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http://www.ms.uky.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw1/html/ch1a.htm

Exercises 1.1

1. Prove that One has 2. When does equality hold in Theorem 1-1 (3)? Equality holds precisely when one is a nonnegative multiple of the other. This is a consequence of the analogous assertion of the next problem. 3. Prove that . When does equality hold? . . Taking the square root of both sides gives the result.

The first assertion is the triangle inequality. I claim that equality holds precisely when one vector is a non-positive multiple of the other. If for some real is equivalent to , then substituting shows that the inequality and clearly equality holds if a is non-positive. Similarly, one has equality if

for some real

.

Conversely, if equality holds, then so . By Theorem 1-1 (2), it follows that and are linearly dependent. If for some real back into the equality shows that must be non-positive or must be 0. The case where is treated similarly. 4. Prove that . which is just the triangle inequality. On the other hand, if and .

, and , then substituting

If , then the inequality to be proved is just then the result follows from the first case by swapping the roles of 5. The quantity is called the distance between . and

,

. Prove and interpret geometrically the ``triangle inequality":

The inequality follows from Theorem 1-1(3):

Geometrically, if , , and of the other two sides. 6. Let and

are the vertices of a triangle, then the inequality says that the length of a side is no larger than the sum of the lengths

be functions integrable on

. .

1. Prove that

Theorem 1-1(2) implies the inequality of Riemann sums:

Taking the limit as the mesh approaches 0, one gets the desired inequality. 2. If equality holds, must for some ? What if and are continuous? and are continuous, then the

No, you could, for example, vary assertion is true. In fact, suppose that for each since and

at discrete points without changing the values of the integrals. If

, there is an

with

. Then the inequality holds true in an open neighborhood of since the integrand is always non-negative and is positive on some subinterval of for all . Since the quadratic has no solutions, it must be that its

are continuous. So

. Expanding out gives discriminant is negative. 3. Show that Theorem 1-1 (2) is a special case of (a). Let , , and for all in

for

. Then part (a) gives the inequality of Theorem 1-1

(2). Note, however, that the equality condition does not follow from (a). 7. A linear transformation is called norm preserving if , and inner product preserving if

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Exercises 1.1

http://www.ms.uky.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw1/html/ch1a.htm

1. Show that If

. is norm preserving if and only if

is inner product preserving.

is inner product preserving, then one has by Theorem 1-1 (4):

Similarly, if

is norm preserving, then the polarization identity together with the linearity of T give: .

2. Show that such a linear transformation

is 1-1, and that

is of the same sort.

Let be norm preserving. Then implies , i.e. the kernel of is trivial. So T is 1-1. Since is a 1-1 linear map of a finite dimensional vector space into itself, it follows that is also onto. In particular, has an inverse. Further, given , there is a with and so product preserving. 8. If and in are both non-zero, then the angle between and , denoted , is defined to be is 1-1 and for , one has which , since is norm preserving. Thus is norm preserving, and hence also inner

,

makes sense by Theorem 1-1 (2). The linear transformation is angle preserving if . 1. Prove that if is norm preserving, then is angle preserving. Assume is norm preserving. By Problem 1-7, is inner product preserving. So

. 2. If there is a basis are equal. of and numbers such that , prove that is angle preserving if and only if all

The assertion is false. For example, if

,

,

, . Now,

, and

, then , but

showing that T is not angle preserving. To correct the situation, add the condition that the means that: Suppose all the be pairwise orthogonal, i.e. because all the cross terms are zero. are equal in absolute value. Then one has because all the are equal and cancel out. So, this condition suffices to make for some and and that be angle preserving. for all . Using bilinearity, this

Now suppose that

. Then

since

. So, this condition suffices to make ?

not be angle preserving.

3. What are all angle preserving

The angle preserving are precisely those which can be expressed in the form V is norm preserving, and the operation is functional composition.

where U is angle preserving of the kind in part (b),

Clearly, any of this form is angle preserving as the composition of two angle preserving linear transformations is angle preserving. For the converse, suppose that is angle preserving. Let be an orthogonal basis of . Define to be the linear transformation such that for each . Since the are pairwise orthogonal and is angle preserving, the are also pairwise orthogonal. In particular, because the cross terms all cancel out. This proves that Then clearly and is norm preserving. Now define to be the linear transformation maps each . to

is angle preserving because it is the composition of two angle preserving maps. Further,

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http://www.ms.uky.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw1/html/ch1a.htm

a scalar multiple of itself; so 9. If , let . The transformation

is a map of the type in part (b). This completes the characterization. have the matrix . Show that is angle preserving and that if , then

is 1-1 by Cramer's Rule because the determinant of its matrix is 1. Further,

is norm preserving since

by the Pythagorean Theorem. By Problem 8(a), it follows that If , then one has

is angle preserving. . Further, since

is norm preserving, 10. If Let

. By the definition of angle, it follows that such that and

. for . One has . .

is a linear transformation, show that there is a number be the maximum of the absolute values of the entries in the matrix of

11. For

and

, show that

and

. Note that

and

denote points in

. This is a perfectly straightforward computation in terms of the coordinates of . If , define is . Define for a unique .

using only the definitions of inner by

product and norm. 12. Let denote the dual space of the vector space . Show that

is a 1-1 linear transformation and conclude that every is a linear tranformation and (b) is a linear transformation.

One needs to verify the trivial results that (a) proofs are omitted. Together these imply that Since for ,

. These follow from bilinearity; the

has no non-zero vectors in its kernel and so is 1-1. Since the dual space has dimension n, it follows that

is also onto. This proves the last assertion. 13. If , then and are called perpendicular (or orthogonal) if . By bilinearity of the inner product, one has for perpendicular and : . If and are perpendicular, prove that

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) (resp. The assertion about finitely many sets Let and be open. so is open.uky. then there are open rectangles (resp. Let with be a collection of open sets. Section 2 http://www. This proves that is open. Prove that the intersection of two (and hence finitely many) open sets is open. then there is an . Prove that If .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw2/html/ch1b. If . and so the . and the boundary is the is the empty set is the empty set . Prove that the union of any (even infinite) number of open sets is open. Since is open. The interior of The interior of is the set . . and be their union. there is an open rectangle containing . The intersection of the open intervals is the set containing only intersection of even countably many open sets is not necessarily open. Give a counterexample for infinitely many open sets.ms. then is open. If . 1 of 3 12/6/2011 3:08 PM . the exterior is the empty set . the exterior is .htm Exercises: Chapter 1. be the open rectangle centered at with sides of length . 16. and the boundary is the set . exterior. then let . and containing and contained in rectangle (Why?). Section 2 14. we have follows by induction.Exercises: Chapter 1. . If and so . the proofs are straightforward and omitted. 15. Find the interior. So is open. In each case. ). Since the intersection of two open rectangles is an open . and boundary of the sets: The interior of set . and the boundary is the set . the exterior is .

and such that the latter occurring (in ) of them is earliest possible. is Clearly. it follows that is in the boundary of . Let be a rational number in contained in . and contains all rational numbers in . If it is . could be made by listing a list all pairs (a. Let is closed and bounded. both and are in the list .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw2/html/ch1b. Then there is some portion of the square in which is entirely contained within the rectangle and containing . in increasing lexicographical order. Section 2 http://www. it suffices to show that nothing in is in the exterior of . Then make of all the quarters. first make a list of all the rational numbers in the interval [0. sixteenths. Hint: It suffices to ensure that and also in each sixteenth. there is a finite . For example. To show that this works. which is a contradiction. Since is compact. Then the collection is closed.htm such that 17. 19. If is a closed set that contains every rational number . is not in . it suffices its complement is open. then the sixteenths. of the unit sqare. one could by listing first the quarters. To do the construction. show that the boundary of is . Construct a set each vertical line but the boundary of is contains points in each quarter of the square contains at most one point on each horizontal and . 20. 18. etc. sixteenths. But every non-empty open subinterval of contains rational numbers. then simply and amongst those with same value of eliminate those pairs for which there is an earlier pair with the same value of . b) of integers with positive. Let be an open interval containing and disjoint from . Now. If . . which is a contradiction. show that . etc. let . Since is open.Exercises: Chapter 1. 1]. traverse the list : for each portion of the square. there is an open interval containing and disjoint from . etc. etc. choose any open rectangle containing . it suffices to show that every point in the square is in the boundary of . also the exterior of clearly contains as . and amongst such the other one is the earliest possible. Since the boundary is the complement of the union of the is in the exterior of . in increasing order of . Now contains a non-empty open subinterval of and this is necessarily disjoint from . non-negative. then and so is bounded. Prove the converse of Corollary 1-7: A compact subset of Suppose subcover To show that is compact. choose such that is in the portion. Since this part of the square contains an element of the set A and elements not in A (anything in the portion with the same x-coordinate works).uky. Suppose interior and the exterior. Suppose . To show this. neither has yet been the point used. Then there is a which contains . Suppose 2 of 3 12/6/2011 3:08 PM .ms. Similarly. with an obvious lexicographical order make amongst the quarters. Let be chosen so that . If is the union of open intervals such that each rational number in contained in some . be the open cover consisting of rectangles for all positive integers . the interior of is itself since it is a union of open sets.

Give a counterexample in A counterexample: 22. If is closed and . It is straightforward to verify that is also true. prove that there is a number such that for all Such an is in the exterior of containing and disjoint from . Let . so and . prove that there is a . Let is . Clearly.htm where be a finite subcover. If is closed.ms. Finally.uky. this . Then . Then is an open cover of . show that there is a compact set . and for all and For each . Let . Then. If is open and the interior of and Let if and are required both to be closed with neither compact. by the triangle be a finite subcover. choose to be as in part (a). which shows the assertion. is bounded and 3 of 3 12/6/2011 3:08 PM .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw2/html/ch1b. So the complement of is open. we know that satisfies the assertion. be as in Problem 1-21 (b) applied with is compact. Let is an open neighborhood of which is disjoint from closed.Exercises: Chapter 1. Let . can be is compact. i. such that is contained in is the x-axis and is compact. closed. is an open cover of . a. .e. Section 2 http://www. and let inequality. and so there is an open rectangle . is the graph of the exponential function. 21. . c. This was chosen so that is entirely contained within the open rectangle. such that means that no b.

So. Let . then such that if and only if This is an immediate consequence of Problem 1-23 and the definition of continuity. show that .uky. Let the line be . every is clearly continuous at 0. Choose for each . . So. for all . then the line intersects the graph of Let .htm Exercises: Chapter 1. is identically zero in a neighborhood of zero by part (a). If satisfies such that . In particular. On the other hand. Then. if . is in . if and only if each is. Section 3 http://www. then the whole line is disjoint from at and . cannot be continuous at because every open 1 of 2 12/6/2011 3:09 PM . and . by if and if . 25. Since the only roots of . a positive . but For each .ms. then is continuous. Show that each is continuous at 0. Show that every straight line through . and . Prove that a linear transformation By Problem 1-10. the line cannot intersect anywhere to the left of . Prove that and for each Suppose that for every with . Prove that is continuous at . for each i. there is an Let . . . b. On the other hand. So 24. it follows by the intermediate value theorem that for all with . then . Let a. one has satisfies .Exercises: Chapter 1. is chosen as in the definition of and satisfies . Then. Let . Let .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw3/html/ch1c. Define by at . If . For define is not continuous . contains an interval around which is in . for each i. if . suppose that . if and nowhere else. Section 3 23. Conversely. Then is continuous and are at 0 and . So T is continuous at 26.

and hence are in since it is closed. Then and are boundary points of . Let be an increasing function. let by Problem 1-4. ) be the greatest lower bound (respectively least upper bound) of .ms. is continuous at . Clearly these are the minimum and maximum values of . 27. and let Clearly. one has is not closed. one has is open by considering the function with The function is continuous. If is compact. If . If .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw3/html/ch1c. in particular. and hence is closed and bounded. is compact. prove that every continuous function minimum value. are distinct. choose to be a boundary point of which is not in . Then for any . show that there is a continuous function As suggested. One has . To show it is continuous at .uky. Let . Let (resp. show that 2 of 2 12/6/2011 3:09 PM . it is an upper bound for the sum of the and the right hand side ``telescopes" and is bounded above by the difference of the two end terms which in turn is bounded above by . and they are taken on since they are in . let . let and choose .Exercises: Chapter 1. Prove that . Since 28. 30. one has: proves that is continuous. is bounded above by the quantity on the right for any . . . Section 3 http://www. contains points of and for all those points . with where we have used Problem 1-4 in the simplification. This . In fact. The function on the right is an increasing function of . If . takes on a maximum and a By Theorem 1-9. This shows that 29. So.htm rectangle containing . Now add up all the inequalities with this value of . then is open by Theorem 1-8. this is unbounded. which is unbounded. it follows that and . Now assume that the have been re-ordered so that they are in increasing order.

Section 1 1. i. 3.uky. What is is independent of the second variable if and in terms of be defined by . then because: Note: Actually. Conversely.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw4/html/ch2a. 4. only if there is a function The first assertion is trivial: If is independent of the second variable. but this follows immediately from Problem 1-10. Let be a continuous real-valued function on the unit circle and . this is equivalent to their being a function such that for all . you can let . then it is continuous at . Just as before. Define when a function is independent of the first variable and find for such . then If is independent of the second variable. Show that such that . is the Jacobian. A function is differentiable at . a 1 x 2 matrix.htm Exercises Chapter 2.ms. if . So. but I will often confound with . . Section 1 http://www. even though one is a linear transformation and the other is a matrix. we need only .Exercises Chapter 2. So. Which functions are independent of the first variable and also of the second variable? The function is independent of the first variable if and only if for all . we have ? is said to be independent of the second variable if for each for all . then . it would be more proper to say that . An argument similar to that of the previous problem shows that .e. Prove that if If is differentiable at show that 2. define by such that 1 of 4 12/6/2011 3:11 PM .

Prove that is differentiable at . Similarly. If and is defined by when and . by approaching zero along the 45 degree line in the first quadrant. and so we see that this just says that is identically zero. . Let be defined by . using the definition of derivative. one gets : . is not differentiable at (0. 6.ms. Show that . . so that is not differentiable at Define by for all satisfies all the properties of Problem 2-4 and that the function statement of this problem. Let In fact. is linear One has and hence differentiable. Show that is differentiable at 0. 8. is a function of the kind considered in Problem 2-4. then would be the zero map. say. Then it is trivial to show that obtained from this is as in the is not differentiable at 0. Let be defined by . one can show that. Show that . 7. Just as in the proof of Problem 2-4. On the other hand. Let case be a function such that by the squeeze principle using . But for all 5. But with.Exercises Chapter 2. Section 1 http://www. Thus . if were differentiable at 0. . if and only if and are. we get for fixed .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw4/html/ch2a. 0) unless is differentiable at . Show that Suppose otherwise. and in this 2 of 4 12/6/2011 3:11 PM . In both cases.htm a. show that is differentiable. More generally. b. one would then have: in spite of the fact that the limit is clearly 1.uky. Then one must have: and so .

edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw4/html/ch2a. But then the condition is equivalent to the assertion that is . So. Two functions is differentiable at with the desired derivative. must be differentiable at with . if are equal up to order at a. equal up to first order. If and be continuous at : If there is a of the . are differentiable at . show that are equal up to order at a. . Since is continuous. Indeed. this . add the assumption that specified form with Multiplying this by means that differentiable at b. and the function defined by with exist.Exercises Chapter 2. if the squeeze principle to conclude that 9. Show that is differentiable at if and only if there is a function of the form such that and are equal up to first order at . Then one has the inequality: . you can change the value of at without changing whether or not and are equal up to first order. The converse is not true.uky. then .htm Suppose that . Section 1 http://www. then the function works by the If is differentiable at definition of derivative. To make the converse true. we see that .ms. But clearly changing the value of at changes whether or not is differentiable at . then use the inequality derived from Problem 1-1: and the On the other hand. by the squeeze principle. 3 of 4 12/6/2011 3:11 PM .

ms. one has: . 4 of 4 12/6/2011 3:11 PM .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw4/html/ch2a.1 times to the limit to see that the value of the limit is hand.uky. On the other Subtracting these two results gives shows that and are equal up to order at . Section 1 http://www.Exercises Chapter 2.htm Apply L'Hôpital's Rule n .

If . we get: is the function of part (c).e.uky.Exercises: Chapter 2. We have and so by the chain rule. If . c. then . Section 2 10.htm Exercises: Chapter 2.ms. The chain rule gives: f.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw5/html/ch2b. Use the theorems of this section to find a. So one gets: 1 of 6 12/6/2011 3:11 PM . e. Using Theorem 2-3 (3) and part (a). i. and so by the chain rule: for the following: d. Section 2 http://www. . then . . then and we know the derivative of from part (a). b. one has: . If Using the chain rule. One has . one has: .

If . A function have is bilinear if for . one gets . and so: .uky. Using parts (h). Find a.Exercises: Chapter 2. If c. One has and and (a) above. If b. Section 2 http://www. g. for the following (where . The chain rule gives: i. h. where have derivatives as given in parts (d) 12. is continuous): . . and so: . then . is as in part (a). then . Using the last part: j. So one gets: . and (a).htm . we 2 of 6 12/6/2011 3:11 PM . then . . and .ms. (c).edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw5/html/ch2b. . . 11.

b.ms. So b. which we consider as a member of Since c.Exercises: Chapter 2. But.uky. 3 of 6 12/6/2011 3:11 PM . show that . Show that the formula for in Theorem 2-3 is a special case of (b). Since . its transpose . it was verified in the proof of Theorem 2-3 (5). . c. Section 2 http://www.) is an matrix. . Prove that if is bilinear. If show that are differentiable. . is bilinear. and is defined by . we see that it suffices to show the result in the case where and the bilinear function is the product function. Then we have by an obvious induction using bilinearity. This follows by applying (b) to the bilinear function 13. Find and by By Problem 2-12 and the fact that (Note that is an matrix. Prove that One has by bilinearity and part (a).htm a. .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw5/html/ch2b. is differentiable and for all . one has . then Let have a 1 in the place only. If . in this case. It follows that there is an depending only on such that: . one can apply the chain rule to get the assertion. Define a. .

show that for . b. Prove that . If is multilinear and . one could let . 14. Prove that are distinct. a. this limit is -fold product is differentiable and by considering each row 4 of 6 12/6/2011 3:11 PM . Just as in the bilinear case.uky. This can be argued similarly to Problem 2-12. Section 2 http://www. Exhibit a differentiable function is not differentiable. This shows the result.Exercises: Chapter 2. A function is called multilinear if for each choice of the function is a linear transformation. we have This is an immediate consequence of Problem 2-12 (b). d. Then such that the function |f| defined by |f|(t) = |f(t)| is not differentiable at 0.ms. the remainder looks like a sum of terms as in part (a) except that there may be more than two type arguments. Regard an matrix as a point in the as a member of .htm Use part (b) applied to to get . Just apply the definition expanding the numerator out using multilinearity. This shows the result. Trivially. a.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw5/html/ch2b. 15. with defined by . Let be Euclidean spaces of various dimensions. These can be expanded out as in the proof of the bilinear case to get a sum of terms that look like constant multiples of where is at least two and the zero.

If equations: . recall that Cramer's Rule allows you to write down explicit formulas for the where is the matrix of the coefficients and the are obtained from by replacing the column with the column of the . If are differentiable and . Section 2 http://www. We can take transposes since the determinant of the transpose is the same as the determinant of the original matrix.ms. b. this makes the formulas simpler because the formula for derivative of a for all and be the functions such that for are differentiable.uky. c.Exercises: Chapter 2. Without writing all the details.htm This is an immediate consequence of Problem 2-14 (b) and the multilinearity of the determinant function. let are the solutions of the . Show that is differentiable and find 5 of 6 12/6/2011 3:11 PM .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw5/html/ch2b. show that This follows by the chain rule and part (a).

Show This follows immediately by the chain rule applied to 6 of 6 12/6/2011 3:11 PM . . Suppose that is differentiable and has a differentiable inverse . . Section 2 http://www. Anyway.Exercises: Chapter 2.ms.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw5/html/ch2b.uky. one can use the quotient formula and part (b) to give a formula for the derivative of the .htm determinant involved rows and so now you are replacing the row rather than the column. 16.

b. e. . . . Section 3 17.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw6/html/ch2c. i. .ms. f. . 1 of 6 12/6/2011 3:12 PM . Section 3 http://www. h. d.htm Exercises: Chapter 2.Exercises: Chapter 2.uky. c. Find the partial derivatives of the following functions: a. . g.

d. is continuous): .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw6/html/ch2c. . b. 2 of 6 12/6/2011 3:12 PM . in terms of the derivatives of and if 20. b. c. .uky. If find Since . 19.ms. one has . Section 3 http://www. Find the partial derivatives of a.htm 18. Find the partial derivatives of the following functions (where a. . c. . . .Exercises: Chapter 2.

By the mean value theorem. be defined so that . By . one knows that if a function of one variable has zero derivative on a closed interval .ms. to . show that is a constant. Suppose and are arbitrary points of . it follows that and . 21. . . If and such that . is independent of the second variable. . and . Let a. from to . Then the line segment from to are all contained in . show that . e. If and . . Show that True since the first term depends only on b. Let be continuous.Exercises: Chapter 2.htm d. Find a function such that but 3 of 6 12/6/2011 3:12 PM . Both assertions are immediate consequences of this result. Find a function One could let Find one such that One could let 22. Define by a. then it is constant on that interval. and from the proof of Problem 2-22. ? .uky. So b. If and .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw6/html/ch2c. show that . How should One could let c. . Section 3 http://www. . 23. . is not independent of the second variable.

uky. Consider the function where is a polynomial. 4 of 6 12/6/2011 3:12 PM . The assertions follow immediately by substituting in the other. and . define and for all . Further. Define by a. function is for . Show that is a function. Then for it follows that all . 24. and defined by for all . .ms. By induction on . 25. Then. Show that Using part (a).Exercises: Chapter 2. In particular. one has (because into one formula and b. Section 3 http://www. one has ). Define by a. .htm One could let . one has . Show that One has since for all and for all when . and and so for all and .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw6/html/ch2c.

For points other than 1 and -1. using Problem 2-25 on the side closest to the origin. suppose by induction on . Show that there is a for .Exercises: Chapter 2. d.ms. Section 3 http://www. b. function such that for and Following the hint. But this is an easy . If . Show that is a function which is positive on and zero elsewhere. Let c. let be as in Problem 2-25 and Now use Problem 2-25 to prove that e. show that there is a non-negative function 5 of 6 12/6/2011 3:12 PM . To show that this limit is zero. This follows from part (a). 1) and 0 elsewhere. it suffices to show that induction using L'Hôpital's rule: for each integer . that . At each of the exceptional points. define by works. the result is obvious.htm Now.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw6/html/ch2c.uky. Show that is a function which is positive on (-1. We have . consider the derivative from the left and from the right. f. If is open and is compact.

It is easy to verify that this new satisfies the required conditions.htm such that . let be the open rectangle centered at with sides of length . one knows is attains its minimum (Problem 1-29). a finite number of them also cover .Exercises: Chapter 2. Let be the function defined for this rectangle as in part (c). for and outside of some closed set contained in Let be the distance between and the complement of . is either the maximum of or the This is obvious because 6 of 6 12/6/2011 3:12 PM . Finally. Since the set of these rectangles is an open cover of the compact set . .uky. say the rectangles corresponding to form a subcover.ms. g. Since we have a subcover of . we have positive on .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw6/html/ch2c. Define by Show that the maximum of maximum of on on . As suggested in the hint. The choice of guarantees that the union of the closures of the rectangles in the subcover is contained in and is clearly zero outside of this union. 26. let . replace with that where is the function of part (b). Section 3 http://www. Show that we can choose such an so that and for . Since is compact. and choose For each . This proves the assertion. We know that for all . Let be as in part (d).

Section 4 28. 29. d.htm Exercises: Chapter 2. Find expressions for the partial derivatives of the following functions: a. 1 of 4 12/6/2011 3:13 PM .ms. the limit if it exists. c. For .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw7/html/ch2d. .Exercises: Chapter 2. Show that and called the directional derivative of . . in the direction . . is denoted a. This is obvious from the definitions.uky. Let . b. Section 4 http://www. at .

Let be defined as in Problem 2-4. . although is not even continuous at (0. . then The last assertion follows from the additivity of the function 30.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw7/html/ch2d. Let be defined as in Problem 1-26.htm b. The case when is trivially true. 2 of 4 12/6/2011 3:13 PM .ms. Show that exists for all and all is not true for all With the notation of Problem 2-4. show that . 32.Exercises: Chapter 2. c. part (a) of that problem says that suppose . Then . Let be defined by for all . Section 4 http://www. is differentiable at 0 but is differentiable at . but if . But . 31. a. Now .0). and therefore One has which shows the result whenever . exists for all . Show that exists for all . By Problem 1-26 (a). Show that Clearly. If is differentiable at . At is not continuous at 0. Show that . . one has since .uky.

35. 34. Let be defined by Show that is differentiable at (0. But the second term takes on all values between -1 and 1 in every open neighborhood of .0) but that is not continuous at . If is also Applying Theorem 2-9 to and so show the result. It follows from the differentiability of .) Further (a). 0) is the zero linear transformation because . If is differentiable and gives . prove that there exist such that 3 of 4 12/6/2011 3:13 PM . In the case. may be eliminated from the hypothesis of Theorem 2-8. The first term has limit 0 as approaches 0. it suffices to note that follows from the definition of . in these two formulas . However. and so they cannot be continuous at 0. . show that if for all and . The derivative at (0. just as in part (a). does not even exist. A function is homogeneous of degree differentiable.Exercises: Chapter 2. b.htm For .ms. Proceed as in the proof of Theorem 2-8 for all This is all that is needed in the rest of the proof. one has .uky. Show that the continuity of at up to a sign. Substituting . that and . So. Section 4 http://www. On the other hand. for where is as in part are defined for .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw7/html/ch2d. (The argument given above also shows that they are defined and 0 at the partials are equal to 33.

.Exercises: Chapter 2. Then . So.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw7/html/ch2d. Section 4 http://www.ms.htm Following the hint. On the other hand. we have the result with .uky. let . Theorem 2-9 gives 4 of 4 12/6/2011 3:13 PM .

Since clearly . It follows that is differentiable. by restricting to an appropriate and get a 1-1 function defined on on a rectangle in one less dimension and mapping into a space of dimension one less. is differentiable. then consider .uky. Section 5 36. This is a contradiction since is non-empty and open.ms. On the other hand. Show that a continusously differentiable 1-1 function such that is an open set and . if for some defined by and its inverse will look like . . this shows that is differentiable at . So. there is an open set . is open for any open set For every . Generalize this result to tthe case of a continuously differentiable function . . then we replace by one. By repeating this process. The function . 1 of 2 12/6/2011 3:14 PM . be a continuously differentiable function. Note that we have made rectangle. a. Replace with on an open subset of . we can apply Problem 2-36. The inverse function is clearly of the form and so for all . if with . it follows that is differentiable. b. Show that We will show the result is true even if is only defined in a non-empty open subset of Following the hint.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw8/html/ch2e. Just as in part (a). By Theorem 2-11. For the general case of a map is constant in a non-empty open set reducing the value of the function where is an open subset of with with and drop out . this will be invertible . Furthermore Since was arbitrary. Again. Let is open.Exercises: Chapter 2. Now is open but each horizontal line intersects at most once since is 1-1. By replacing with a vector of variables. Assuming that are 1-1. the proof of part (a) generalizes to the case where is a function defined on an open subset of where . suppose we have (the case where is analogous). we can simply fix the value of . Then there is an open neighborhood defined by and hence of with satisfies for all for all . we know that is not constant in any open set. is not 1-1. Let be an open set and for all Show also that . Section 5 http://www. there is an with and an open subset such that and is open.htm Exercises: Chapter 2. we see that By applying the previous results to the set 37. in place of .

The function is not 1-1 since . Show that for to show that continuity of the derivative cannot be eliminated from the hypothesis of Theorem 2-11. one has So satisfies the conditions of Theorem 2-11 at except that it is not continuously differentiable for . Suppose one has between and such that .uky.htm one eventually gets to the case where is equal to 1. By the mean value theorem. Clearly. but by is not 1-1. a. By taking n larger and larger. 38. at 0 since Now and it is straightforward to verify that for all sufficiently large positive integers . Since both factors on the right are non-zero. . 2 of 2 12/6/2011 3:14 PM . At . is differentiable for . By the intermediate value theorem. for all for all 39. If satisfies for all for some . this is impossible. Define all Clearly. there is a . b. Section 5 http://www.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw8/html/ch2e. which we have already taken care of. there is a between and where .Exercises: Chapter 2. show that is 1-1 on all of .ms. Use the function defined by . we see that is not 1-1 on any neighborhood of 0.

If for all was meant to be continuously differentiable. for each .uky. . Note that this is of the same form as the set of equations for except that the right hand side functions have changed. Find 1 of 2 12/6/2011 3:14 PM . Section 6 http://www. it is assumed that a. Section 6 40.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw9/html/ch2f. Let Suppose that for each be differentiable. Use the implicit function theorem to re-do Problem 2-15(c).ms. In is differentiable and differentiating this last relation gives . Define by for all . it must be that . is the same as the . One has .htm Exercises: Chapter 2.Exercises: Chapter 2. By differentiating the relation . show that is differentiable and Just as in the last problem. The determinant condition guarantees that for each . there is exactly one solution of for . call that solution . . then for some we have and . By the uniqueness of for all in the domain of the solutions in the last paragraph. Let . For each there is a unique with defined . the various functions all glue together into a single function defined on all of and differentiable everywhere. let be this by . Show that if This follows immediately from part (a). 41. c. b. the Implicit function theorem says that there is a function defined in an open neighborhood of and such that and is differentiable. the uniqueness condition guarantees that function provided by the implicit function theorem applied to particular. Now. one gets for . In particular. Solving for gives the result. . An explicit formula can be obtained by using Cramer's rule. In this problem.

and so for fixed . Then .ms. at . Section 6 http://www. Then . So we need to go back and show that the earlier parts of the problem generalize to this case. so the maximum occurs at . The derivative precisely when if and there is a unique is achieved at .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw9/html/ch2f. precisely when and so the hypothesis (since both and are positive). The maximum value is . This is a decreasing function and so the maximum occurs at the left hand endpoint. and the value of the maximum is .htm Note that is defined only when and are positive. The derivative of this function is negative throughout the interval. This function has no zeros in the interval because has derivative which is always negative in the interval and the value of the function is positive at the right end point. Then we need to maximize . we are not looking for the minimum over all interval .Exercises: Chapter 2. The maximum value is . Now actually. Suppose . The derivative of this function is . One has of part (a) is true and . that means that the maximum over the entire interval . For fixed if We will find where the maximum of the minimum's are located in each of the three cases. there are no difficulties in doing this. 2 of 2 12/6/2011 3:14 PM . the minimum of occurs at test. but just for those in the for where . By the result of the previous paragraph the maximum over the entire interval must therefore occur at . In view of occurs at the last paragraph. .uky. Suppose . Now on the interval. Suppose . . if by the second derivative . and at . and so the maximum must occur at the left hand end point. Further . Also.

is such that every subrectangle of the number of points where and bounds for the values for all . if by dividing each side into equal sized subintervals and . has the same is any partition. if property. then any point is an element of at most of the subrectangles of . In fact. Section 1 1. In fact. and so is integrable. 1 of 5 12/6/2011 3:15 PM . Let be a refinement of where .ms. ) are upper (resp. where . Section 1 http://www. For this partition. the real proof is of course an induction on m. 2. Taking differences those subrectangles which contain at least one of the gives 3. there is a partition of in which every subrectangle has volume less than . and (resp.htm Exercises: Chapter 3. Let be defined by Show that is integrable and that . have values which differ. then any common refinement of this partition and each subrectangle is precisely If and is a partition of . then the volume of which is less than as soon as . Apply Theorem 3-3 to the partition .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw10/html/ch3a.uky. Show that is integrable . except at finitely many points. because the terms of the sum can differ only on points where and differ. Then the hypotheses of Theorem 3-3 are satisfied by and and where is any upper bound for the volume of the subrectangles of . Let be integrable. The intuitive iddea of the proof is that the worst case is when the point is in a `corner'. be integrable and let . Let and be a partition as in Theorem 3-3 applied to has volume less than and . Let and For any you partition Furthermore. lower) .Exercises: Chapter 3.

b. show that and therefore . Since . show that . Section 1 http://www. Show that is integrable and . . Further is integrable. and are just positively argument shows the result for weighted sums of the . . Let be a partition as in Theorem 3-3 applied to and . . By Theorem 3-3.ms. For any constant . ) and . Let be a (resp. A similar argument shows the result for . and so it is at most equal to the greatest lower bound of these values. Since and for each subrectangle of . ) be a partition as in Theorem 3-3 applied to (resp. Then by part (a) and Lemma 3-1. For any partition of and any subrectangle and and of .uky. . one has and since greatest lower bounds are is a lower bound for lower bounds.htm a. A similar . one concludes that c. the other case being proved in a similar manner. Adding these inequalities shows that .Exercises: Chapter 3.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw10/html/ch3a. we have 2 of 5 12/6/2011 3:15 PM . For each . We will show the result in the case where . By the squeeze principle. and the result for can be obtained by summing (with weights) the inequalities for the . Let common refinement of and .

Then there are refinements subrectangles of which are contained in whose rectangles are the set of all . is integrble. Suppose that all the Theorem 3-3 applied to are integrable where and is any subrectangle of .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw10/html/ch3a. Let be a partition as in . Then . applied to integral is 4. By Theorem 3-3.ms. One has 3 of 5 12/6/2011 3:15 PM . Suppose that is integrable and . and that in this . Section 1 http://www. the function is integrable. it follows that is integrable. Let be a common refinement of and . its and be a partition of .uky. Then there is a partition of whose subrectangles are precisely the subrectangles of which are contained in . which consists of restricted to . Let be the (for where is the number of rectangles in of the partition of A obtained by taking the union of all the subsequences defining the partitions of the each dimension).Exercises: Chapter 3. by the squeeze principle. Show that is integrable if and only if for each the function . Let be a partition of as in Theorem 3-3 applied to and .htm By Theorem 3-3. and . Let subrectangle case .

. by the squeeze principle. Using the trivial since be integrable and suppose By Problem 3-3. Let be a partition as in Theorem 3-3 applied to and .ms. and. Let is integrable. Section 1 http://www. Show that .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw10/html/ch3a. then . If . Then this implies that 4 of 5 12/6/2011 3:15 PM . Consider the function and . we have . For any rectangle contained in . 6. On the other hand.htm By Theorem 3-3. it has the desired value. if . then . If is integrable.uky. show that is integrable and . This proves the result. we have . the function 5. the function partition in which is integrable and is the only rectangle.Exercises: Chapter 3. .

Let Show that Let is integrable and . Further. But then by Problem 3-3. Since . Choose a positive integer so that . one can show that that is integrable.uky. Since . such a exists and the total volume of all the rectangles containing points of this type is at most .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw10/html/ch3a.htm So. . of course. It follows that . so their contribution to is at most . the contribution to from these rectangles is also at most . For the remaining rectangles . it follows that 7. so if Problem 3-5 implies that (c). is integrable by Theorem 3-3. Since there are at most such pairs . the value of and their total volume is. no larger than 1. Section 1 http://www. But then. By Theorem 3-3.Exercises: Chapter 3. Let be any partition of such that every point with lies in a rectangle of of height (in the direction) at most . is integrable. it follows integrable. be defined by by Problem 3-3 Similarly. since . is integrable and the squeeze principle implies that its integral is 0.ms. . 5 of 5 12/6/2011 3:15 PM .

Let where . Choose a partition which refines all of the partitions where Note that is a rectangle of the cover . 9. where . . and hence not of content 0 by part (a). are rectangles. of measure 0 such that the boundry of The set of rational numbers in the interval is of measure 0 (cf Proof of Problem 3-9 (b)). which is at most equal to the sum of the volumes of the . b. Section 2 8. show that the boundary of Suppose a finite set of open rectangles cover of and have total volume less than also has content 0. Give an example of a closed set of measure 0 which does not have content 0. a. Let . contains all the natural numbers and the total . So is not of content 0 as it cannot be covered with rectangles of total area less than the volume of . By replacing the with . Indeed.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw11/html/ch3b. say where contains all the and and hence also . Suppose for are closed rectangles which form a cover for . a. On the other . So the boundary of b. Section 2 http://www. If C is a set of content 0.Exercises: Chapter 3. Show that an unbounded set Suppose Let . if contains an interior point not in for some . contrary to hypothesis.htm Exercises: Chapter 3.ms. The sum of the volumes of the rectangles of is the volume of . Give an example of a bounded set measure 0. Then the union of the cover the is also of content 0. Since the intersection of any two rectangles of a partition is contained in their boundaries. then contains only boundary points of . . Then bounded. The set of natural numbers is unbounded. where cannot have content 0. it is of measure zero. 10. if has non-empty interior. then is a subset of for some since the union of the is . So. Let be any rectangle in with non-empty interior. does not have boundary of and have total volume less than . But then is . if for volume of all the intervals is . then the union of the open intervals hand. 1 of 2 12/6/2011 3:16 PM . Prove that is not of content 0 if for .uky. one can assume that for all . but its boundary is not of measure 0 (by Theorem 3-6 and Problem 3-8).

contains and is contained in some in . If it were also of measure 0. so is the set of all -tuples of rational numbers. In particular. and hence so are the set of corresponding 's. Let be the set of Problem 1-18. Hence the set of discontinuities of is a countable union of finite sets.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw11/html/ch3b. Section 2 http://www. there is a rectangle B of the type in part (a) such that has non-zero volume. Show that is a set of if finite for every Using the hint. this set of corresponding 's cover . 1]. 13. Following the hint. If . we know by Problem 1-30 that the set of where .uky. show that there is a sequence of members of which also cover . Since the set of these intervals is just a subset of this set. and hence compact. closed and bounded. Let measure 0. and each are Since the set of rational numbers is countable. 2 of 2 12/6/2011 3:16 PM . be an increasing function. In fact. a. show that the boundary of does not have measure 0. Since the set these open intervals together with the set of form an open cover of [0. Show that the set of all rectangles where each rational can be arranged into a sequence (i. then it The set would be of content 0 by Theorem 3-6. b. By part (a). 12.Exercises: Chapter 3. and hence has measure 0 by Theorem 3-4.e. there is a finite subcover of .ms. contrary to Theorem 3-5. the set of these are countable. But then there is a finite collection of open intervals which cover the set and have total volume less than . for each in . and cartesian products of countable sets are countable. the union of the interiors of the rectangles (where is allowed to range throughout ) is a cover of . form a countable set). If is any set and is an open cover of . we can even assume that is in the interior of the rectangle .htm 11. But then the sum of the lengths of the intervals in this finite subcover would be less than 1. it must be countable too.

So has content 0. which is not of which can be made as small as desired. then f is 1 of 2 12/6/2011 3:16 PM . But then the boundary of must be of content 0. the sum of whose volumes is at most . 15. one gets an open rectangular cover of with sets. so of . Since has content 0. show that . Show that if and has content 0. show that has measure 0.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw12/html/ch3c. So 17. is . it follows that . These last two sets are of measure 0 by Theorem 3-8. which is contained in the union of the closures of the (since this union is closed). Section 3 http://www. so it is a subset of an closed rectangle . Show that if except on a set of measure 0. Then if have . Now apply Theorem 3-4 to conclude that has measure 0. But then the boundary of is contained in the closure of . by Problem 3-5. Show that if are integrable. Let . one has for some open rectangles the sum of whose volumes can be made as small as desired. Further. is a bounded set of measure 0 and Using the hint. so is . Let be the open set of Problem 3-11. 16. But then there is a point of exists. Then the boundary of measure 0. If does not exist by Theorem 3-9. exists. If is non-negative and . But then is integrable by Theorem 3-8. Let be a which intersects . . so theee first set is also of measure 0. So is a rectangle of . for some closed rectangle and is Jordan-measurable If has content 0. so be the set of rational numbers in .Exercises: Chapter 3. Since this holds for all partitions Following the hint. and so is Jordan measurable by Theorem 3-9. Give an example of a bounded set Let of measure 0 such that does not exist. let be a positive integer and partition of such that . let be a partition of where is a closed rectangle containing . Section 3 14.uky. Since this is true of all . we outside of . Then is not of measure 0 by Problem 3-8. are The set of where is not continuous is contained in the union of the sets where and not continuous. one has if the integral . then . By replacing the closed rectangles with slightly larger open rectangles.ms. and so . Then let be a rectangle of of positive volume. 19. one has .htm Exercises: Chapter 3. then it is bounded by Problem 3-9 (a). 18.

show that there is a compact Jordan measurable set be a closed rectangle containing . if it is of measure 0. This shows that the boundary of is of content 0. Then and clearly is . Suppose for every . Apply Problem 3-21 with as the Jordan measurable set. If is a Jordan measurable set and such that Let Let . Then its boundary is of content 0 by Theorem 3-9. Let choose a finite set for of open rectangles the sum of whose volumes is less than and form a cover of the boundary of . show that there is a partition of such that all subrectangles intersecting and is Jordan measurable if and only if for every . Section 3 http://www. there is a partition as in the statement. be the partition as in Problem 3-21. 22. The set of where is not continuous is which is not of measure 0. then is not integrable by Theorem 3-8. which is a contradiction. Show that an increeasing function is integrable on . Jordan measurable by Theorem 3-9. Define . This satisfies the condition in the statement of the problem. and Suppose is Jordan measurable. If is a closed rectangle. Let be a partition of such that every such that the subrectangle of is either contained within each or does not intersect it. This is an immediate consequence of Problem 3-12 and Theorem 3-8. .uky. Then by replacing the rectangles with slightly larger ones. where consists of consists of allsubrectangles contained in . one can obtain the same result except now one will have in place of and the will be open rectangles. So this set is also of measure 0. then taking the union of this set with the set of measure 0 consisting of the points where and differ gives a set of measure 0 which contains the set of points where is not continuous.Exercises: Chapter 3. hence is Jordan measurable by Theorem 3-9. Further 2 of 2 12/6/2011 3:16 PM .ms. 21. 20.htm not integrable on . On the other hand. If the set where is not continuous is not of measure 0.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw12/html/ch3c.

Exercises: Chapter 3, Section 4

http://www.ms.uky.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw13/html/ch3d.htm

**Exercises: Chapter 3, Section 4
**

23. Let be a set of content 0. Let be the set of all such that is not of content 0. Show that Following the hint, Theorem. We have or is a set of measure 0. by Problem 3-15 and Fubini's is equivalent to the condition that either is also of measure 0.

is integrable with . Now

. Both of these having integral 0 implies by Problem 3-18 that the sets

where their integrand is non-zero are of measure 0, and so 24. Let

be the union of all where is a rational number in written in lowest terms. Use to show that the word ``measure" in Problem 3-23 cannot be replaced with ``content". The set is the set of rational numbers in which is of measure 0, but not of content 0, because the . Let where

integral of its characteristic function does not exist. To see that the set has content 0, let be such that . Then the set can be covered by the rectangles and for each in lowest terms with , the rectangle . The sum of the areas of these rectangles is less than 25. Show by induction on for each . that .

is not a set of measure 0 (or content 0) if

This follows from Problem 3-8 and Theorem 3-6, but that is not an induction. Fubini's Theorem and induction on not of measure 0. 26. Let be integrable and non-negative, and let . Show that . One has and so by Fubini, is Jordan measurable and has area show that and so does not have content 0, and hence is

where 27. If

is an upper bound on the image of

.

is continuous, show that

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where the upper bounds need to be determined. By Fubini, the left hand iterated integral is just where

Applying Fubini again, shows that this integral is equal to 28. Use Fubini's Theorem to give an easy proof that

. if these are continuous.

Following the hint, if is not zero for some point , then we may assume (by replacing with if necessary that it is positive at . But then continuity implies that it is positive on a rectangle containing . But then its integral over is also positive. On the other hand, using Fubini on gives:

Similarly, one has

Subtracting gives:

which is a contradiction. obtained by revolving a

29. Use Fubini's Theorem to derive an expression for the volume of a set in Jordan measurable set in the -plane about the -axis.

To avoid overlap, it is convenient to keep the set in the positive

half plane. To do this, let

be the original

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Exercises: Chapter 3, Section 4

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Jordan measurable set in the measurable if is.

-plane, and replace it with . Theorem 3-9 can be used to show that

is Jordan

The problem appears to be premature since we really want to be able to do a change of variables to cylindrical coordinates. Assuming that we know how to do that, the result becomes . 30. Let be the set in Problem 1-17. Show that

but that

does not exist. as that

The problem has a typo in it; the author should not have switched the order of the arguments of trivializes the assertion.

The iterated integrals are zero because the inside integral is the zero function. The last integral cannot exist by Theorem 3-9 and Problem 1-17. 31. If and is continuous, define by

What is Let

, for

in the interior of

?

be in the interior of

, fix . We have

by Fubini's Theorem. 32. Let be continuous and suppose . Prove Leibnitz' Rule: Using the hint, we have is continuous. Define . . One has

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ms. let Show that One has . 4 of 6 12/6/2011 3:17 PM .uky. and .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw13/html/ch3d. find . define . and so by the chain rule one has 34. where the second assertion used Problem 3-32. Section 4 http://www. As in Problem 2-21. If We have and .htm 33. Find One has b.Exercises: Chapter 3. Let be continuously differentiable and suppose . is continuous and is continuous. If a.

then is in the first case.ms. 1.Exercises: Chapter 3. a. show that the volume of is is . .htm 35. Let be a linear transformation of one of the following types: If is a rectangle. is a cylinder with a parallelogram base in the second case.uky. Section 4 http://www. In the three cases. and 1 respectively. If the original rectangle .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw13/html/ch3d. and is the same rectangle 5 of 6 12/6/2011 3:17 PM .

edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw13/html/ch3d. Let are Jordan and define similarly. (Cavalieri's principle). In the second case. If is singular. Show that and have the same volume.uky. Let and be Jordan measurable subsets of . 36. the second and third case and get multiplied by b. then subspace.Exercises: Chapter 3. the into made up of a composition of hyperplane is the image of a linear transformation from maps of the first two types.htm except that the intervals in the the parallelogram base is in the and and places are swapped in the third case. is a proper subspace of and is a compact set in this proper is contained in a hyperplane. this shows the result in this case too. directions and has corners . In particular. the result follows in this case. then it is a composition of linear transformations of the types in part (a) of the problem. 6 of 6 12/6/2011 3:17 PM . Since is multiplicative. Suppose that each and measurable and have the same area. By choosing the coordinate properly. Section 4 http://www. This shows that the compact portion of the hyperplane is of volume 0. So the volumes do not change in in the first case. Since the determinant is also 0. Prove that is the volume of If is non-singular. This shows the result.ms. for any linear transformation . This is an immediate consequence of Fubini's Theorem since the inside integrals are equal.

but as in condition (4) of Theorem 3-11. the integral in the old sense is monotone on each interval of . Section 5 37. If not necessrily true. Suppose that . The assertion that only know the values of the integral of intervals -. satisfies and such that . But . Then is bounded on each interval and so by Theorem 3-12. Suppose that and only if For is a non-negative continuous function. Clearly. but don't know how behaves on other may not even exist for all To correct the situation.Exercises: Chapter 3. By summing the with the same in condition (4) of Theorem . exists if a natural number. Let be a closed set contained in and outside . one can assume that there is only one function for each exists if and only converges.so it could be that let us assume that is of constant sign and bounded on each set . Consider the convergence of . the integral in the extended sense is same as the that in the old sense. So the sum converges if and only if exists. a. and the limit is just 38. Show that exists. Let and . b. One has .ms. Section 5 http://www. let it be . Find two partitions of unity 1 of 2 12/6/2011 3:18 PM .htm Exercises: Chapter 3. we on the sets . From the hypothesis.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw14/html/ch3e. define and . As in part (a).uky. Take a partition of unity subordinate to the cover for there is only one where . Consider a partition of unity subordinate to the cover . It follows that the sum in the middle does not converge as where and so does not exist. Now 3-11. Show that satisfies does not exist. . we can assume Suppose that for all .

.ms.uky. further by re-ordering the terms of this can be done so that there are sequences of partial sums which converge monotonically to the limit for the sum of terms value. 2 of 2 12/6/2011 3:18 PM .htm and The sums and converge absolutely to different values. one can take a partition of unity subordinate to this cover. have terms of the same sign and are each divergent. one can `fatten' up the covering sets so that they are a cover of the real numbers no smaller than 1 without adding any points where is non-zero. Finally. one can make the sum approach any number we want. Section 5 http://www. So. By using arrangements with different limiting values. By forming open covers each set of which consists of intervals added to each of these partial sums.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw14/html/ch3e. one gets the result.Exercises: Chapter 3. one gets covers of . Because is zero outside .

If and . Let . We use the same idea as in the proof of Theorem 3-13. Use Theorem 3-14 to prove Theorem 3-13 without the assumption that Let in place of the of . Show that we can write matrix. Define for . One then can verify that results gives and so Now. So we can define on and . where . Then . Then . 40. for and .htm Exercises: Chapter 3. and is a linear transformation. So. Let Then . . Now in its statement. By Theorem 3-14. prove that in some open set containing is of the form if and only if we can write . inverses of is a diagonal be a point where . 1 of 4 12/6/2011 3:18 PM .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw15/html/ch3f. and . Let . is open and Theorem 3-13 applies with be a partition of unity subordinate to an admissible cover is a partion of unity subordinate to the cover is absolutely convergent. Then . we get Theorem 3-13. Combining results. we know that .Exercises: Chapter 3. is a diagonal matrix. Combining .uky. if Then the . successively smaller open neighborhoods of . and so also converges since the terms are identical.ms. . Section 6 http://www. Section 6 39. then replace have the same form as the and with .

follow from the last paragraph of the solution of part (a). show that (Here denotes the inverse of the function The function is called the polar coordinate system on The formulas for and . Since is linear. the converse is false. compute by . 2 of 4 12/6/2011 3:18 PM .) Find P'(x. Define a. . for all and . if positive b. i. So. then implies contrary to hypothesis. . contrary to hypothesis.htm On the other hand. Suppose and so the other hand. But then . If . consider the function . . -axis and the ray from (0.e. If . where be the angle between the . If . Then .uky. for all is not a . it suffices to show that . and show that is the set of Problem 2-23.ms. is 1-1. Suppose ). then let in the domain of . Section 6 http://www.Exercises: Chapter 3. Show that that Since and implies that . . 41. to show that the function imply (or is 1-1. so diagonal matrix. One has is 1-1. But then .y).edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw15/html/ch3f. Then and has So. For example. On and let . it follows that the same value.0) through . Show .

Let be the region between the circles of radii which make angles of and with the -axis. One has . . c. This is trivial from the formulas . Section 6 http://www.uky. e. Clearly. show that and For the first assertion. If and by . If .pital's Rule allows one to by checking separately for the limit from the left and the limit from . The second identity is a special case of the first. Further. Apply Theorem 3-13 to the map . show that and and the half-lines through 0 is integrable and If . the right. Prove that . . apply part (c) with Applying (c) gives The second assertion follows from Fubini's Theorem.ms. For example. .Exercises: Chapter 3.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw15/html/ch3f. L'H@ocirc. Then . So the first identity holds. show that Assume that and d.htm One has except in case calculate when . 3 of 4 12/6/2011 3:18 PM .

htm and conclude that One has and the integrands are everywhere positive. (since the square 4 of 4 12/6/2011 3:18 PM . So Since part (d) implies that the squeeze principle implies that But using part (d) again.ms. Section 6 http://www.uky.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw15/html/ch3f. also exists and is .Exercises: Chapter 3. we get root function is continuous). also.

If the . Section 1 http://www. Consider the linear map for all : defined by . Section 1 1. Show that is the determinant of thee minor of obtained by selecting columns Assume as in part (a) that the .uky. are all distinct. One has 1 of 7 12/6/2011 3:19 PM . Then .Exercises: Chapter 4. A computation similar to that of part (a) shows that if some for all .htm Exercises: Chapter 4. in that case. By multilinearity. the value is zero. factor were not in the definition of b. Let a. Show that be the usual basis of and let be the dual basis. it follows that we need only verify the result when the are in the subspace generated by the for . then the right hand side would have been .ms. . One has using Theorem 4-1(3): because all the summands except that corresponding to the identity permutation are zero. What would the right hand side be if the factor did not appear in the definition of ? The result is false if the are not distinct. Assume therefore that the are distinct.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw16/html/ch4a.

If is the volume element determined by 2 of 7 12/6/2011 3:19 PM . one has for .htm This shows the result.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw16/html/ch4a.uky. Then by Theorem 4-6. and . then must be multiplication by some constant Let . Section 1 http://www. 2. So 3.ms. .Exercises: Chapter 4. Show that . show that . and . . If is a linear transformation and .

the definition of cross product with completing the basis shows 3 of 7 12/6/2011 3:19 PM . Then we have by blinearity: . and let where . So all the have the same orientation. Further.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw16/html/ch4a. we have 5. If . i. we have . By the definition. show that is the usual orientation of . and so is the volume element with respect to is of dimension 1. If that One has and so is the volume element of determined by and . Since the are linearly independent. such are linearly independent. it follows that the image of consists of numbers all of the same sign. it is the vector for every .Exercises: Chapter 4. Combining. is a basis for The function is a continuous function. whose image does not contain 0 since is a basis for every t. what is ? is the cross product of a single vector.htm where Let .uky. and . . be an orthonormal basis for V with respect to . By Theorem 4-6. Section 1 http://www. 4. 6. a. If that b. If is continuous and each . and the fact that because as desired. show that and such that by the definition of and .e. By the intermediate value theorem. the right hand sides .ms. show that is an isomorphism such . Substitution shows that works. . for some . Taking absolute values and substituting gives the are just the entries of result.

. with respect to . There is a . If is the volume element determined by some inner product be the volume element determined by some inner product be an orthornormal basis (with respect to such that for . To show that that for all . Show that every non-zero and orientation for . . The cross product is the 9. Let scalar and shows that 8. 7. . Section 1 http://www.g.htm that the cross product is not zero. and orientation . . So in fact. the determinant is positive.uky. Deduce the following properties of the cross product in a. and let . and are an orthonormal basis of determined by and .Exercises: Chapter 4. Expanding out the determinant shows that: .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw16/html/ch4a. e. This is the volume element of is a volume element. define a ``cross product" such that : in terms of for all . which shows the result. Let . All of these follow immediately from the definition.ms. 4 of 7 12/6/2011 3:19 PM . Then ) such that . note b.

htm c.Exercises: Chapter 4. where . For the first assertion. For the second assertion. one has: So. Section 1 http://www. But this can 5 of 7 12/6/2011 3:19 PM .uky. the first identity is just substitution using part (b). .ms. . Suppose that . one needs to show that for all be easily verified by expanding everything out using the formula in part (b). By Problem . or is zero. one has and . d. The result is true if either 1-8. This is easily verified by and since The second assertion follows from the definition since the determinant of a square matrix with two identical rows is zero.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw16/html/ch4a. . and and are both non-zero.

When it is zero. . 10. This proves the are linearly dependent.uky.Exercises: Chapter 4. If .htm The third assertion follows from the second: e. one has: since the matrix from Problem 4-3 has the form result in the case where is not zero. and the bilinearity of inner product imply that 6 of 7 12/6/2011 3:19 PM . Section 1 http://www.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw16/html/ch4a. where . show that . See the proof of part (c). Using the definition of cross product and Problem 4-3. the too.ms.

If is an orthogonal basis and is the matrix of with respect to this basis. If .htm 11. by . Use Problem 2-14 to derive a formula for Since the cross product is multilinear. a linear transformation is called self-adjoint (with respect ) if for all . one can apply Theorem 2-14 (b) and the chain rule to get: 7 of 7 12/6/2011 3:19 PM . one has: But One has .Exercises: Chapter 4.uky. for each . Using the orthonormality of the basis.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw16/html/ch4a. If to is an inner product on . define when are differentiable. which shows the result. Section 1 http://www.ms. 12. show that .

a differentiable function . Show that the end point of the tangent . a. Let vector of and define by at . If at is . The notation does not fully elucidate the meaning of the assertion. If . show that . Section 2 http://www. 15.ms.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw17/html/ch4b. One has by the definition and the product rule: 14. that is. at is to the graph of at lies on the tangent line to the graph of at is The tangent vector of . Here is the interpretation: . . show that and The second assertion follows from: b. the tangent vector show that the tangent vector to This is an immediate consequence of Problem 4-13 (a). The end point of the tangent vector of which is certainly on the tangent line 1 of 4 12/6/2011 3:20 PM . Let be a differentiable curve in of at as .uky.Exercises: Chapter 4. Section 2 13.htm Exercises: Chapter 4. Define . If and .

Then b. gives at . . where is the . Show that and the tangent Differentiating tangent vector to 17. define a vector field by . . by 18. If For obvious reasons we also write and conclude that . be a curve such that at are perpendicular. define . . Section 2 http://www.e. i.Exercises: Chapter 4. Show that every vector field on A vector field is just a function . prove that is the direction in which is changing fastest at The direction in which . this is clearly when 19.e. Show that One has . By Problem 2-29. .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw17/html/ch4b. i. which assigns to each an element . If . in the direction of . for all . Let vector to .ms. Since where .htm at 16. If .uky. define a vector field by is of the form for some a. . define the forms 2 of 4 12/6/2011 3:20 PM . Given such an . If is a vector field on is changing fastest is the direction given by a unit vector such thatt is largest possible.

Prove that The first equation is just Theorem 4-7. by part (a) and Theorem 4-10 (3).ms. so 3 of 4 12/6/2011 3:20 PM . one has: For the third assertion: b.htm a. Use (a) to prove that One has .Exercises: Chapter 4.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw17/html/ch4b.uky. Section 2 http://www. For the second equation.

one has trivially because is constant when and (or ).e. i. so the second assertion is also true. By part (a). Then . then . . In case . show that the same is true of on such that is closed. So Theorem 4-11. Further. Except when . it must then be exact. as desired. the assertion is immediate from the definition of in Problem 2-41.Exercises: Chapter 4. .ms. But then and so 21. For example. then . If is a vector field on a star-shaped open set . Section 2 http://www. Similarly.e. If every closed form on Suppose that the form there is a form on and so is also exact. show that for for some vector . and so for some is closed. as desired. By . Let be a differentiable function with a differentiable inverse is exact.uky. 4-10 (3). Similarly. 4 of 4 12/6/2011 3:20 PM . By the Theorem 4-11. if i. c. L'H^{o}pital's Rule allows one to calculate when by checking separately for the limit from the left and the limit from the right.e. So . and . i. 20. if .htm Also. show that by part (a) and Theorem . Prove that on the set where is defined. if some function field on . . is exact. we have .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw17/html/ch4b.

is a singular 1-cube in for some 2-chain . Define and by and . Let be the set of all singular -cubes. The boundary of with . Section 3 22.Exercises: Chapter 4. If . as . Section 3 http://www. and . Show that and are -chains if are.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw18/html/ch4c. by and . let -axis. If and . . An -chain is a function such that for all but finitely many . One has and boundaries. such that and for some integers for Show that every -chain singular -cubes Since . On the other . Show that there is a singular 2-cube such that Define where 24. and the integers. So desired. Let where 1 of 1 12/6/2011 3:20 PM . and and are -chains if and are. by are positive real numbers. the functions The second assertion is obvious since 23. Define is easily seen to be such that . let also denote the function can be written .uky. and .htm Exercises: Chapter 4. define the singular 1-cube .ms. is the function of Problem 3-41 extended so that it is 0 on the so that is an integer because . For and an integer. show that there is an integer Given positive .

for any 2-chain If . and use Stokes Theorem to conclude that (recall the definition of in Problem 4-23). Suppose . and Theorem 3-13 augmented by Problem 3-39: 26.uky.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw19/html/ch4d. Section 4 http://www.htm Exercises: Chapter 4. then Stokes Theorem gives 1 of 10 12/6/2011 3:21 PM . Section 4 25. the chain rule. Using the definition of the integral. Independence of parametrization). Theorem 4-9.ms. Let function such that show that be a singular and -cube and for . Show that in One has . If is a a 1-1 -form.Exercises: Chapter 4.

So .as the sum of the coefficients of a boundary is always 0. we see that cannot be zero since it is the sum of a number of length and one which is smaller in absolute value. the letting . 28.htm because is closed. is the curve . if for all or . . Show that is simply with . Note however that no curve is the boundary of any two chain -. Define thee singular 1-cube . one gets . If . When . Section 4 http://www. Using Stokes Theorem. Suppose that 2 of 10 as above has no complex root. When .uky. we have and all with . The problem statement is flawed: the author wants to be defined to be . prove the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra: Every polynomial with has a root in . and when Then. b. This integer is called the winding number of and . we see by part (a) 12/6/2011 3:21 PM . This would make the boundary these changes have been made. If of Problem 4-24 is unique. it is the curve . Using Problem 4-26. and that by if is large enough. one has where and and are 2-chains. Let . Letting be sufficiently large. . it is the curve .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw19/html/ch4d. Since where .ms. We assume . Show that the integer around 0. and the singular 2-cube . 27.Exercises: Chapter 4. So . Recall that the set of complex numbers let be by a. which is a contradiction.

applying Stokes' Theorem.ms. Now consider the 2-chain . we get the curve . then and so is such that for some function Following the hint. integrating two singular 1-cubes and with and is independent of path. Section 4 http://www. we have . So .Exercises: Chapter 4. Further. and so . when . Henceforth. By Stokes' Theorem. 29. and in particular. So there is a unique For positive and such that . Note that . So the boundary of . we get contradicts the result of the last paragraph. such that . then prepend a curve from 3 of 10 12/6/2011 3:21 PM . . we get the constant curve with value . if we let and 30. . we get the curve is . By Problem 4-24. by problem. If is a 1-form on . and when or defined by . when . unique. let . The differential for which there is a is of the type considered in the last . implies be this value and . if you have .htm and Stokes' Theorem that . there is a 2-chain and problem. If is a 1-form on with with .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw19/html/ch4d. Again. By Stokes' Theorem. This . prove that for some and . On the other hand. and so . it follows that . show that theere is a unique number . So . Now. In fact. we have assumed that values in has no complex root. define the singular 2-cube . By the proof of the last denote this common value. and so is a 2-chain with .uky. From the result of the last paragraph. Let an be a singular 1-cube with such that .

Give a counter-example on Let similarly for Suppose . Further.Exercises: Chapter 4. and so . This is a contradiction.uky. let be any curve from to . for closed forms. be defined by where is the curve with constant value and is exact. that is. Suppose . Use this fact.ms. For every in the set. Conclude that if is merely closed. The example: path in b.htm (1. show that there is a chain to prove One has . Then in a closed rectangle of positive volume centered at . Stokes' theorem and and some choice of . we assume that the subset is open. 32. Show that and are if there is a singular 2-cube degenerate. Section 4 http://www.0) to and postpend a path from to (1. by treating each component separately. Fix a point in the subset. Let be singular 1-cubes in such that and with and . If and shows that there is no independence of is a 1-form on a subset of . 31. Let be a chain such that because . we have (since is closed). we assume that the subset is pathwise connected. If . and set 4 of 10 12/6/2011 3:21 PM . show that Although it is not stated. Then since the integrand is continuous and of the same sign throughout the region of integration. and so the integrals over and are equal. for all and with . Take for the k-cube defined in an obvious way so that its image is the part of the closed rectangle with for all different from the for . . and is exact. is exact. Suppose for some such that . where are points. By Stokes' Theorem.0) to get two paths as in the last paragraph. and . and hence closed. we would have: . Now the result follows from Problem 4-32 below. Then by Stokes' Theorem. a. Then .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw19/html/ch4d. The two integrals are both 0.

then . is closed since . but 5 of 10 12/6/2011 3:21 PM . One has The first pair of terms is because . Note that because and are continuously differentible. is not (where ). and quotient of analytic functions are analytic. Show that the a.) If limit .htm . if you use the identities: . and so the last integral is also . product. it follows that . Section 4 http://www. This establishes the assertion. Because of independence of path. if the exists. The assertion that being analytic is preserved under these operations as well as the formulas for the derivatives are then obvious. Show that is analytic and sum. On the other hand.uky.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw19/html/ch4d. continuity of implies that the integrand is . calculated with a path that ends in a segment with Similarly. and so does not have a limit as because . subtraction. if is is in the interior of the subset. (A first course in complex variables. So is differentiable at . . We want to check differentiability of . multiplication. Clearly. we can assume that constant. then is called analytic on . then because is well defined. define to be differentiable at . .) If is differeentiable at every point in an open set and is continuous on . and division operations are continuous (except when the quotient is zero). It is straightforward to check that the complex addition.ms. Now. similarly the second pair of terms is Finally.Exercises: Chapter 4. (This quotient involves two complex numbers and this definition is completely different from the one in Chapter 2. 33.

and . has a derivative which is multiplication by a complex number. d. . c. If is analytic on . this is more difficult to Following the hint. So. What complex number is this? Comparing and exist if and only if and gives . show that is multiplication by a ). . if prove.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw19/html/ch4d. Part (b) shows that an analytic function .uky.ms. Section 4 http://www. considered as a function .htm b. the complex number is . we must have: Comparing the real and imaginary parts gives the Cauchy-Riemann equations. From the last paragraph. Define where and 6 of 10 12/6/2011 3:21 PM . Let If the matrix of be a linear transformation (where with respect to the basis is is considered as a vector space over . and . show that and satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann} equations: (The converse is also true.Exercises: Chapter 4. complex number if and only if and .) and are continuously differentiable.

f.uky. the 1-form is closed. Prove the Cauchy Integral Theorem: If curve (singular 1-cube with is analytic in ) such that . 7 of 10 12/6/2011 3:21 PM . By parts (b) and (d). Clearly this is zero if and only if the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold true for e. then (or . Conclude that in classical notation) equals .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw19/html/ch4d.htm and Show that One has for if and only if that satisfies the Cauchy-Riemann equations.ms. it follows that . for every closed for some 2-chain in . Section 4 http://www.Exercises: Chapter 4. By Stokes' Theorem. then . Show that if for some function One has .

use the fact that to show that is analytic in This then gives g.htm if is defined by . By a trivial modification of Problem 4-24 (to use for Further. with .Exercises: Chapter 4.uky. defined by ) and Stokes' Theorem. Section 4 http://www. 8 of 10 12/6/2011 3:21 PM . . then The first assertion follows from part (e) applied to the singular 2-cube .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw19/html/ch4d.ms. . If is analytic on if for . Use (f) to evaluate and and conclude: is a closed curve in Cauchy Integral Formula: If is analytic on with winding number around 0.

htm if is chosen so that for all with . and the pair of (b) or (c). Suppose and are homotopies of closed curves.ms. The present problem. and Problem 5-33 prove this for (b) but the proof for (c) requires different techniques. If and . 9 of 10 12/6/2011 3:21 PM . It is intuitively obvious that there is no such homotopy with the pair of curves shown in Figure 4-6 (a). 34. Using part (f). one gets the singular 2-cube (respectively .uky.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw19/html/ch4d. define by If by is a homotopy of nonintersecting closed curves define Show that When . If are nonintersecting closed curves. the pair is called a homotopy between the non-intersecting closed curves and . one gets the same singular 2-cube . It follows that . a. So which agrees with the assertion only up to a sign. when . similarly. one gets the same singular 2-cube ). if for each the closed curves and do not intersect. Section 4 http://www. we conclude that .Exercises: Chapter 4. When (respectively ). define by If each is a closed curve. is called a homotopy between the closed curve and the closed curve . The Cauchy integral formula follows from this and the result of the last paragraph.

If is a closed 2-form on .htm b. show that By Stokes' Theorem and part (a).uky.Exercises: Chapter 4. Section 4 http://www. 10 of 10 12/6/2011 3:21 PM .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw19/html/ch4d.ms. one has .

The boundary of condition is the set of points . It follows that h restricted to an appropriately small open or condition . Show that is an -dimensional manifold with boundary. and because those points which don't . Prove a similar assertion for an open subset of an n-dimensional manifold. In works for every point in particular.ms. Find a counter-example to Theorem 5-2 if condition (3) is omitted. The generalization to manifolds is proved in the same way. This proves the assertion. By working in the set 1 of 3 12/6/2011 3:22 PM . Section 1 http://www. also is map which shows that condition is satisfied is a manifold of dimension . Let be an open set such that boundary is an -dimensional manifold. say with the function .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw20/html/ch5a.uky. subset of either satisfies condition b. Section 1 is a -dimensional manifold with boundary. So satisfy is in . prove that 1. (It is well to bear in . a. one gets back into to a coordinate system around . each of its points satisfies condition with . Following the hint. But then the line segments from to must contain a point o the boundary of . . which is absurd since the points of U in the boundary of all map to points with last coordinate 0.htm Exercises: Chapter 5. Let be one of the half-planes or Suppose there is a sequence of points of such that the all lie in and converge to . Then condition holds except for part 3.) Since is open. . except you need to restrict attention of condition . each such for each such . but . Then satisfies with . then the same is a -dimensional which satisfy condition . If there is no open neighborhood of such that . Let such that be as in . . then there is a sequence of points of such that the sequence converges to . Let .Exercises: Chapter 5. Further. it follows that is a manifold of dimension . If manifold and is a =dimensional manifold. then mind the following example: if is a manifold with boundary. must satisfy 2. consider defined by Let (3) since .

the graph of is -dimensional manifold if and only if If is differentiable. Show that the graph of is differentiable. In the case where n > 3. so that all the together form be a basis for the subspace. suppose is as in condition for some point in the graph.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw20/html/ch5a. If is a -dimensional manifold in . If . . defined by is an is easily verified to be a coordinate system around all points of the graph of f. Conversely. it is easy to see that the Jacobian has the proper rank. by satisfies the condition . . Let and is obtained by revolving around the axis since the graph is the set of points which map to zero by . so the graph is a manifold of dimension n. If is defined in some open set by . then is defined by . and choose . One can verify 6. show that is a -dimensional manifold.uky. Example: the torus (Figure 5-4). and the same argument applies. Define a map . The differentiable function obtained from this theorem must be none other than 7. . Let be the For each holding for some function 2 of 3 12/6/2011 3:22 PM . Prove that a Let a basis for that containing has rank . Let be the projection on the last coordinates.ms. -dimensional manifold. If . one has condition and .htm the case where one is contained within 4. The Jacobian is Since either or is non-zero. the map . Consider the case where n = 3. Prove a partial converse to Theorem 5-1: If there is an open set and Let by 5. a. is a -dimensional manifold and . and be as in condition applied to be defined . Then the function -dimensional (vector) subspace of is a satisfies all the desired conditions.Exercises: Chapter 5. is a -dimensional manifold . Section 1 http://www. it is not obvious what one means by ``rotate". then such that and a differentiable function when . show that has measure 0. Then apply the Implicit function theorem to . 8.

since 3 of 3 12/6/2011 3:22 PM . By choosing the thickness of the plate sufficiently small.htm domain of one of these functions. is Jordan- is a counter-example if we do not require -dimensional manifold with boundary in .ms. show that is . boundary of .Exercises: Chapter 5. By part (a). where we can choose to be a ball with center at rational coordinates and rational radius. is in the boundary of . b. its inverse image has volume which can be bounded by where is the volume of the plate (by the change of variables formula). every element of by the condition . By Problem 5-1. If is in the . If is a compact measurable. . the boundary of manifold contained in . it must satisfy condition is n. By part (b). it follows that bounded. Then is a countable cover of . If is is a closed -dimensional manifold with boundary in . show that the boundary of Clearly. we can guarantee that this value is no more than for the element of the cover. the definition of Jordan measurable is satisfied.uky. Give a counter-example if is not closed. then since is closed. Finally. Take a thin plate including the image of . This shows the result.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw20/html/ch5a. Now each maps points of in to points with the last coordinates 0. is an -dimensional is is of measure 0. to be closed. So if But then is in the interior of because the dimension of The open unit interval in c. Section 1 http://www.

(2) if there is . 11. define as the usual orientation of . But analogous to the author's observation of p. .e. Then in and in with . by replace . Suppose is a collection of coordinate systems for . Section 2 9. For . Section 2 http://www. it follows that consists of the tangent vectors at of curves be a coordinate system around is a rectangle centered at . then . such that (1) For each . Clearly. Conversely. 1 of 5 12/6/2011 3:23 PM . Since is in . and this is only orientation which -dimensional manifold-with-boundary in . we must show that we get the same orientation if we use use and . one can be the as and ranges through out . Show that Let assume that curve vary.ms.uky. . the definition makes could satisfy this condition. with a subset. Then we have i. let . we know that implies that where . Let be such that . Then let be as in condition is a coordinate . show that the (the orientation so defined is the usual orientation of two definitions of given above agree. Show that there which is a coordinate system around is a unique orientation of such that is orientation-preserving for all Define the orientation to be the for every .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw21/html/ch5b. 119. In order for this to be well defined.Exercises: Chapter 5. where the tangent vector of 10. that . We know by the proof of Theorem 5-2. If is an orientation preserving for all as desired. suppose that for the point system about is a curve in with .htm Exercises: Chapter 5. If . and with .

a. We can then replace with the union of all these finite subcovers for all . and a differentiable vector field Let For every . show that we can choose are open rectangles with sides at most In the construction of part (a). Let a. 13. is compact. and clearly it cannot be extended to the point in a differentiable manner. But then . . one might have a vector field defined on by . Then is a differentiable extension of . is closed.htm Let and where be a coordinate system about with . This is a vector field of outward pointing unit vectors. where satisfying condition . Since is closed. Then to which extends the restriction of and be a partition of unity subordinate to .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw21/html/ch5b. there is a diffeomorphism where coordinates. But now we see that the resulting is a differentiable extension of to all of . let b. If is a differentiable vector field on on with . Define non-zero only for elements of Finally. to . by definition. and so we can choose a finite subcover of . is the dimension of . and so.ms. If . If be as in Theorem 5-1. is a sum of finitely Note that the condition that was needed as points on the boundary of the set of part (a) could have infinitely many intersecting every open neighborhood of . one can assume that the 1.Exercises: Chapter 5. and is perpendicular to is the usual orientation of is the induced orientation on and . Let is the unit normal in the second sense. . define differentiable vector field on Let choose a with be the projection on the first . 12. . For . show that there is an open set for . Let . For example. For is a . In fact. many differentiable vector fields .uky. Section 2 http://www. we have now assured that in a neighborhood of any point. let be the essentially unique diffeomorphism such that 2 of 5 12/6/2011 3:23 PM . . Note that . This assures that there are at most finitely many which intersect any given bounded set.

By replacing with its square. Now which is 1-1 because is a diffeomorphism. and . and a differentiable Choose an orientation for . are some multiple of We have we get perpendicular to 14. be defined by defined.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw21/html/ch5b. this follows from Problem 5-10 with c. Since it is 1-1. So for each . . is 1-1 so that the . If as desired. we can assume that takes on non-negative values. let and so . Show that are linearly independent. being a basis. we have a defined in an open neighborhood of . Section 2 http://www. must map to linearly independent vectors. Then . so that is orientable. and so by considering the components. that the are distinct for distinct . Further.ms. We have changed the order of the arguments to correct an apparent typographical error in the problem statement. Let . show that the components of the outward normal at . show that there is an open set so that and has rank 1 for . by . it maps its domain onto a space of dimension and so the vectors. If .uky. we can assume locally that the orientation imposed by is the given orientation . is a coordinate system about every point of . Define vectors by The notation will be changed. and be a partion of unity subordinate to . Let be . Show that the orientations ince can be defined consistently. Let we can assume by replacing the with sums of the 3 of 5 12/6/2011 3:23 PM . . Each is non-zero only inside some . Let and Also. This shows that is is an orientable -dimensional manifold. as in the proof of the implicit function theorem.htm and . and . . Problem 5-4 does the problem locally. b. using Problem 5-13. As the hint says.Exercises: Chapter 5.

this is true at . Let be as in Problem 5-13. Let be an -dimensional manifold in . is of rank and is of dimension . Let minimum) of be as in Theorem 5-1. In particular. which is precisely the condition to be proved. and be as in Problem 5-4 in a neighborhood of we have a coordinate systems of the form .uky. Then Let be a coordinate system in a neighborhood of the extremum at and so . the . is in the subspace generated by the . In particular. Section 2 http://www. Show that is orientable (even if is not). The following problem gives a nice theoretical use for Lagrangian multipliers. and so the rows of generate the entire subspace of vectors perpendicular to . 16. Then and of the form (respectively ) In the case of the M"{o}bius strip. In particular.Exercises: Chapter 5.htm be defined by . which is often very simple if we leave the equation for last. Then satisfies the desired conditions. show that there are The maximum on on is sometimes called the maximum of subject to the constraints . and so the rows of are also perpendicular to . Choose an orientation on each piece so that adding gives the usual orientation on . . This is an orientation for . Let be the set of end-points of normal vectors (in both directions) of length and suppose is small enough so that is also an -dimensional manifold. and so . But. Now the image of is just the tangent space . 4 of 5 12/6/2011 3:23 PM .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw21/html/ch5b. and the useful but irrelevant is called a Lagrangian multiplier. This is Lagrange's method. One can attempt to find we must solve equations by solving the system of equations. What is if is the M"{o}bius strip? Let . . 15. If on occurs at is equivalent to a single ring is differentiable and the maximum (or . and so the row of is perpendicular to the tangent space . such that . . if in unknowns .ms. But we also have for all near .

Let be self-adjoint with matrix . and so the maximum has a .ms. . show that . Suppose It is true for dimension . Now. show that and is self-adjoint. is of dimension . If Suppose .htm 17. c. This shows the result. Apply Problem 5-16 with is a Lagrangian multiplier precisely when maximum on . it is clear that as a map of has a basis of eigenvectors. This shows that . so that the manifold is . All the together is the basis of eigenvectors for .Exercises: Chapter 5. If . Show that Proceed by induction on . Then . has a basis of eigenvectors with eigenvalues respectively. the case has already been shown. .edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw21/html/ch5b. a. takes on a for which the Lagrangian multiplier equations are true. By considering the maximum of One has on show that there is and with .uky. so that . Since is compact. 89 for the definition). 5 of 5 12/6/2011 3:23 PM . So. b. and so . Since as a map of is self-adjoint and is also self-adjoint (cf p. Then apply part (a) to find the eigenvector with eigenvalue . Section 2 http://www. In this case.

that constants.uky. prove that . if we let One can also let is not required to be compact. Show that Theorem 5-5 holds for noncompact . . One has with . If is a -form on a compact is not compact. the two integrals give the same value. . we need to have the argument of Theorem 5-4 work. Show that . 19. one has -dimensional manifold . is a function such that of the form is an absolute for . as defined in show that Chapter 3. An absolute -form on -tensor on defined. In order for this to work. Section 3 http://www. Section 3 18. except don't require the manifold be orientable. If is an -dimensional manifold (or manifold-with-boundary) in . with the usual orientation. Show that Theorem 5-5 is false if For example. 20. one has but . as defined in this section. So. Give a counter-example if One has with 21. is the same as be the open interval and .htm Exercises: Chapter 5. even if is not orientable. b. this is automatic because Theorem 4-9 gives . With the set of positive real numbers. The singular -cubes We can assume in the situation of Chapter 3 that with can be taken to be linear maps where and are scalar . has the usual orientation. An absolute can be is empty. subset of provided that vanishes outside of a compact The compactness was used to guarantee that the sums in the proof were finite.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw22/html/ch5c. nor that the singular -cubes be orientation preserving. In our case. it also works under this assumption because all but finitely many summands are zero if vanishes outside of a compact subset of . . a.Exercises: Chapter 5.ms. Make the definition the same as done in the section. and there the crucial step was to replace with its absolute value so that Theorem 3-13 could be applied. as that -tensor on is a function . 1 of 2 12/6/2011 3:23 PM .

and .uky. we have So the result is equivalent to would be true if were closed.ms. If is an -dimensional manifold-with-boundary and -dimensional manifold with boundary. prove that is an where is an usual orieentations of -form on and .htm 22. and are compact. Then is an -dimensional manifoldFollowing the hint. and have the orientations induced by the . . . for example. Because the outward directed normals at points of are in opposite directions for and . as stated. By Stokes' Theorem. So. it 2 of 2 12/6/2011 3:23 PM . Section 3 http://www.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw22/html/ch5c. let with-boundary and its boundary is the union of and . but. is not correct.Exercises: Chapter 5. the orientation of are opposite in the two cases. the result.

is the volume as defined in Chapter 3.) Let be an orientation-preserving -cube. we have and so applying this to be an gives Since Now. If is an oriented one-dimensional manifold in and is orientation-preserving. Now. 25. Since this is also equal to . it is the volume element.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw23/html/ch5d. Then 24. show that where if and only if where .e. By Theorem 4-9. . To see this. show that Consider the 1-form defined by . is orientation preserving. Generalize Theorem 5-6 to the case of an oriented The generalization is defined by -dimensional manifold in .uky. choose an orthonormal basis . is orientation preserving. as defined in this section. it follows that the value is precisely 1. so that the volume of . Let orthonormal basis with the usual orientation. so must have the usual orientation.e. . Section 4 23. This is the form which matches the proposed solution since Furthermore. 1 of 9 12/6/2011 3:24 PM . (Note that this depends on the numerical factor in the definition of . Section 4 http://www. i. and so it is the volume element in the sense of this section.htm Exercises: Chapter 5. But then by orthonormality. with the usual orientation. If is an -dimensional manifold in and .ms. as desired. . i. it must be that .Exercises: Chapter 5.

htm where is the unit outward normal at (where .ms.uky.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw23/html/ch5d. for some scalar and so for all .Exercises: Chapter 5. As in the 2-dimensional case. we get 2 of 9 12/6/2011 3:24 PM . So Expanding in terms of cofactors of the last row gives: As in the 2-dimensional case. was the orientation used to determine the outward normal). Section 4 http://www. Letting . if the are an is the orthonormal basis with orientation volume element .

Exercises: Chapter 5, Section 4

http://www.ms.uky.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw23/html/ch5d.htm

26.

a. If surface

is non-negative and the graph of , show that the area of is

in the

-plane is revolved around the

-axis in

to yield a

One can use singular 2-cubes of the form calculate out to , , and . b. Compute the area of .

. The quantities . So the surface area is

,

, and

Apply part (a) with . So

and

. One has . is a

and

27. If is a norm preserving linear transformation and the same volume as . Although it is not stated, it is assumed that is orientable.

-dimensional manifold in

, show that

has

3 of 9

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Exercises: Chapter 5, Section 4

http://www.ms.uky.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw23/html/ch5d.htm

By Problem 1-7, is inner product preserving and so it maps orthonormal bases to orthonormal bases. Further, if is a singular -cube which is a coordinate system for in a neighborhood of , then is a singular -cube which is a coordinate system for in a neighborhood of . Depending on the sign of , the new -cube is either orientation preserving or reversing. In particular, the 28. is the volume element of if is the volume element of (which is also orientable). Since the volume is just the integral of the volume element and the integral is calculated via -cubes, it follows that the volumes of and are equal. a. If is a -dimensional manifold, show that an absolute can be defined as . -tensor |dV| can be defined, even if is not orientable, so

that the volume of

This was already done in Problem 5-21. b. If is defined by

show that

is a M@ouml;bius strip and find its area.

To see that it is a M@ouml;bius strip, note that in cylindrical coordinates, the equations are: . In particular, for fixed , we have fixed and the path is a line segment traversed from to . Calculating the length of the line, one gets that is a line segment of length 2. Again, for fixed , the line segment in the -plane has slope . Note that this varies from down to as ranges from 0 to , i.e. the line segment starts vertically at and reduces in slope until it becomes vertical again at . This corresponds to twisting the paper 180 degrees as it goes around the ring, which is the M@ouml;bius strip. To find the area, one can actually, just use the formulas for an orientable surface, since one can just remove the line at . In thatt case one can verify, preferably with machine help, that , , and . So the area is . Numerical evaluation of the integral , which is just slightly larger than , the area of a circular ring of

yields the approximation radius 2 and height 2. 29. If there is a nowhere-zero Suppose -form on a

-dimensional manifold . If is a singular

, show that

is orientable , we have

is the nowhere-zero

-form on

-cube, then for every

because the space some p. Then if it were negative at another point

is of dimension 1. Choose a

-cube so that the value is positive for into

, then because this is a continuous function from

, the intermediate value theorem would guarantee a point positive for all For every , choose a . -cube of this type with -cubes, say and

where the function were zero, which is absurd. So the value is

in its image. Define

. This is well defined. (where is

Indeed, if we had two such

, then the

) are positive for . But then the values are of the same sign regardless of which non-zero k-form in used. So, both maps define the same orientation on .

30.

a. If length

is differentiable and .

is defined by

, show that

has

This is an immediate consequence of Problem 5-23.

4 of 9

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Exercises: Chapter 5, Section 4

http://www.ms.uky.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw23/html/ch5d.htm

b. Show that this length is the least upper bound of lengths of inscribed broken lines. We will need to be continuously differentiable, not just differentiable. , then by the mean value theorem,

Following the hint, if

for some

. Summing over

gives a Riemann sum for

. Taking the limit as

the mesh approaches 0, shows that these approach the integral. Starting from any partition, and taking successively finer partitions of the interval with the mesh approaching zero, we get an increasing sequence of values with limit the value of the integral; so the integral is the least upper bound of all these lengths. 31. Consider the 2-form defined on by

a. Show that

is closed.

This is a straightforward calculation using the definition and Theorem 4-10. For example, . The other two terms give similar results, and the sum is zero. b. Show that

For

let

. Show that . Conclude that on

restricted to the tangent space of is not exact. Nevertheless, we denote .

is by

times since,

the volume element and that as we shall see,

is the analogue of the 1-form

As in the proof of Theorem 5-6 (or Problem 5-25), the value of using cofactors of the third row.

can be evaluated by expanding

The second assertion follows from taken to be 5-26. If , then Stokes' Theorem would imply that , we conclude that c. If is not exact. for some

and the fact that the outward directed normal can be by Problem

be an appropriate choice of orientation. One has

. Since the value is

is a tangent vector such that in .

, show that

for all

. If a

two-dimensional manifold the origin, show that

is part of a generalized cone, that is,

is the union of segments of rays through

5 of 9

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choose small enough so that there is a three dimensional manifold-with-boundary N (as in Figure 5-10) such that is the union of and . . But then is identically 0 for all points be a compact two-dimensionaal manifold-with-boundary such that every ray through 0 intersects at most once (Figure 5-10). or equivalently as .Exercises: Chapter 5. Define the linking number l(f. will be a manifold-with-corners.) Note that this is essentially the same situation as in Problem 5-22.g) of } a. see the remarks at the end of the next section. Prove that the solid angle subtended by We take the orientations induced from the usual orientation of Following the hint. then using part (b). and a part of a generalized cone. angle subtended by for . The following problem shows 6 of 9 12/6/2011 3:24 PM . This follows from the formula in part (b) since the third column of the determinant defining The curves of Figure 4-5(b) are given by easily convince yourself that calculating is zero. Let . line) is in d. we have of part (b). one has on the generalized cone. If show that . But then . then This follows immediately from Problem 4-34 (b) and Problem 5-31 (a). Show that if and both lie in the -plane. The solid is defined as the area of is . where This follows by direct substitution using the expression for c. in the preamble to Problem 31.htm If . and . the integral over the part of the boundary making up part of a generalized cone is zero. and by (cf.G) is a homotopy of nonintersecting closed curves. Let . Applying Stokes' Theorem gives because is closed by part (a). for any point and the origin lies on the surface and so its tangent line (the same .ms. the line through . The union of those rays through 0 which intersect . By part (c). is a solid cone times the area of . So. By Problem 5-9. Section 4 http://www. b.uky. Problem 4-34 is opposite to that of and the last integral is the by the interpretation of be nonintersecting closed curves. Show that if (F. The orientation of the part of the boundary on the orientation of the same set as a part of solid angle subtended by 32.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw23/html/ch5d. (Actually. You may by the above integral is hopeless in this case.

by the last paragraph.) Suppose that whenever intersects of is not in . suppose that where is a compact manifold-with-boundary of dimension 3. a. The rest of the proof will be valid only in the case where there is a 3-dimensional compact oriented manifoldwith-boundary such that where is a two-dimensional manifold. orientation. what one means is that the component of opposite direction as the outward normal. see [6]. Suppose .htm how to find without explicit calculations. So.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw23/html/ch5d. show that . sufficiently close to Following the hint. So by Stokes' Theorem and Problem 5-31 (b). If In the statement. Section 4 http://www. and the number of other intersections. then by Stokes' Theorem. The first term can be made as small as we like by making b. Subtracting gives and . 33. even if is knotted. for some compact oriented two-dimensional manifold-with-boundary . Suppose intersect itself such an at sufficiently small. (Note the . Removing a ball centered at from the interior of gives another manifoldwith-boundary with boundary . Let be the number of intersections where points in the same . page 138. and .) On the other hand. the tangent vector direction as the outward normal. Choose . (If does not always exists. we will need to assume that small enough so that 7 of 9 12/6/2011 3:24 PM . where the orientation on is opposite to that of the induced .Exercises: Chapter 5. Then and we can take . If define If is a compact two-dimensional manifold-with-boundary in and define Let be a point on the same side of as the outward normal and we can make be a point on the opposite side. as close Show that by choosing to as desired. Let is finite. To complete the proof. Let we mean be the . discrepancy in sign between this and the hint. if .uky.ms. One has . Parameterize values where with intersects where in the outward normal direction is either in the same or is not in for all (where by .

c. .uky. then .ms. we will show the first result.Exercises: Chapter 5.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw23/html/ch5d. if it is negative. The proofs are analogous. Prove that where The definition of should be . has a component in the outward normal direction of . the last paragraph has Note that this result differs from the problem statement by a sign. So.htm By part (a). we have by Stokes' Theorem that 8 of 9 12/6/2011 3:24 PM . Section 4 http://www. if the tangent vector to at is . then it is is positive. On the other hand. Start with where we have used Problem 3-32 to interchange the order of the limit and the integral.

d. we see that this is equal to the expression for By inspection in Figure 4-6. while if and are the curves of Figure 4-6 (c). we see that two of the terms in the first expression match up with corresponding terms in the second expression. Section 4 http://www.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw23/html/ch5d. Similar results hold for and . one has and so . one has . and use this result to show that if and are the curves of Figure 4-6 (b). these are also the values of 9 of 9 12/6/2011 3:24 PM .ms.htm Comparing the two expressions. and in parts (b) and (c) of the figure. But a straightforward expansion gives: as desired.) By part (c). 41-43. One then substitutes into: in Problem 5-32 (b). 409-411. So. Show that the integer of (b) equals the integral of Problem 5-32(b).uky. After collecting terms. . see also [13]. pp. . The proofs outlined here are from [4] pp. So. (These results were known to Gauss [7]. It remains to check that the remaining terms are equal.Exercises: Chapter 5. Volume 2.

uky. we have .ms. since the outward normal is in the radial . on . let . Let -manifold with boundary in . Applying the generalized divergence theorem to the set find the volume of .htm Exercises: Chapter 5. By for By Stokes' Theorem. So and is odd. . Then As in the proof of the divergence theorem. if .Exercises: Chapter 5.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw24/html/ch5e. this says the 1 of 2 12/6/2011 3:25 PM . the unit be a compact -dimensional manifold-with-boundary and be a differentiable vector fieldd on . Section 5 http://www. In particular. Generalize the divergence theorem to the case of an The generalization: Let outward normal on .) in terms of the if and -dimensional volume of is even and . it follows that 35. Then Problem 5-25. (This volume is if One has direction. Section 5 34. So.

as . So one has the . (This would make sense otherwise the 2 of 2 12/6/2011 3:25 PM .ms. Now is the . Define on by is times the volume of and let . Theorem (Archimedes). The vector field . Since a fluid exerts equal pressures in all . The buoyant force on The definition of buoyant force is off by a sign. be a compact three-dimensional manifoldmay be thought of as the downward with-boundary with pressure of a fluid of density in . The divergence theorem gives weight of the fluid displaced by buoyant force would be negative.edu/~ken/ma570/homework/hw24/html/ch5e. due to the fluid. .htm surface area of 36.Exercises: Chapter 5. we define the buoyaant force on the following theorem.) result if we define the buoyant force to be is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by . Prove directions. So the right hand side should be the buoyant force.uky. Section 5 http://www.

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