) couple protection rate in the rural areas, (n) natural growth rate in the rural areas and (o) contraceptive prevalence rate. In the case of deprivation indicators reciprocal are taken. Education status is considered in terms of two indicators: (a) rural female literacy rate and (b) rural girls’ enrollment ratio. Public Expenditure is considered in terms of three indicators: (a) public spending on health as a percentage of total expenditure, (b) public spending on education as a percentage of total public expenditure and (c) public spending on amenities as a percentage of total public expenditure. For the construction of composite indices : first, percentage share (Pi) of States to All-India for each indicators is calculated; second, first Principal Component is calculated using correlation matrix; third, weight (Wi) for each indicators is calculated by using the formula [(loading / total loading)*100]; fourth, composite index = ∑PiWi (i = 1 to number of indicators) is calculated. For locating Tripura, ranking device is used in two ways: first, States are ranked in terms of all four composite indices as 1 to 21; second, States are clustered in terms of composite indices as high, medium and low rank. The term ‘high’ is used to mean ranks from (1-7), ‘medium’ to mean ranks from (8-14) and ‘low’ to mean (15-21).
Design of the Village Study
Two villages of South Tripura District are studied. The basis is female work participation rate in agriculture in the rural areas (FWPRAR). In this District, FWPRAR (79.39%) is highest among all the four districts of Tripura. It is also higher than the Tripura average and slightly lower than the AllIndia average. Within the South Tripura District one development block is selected among the 10 blocks. Blocks are arranged in 3 categories based on FWPRAR as shown in Table 1. One high participation block, i.e., Kakraban Development Block was studied.
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Table 1 Block Range FWPRAR High (80 and above) Killa, Amarpur, Kakraban, Karbuk, Rupaichhari Medium (70-80) Bagafa, Hrishyamukh, Satchand Low (0-70) Rajnagar, Matarbari Note: All-India average FWPRAR = 80.07%, Tripura average FWPRAR= 69.53% Source: Computed from Census 2001 (reference 25).
Kakraban Development Block consists of 19 revenue villages as shown in Table2. Two high participation revenue villages, i.e., Garjanmura and Hadra were chosen.
Table 2 Revenue Village Range FWPRAR High (80 and above) Hurijala, Balurpathar, Garji R.F. (part), Gangachhara, Amtali, Hadra, Garjanmura, Upendranagar, Silghati, Rani, Palatana, Jitendranagar, Dhuptali, Murapara (part), Jamjuri Medium (70-80) Samukchhara, Dudhpushkarini Low (0-70) Kakraban, Rajdharnagar Note : Same as Table 1. Source: Same as Table 1.
From the Garjanmura revenue village Garjanmura Gram Panchayat and from the Hadra revenue village Hadra Gram Panchayat were selected with the consultation of Superintendent of Matabari Agri Sub-division under the South Tripura District, Panchayat Pradhans and local peoples. Those Gram Panchayats were selected which have sufficient number of (a) cultivator and agricultural labourer households and (b) both tribal and non-tribal agricultural households. From the Garjanmura Gram Panchayat one village, i.e., Garjanmura Uttar Para and from the Hadra Gram Panchayat one village, i.e., Hadrabari were selected. They have the features: (a) the majority of villagers belong to scheduled tribe (ST) community in one village and in the other village belong to other backward community (OBC)/scheduled castes (SC)/other communities (GEN) community; (b) major economic activity of a large part of the head of the household is agriculture; (c) both the villages have similar irrigation facilities provided by the State Government; (d) both villages produce two crops of rice in a year; and (e) some females participate in agricultural work as wage labour, family labour or both. Two PRA tools were used for selection of village: (a) physical transact of one day with one or two knowledgeable persons and (b) group discussion for (2-3) hours with a group of villagers (Mukherjee, 2001). Within the villages those households were selected for whom the major economic activity of head of the household is agriculture. These households are either cultivators or agricultural labourers. Cultivators are those who have both ownership and control on cultivable land and participate in agricultural activities themselves. Agricultural labourers are those who work as wage labour. In the Agriculture Census, cultivators are sub-divided into marginal farmers (0-1) hectare, small farmers (1-2) hectare, semi-medium farmers (2-4) hectare, medium farmers (4-10) hectare and large farmers (10 and above) hectare. However, in the context of the present paper the marginal farmers are again sub-divided into three categories: subsistence marginal farmers (SMF) having 3 to 5 kani, near-subsistence marginal farmers (NSMF) having 1 to 3 kani and extreme marginal farmers (EMF) having less than 1 kani.
The Comparative Method
Comparative method is used in this paper. ANOVA or test statistic based testing procedure is not used in this study. Analysis and understanding in a comparative perspective is the essence of the method of analysis of this paper.
III Cluster Analysis of States of India
This section provides cluster and pattern analysis of States of India. This will help in locating Tripura in the All-India context. Analysis based on composite indices show the following results:
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Table 3 : Agricultural Development, Female Health, Female Education and Public Expenditure : Cluster Analysis Range Agricultural Health Rank Education Rank Public Expenditure Rank Development Rank High Punjab, Haryana, Tamil Kerala, Punjab, Tamil Kerala, Mizoram, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, (1-7) Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Mizoram, Maharashtra, Tripura, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Bengal, Kerala Karnataka Manipur, Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh Medium Bihar, Manipur, Gujarat, Gujarat, Himachal Meghalaya, West Mizoram, Arunachal (8-14) Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Bengal, Gujarat, Pradesh, Rajasthan, Pradesh, Tripura, Tripura, Haryana, Karnataka, Punjab, Meghalaya, Haryana, Maharashtra Manipur, Orissa Orissa, Assam, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh Low Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Andhra West Bengal, Manipur, (15-21) Meghalaya, Assam, Rajasthan, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Tripura, Orissa, Uttar Rajasthan, Mizoram, Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar Arunachal Pradesh Pradesh, Bihar, Pradesh, Rajasthan, Meghalaya Uttar Pradesh, Bihar Source: Same as Table 3.
It is observed that Tripura falls in the category of low public expenditure rank and medium health and agricultural indices rank but high literacy rank.
IV Agriculture, Occupation, Health and Education of Rural Females: Tripura 4.1 Impact of Technological Change
Impact of technological change in agriculture in Tripura is analysed in terms of area-yield accounting and analysis of structural stability upto the end of the Ninth Plan period.
(a) Area-Yield Accounting of Rice
Noting the fact that growth rate of production is the sum total of growth rate of area and growth rate of yield, one notices that till the end of Fifth Plan, growth rate of area had a positive contribution to the growth rate of production. But after the Fifth Plan this contribution has become negative. Thus the growth of production was mainly due to growth of yield after Fifth Plan. This makes the end of Fifth Plan a watershed in technological change in agriculture of Tripura (Table 4).
Table 4 Growth Rate of Area, Production and Yield of Rice Annual Compound Growth Rate of Rice* Period Area Production Yield End of 2nd Plan over 1st Plan 0.807 1.622 0.7 End of 3rd Plan over 2nd Plan 5.685 5.202 -0.297 End of 4th Plan over 3rd Plan 3.037 4.28 1.074 th th End of 5 Plan over 4 Plan 1.097 5.463 4.48 End of 6th Plan over 5th Plan -1.13 1.468 2.593 End of 7th Plan over 6th Plan -1.904 2.836 4.792 End of 8th Plan over 7th Plan -0.425 0.769 1.177 End of 9th Plan over 8th Plan -0.736 2.407 3.098 Note: * based on data of three years moving average. For data of rice production at the end of 1 st Plan two years moving average is taken because production in 1954-55 is not available. Source: Computed from references 27, 28.
(b) Structural Stability
With spread of irrigation and biochemical technological change variability in the annual growth rate of production rice is expected to decline. This variability can be measured in terms of coefficient of variation. The study of the coefficient of variation (C.V.) may provide an alternative route in identifying the watershed period of technological change. However, the average of coefficient of variation for Second, Third and Fourth Plan turns out to be 15.19 but it is 8.22 from Fifth Plan to Ninth Plan. However, C.V. of Third Plan was 9.08. Seventh and Eighth Plans had similar series.
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Table 5 Analysis of Stability of Annual Growth Rate of Rice Production Indicator 2nd Plan 3rd Plan 4th Plan 5th Plan 6th Plan 7th Plan 8th Plan C.V.* 11.52 9.08 24.98 5.30 6.66 10.10 10.78 Note: * coefficient of variation of average annual growth rate of production of rice. Source: Same as Table 4.
9th Plan 8.26
Therefore, area-yield accounting and coefficient of variation analysis lead to similar conclusion. Technological change in rice production began in Tripura at a more rapid pace from the Fifth Plan period.
4.2 Occupational Pattern in Agriculture of Rural Males and Females
Table 6 shows that percentage of workers (main) out of total workers (main) has been falling rapidly from 1981 to 2001.
Table 6 Percentage of Main and Marginal Female Workers in the Rural Areas Indicators 1981 1991 (in %) P M F P M F 1. Main workers in agriculture to total main workers 74.0 73.3 78.09 70.62 69.12 77.81 2. Main agricultural labour to total main workers in agriculture 35.53 33.71 45.50 37.51 35.85 44.59 3. Marginal agricultural labour to total marginal workers in agriculture NA NA NA NA NA NA Source: Computed from references 14, 15, 25. P 55.65 39.89 63.72 2001 M 53.91 38.25 67.13 F 63.09 45.90 62.19
4.3 Health Status of Rural Females in Tripura
Six indicators of health status of rural females are considered in terms of their trend over time, namely (a) FMR (0-4) age-group, (b) FMR (15-49) age-group, (c) FMR (60 +) age-group, (d) AFS, (e) CWR, (f) IMR. Indicator (a) shows whether there is pre-delivery sex based selection of children. Indicator (b) is an indirect measure of reproductive health challenges faced by women. Indicator (c) indicates social support needs based on gender perspective for the aged population. Indicators (d) and (e) carry almost the same information like indicator (b). Their correlation matrix is reported in Table 7. The correlation matrix shows that AFS and CWR are highly correlated. Indicator (f) reflects more the health threats faced by infants. However, indirectly high infant mortality creates more burdens for reproductive health status of females (Chaudhury, 1996). FMR (0-4) shows a declining trend in the period 1971-2001. Since sex detection test of the embryos is not popular in Tripura, the trend is difficult to explain. Moreover, IMR has also fallen rapidly in this period. FMR (15-49) has also shown a declining trend. However, 60+ FMR has improved significantly. AFS and CWR have declined in this period (Table 8).
Table 7 Correlation Matrix FMR (15-49) AFS FMR (15-49) 1.000 AFS 0.843 1.000 CWR 0.799 0.959 Note: Calculated on rural females. Source: Table 11. CWR 1.000
Table 8 Health Status of Rural Females Indicators 1971 1981 1991 R U C R U C R U C R 1. (0-4) FMR 974 987 975 979 990 980 970 974 971 969 2. (15-49) FMR 946 890 940 939 932 938 933 947 936 934 3. 60+ FMR 847 955 857 903 1089 921 944 1156 974 1048 4. AFS 5.71 5.67 5.70 5.43 5.22 5.40 5.30 4.91 5.24 4.92 5. CWR 70.64 50.22 68.30 52.23 33.81 49.91 55.17 33.47 51.37 38.78 1971 1981 1991 6. IMR NA NA NA NA NA NA 56.9 45.7 56.2 42 Note: R = Rural, U = Urban, C = Combined, AFS = Average family size, CWR = Child-woman ratio. Source: Computed from references 12, 13, 16, 17, 20, 25, 26.
U 949 961 1142 4.38 22.98 2000 32 C 966 939 1064 4.82 35.72 41
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4.4 Education Status of Rural Females in Tripura
Two indicators, namely (a) literacy rate (LR) and (b) primary level education rate (PLER) of (15-59) age group of rural females are considered. It is seen that the overall literacy rate and literacy rate for both males and females in the rural areas has rapidly increased in the period 1971 to 2001. Female literacy rate is lower than male literacy rate. The gap between male-female literacy rate is falling. Similarly, urban-rural gap in female literacy rate is falling. It may be noted that the rural female literacy rate (2001 Census) in Tripura (60.50%) is higher than the national average (46.13%).
Table 9 Education Status of Rural Females T/M/F Indicators 1971 (%) R U C R 1. T 34.65 77.08 39.31 46.59 M 46.31 86.79 50.78 58.61 F 22.17 66.59 27.03 33.78 2. T NA NA NA 13.71 M NA NA NA 17.19 F NA NA NA 9.97 Note: 1 = LR excluding (0-6) age-group population, 2 Source: Computed from references 12, 13, 16, 26. 1981 U 85.04 92.12 77.62 17.08 16.06 18.19 = PLER 1991 C R U 51.02 56.08 83.09 62.45 67.07 89.00 38.87 44.33 76.93 14.13 16.43 16.76 17.05 18.96 15.74 10.99 13.70 17.85 at (15-59), age group, T C 60.44 70.58 49.65 16.49 18.40 14.42 = Total, 2001 R U 69.72 89.21 78.40 93.21 60.50 85.03 23.30 24.08 25.40 22.82 21.03 25.43 M = Male, F = C 73.19 81.02 64.91 23.45 24.90 21.89 Female.
4.5 Public Spending in Social Sector in Tripura
Public spending as a percentage of total public expenditure shows the following trend in Tripura and All-India as shown in the following table.
Table 10 Public Spending in Social Sector Unit Public Spending as a Percentage of Total Public Expenditure 1980-81 1990-91 1998-99
E H A E H A E H A
Tripura 11.60 4.57 1.03 17.62 All States 13.89 7.10 1.14 17.36 Central Government 2.70 1.40 0.40 3.50 Note: E = Education, H = Health, A= Amenities. Source: NHDR 2001.
5.91 5.88 1.50
4.34 3.86 0.40
17.23 17.39 3.90
4.69 5.78 1.80
7.09 4.53 1.00
4.6 The Emerging Patterns
Some patterns may be discerned. First, public spending in health as a percentage of total expenditure of Tripura has remained more or less static though ‘All States’ show a decline. Second, AFS and CWR have declined from 1981 onwards. Third, technological change in agriculture showed a structural shift from 1981 onwards. Whether this had any impact on health and education of rural females in agriculture cannot be analysed without more detailed data. Only village studies can fill up this gap in information. These are presented in the next section.
V The Villages: Garjanmura Uttar Para and Hadrabari
This section provides a comparative study of two villages of Tripura. The objectives are: (a) the nature and extent of technological change in agriculture in the studied area; (b) the status of females with special emphasis on health and education of different categories of agricultural households; (c) the linkages between technological change in agriculture, health and education status of females of different categories of agricultural households. To understand the findings related to these objectives, location, demographic features and infrastructure of the villages are discussed first.
Garjanmura Uttar Para (GUP) village belongs to the Garjanmura Gram Panchayat. Hadrabari village belongs to the Hadra Gram Panchayat. These two villages belong to Kakrabon Development Block of South Tripura District. Villages are similarly situated in terms of the following aspects: (a) B.D.O. office is 10 k.m. from GUP and 13 k.m. from Hadrabari.
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(b) There is a rural market (daily) near the GUP village, which is 3 k.m. from the Hadrabari village. The nearest urban market is situated at Udaipur. Hadrabari is 8 k.m. and GUP is 11 k.m. from this market.
5.2 Demographic Features
The demographic features of the two villages are summarised in Table 11:
Table 11 Demographic Features Features GUP 1. Total population 568 2. Average family size 4.62 3. FMR (all ages) 1028.57 4. FMR (15-49) age group 1047.30 5. ST households in total households (%) Nil 6. SC households in total households (%) 41.46 7. GEN households in total households (%) 58.54 Source: Field Study (Aug’ 2002 – Aug’ 2006). Hadrabari 660 4.96 929.83 1061.54 100.00 Nil Nil
The table shows that the average family size and female-male ratio for the reproductive age group are higher in Hadrabari.
General socio-economic development is linked with infrastructure, which is classified as physical, health and education infrastructures for the purpose of the present study is shown in Table 12.
Table 12 Infrastructure of Villages Type of Infrastructure Physical Nature of main road within the village Households with electricity connection (%) Households with telephone connection (%) Mode of transport Sources of drinking water GUP all-weather 30.1 3.3 auto rickshaw, jeep and bus services kuchha well, tube well, artisan well and tap. Most of the villagers are using artisan well. 1 primary health centre at 1.5 k.m. 1 hospital at 15 k.m. at Udaipur 6 1 1 1 1 1 Name of Village Hadrabari
pucca but full of patches of degraded surfaces.
85 13.5 similar to GUP similar to GUP
Number of primary health centre Government hospital Number of anganwadi centre within 1 k.m. Number of balwadi school within 1 k.m. Number of nursery school within 1 k.m. Number of junior basic school within 1 k.m. Number of senior basic school within 1 k.m. Number of high school within 1 k.m.
same primary health centre as GUP at 1.5 k.m. 1 hospital at 12 k.m. at Udaipur 1 2 Nil nil 1 1
The table shows that the villages are similarly situated in terms of infrastructure. In terms of electricity and telephone connections, Hadrabari is in superior position.
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5.4 Nature and Extent of Technological Change in Agriculture
Nature of technological change in agriculture is defined in terms of adoption of biochemical and mechanical technological changes in rice production and extent is defined in terms of adoption of technological changes in processing activities. Both the villages have adopted biochemical and mechanical technological changes.
5.4.1 Adoption of Biochemical and Mechanical Technological Changes in Agricultural Production
Table 13 Nature of Technological Change in Agriculture Indicators Villages SF SMF 1. Area under rice using GUP 100.0 82.5 HYV seeds in GCA (%) Hadrabari 54.41 88.89 2. Cropping intensity 2.0 1.93 GUP Hadrabari 1.86 1.61 3. Area under irrigation of 100.0 87.5 GUP GCA (%) Hadrabari 89.71 71.11 4. Use of NPK among 100.0 100.0 GUP farmers (%) Hadrabari 60.0 100.0 5. Use of power tiller/ 100.0 100.0 GUP tractor among farmers (%) Hadrabari 60.0 50.0 Source: Field Study (Aug’ 2002 – Aug’ 2006). NSMF 91.32 100.0 1.85 1.77 88.1 91.05 100.0 72.22 100.0 55.56 EMF 100.0 100.0 1.35 1.79 72.41 86.92 100.0 76.67 50.0 53.33
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5.4.2 Adoption of Mechanical Technological Change in Processing of Paddy
5.4.3 Participation in Work
One of the linkages through which technological change in agriculture may impact on education and health status of females of agricultural households is the nature of their participation in agricultural work (Haq, 2003). Participation in work is categorised as ‘occupation’ in public domain and ‘activity’ in private domain. Occupational pattern is considered for both males and females as ‘head of households’ and individuals.
(a) Occupational Pattern of Head of the Households
In the case of occupational pattern of the head of the households it is found that: The percentage of head of the households employed in the farm sector (49.6%) is almost similar to the non-farm sector (50.4%) in GUP. The percentage is higher in the farm sector (61.4%) than the non-farm sector (38.6%) in Hadrabari. The percentage of head of the households employed in the farm sector is higher in Hadrabari compared to GUP. Not only this percentage is more in Hadrabari compared to GUP, but also: (i) the percentage of households who own cultivable land (48%, including rent seeking land owners*) is more and (ii) the percentage of households occupied as agricultural labourer is less. It is 37% in Hadrabari and around 54% in GUP. It is found for the female-headed households also. Among the female-headed households, all heads are occupied in the farm sector where 81.8% heads are agricultural labourers in GUP. In Hadrabari, 80% female heads are occupied in the farm sector where 50% are agricultural labourers. The percentage of head of the households in the farm sector employed as share-cropper is less in GUP than Hadrabari. The percentage of rent seeking land owners is less in GUP (1.6%) compared to Hadrabari (16%). The percentage of service holders in the non-farm sector is less in GUP compared to Hadrabari. The occupational diversification is more in GUP. In the case of non-farm activity, petty business predominates in GUP and government service predominates in Hadrabari. Around 90% head of the households are government service holders in Hadrabari. It is around 13% in GUP.
(b) Occupational Pattern of Individuals in the Age Group (15-59) Years
An almost similar pattern is found in the case of occupation of individual as well as occupation of head of the households. It is found that: The percentage of individuals occupied in the farm sector is more in Hadrabari compared to GUP. The percentage of individuals occupied as agricultural labourer is less in Hadrabari. In the non-farm sector, 80% are employed as government service holders in Hadrabari. In GUP, it is around 11%. Petty business and wage labour predominate in this area.
(c) Occupational Pattern in Public Domain
Work participation is considered as wage labour in agricultural production and processing activities in the case of public domain. Other forms of work participation like exchange labour@ and share cropping are also taken into consideration.
(i) Participation of Females in Agricultural Production Activities as Wage Labour
No female of small farmer and subsistence marginal farmer households is working as agricultural labourer in GUP. No female of small farmer households is working as agricultural labourer in Hadrabari. There is only one old lady in a small farmer family in Hadrabari who is involved as exchange labour due to customary habits that she still maintains. The participation of females of NSMF and EMF households as agricultural labourer is higher in Hadrabari than GUP (Table 19).
* rent seeking land owners are owners of land who do not operate the land themselves but lease it out for rent. @ exchange lanour is a customary exchange of labour in tribal villages where there is no wage payment but a simple quid pro quo relationship.
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Landless agricultural labourer households are working as wage labour or/and share-croppers in both the villages. Female labour force participation rate as wage labour is higher in the agricultural labourer households compared to the owner cultivator households in both the villages.
(ii) Participation of Females in Agricultural Processing Activities as Wage Labour
Activity of females in processing is very limited in nature. Females of agricultural labourer households participate only for (a) threshing, boiling, drying and storage activities of paddy and (b) winnowing as wage labour.
(iii) Gender Concerns
An indicator of gender gap in work participation in agriculture is the wage gap (WDIs, 2001). Technological change in agriculture is likely to have asymmetric impact on females due to wage gap. Another aspect which has to be considered in this connection is the survival strategies of females in the lean seasons which can be taken as a proxy variable of opportunity cost of female labourer. This also influences wage-gap. Domestic responsibilities tend to restrict the female mobility of labour force which contributes to their availability at lower wages. The mobility of female labour is ofcourse influenced by other factors also like transport and communication. The village study shows that:
During the field study it was found that the wage rate varies in Hadrabari for males from Rs.60 to Rs.70 and from Rs.40 to Rs.50 for females. In GUP the wage rate varies from Rs.40 to Rs.60 for males and from Rs.30 to Rs.50 for females. In absolute terms, the male-female wage gap is around Rs.20 in Hadrabari and Rs.10 in GUP. Therefore, the wage-gap is higher in Hadrabari. However, due to scarcity of female labour in Hadrabari, the female wage rate is slightly higher. From the perspective of gender gap, the gap seems to be more in Hadrabari which is a tribal village.
Due to technological change with better irrigation facilities the boundary between lean seasons and peak seasons is getting blurred. Yet, in those months when agricultural activities are less (mid August – mid October) females of agricultural labourer households of the two villages adopt slightly different survival strategies or types of work. The females of the tribal village remain within the village showing very little mobility. Production of country liquor and loin loom activity to supply pachra, which is procured by Government, are the main strategies adopted by the females of the tribal village, i.e., Hadrabari. In the non-tribal village, i.e., GUP, there is more mobility of female labour between villages in search of wage employment. If such employment is not available then the family takes loan from owner cultivator households, which they repay by doing work in the peak seasons.
(d) Activity Pattern in Private Domain
Females do strenuous activity at home, which often remain unrecognised. These activities can be broadly divided into two parts – (i) domestic activities and (ii) unpaid economic activities.
(i) Domestic Activities of Females
Both in GUP and Hadrabari females participation is high in cooking, cleaning utensils, washing cloth, taking care of babies and collection of drinking water. But there is a difference in the case of brooming.
Table 14 List of Domestic Activities of Females Household Activity Participation by Females and Males GUP Hadrabari H L N H L N 1. Cooking F M F M 2. Cleaning Utensils F M F M 3. Washing Cloth F M F M 4. Brooming 5. Taking Care of Babies 6. Collection of Fuel Wood F F F M M M M F F M M/F Frequency GUP at least twice per day at least 4 times per day once/ twice per day once/ twice per day cannot be clearly quantified normally twice a week Hadrabari twice per day twice per day once per day once per day cannot be clearly quantified normally purchased
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7. Collection of Drinking Water F M F Note: H = High, L = Low, N = Negligible, M = Male, F = Female. Source: Field Study (Aug’ 2002 – Aug’ 2006).
once/ twice per day
once/ twice per day
(ii) Unpaid Economic Activities
These activities can be divided into two parts – farm related and non-farm activities. It is observed that in the case of paddy cultivation females are basically engaged in (i) weeding, (ii) reaping and harvesting and (iii) threshing, boiling, drying and storage activities of paddy in both the villages. But females of Hadrabari do transplantation activity also where as in GUP females do not do such activity. Again in GUP, females are engaged in frying puffed rice in family based business as a full time activity. Moreover, females are engaged in animal husbandry (piggery in Hadrabari and milch cow and goat in GUP) as a family business in both the villages. It is observed that females of Hadrabari do not work in any kind of non-farm related unpaid economic activity. In GUP, females are engaged in activities related to selling of used cloth and chanacur in family based business.
Table 15 Female Unpaid Economic Activities Name of Village Farm Related Activity Non-farm Related Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 GUP No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Hadrabari Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Nil Note: 1 = Transplantation, 2 = Weeding in the field in operational holding, 3 = Reaping and harvesting crop in operational holding, 4 = Cleaning, boiling, drying and related activities of paddy, 5 = Threshing Manual, 6 = Storing paddy, 7 = Frying Puffed Rice, 8 = Grinding of rice, turmeric, chilly using husking pedal (dheki), 9 = Animal Husbandry, 10 = Cleaning, drying, stitching and ironing of used cloth for selling. Source: Field Study (Aug’ 2002 – Aug’ 2006).
5.5 Status of Females
Status of females is analysed in three dimensions: social, health and education.
5.5.1 Social Status of Females (a) Usual Living Arrangements: Strong preference for nuclear family is revealed in Hadrabari from
the analysis of the schedule of questions related to family particulars. However, both nuclear family and joint family co-exist in GUP. (b) Marital Mobility System: Both matriarchic and patriarchic marital mobility system exists in Hadrabari. In GUP, only patriarchic marital mobility system exists. Thus security of ownership and control over land of females seems to be more in Hadrabari compared to GUP. (c) Dowry System: Dowry system prevails in GUP. No dowry death is reported in this village. This system is negligible in Hadrabari. Moreover, the village elders call a family which is reported to have taken dowry for bichar or social inquiry to discourage such practices. (d) Inheritance Property Rights: Legally females have equal property right according to the law (Hindu Succession Act, 1956). But in reality inheritance of property rights both on homestead land and cultivable land exists partially in Hadrabari whereas it is negligible in GUP.
5.5.2 Health Status of Females
Health Status of females is considered as general and reproductive. Health status is considered for different categories of agricultural households.
(a) General Health Status of Females
General health status is related to workload in public and private domains. The workload of females of owner cultivator households is less compared to agricultural labourer households in GUP. Workload related health stress is much more visible among the females of agricultural labourer households. In the case of Hadrabari, a similar pattern is revealed. Some of the ailments suffered by the females engaged in physical labour related to agricultural activities are headache, chest and back pain etc. Females of small farmer households do not participate in wage labour. They do domestic work and farm and non-farm related unpaid economic work in both the villages. But at present a generation gap is seen among the young couples. Females are not willing to participate in farm
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related unpaid economic activity. This tendency is comparatively higher in GUP than Hadrabari. They are willing to participate in non-farm paid economic activities like private tuition, tailoring, government service etc.
(b) Reproductive Health Status of Females
This study considers three aspects of health status: (i) access (ii) outcome and (iii) perceptions. This analysis ultimately helps to highlight the reproductive health burden of females.
(i) Access aspect:
Regarding access for health care of villagers is narrated below from group discussion and field visits.
There is one government primary health centre within 1.5 kilometer for the two villages. There is no designated doctor at the primary health centre. There is one government hospital at Udaipur, which is 15 kilometers away from GUP and 12 kilometers away from Hadrabari. A doctor comes from the Udaipur hospital to visit during the time of vaccination to children.
Other Health Care Options:
(1) In Hadrabari, many villagers take homeopathic medicine for the general treatment of children from a village quack. He gives medicine to the villagers in credit also. In GUP, villagers normally approach the local chemist for minor diseases and private medical practitioners for more serious diseases. (2) During the time of pushing vaccination to children villagers go to the primary health centre in both the villages. (3) For delivery care except a very little percent of women, all women gave birth at home assisted by mid-wife to curtail cost of child delivery. Only when midwives tell that the health condition of the pregnant women is serious then the villagers go to Government hospital. (4) For the general treatment of males and females villagers take homeopathic and allopathic medicine. For allopathic medicine they consult local medicine shops and medicine shop at Udaipur, private Doctors at Udaipur and at Agartala and Government Hospital at Udaipur and at Agartala on the basis of degree of illness in both the villages. The villagers also try to get their treatment in specialised medical colleges in the case of severe diseases. Such a cancer patient is found in Hadrabari who is a male. In GUP, one such female patient was found. Both of them have received treatment from Shilchar Medical College.
(ii) Outcome Indicators:
A comparative profile of outcome indicators of reproductive health status is given in Table 16.
Table 16 Reproductive Burden for Females for the Current Age-Group (15-49) Years Indicators GUP Child woman ratio for the current age-group (15-49)* L (27.10%) Gross reproduction rate for the current age-group (15-49)* H (2.94%) Motherhood among ever married women for the current age-group (15-49) years L (88.24%) Motherhood among fertile women for the current age-group (15-49) years* H (67.74%) Age of mother at the first child birth for the current age-group (15-49) years L ( 24.76%, highest in the age-group 2224 years) Median age at first child birth 19.76 years Births of order 3 and above among women for the current age-group (15-49) H (42.72%) Number of children ever born per ever married woman L (2) Spacing of child births of less than 24 months L (9.52) Methods of family planning Pill H (39.5%) Female sterilization H (39.5%) No techniques L (21%) Male sterilization L (0 no.) Women reporting gap of less than 24 months for children ever born L (9.5%) Hadrabari H (29.95%) L (2.66%) H (92.13%) L (56.52%) H ( 26.55%, highest in the age-group 2224 years) 20.98 years L (36.75%) H (2.2) H (22.22) L (5.26%) L (26.32%) H (68.42%) H (1 no.) H (15.39%)
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Women gave birth at home assisted by mid-wife (%) Note: * means a deprivation indicator. H = High, L = Low. Source: Field Study (Aug’ 2002 – Aug’ 2006).
From simple enumeration of highs and lows of the indicators reported in the table one notices that the reproductive burden for females is higher in Hadrabari compared to GUP.
(iii) Perceptions on Health Care:
(1) In Hadrabari, poor households consult a village quack for the general treatment of children to curtail cost of consultancy fee and cost of medicine. Moreover, village quack gives them medicine on credit. (2) For pre-natal and post-natal care and at the time of delivery, villagers approach local midwives to curtail cost. (3) Male and female sterilisation is an important method of family planning. However, due to emergence of some legal hazards the medical practitioners do not feel safe to provide this service at primary health centres.
(iv) Reproductive Health Burden
It has been pointed out above that mobility of female labour is constrained by the responsibilities of private domain. Reproductive health burden is measured by two indicators (a) CWR and (b) delivery place. It is found that CWR is quite high for EMFs. This is higher in Hadrabari compared to GUP for all categories of agricultural households. In the case of delivery place, all females of the EMFs gave birth at home assisted by midwives in both the villages. In the case of owner cultivator household this proportion is lower.
Table 17 Health Status of Females of Agricultural Households Indicators Village SF SMF NSMF EMF AL Total (a) CWR GUP 25.0 0.0 40.0 33.3 10.0 17.91 Hadrabari 7.14 42.86 20.59 100.0 40.5 31.58 (b) Delivery Place (%) GH GUP 25.0 Nil 12.5 Nil 6.1 7.0 RH 75.0 100.0 62.5 100.0 90.9 87.7 GH & RH Nil Nil 25.0 Nil 3.3 5.3 GH Hadrabari 20.0 25.0 25.0 Nil 7.7 14.0 RH 60.0 75.0 66.7 100.0 80.8 76.0 GH & RH 20.0 Nil 8.3 Nil 11.5 10.0 Note: GH = Government Hospital, RH = Respondent’s Home, AL = Agricultural Labourer. Source: Field Study (Aug’ 2002 – Aug’ 2006).
5.5.3 Education Status of Females of Agricultural Households
The Table 18 shows that education status as indicated by drop-out children is clearly lower for agricultural labourer households in both the villages. The dropout rate is higher in GUP.
Table 18 Educational Status of Females Indicators Village (i) Primary Level Complete GUP (current age 11 and above) Hadrabari (ii) Madhyamik Complete GUP [current age (16-25)] Hadrabari (iii) Out-of-School Children in GUP (a) the Age Group (6-14) Years (b) (a) Dropout Hadrabari (a) (b) Never Gone to School (b) Source: Field Study (Aug’ 2002 – Aug’ 2006). SF 100.0 66.67 0 83.33 0 0 0 0 SMF 37.5 80.0 0 0 25.0 0 0 0 NSMF 11.77 58.14 0 28.57 12.5 0 0 0 EMF 6.67 60.0 0 0 9.1 18.2 0 0 AL 8.62 42.86 0 5.56 4.8 26.2 22.2 0 Total 15.53 63.16 0 45.0 9.3 24.1 14.3 0
5.6 Impact of Technological Changes
The impact analysis is carried out on the basis of both revealed preference approach and stated preference approach. Revealed preference data were collected through semi-structured questionnaire format. Stated preference data were collected through focused group discussion.
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(a) Impact on Owner Cultivator Households
The impact of technological change on participation of women of owner cultivator households in agricultural work is summarised in the following table:
Table 19 Participation of Females in Agricultural Production Activities as Unpaid Family Labour and Wage Labour Name of Participation of Females in Agricultural Production Village Activities as Unpaid Family Labour (%) SF SMF NSMF EMF GUP 0.0 0.0 25.0 50.0 Hadrabari 50.0 57.14 85.71 100.0 Participation of Females in Agricultural Production Activities as Wage Labour (%) GUP 0.0 0.0 8.33 40.0 Hadrabari 14.29* 28.57 34.29 33.33 Note : * = exchange labour and not wage labour Source: Field Study (Aug’ 2002 – Aug’ 2006).
The table shows that participation of women in agricultural work tends to be higher in those families who own and control smaller quantity of cultivable land.
(b) Impact on Agricultural Labourer Households
Impact on agricultural labourer households is classified in terms of participation in (i) production and (ii) processing.
(i) Participation of Females in Agricultural Production Activities
In production, the use of power tiller/tractor has reduced the workload of male labour but not of female labour. But the use of power tiller helps in crop diversification which in turn has increased indirectly the demand for male and female labour. However, some parts of cultivable land are not suitable for cultivation with power tiller. In this kind of land the demand for male and female labour is not effected.
(ii) Participation of Females in Agricultural Processing
The introduction of husking machine for paddy processing has reduced the use of husking paddle (dheki). The husking machine has reduced the workload of female family labour. Males operate the machines. Thus the use of husking machine has reduced the demand for female labour. The introduction of boiling machine has reduced the workload of females. The boiling machine takes less time for boiling paddy. In this work female wage labour is used to reduce cost because the male wage rate is higher and also it has been found in the village studies that in those activities where males and females can participate equally, normally, female labour is choosen due to the wage gap. However, it also depends on availability of female labour, opportunity cost of male labour, job opportunities in non-farm sector, formation of self-help groups etc.
Similar technological change has taken place in both the villages. The nature and extent of technological change is marginal and not strongly driven by market forces. Government policy interventions are the major impulse of technological change found in these villages. But production for self-consumption, limited technological change and absence of commercial organisation of agriculture have kept the agricultural households of the two villages in a tradition bound and stagnant form. It may be mentioned that one of the major objectives of the village studies is to trace the linkages, which may exist between technological change in agriculture and health and education status of females of the households whose major occupation is agriculture. One expects that technological change in agriculture shall have a positive impact on income of agricultural households. This in turn will lead to an improvement in education and health status of females. The village studies
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show that technological change as measured by different indicators has been limited in its nature and extent. The technological change, which has taken place, has been mainly ‘policy driven’ rather than ‘market driven’. This aspect of technological change is intimately linked with the extent of technological change. Technological change to be effective needs integration of production, processing and marketing. But in the villages studied, no technological change of significance was noticed at marketing level. Technological changes have occurred mainly at production and processing level. Even at these levels, technological change has remained limited to use of HYV seeds with weak irrigation support and shortages in the supply of nutrients. It is observed that ownership of cultivable land is an important determinant of the distribution of benefits of technological change among female members of the households in terms of health and education status. Except for the ‘extreme marginal farmers’, the female members of small farmers and other marginal farmers do not participate even as family labour for agriculture activities not to speak of wage labour. The female members of agricultural labourer households participate as wage labourers. They bear the ‘double burden’ of heavy manual work in private and public domains. Thus their general and reproductive health status as well as education status is lower than the status of female member of owner cultivator households. Consequently at the macro level one-to-one correspondence may not be found between agricultural development and health and education status of females. However, the difference in reproductive health status of females of owner cultivator households and agricultural labourers is not very significant in the case of the surveyed villages. The reason behind this phenomenon is not very difficult to identify. First, the amount of ownership of land even among the owner cultivators is not much above 6 kanis. Second, technological change is not yet market driven. As a result, considerable improvement in the level of income has not occurred even for owner cultivator households. Therefore, like the agricultural labourer households, the cultivators are dependent on health services provided by the Government, which have high ‘implicit’ cost. In the case of educational status also a similar economic logic is in operation.
VI Concluding Remarks
One can summarise the conclusions of the study in terms of the three objectives of the paper as indicated in Section I. Tripura falls in the category of low public expenditure rank and medium health and agricultural indices rank but high literacy rank among the 21 States of India. Fifth Plan period is a watershed in technological change in agriculture of Tripura. From the Fifth Plan period biochemical technological change in rice production began at a more rapid pace in Tripura as indicated by area-yield accounting and stability analysis. The benefits, which accrue to farmers, depend on their ownership and access on land. The landless can gain only through higher employment opportunities. For cultivators who own land, even if it is very little land, the impact is qualitatively different. Within these households, the situation of the females again differs due to the gender-based division of labour. Females belonging to landless agricultural households do low-skill manual work. They get lower wages than males. They have to do unpaid economic activities at home. They have to bear the extra load of the domestic activity and face reproductive health risk mainly due to weakness in public health care system in the rural areas. Therefore, specific policy initiatives are necessary for females belonging to landless agricultural households with a special focus on reproductive health, education, skill formation, capacity building, awareness programmes, participation in PRIs and creation of bonds through self-help groups. It is a matter of some satisfaction that these initiatives already exist in Tripura. What is to be stressed upon is qualitative improvement of these initiatives. It is going to be a difficult uphill task. A task which is of great importance to make the development process ‘inclusive’ and therefore, meaningful for all segments of our society.
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Note: 1. An exploratory multiple regression analysis carried out for the study to quantify the impact of technological change and social sector expenditure on an aggregate index of health and education shows that it is the coefficient of technological change which is statistically significant.
Appendix 1 The regression equation is HCI & ECI = - 0.14 + 0.489 ADCI + 0.567 PECI Predictor Coefficient Standard Deviation t p Constant -0.139 4.418 -0.03 0.975 ADCI 0.4893 0.1959 2.50 0.022 PECI 0.5666 0.3323 1.71 0.105 S = 0.2559 R-Sq = 25.8% R-Sq(adj) = 17.6% Note: HCI & ECI is simple average of their composite indices. Source: Same as Table 3.
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