EDITION

2011 2012

ART
Art in the Age of Imperial Power

POWER GUIDE
AUTHOR

ART
Anna Hainsworth
EDITOR

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Sophy Lee
ALPACA-IN-CHIEF

Daniel Berdichevsky

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the World

Scholar’s Cup ®

ART
POWER GUIDE
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I. WHAT IS A POWER GUIDE?..............................................................2 II. AUTHOR’S NOTE ON USAGE............................................................ 3 III. CURRICULUM OVERVIEW................................................................. 5 IV. INTRODUCTION................................................................................... 6 V. FUNDAMENTALS OF ART………………………………………………........ 8 VI. AFRICA AND EUROPE..........................................................................72 VII. ART AND IMPERIAL POWER............................................................. 103 VIII. ARCHITECTURE AND POWER……………………………………………….116 IX. EUROPE ENVISIONS THE EMPIRE…………………………………………. 128 X. SECTION SUMMARIES AND CONCLUSION………………………….. 158 XI. POWER LISTS.........................................................................................168 XII. POWER TABLES.....................................................................................243 XIII. ABOUT THE AUTHOR......................................................................... 272 XV. ABOUT THE EDITOR............................................................................273 XVI. ABOUT THE BETA TESTERS...............................................................274 BY EDITED BY

ANNA HAINSWORTH
NORTHERN ARIZONA UNIVERSITY CANYON DEL ORO HIGH SCHOOL

SOPHY LEE
HARVARD UNIVERSITY PEARLAND HIGH SCHOOL

DEDICATED TO CHOCOLATE MY FAITHFUL COMPANION FOR THE ENTIRETY OF THIS PROJECT

© 2011 DEMIDEC
DemiDec, The World Scholar’s Cup, Power Guide, and Cram Kit are registered trademarks of the DemiDec Corporation. Academic Decathlon and USAD are registered trademarks of the United States Academic Decathlon Association. DemiDec is not affiliated with the United States Academic Decathlon .

Art Power Guide | 2

WHAT IS A POWER GUIDE?
There you are, standing on the Edge of Glory. You see your name projected at the front of the auditorium under the words “Gold Medal – Art.” The announcer at the podium is butchering names shamelessly, pronouncing Alejandro with a hard “J.” But you don’t care. You are a Gold Medalist. While your serious teammate stands beside you, attempting to maintain a Poker Face, you want to Just Dance. You can already imagine the Paparazzi lining up to interview you for the local, state, and national newspapers. You, the Gold Medalist. You, the champion. Suddenly, without warning, the power in the auditorium snaps off. “That’s OK, you think. I’ll just Dance in the Dark.”1 Someone turns on the backup power a few moments later. You put away the Telephone that you were planning to use as a flashlight to illuminate your way across the awards stage. This is your moment. You hear your name, jump slightly, and start to make your way up the stairs. Do. Not. Trip. You begin to walk across the stage, where a beaming woman is holding your Gold Medal. Then, you trip—in front of everyone. The crowd goes silent. And you wake up. It was all a dream. As a former National Champion, I firmly believe that anyone can win a Gold Medal in Academic Decathlon. The first step is to make Gold—not Silver, not Bronze, not Honorable Mention—your goal. The second step is to pick up a Power Guide. The third step is to make this Power Guide yours. Mark all over it, draw diagrams on it, highlight it, underline it. Power Guides completely dissect each subject. They make dense curriculum easy to learn in a straightforward bullet format. What’s more, every Power Guide is written by a Gold Medalist former Decathlete who has scored at least 8,000 points in competition. All of our writers have competed at Nationals and know exactly what it takes to win a Gold Medal. They have included every testable fact and explained every USAD ambiguity. No one is more qualified to guide you to your own Gold Medal. Anna Hainsworth, your Art Power Guide author, has broken down art theory and historical facts into a simple, easy-to-absorb format. Every date, color, and artist will be crystal clear in your mind and memory by the end of this Power Guide. With that, I am happy to leave you in Anna’s capable hands. You’ll be Gaga for Art by the end of this Power Guide… or maybe just Gaga. Go for Gold,

1

This actually happened at the Nationals awards ceremony in 2008. – Sophy

Art Power Guide | 3

AUTHOR’S NOTE ON USAGE
In a world of whirling dates, facts, and far too many names to remember, this Power Guide lays the art curriculum out for you clearly and concisely. Feel free to peruse, highlight, mangle, burn, sleep on, or eat this Power Guide. There are some handy aspects of the document, though, that might be helpful to know. Bold items are important dates, items, names, or locations. These also appear in the Power Lists and Tables at the end of the guide. Feel free to cover up one column of the Power Lists and quiz yourself. Picture frames organize the multitude of pictures in this guide. Decorative frames with a friendly alpaca drawing, like that surrounding the super cool Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (Asia), denote one of the 18 USAD-selected artworks.2 Remember to focus on these. Pictures with black borders, like Symphony in White, No.2: The Little White Girl, are mentioned in the resource by name. Pictures with gray borders, like the slightly frightening drawing of Louis XIV as the Sun King, are not mentioned in the USAD Resource Guide. Rather, I put these pictures in just for funsies. 

This Power Guide contains many footnotes. Enrichment Facts share what I learned by researching interesting things in the Resource Guide. This way, you can satisfy your curiosity, keep studying, and not be as distracted a Decathlete as I was.3 Some of the other footnotes contain USAD corrections. The rest of the footnotes are goofy comments by me, an editor, or a beta tester. Finally, this guide does stray from the organization of the USAD resource occasionally in order to optimize learning. For example, I placed the section on art techniques first so you may learn some
There are four exceptions to this framing rule: three maps and a picture of an Asafo posuban. I had to order these illustrations, so they also have the DemiDec border. 3 I spent many productive hours reading about plate tectonics, Darwin’s lizards, and the construction of the guillotine on Wikipedia.
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Art Power Guide | 4

terminology to help you understand the art history section. In addition, I placed all of the section summaries and the conclusion at the end of the guide, directly before the Power Lists, to provide you with a comprehensive summary. Good luck! I’m sure you all will be marvelous.

Anna Hainsworth

This section contains a large amount of content but will prepare you for only 10 questions. you will have covered over half of the content on the exam. read Section II (Africa and Europe) since this section covers the largest proportion of the test (30%). Africa. Next. Europe Envisions the Empire 25% Art Fundamentals 20% Art and Imperial Power 25% Africa and Europe 30% . Thematic material covering Europe. and Imperialism takes up the remaining 55% The pie chart below illustrates the percentage of test questions per section. Data listed below will help you prioritize sections for studying. Art Fundamentals: 20% of the test (10 questions) and 44% of USAD’s Art Resource (38 pages) Africa and Europe: 30% of the test (15 questions) and 20% of USAD’s Art Resource (17 pages) Art and Imperial Power: 25% of the test (12-13 questions) and 16% of USAD’s Art Resource (14 pages) Europe Envisions the Empire: 25% of the test (12-13 questions) and 20% of USAD’s Art Resource (18 pages) If you have a limited time. Save Art Fundamentals for last. By reading those two. you may find it useful not to read the Sections in order. This strategy will allow you to cover the material for 12 or 13 questions by only reading 14 pages. First.Art Power Guide | 5 CURRICULUM OVERVIEW Art Fundamentals comprise approximately 45% of the art curriculum. according to the USAD outline. read Section III (Art and Imperial Power).

POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. 0 questions should come from the Introduction  No questions (0%) come from the Introduction on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers page 4 of the USAD Art Resource Before We Begin  Purpose  This year’s Art curriculum emphasizes the art of imperialism  Imperialism refers to the practice of extending the rule of an empire over foreign countries  The selected artworks come from a variety of locations  Africa  Australia  Europe  North America  South America  These artworks also come in many forms  Paintings  Sculptures  Photographs  Textiles  Decorative arts  Architecture  Art history encompasses the study of the formal qualities and historical context of an artwork to understand its meaning  Societal context affects artwork just as art influences society  Imperialistic art often bridges two cultures  The sections  Section I (Art Fundamentals) provides basic background information  It provides familiarity with basic art terms and techniques  This section also includes a brief overview of western and nonwestern art history from the prehistoric period to the present  Section II (Africa and Europe) describes the relationship between Africa and Europe from the time of initial contact to the present  Six artworks illustrate this relationship . This information is not testable but is helpful toward understanding the big picture.Art Power Guide | 6 INTRODUCTION POWER PREVIEW The introduction provides a brief outline of the Art curriculum.

Art Power Guide | 7  Section III (Art and Imperial Power) includes six artworks from across the British Empire with the exception of Africa  These artworks focus on trade between Britain and her colonies  Section IV (Europe Envisions the Empire) portrays European opinions and perceptions of imperialism  This section includes six artworks from the time of first contact to post-colonialism Section I: Art Fundamentals •Basic background information •Art history •Terms and processes Section II: Africa and Europe •Six artworks on the relationship between Africa and Europe Section III: Art and Imperial Power •Six artworks about trade between Britain and her colonies Section IV: Europe Envisions the Empire •Six artworks portraying European opinions and perceptions of imperialism .

while the principles of composition describe how elements of art interact. art historians study a work’s usage of the elements of art and principles of composition. lines may represent emotions or ideas  Horizontal lines and vertical lines relate to stable and static feelings . 32 . POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. or the elements of art Line Shape Form Space Color Texture Elements of art  Line  Line comprises the most fundamental element of art  Fingers. or any other line-forming tool can create this element on a surface  The formal definition of line is one point’s path through space  Examples of lines include the border between two colors and edges of objects such as room corners or door edges  Lines may differ in direction or several other aspects Variable Weight Length Visibility Width Width uniformity Extremes Hard or soft Long or short Bold or faint Thick or thin Consistent or uneven  Paths of dots or dashes may qualify as lines  -----Implied line refers to this type of non-solid line Implied line  Footprints in sand or snow exemplify implied lines  In art. In their method of formal analysis. paint.Art Power Guide | 8 ELEMENTS OF ART AND PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION POWER PREVIEW Elements of art include the rudimentary aspects of an artwork. pencils. 10 questions (20%) should come from Section I  10 questions (20%) come from Section I on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pgs.36 of the USAD Art Resource Elements of Art  Definition  Art historical formal analysis studies the visual qualities of an artwork.

may make a shape appear three-dimensional  Shading  Foreshortening5  Perspective  Geometric or organic describes the appearance of a form or A: without foreshortening shape B: with foreshortening  Geometric • From mathematics • Precise • Regular • Add order and stability Organic • From nature • Freeform • Irregular • Add movement and rhythm  Positively spacing out  Space describes the arrangement of positive space and negative space in an artwork  Positive space refers to the subjects of a composition  Some artists term these objects. Memorize it and don't hesitate to collect your free 20 points! 5 In foreshortening. . the impression of depth Positive space Negative space 4 I've seen this fact appear in at least three USAD tests during competition.Art Power Guide | 9 Vertical lines draw the viewer’s eye upward  Lofty arched ceilings in medieval churches direct attention heavenward  Visitors feel spiritual wonder  Straight horizontal lines such as the horizon appear peaceful 4  Curved or jagged lines appear active  All artists employ the element of line  Line is most prominent in drawing and several types of printmaking  Shape and form  Two related elements of art include three-dimensional form and two-dimensional shape  Pyramids. paintings. cubes. and sculptures represent forms  Triangles. however. and shapes the figure  Negative space entails space around the figure or open space inside the figure  Interesting perspective  Two-dimensional artists use many techniques to create perspective. architecture. forms. squares. and drawings exemplify shapes  Several techniques. artists shorten lines so as to create an illustration of depth (Princeton WordWeb).

they carefully add lines that lead away from the vanishing point  Checkerboard floors popular in Renaissance interior scenes use linear perspective  Parallel horizontal lines intersect vertical lines converging towards a distant wall.  Linear perspective artists first place a vanishing point on the horizon where lines converge  Afterwards. smoke. and phenomenon level of detail all suggest distance. even though the same scene in real life would form a regular grid  Renaissance artist Pietro Perugino’s fresco in the Sistine Chapel (1481 – 1482) features linear perspective  The Renaissance entered Rome partly because of Perugino’s example  Colorful language Linear perspective fresco by Pietro Perugino  Color constitutes a potent element of art  Another name for color is hue  All colors derive from a combination of the primary colors: red. emulates the visual effects of fog. and blue  Two primary colors produce one of the three secondary colors  . stretching into the distance exemplify this vertical location on the picture plane. or atmospheric perspective. yellow.Art Power Guide | 10 Technique Overlapping Picture plane location Size Detail Less Distant Figures In front Lower in the picture Larger More detailed Distant Figures In back Higher in the picture Smaller Less detailed Example   Another perspective method shades or highlights the contours of shapes to imitate the effects of light on forms  Contours refer to the visible edges of objects  Aerial perspective. contour shading. lighting. or fence posts Satire of perspective techniques by Hogarth: overlapping. more neutral colors  A lower degree of contrast in color or shade also mimics distance  Mathematical linear perspective originated during the Renaissance  This approach remains the most well-known perspective technique for its realism  Multiple lines terminate at the same point on the horizon Lines of highways. and airborne particles on a distant figure’s appearance  The application of aerial perspective involves using lighter. size. railroads.

shapes. the color wheel. "tint" actually means a lighter. different values alter the mood of an artwork  A color’s value ranges between the extremes of white and black  Mixing red and white produces lighter red or pink  Combining red and black makes darker red or brown  The colors black and white are neutrals. Sir Isaac Newton made breakthroughs in color science  The final product." In art. dates to the 18th century and organizes the primary. secondary.Art Power Guide | 11 Orange Red Yellow  Green Yellow Blue Violet Blue Red A secondary color and a primary color produce one of the six tertiary colors Red‐violet Blue‐violet Blue‐green Yellow‐green Yellow‐orange Red‐orange  In the 17th century. not darker. and tertiary hues into an array of 12 colors  This diagram shows the results of combining hues The color wheel  Value quantifies the tint (lightness) or shade (darkness) of gray or a hue6  Like lines. and forms. . color. not hues  A spectrum of grays results from mixing black and white Values of red between the neutrals black and white 6 Don't mix up "tint" in this context with "tinting your windows.

blue. optical color8. and violet  Blue. or dry summer grass  Cool colors refer to green. scientists formulated color relativity  Colors appear more or less intense depending on other colors in their proximity  Complementary colors induce brighter intensity  Adjacent colors simulate darker intensity  Adjacent colors such as green and blue-green are neighbors on the color wheel  Due to color relativity. colors lack a fixed quality  Color schemes may enhance mood or visual effects  The configuration of warm color and cool color schemes vary between cultures  In western art. mountain lakes. creates dull brown th  In the 19 century. reach across the wheel to shake hands with each other. green. and violet hues echo coolness. So. And looks can be deceiving. I was taught that these colors. warm colors encompass red. gray. fire. and yellow  Warm colors recall heat.Art Power Guide | 12  Intensity labels a color’s brightness or purity Unmixed primary colors have the highest intensity  Adding black. such as purple and yellow. or movement  Artists select colors based on the choice to use local color. the sun. local color is the true color of an object. objects featuring cool colors appear to move away from the viewer  A combination of warm and cool colors creates dynamism. or a complementary color reduces this intensity  Complementary colors stand directly opposite each other on the color wheel7  Mixing complementary colors. 7 . being kind and complimentary. or arbitrary color  Local Color Normal daylight lighting No distance effects or reflections Optical Color Special lighting effects Moonlit or candlelit colors. and snow  These color schemes also alter space in an artwork  Objects featuring warm colors appear to move towards the viewer  Conversely. so optical color is swayed by appearances. forests. 8 I always remembered the difference between these two because the locals in an area see things the way they really are. orange. or complementary. for example Arbitrary Color Reflects emotions or aesthetic taste Arbitrary color’s popularity skyrocketed in art during the 20th century  Texture  Texture describes the surface feel of an object  The human brain retains new tactile memories  Shading contrasts suggest rough texture and smooth shading implies even texture When I learned this concept.

symmetrical balance. or texture  Motif refers to the element repeated in the pattern  For instance. composition occurs on the picture plane  Three-dimensional composition organizes elements of art in space  Rhythm  Movements or patterns in an artwork create rhythm  These patterns repeat one of the elements of art. paintings of a straw hat. or orange may feature realistic surfaces  Patterns of lines or shapes mimic texture  Contrasts of light and dark convey rough texture  Consistent lighting emulates smooth texture  Brushstrokes may add actual texture to a painting  Principles of Composition  Composition  An artist’s usage of the elements of art determines her composition  In two-dimensional art. which follow a grid  Rhythm may direct the path of the viewer’s eye  Artists create either smooth or dynamic. color. shape. humans form expectations Artists distinguish between tangible actual texture or imaginary visual textures  Three-dimensional artworks feature actual texture based on their medium  Additions to a ceramic surface and objects in collages represent actual texture  Two-dimensional artworks rely on visual texture  For instance. such as line. precisely repeats the same elements on either side of a central axis  Either a horizontal or vertical line can serve as the central axis  Architects tend to use symmetrical balance  Many buildings contain columns. quilters stitch together squares representing one or more motifs  Quilts and checkerboards exemplify regular patterns. everchanging rhythms  Balance  Balance describes the arrangement of visual weight in an artwork  The most simple type of balance. glass vase. wings.Art Power Guide | 13  Upon viewing a previously experienced texture. and windows placed equally on either side of a central entrance Symmetrical balance Approximate symmetry Asymmetrical balance .

or other aspects distinguish these elements  The human face features approximate symmetry  Asymmetrical balance unites dissimilar objects  This method is more complex than symmetrical balance but versatile  A lighter person and a heavier person sitting on a seesaw exemplify asymmetrical balance  To balance the seesaw. the stubborn Americans still measure distance in feet.500 years ago. modify proportions according to new ideals of beauty  Exaggerated or distorted human proportions may also alter an Greek artwork’s overall effect measurements  Scale refers to an element’s size relative to the entire work for the human  Scale may also describe the entire work’s size face  9 Today. however. creating a  2. the human figure is 7. . detail.Art Power Guide | 14 Approximate symmetry resolves the monotony and rigidity of some symmetrical compositions  Slightly different elements on either side of the central axis create approximate symmetry  Changes in color.5 heads tall  The Greeks also conceived specific measurements for the human face  The corners of the eyes mark the point halfway between the chin and the top of the head  The nose marks the point halfway between the chin and the corners of the eyes  The bottom of the lips mark the point halfway between the chin and the bottom of the nose  Many artists. the heavier person must sit closer to the center than the lighter person  Similar positioning of large objects and small objects in an artwork also creates asymmetrical balance  Contrast  Multiple contrasting instances of one element of art create visual interest  The element at the focal point stands out from the rest of the composition  A viewer’s eye usually rests on the focal point  The focal point may present an artwork’s meaning  Proportion and scale  Proportion concerns the relative sizes of parts of an artwork The fountain contrasts with  Human scale determines our sense of proportion other elements. Classical Greek sculptors standardized realistic focal point human proportions 9  Ancient Greeks measured everything using the human figure  The proportions of Greece’s building designs even match human proportions  According to Greek standards. position.

the large scale of the Sistine Chapel’s ceiling or the small scale of details in miniature paintings as well as medieval book illuminations attract attention  Artists decide the scale of their artwork based on its location and purpose  Elements of art in history  More traditional artworks than modern artworks apply the elements of art and principles of composition  Several modern artistic styles center on the rejection of these concepts  .Art Power Guide | 15 For instance.

Art Power Guide | 16 PROCESSES AND TECHNIQUES POWER PREVIEW Processes and Techniques delve into traditional two. however.dimensional art mediums as well as several more recent art forms.and three. understand precisely how each medium works in addition to memorizing the definitions of technical terms. Prioritize facts if they appear in sets of four or more. and some mixed media define twodimensional art  These artworks exist on a picture plane  Two-dimensional artworks’ attributes include height and width. printmaking.41 of the USAD Art Resource Two-Dimensional Art  Definition  Drawing. which determines value  Artists may mix different drawing mediums to change the shading of lines  Unlike black drawing media. must contemplate the effects of color th  Pastels. transparent wash ink or undiluted opaque ink to affect the visibility of the drawing surface. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. or soft sticks of color. respectively  Hard pencils produce thin and light lines  Soft pencils make thick lines and may create lighter or very dark values  When lightly applied. painting. Each art medium features a storied history and different techniques as well as materials. entered the art world in the 18 century  Portraitists favor pastel as a medium  10 I emphasize groups of four items or more by placing them in lists or graphics to prepare you for USAD’s “NOT” or “EXCEPT” format questions. pastels and colored pencils generate colorful lines  Black and colored mediums use identical techniques  Artists. but not depth  Drawing conclusions  Drawing uses the element of line and defines the most fundamental art process  Lines vary with different drawing mediums10 Pencil Pen and ink Charcoal Popular mediums for drawing Crayon Felt-tip pen Charcoal or pencil artists apply more or less pressure to create darker or lighter values. 36 . . To correctly answer test questions from this subsection. photography. charcoal’s soft point produces faint lines that expose the surface underneath  Pen and ink artists use thin. 10 questions (20%) should come from Section I  10 questions (20%) come from Section I on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pgs.

paper or another material copies Relief printmakers the matrix design cut away negative  In relief printmaking. http://tinyurl. including white sketchbook paper and manufactured as well as handmade versions  Smooth. linoleum. white. however.com/SilkscreenVideo. comes at the cost of easy smearing  Many artists spray fixatives to strengthen the bonds of the pastel  Pastels are also extremely fragile  Colored pencils do not smear as often as pastels  Pastel and colored pencil artists draw multiple layers to mix colors  Most modern artists draw on paper  Many variations of paper exist. making prints much cheaper than paintings  Many low-cost prints bearing social protests circulated during the Mexican Revolution  Printmaking has executed book and newspaper illustrations since the invention of the printing press in the 15th century  Initially. and gouges allow the surface areas) from the matrix and ink the incisions remaining positive  A plate of wood.com/ReliefVideo. and http://tinyurl.com/IntaglioVideo. the artist first gouges out parts of the matrix space (the white  Woodcarving knives. massed dots provide shade  Dense dots result in darker shades while sparse dots make lighter shades  Printmaking  Machines supplement the two-dimensional printmaking techniques of copying artworks11  Relief prints Intaglio prints Lithographs Screen prints Primary printmaking processes Printmaking technology can yield multiple copies. or matrix  After ink saturates this image. linoleum knives. or another synthetic material may act as space (the black the matrix area) that stands out  in relief 11 These videos of the primary printmaking processes may be helpful: http://tinyurl. the artist creates the original image on a printing plate.com/LithographyVideo. . rough.Art Power Guide | 17 Effortless color blending allows subtle tints or shades  This versatility. and colorful paper are all commercially available  Shading techniques alter the value of a drawing  Hatching adds shade using a mass of parallel lines  Crosshatching is similar but uses crisscrossing lines  Hatching and crosshatching add the illusion of form Hatching Crosshatching Stippling  In stippling. http://tinyurl.

the white space. force ink into this positive grooves space. the design’s positive space  Immersion in acid then etches away the exposed metal  Shorter exposure to acid creates lighter lines while longer exposure to acid creates deeper lines  The artist then removes surplus wax or varnish and squeezes ink into the etched areas  Afterwards. 13 Remember the difference between "brayer" and "burnisher" – these two words frequently appear in USAD Art Exams. binders. Negative space refers to the background – in this case. zinc. however. or the negative space  Finally. or aluminum plate may serve as the matrix  The lithographer solidifies the greasy image and then adds water to the plate  Oil resists water. so inking the matrix only saturates the greasy positive space  A press forces the inked area onto paper. is sufficient enough to create a lithograph  Woodcutters and engravers need professional training  Most T-shirt designers use screen printing  This approach. inking the relief area  The ink does not color the cut-away area. and solvents produce paint  12 Recall that positive space forms the subject of an artwork – in this case. the ice skate. she wipes ink off the negative space. . also known as silk-screening. the remaining positive space12 for the final image stands out in relief The artist rolls a brayer over the plate. creating a copy of the plate image  Intaglio printmaking follows the opposite approach of relief printmaking  The process centers on the element of line  In the intaglio technique of engraving. artists etch relief away positive space  In the final step of etching.Art Power Guide | 18  After cutting. a press forces paper into the inked (the white area). and then  The inked area on the paper actually protrudes from the remove remaining ink paper’s surface. she uses a burnisher to rub the paper onto the matrix  The inked area colors the paper. implying form instead of just shape from the negative  In lithography. uses a wax. the artist uses a waxy pencil or crayon to outline the space (the black area) image on the printing plate  A stone. recreating the image on the fabric or paper  Painting  The ingredients of pigments. the artist carves lines into the surface of a wood or soft metal plate  Etching. the area in In etching. uses a photograph or other image as a stencil  The artist inks silk or another synthetic fabric stretched across a frame using this stencil  A squeegee forces ink through holes (representing positive space) in the stencil. another intaglio process. the relief printmaker places the matrix and paper into a press 13  Alternatively.or varnish-coated plate  Lines incised through the wax or varnish layer form the image  These incisions expose areas of the metal plate. creating a copy of the image  Lithography is a complex and arduous task  The skill of drawing alone.

signify the medium’s advantages of clarity. tempera artists must blend colors before painting  Unlike oil paint. artists apply a mixture of pure pigment and water to wet plaster covering the wall or ceiling  Paint bound to wet plaster is permanent. and durability  . a yellow glaze over a crimson painting creates resplendent effects  Impasto paintings feature lumps of thickly applied paint  Before oil paint.Art Power Guide | 19    Artists grind natural or synthetic materials into powder to yield pigments A binder synthesizes pigment grains and the paint surface Solvents adjust the consistency or drying time of paint Pigments Binders Solvents Clay Wax Oil Minerals Egg yolks Water Gemstones Linseed oils Plant or insect materials Common substances for the three ingredients in painting  Fresco painting for walls or ceilings dates back thousands of years In a buon fresco (true fresco). continued throughout history and is common in elementary schools today  Egg serves as the binder in traditional tempera paint  Drawbacks of tempera include a short drying time and a minimal tonal range  Due to the quick drying time. brilliance. thinned oil paint creates transparent or semi-transparent layers called glazes  Glazes tweak the color of an artwork  For instance. so artists cannot make changes  The fresco secco technique uses dried plaster instead of wet plaster  The Roman ruins of Pompeii and medieval churches as well as Renaissance churches contain frescoes th  In the early 20 century. allowing an artist to blend paints on the actual artwork  This feature also permits the artist to continue to work on a piece for weeks  In addition. tempera’s restriction to light or dark tones prevents natural depictions  Tempera also requires a high level of skill and cannot recreate the effect of oil paint glazes  Ancient tempera paintings. however. the reputed Mexican muralist Diego Rivera created frescoes in Mexico and the United States  Oil paint gained popularity in the 15th century and remains the most common type of paint Pompeii fresco  Many artists favor oil paint’s versatility and easy blending  Oil paints dry very slowly. however. most artists employed water-based tempera  Tempera use.

and broad spaces come first  Darker colors. and polymers  This highly versatile medium was invented after World War II  Compared to oil paint. precise gouache. creating encaustic  Some modern painters have revived encaustic From left: Easily blended oil paint. background areas. foreground areas. and waxbased encaustic  Photography  The advent of photography occurred in the mid-19th century  This technology first gained popularity as a documentary tool  Artists initially felt compelled to paint works appearing more realistic than photographs  Painters. light watercolor. versatile acrylic.Art Power Guide | 20  Water-based gouache paint resembles school-quality tempera but offers improved paint quality  Many designers and fine artists prefer gouache for its bright colors and precision  Watercolor paint lacks the consistency of gouache but dries faster  This transparent medium is the most popular water-based paint  The color of the underlying paper surface strongly affects watercolor’s value  Instead of mixing in white paint to create tints. plastics. and detailed spaces come last  Watercolor requires careful planning and practice because mistakes can easily ruin a work  Acrylic paint combines synthetic materials. lacks the fine distinctions possible with oil paint  Many artists allergic to oil paint and turpentine turn to acrylic paint  Wax-based encaustic paint identified tomb markers in ancient Egypt  These encaustic markers still survive. proving encaustic’s durability  Hot irons fuse colored molten wax to a surface. has gradually earned prestige in the 20 and 21 centuries  Film also recently entered the fine art world  New technologies constantly change photography . lighter colors. however. most watercolor artists add water  In watercolor painting. ultimately abandoned competition with the camera and expanded into abstract art  At first. acrylic dries faster and creates layers more easily  Acrylic. however. clear tempera. however. the fine art world disregarded photography th st  This media.

of an unfired clay or wax sculpture  The artist encloses this sculpture in plaster and then allows the plaster to harden  Hardened plaster serves as a mold into which sculptors can pour materials to duplicate the original sculpture  These materials include plaster and metal  Synthetic materials such as plastic or polyester resins Alexander Calder recently became available for casting . or church walls  They are only visible from a limited range  Sculptors attach the cast metal work to the carrier surface or carve the work out of the carrier surface’s stone or wood Michelangelo’s freestanding Pieta  Artists may craft high relief or low relief (bas relief) sculptures  High relief sculptures protrude further from the surface than low relief sculptures  High relief sculpture  Low (bas) relief sculpture  All sculptures come from four basic methods Carving  Modeling Casting Construction   The subtractive approach of carving removes original material  The artist uses chisels. sarcophagi. such as doors. hammers. other types of mixed media. or papier-mâché  A sculptor adds material to or shapes the surface Casting creates copies. and environmental art  These artworks exist in space and have the additional attribute of depth  Sculpture  Visibility distinguishes the two types of sculpture: freestanding and relief  Freestanding. altars. and files to flesh out her stone or wood artwork Additive modeling uses a soft. or casts. architecture. plaster.Art Power Guide | 21 Three-Dimensional Art  Definition  Three-dimensional art encompasses sculpture. pliable material such as clay. wax. or in the round. sculptures are visible from all angles  Examples include the Venus de Milo or Michelangelo’s Pieta  Relief sculptures project from a carrier surface.

or found objects to create sculptures  In mobile sculptures. and commercial buildings as well as apartments Painting of the World’s Fair in the Crystal Palace  Residential architects frequently use brick and wood  Many architects challenge the notions of geometrically structured buildings th th  In the late 19 and early 20 centuries. pulleys. steel remains the standard building material for large. Embarrassing memory trick # whatever number this is: As buildings made out of stone. ice. ropes. architects favor steel and wood when using this method  The arch. grass. public. the entire sculpture or parts of the sculpture are movable  Alexander Calder’s (1898 – 1976) mobiles hang elements from wires  Wind or air currents move Calder’s mobiles  Other artists make mobile sculptures using motors.Art Power Guide | 22 Construction involves various methods such as sculpting metal  Welded pieces of sheet metal or bent wire may create a metal sculpture  Construction artists also combine paper. pumps. the Crystal Palace’s (1851) skeleton of thin iron rods supported an exterior consisting mainly of glass walls  This structure in London housed the World’s Fair  Wrought iron frameworks also enabled the Eiffel Tower in Paris  Alongside concrete. (which makes sense because it’s spelled differently) . Antonio Gaudi (1852 – 1926) designed organicshaped cut stone buildings in Spain15  Gaudi’s architecture lacks flat surfaces or straight lines  Architects like Gaudi seek aesthetically appealing new materials and designs  14 15 Vaults are tunnels of arches. or lintel construction  The Greek Parthenon features post-and-lintel construction  Today. animal skins. mud. supported wider and taller buildings 14  Vaults and domes are extensions of this same concept  The Roman Colosseum utilizes vaults  The Industrial Revolution introduced numerous new building materials and techniques  For example. or wood depending on their home climate  Brick and stone later became common building materials  Post-and-lintel construction remains a valuable architectural development Post-and-lintel  Two vertical posts support one horizontal crosspiece. another crucial invention. wood. Gaudi’s artworks are the opposite of gaudy. board. or other machines  Architecture  Architecture encompasses artistic and scientific building design  Early architects used local materials such as sticks.

or theater tickets  Symbolism. involves any objects that adhere to a surface. broken dishes. such as photographs. distinct papers. or children’s toys  Collage. newspaper. rope.or threedimensional art  These found objects include materials such as fabric. or another aesthetic aspect unites the elements of a collage  Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque established the collage as a fine art form c. 1912  Assemblages of both two.Art Power Guide | 23  Environmental art  Environmental art.and three-dimensional objects also qualify as mixed media  Joseph Cornell’s (1903 – 1972) assemblages involve open boxes containing various objects that deliver symbolic and metaphoric messages 16 USAD loves this fact. . texture. or Earthworks. a mixed media art form.  This medium overlaps with sculpture but distorts traditional ideas about the function of art  Environmental artists expanded art outside of art museums  Large scale and impermanence characterize Earthworks  Environmental artists can design their work to change over time  These artists build their works on-site and often involve the viewer in the work and installation 16  Environmental art redefines the space it occupies  Christo (1935 – ) and his wife Jeanne-Claude (1935 – 2009) popularized Earthworks  This artist couple introduced the concept of packaging landscapes and architecture  Christo first worked in Europe but later created Earthworks on the international stage A 24-mile long fence of cloth in California  Fabric wrapping around famed monuments Gates of orange fabric on Central Park's pathways Pink plastic wrapping around 11 Florida islands These ambitious projects took years or decades to complete  Jeanne-Claude coordinated the creation of the Earthworks  Environmental artists need to secure government and community approval  Jeanne-Claude’s role was just as important as Christo’s job in designing the original projects  Their dual creation process questions the definition of artistic genius and traditional artist roles  Michael Heizer (1944 – present) and Robert Smithson (1938 – 1973) also produced Earthworks Other Art Forms Partial view of Christo’s Surrounded Islands  Mixed media  Mixed media artists combine several mediums and objects to execute two. color.

artists press their thumbs into the center of a ball of clay  Potters hold the outside of the clay ball and shape the hollow interior with their fingers  Coil pottery involves the palm of the hand kneading clay into long coils  A stack of these coils forms the pot  In slab pottery. liquid clay. binds together precisely measured slabs of clay  Ancient cultures invented the modern potter’s wheel  As the wheel spins malleable clay. challenging the definition of art  In this style. and glass as well as wood objects result in these art forms  Human hands or simple tools shape pottery. or other artworks of nonwestern or nontraditional cultures  For instance.Art Power Guide | 24  Mixed media also appears in the masks. and Earthworks. folk art. the artwork comprises the artist herself  Like music. grass. fibers. performance art lacks the permanence of traditional art  Performance artists create unmarketable events open to interaction with viewers  Several individuals perceive performance art as an escape from the commercialized art world  The Guerilla Girls exemplify performance art aimed at social change  This circle of artists first assembled in New Living Statues performers are York City in 1985 examples of performance art  In public. and paint ornament several tribal masks  Performance art  Performance art combines theater and art. the artist shapes the pot using her hands  The potter’s wheel permits thin-walled pots and a large repertoire of shapes Potter’s wheel  Thrown pottery refers to ceramics produced on a potter’s wheel  Potters can combine thrown pottery and hand-built pottery . Guerilla Girls don gorilla masks to remain anonymous  The group employs guerilla-warfare strategies  Posters. costumes. theater. flyers. or slip. and public speeches voice their discontent with a supposedly white male-dominated art world  Craft and folk art  The disputed terms craft. and popular art apply to innumerable types of art forms worldwide  Attempts to beautify utilitarian objects such as pottery. which uses clay dug from the earth  In creating a basic pot. jewelry. beads.

boxes. which is both artistic and useful  Potters may use molded clay. boats.  Glass production combines silica. raw materials. flint. knitting.Art Power Guide | 25 After the shaping and drying of pottery. perfume bottles. artists place the clay in a special oven called a kiln  The heat completely dries the clay and chemically hardens the pot  This change is permanent  Artists then color the pot’s surface using glazes made from clay and pigment  Another heating in the kiln melts these glazes  Melted glazes form a glassy. and other glass vessels  Medieval art popularized stained glass  Residential lampshades and windows also used stained glass by the late 19th century  Wood appears as a primary material in furniture. or crocheting  Archaeology indicates that Middle Eastern civilizations invented glass in the 3rd millennium Display of blown glass sculptures B. nonwoven quilts can fulfill primarily utilitarian or primarily artistic purposes  Weavers create clothes and other household fabrics  These weavers use a loom or braiding.C. carved decorations. or quartz creates silica  Glassblowing equipped artists to fashion vases. drinking glasses. waterproof surface. or ornaments to adorn the surface of a pot  Fiber arts encompass woven and nonwoven fibers  Beautiful. and possibly minerals to add color  Sand. and houses  Northwest Coast Indians inscribe traditional designs in boxes and house boards  Wooden boats’ functional and artistic designs vary between Northwest Coast Indian world cultures house pole of carved  wood .E.

history. fork. cultural. including mass-produced posters and advertisements Crafts: pottery.Art Power Guide | 26 ART HISTORY POWER PREVIEW The first few pages of Art Fundamentals delve into highly specific definitions of art history and its methods. or sofa  Art historians accept that an artwork’s meaning may change over time  Historical context tends to influence the interpretation of art . 5 . Although this section sometimes seems excessive. 10 questions (20%) should come from Section I  10 questions (20%) come from Section I on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pgs. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. or Architecture body art (like tattoos) Common household designs such as those seen on a telephone. Later on. the background story of art history’s evolution from ancient Rome to the present mentions several key individuals and historical moments. textiles. and economic contexts  This field aims to interpret artworks and their original meaning  Art historians ask many questions to achieve this understanding The artwork's The artwork's original function formal qualities The original audience's social class and perspective The artist's goal and intention The patron's goal and intention Common art historical areas of study  Related studies  Art history’s sister disciplines include anthropology. the detailed terms provide good fodder for picky questions. and sociology  This field may also intersect with aesthetics and art criticism  The philosophy of aesthetics explores beauty and its expression  Art criticism informs the public of events in the art world through news media  What is art?  The first art historians only examined fine art  Art historians now study a broad range of art Fine art An audience must appreciate the object and perceive it as an artwork Paintings Prints Drawings Sculptures Modern art The object may take any form endowed with special meaning and/or aesthetic value Fine art Objects sometimes not regarded as art.7 of the USAD Art Resource Overview of Art History  Definition  Art history explores an artwork’s social.

Pope Julius II and a chapel floor cleaner might perceive Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel ceiling paintings differently Chapel floor cleaner No role in the work’s creation Only enters the area to clean Perhaps illiterate  Pope Julius II Patron of the work Enjoys access to this secluded Vatican area Understands the work’s theology  Likewise. music. theater. may find the ceiling aesthetically pleasing on equal levels The level of access to an artwork affects interpretation of the work  Other demographic factors affect each viewer’s perception    Social status Education Religion Race Gender  Art History Do-It-Yourself Kit  Analysis methods and human history  Most art historians employ two types of analysis to find an artwork’s meaning  Formal analysis involves the study of an artwork’s visual elements  These qualities may reveal the artist's intended meaning  The elements of art describe a work’s formal qualities  Formal analysis relies on careful examination and description of an artwork  Contextual analysis considers past and present cultural. or atheists would judge the ceiling differently than a Catholic living in the 16th century  All of the above viewers. however. social. present-day Protestants.Art Power Guide | 27  New viewers’ perceptions may also change an artwork’s meaning  For instance. Muslims. and history Art historians often study art chronologically  Each development or style of art influences the next generation Comparative study is another fashionable art historical practice . and economic influences on the artwork Contexts contemporary to the artwork Subject compared to popular subjects at the time of creation  Contexts contemporary to the artwork's later audiences Physical location Viewer access Patronage Cost   Contextual analysis relates artworks to their time’s literature.

for example. usually come from archives or libraries  Visual sources •Preparatory sketches and models for an artwork •The artist’s other works •Works by the artist’s contemporaries •Archival sources •Exchanges between the artist and patron •Commission-related documents •Art criticism •Other written sources •Information about the materials and function in the artwork such as their cost and source •Writings about the function of the artwork . available descriptions of a work allow formal and contextual analysis  Art historians practicing contextual analysis employ several types of sources  Written sources. an anthropology method .for instance.for example.Art Power Guide | 28 For instance. the ritual purpose of a sculpture Written sources Other sources •Interviews with artists and art viewers (commonplace in cultures that use oral history) •Participant observation. an art historian may engage in masquerade performances to document the Western African masquerade tradition . sometimes study reproductions for practical reasons  The original may be damaged or lost  In this case. however. the comparative study of Gothic and Renaissance works can highlight their differences  This technique can also reveal stylistic changes between the two eras  Art historians can then identify the historical events that caused these changes  Information sources  Art historians practicing formal analysis prefer the original artwork to reproductions  Even the best reproductions rarely capture every detail from the original  Photographs cannot convey the scale and form of a sculpture  Pictures also fail to capture a painting’s texture and rich colors  Textbook images of photographs that are artworks lack the original’s transitions from light to dark and appear flatter  Art historians.

Vasari’s book illustrates artists’ changing social roles in the Renaissance  He also shows how this period promoted the new idea of artistic genius 17  Vasari also painted a self-portrait in c.Art Power Guide | 29 Development of Art History  Pre-modern art history  Art history became an academic field in the mid-18th century  Art commentary.and 20 .) wrote Natural History  His text analyzes art from both past eras and Pliny’s time  Renaissance author and artist Giorgio Vasari (1511 – 1574) compiled The Lives of the Artists  His work features biographies of illustrious Italian artists Pliny the Elder from before or during the Renaissance  Today. including captions in pictures (this one comes from the right column of page 6). 18 Psychoanalysis is a method of analyzing psychic phenomena and treating emotional disorders that involves treatment sessions during which the patient is encouraged to talk freely about personal experiences and especially about early childhood and dreams (Merriam-Webster Dictionary). and inclusive art history Winckelmann encompasses diverse viewpoints  Feminism  Marxism 18  Psychoanalysis 17 Details like these may seem random and awkward. evolved earlier with the work of several writers  The ancient Roman historian Pliny the Elder (23 – 79 C. .E. multicultural. however. 1567  German Enlightenment scholar Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717 – 1768) helped set the trend of context-centric art history th  18 century Enlightenment philosophy shaped modern art history  Art historians began to study parallels between human history and the maturation of artistic styles  Vasari’s biography-centric art history lost favor th th  19 .century art historians continued the new trend of studying formal qualities in relation to historical context  Art historical studies follow a chronological order because each generation of artists influences successive generations  Modern art history  Bias affects art history  Feminist historians recently singled out a hegemony of white male artists and patrons  These feminists have amended art history to recognize female artists  Feminist revisions opened the gates to a much broader breadth of art history Johann Joachim  This new international. but the Power Guide includes every testable fact in a USAD guide.

or modern media  Advertisement posters  Film  Photography  Television Visual culture has diluted art history’s traditional values of artistic geniuses and masterpieces .Art Power Guide | 30   Art history also includes visual culture.

E. Questions will most likely test techniques and the history of major styles.28 of the USAD Art Resource Introduction  Preservation of artifacts  Extant artifacts from early cultures inform us about the origins of human civilization  Most of these objects consist of stone. or another durable material  Objects made of wood. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline.C. 10 questions (20%) should come from Section I  10 questions (20%) come from Section I on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pgs.Art Power Guide | 31 WESTERN ART POWER PREVIEW This summary of Western art details key periods and groundbreaking moments in the art history of Europe and the United States. rarely survive for decades. 7 .000 B. 30. Egypt’s environment favors art preservation  Art historians have learned much about ancient Egypt through extant artifacts  Many known ancient civilization centers in Central America and South America remain unexplored  Thieves and merchants. or another perishable material often deteriorate  Environmental factors also affect the preservation of artifacts  For instance. Egypt’s hot and dry desert preserves even frail materials like papyrus paper  The sealing of Egyptian caves and tombs also helps preserve even more artifacts  West Africa’s humid climate causes items made of perishable materials to decay quickly  Exposed wood masks. let alone centuries  Art history focuses on Western society and de-emphasizes Nonwestern society partly due to varying levels of preservation in different world cultures  Art history’s most prominent civilizations do not necessarily produce the best artworks  Rather. have ruined scores of cities in their search for antiquities to sell on the international market The Stone Age  Old Stone Age art  Ancient cave paintings in southwestern France’s Chauvet Cave date to c. fiber. metal. fired clay. art historians have simply discovered the most artworks from these civilizations  For instance. Examples of artworks and their artists illustrate these innovations. however.  Explorers uncovered these paintings in 1994  They originated in the Old Stone Age  The Old Stone Age is also called the Upper Paleolithic Period Horses in Chauvet Cave . for example.

E  It stands 4 1/8 inches tall  The figure has minimal arms and completely lacks feet or facial details  These aspects contradict the figurine’s inflated female features  Scholars theorize that these statuettes may have served as fertility figures  The Middle Stone Age  The Middle Stone Age refers to the Mesolithic Period Venus of  During this era.C. distinguishes Mesolithic art from Paleolithic art  One figure at Lascaux is the only human to appear in cave paintings  By contrast. either alone or in groups  Mesolithic artists seemed to favor scenes of humans conquering animals  Scholars debate the dating of these artworks  Most historians. buffalos.000 B. but not Chauvet Cave  Early art historians deemed these cavemen’s artworks random scribbles  Detailed study. a warmer climate lured cave dwellers outside Willendorf  Rock shelters housed a growing new culture  Mesolithic artworks on rock shelters in eastern Spain prove humans lived there  These paintings resemble Paleolithic cave drawings in their skillful depiction of animal figures  The existence of humans figures. however. lions.000 to 4. lions.000 to 10.000 B.C.000 to 25.  Altamira and Lascaux contain the most well-known of these paintings  These caves’ sizable artworks contain colorful depictions of animals like horses. however.Art Power Guide | 32 Chauvet Cave’s artists used red ochre and black charcoal  The paintings also feature a minimal use of yellow ochre  These artists painted only animals. such as horses. and pubic areas distinguish these figures  The Venus of Willendorf (Woman of Willendorf) is the best known of these sculptures  This statuette dates from c. reveals a visual tradition connecting these drawings  Skilled artists first created elegant outlines of charcoal  Afterwards.E. bison. 28. and mammoths  Outlines of human hands appear in Lascaux and Altamira. however. and mammoths  Younger cave paintings elsewhere in France and Spain date from c.C. rock shelter art shows humans. rhinoceroses. bears.E  The New Stone Age  The New Stone Age is also known as the Neolithic Period  The defining artworks of this era are stone formations in Western Europe  The first formations date to 4.C. 15. agree they originated in c. they colored their figures with red and yellow ochre pigments  The drawings’ original function remains uncertain  They may have served in rituals such as hunting ceremonies  Other renowned artworks from the Old Stone Age include small stone female statuettes  Oversized bellies. breasts.000 B.000 B.  . 7.E.

caves.E. historians term these stones megaliths (“great stones”)  The megalithic culture fashioned the megaliths  Stonehenge at Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire. rough-hewn stones comprise these formations  The stones weigh up to 50 tons and measure up to 17 feet in height  Accordingly.Art Power Guide | 33 Rows or rings of tremendous. and tombs  These artworks are more likely to survive until art historians secure them  . England remains the most famous megalith construct  This formation arose through several building phases around 2100 B.C. the midsummer solstice sunrise appears directly behind the heel-stone  Stone Age art versus later art  The above Stone Age artworks were isolated from each other  They have survived thousands of years  More art remains from later cultures due to conditions favorable to creation and preservation  Art creation increases in societies organized into stable cities  The rulers of these cities provide patronage  These population centers are often great cities such as Babylonia  Art preservation increases in cultures that traditionally place art in mostly inaccessible locations such as burials.  The builders employed post-and-lintel construction  Stonehenge’s main layout consists of three concentric rings that use two types of stones  Bluestone is a type of rock native to England  Sarsen is a type of sandstone  Stonehenge’s main layout Stonehenge’s biggest rocks are the sarsen stones in the innermost five posts and lintels  Some of these sarsen stones weigh 50 tons  A vertical heel-stone stands to the east of Stonehenge  From the very center of the horseshoe ring.

2. and a lack of durable materials in Mesopotamian art have reduced the number of surviving Mesopotamian artworks  Sumer grew as the first Mesopotamian civilization from c.150 B.334 B.E.  The King of Ur became the first Neo-Sumerian monarch  Neo-Sumerian artists’ most noteworthy works are urban ziggurats  Administrative and economic activity revolved around these structures  Ziggurats.334 B. however.000 to 2.C. however.E. destruction.  Remarkable Sumerian sculptures and buildings arose during this time period  Enormous temples mark city centers and reflect the importance of religion in Sumer  Simple platform structures formed the earlier temples  Eventually. 1.. Akkadian society assimilated the Sumerians  While Sumer valued loyalty to the city-state.19  Sumer’s cities. 4.C.792 B. temples developed into ziggurats. Sargon of Akkad subjugated Sumer’s cities  Despite a language barrier. gave birth to several civilizations  Like their contemporaries.E.100 B.C. were still primarily temples  One example is the Great Ziggurat of Ur  This structure stands near Nasiriyah. the Egyptians.Art Power Guide | 34 The Near East  Ancient Mesopotamian art  Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia lacked natural barriers such as deserts or mountains  Mesopotamia was more susceptible to frequent invasion  Conquest.E. 2. the valley between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. regained power just 50 years later. in c..C.E. 2. Iraq  In c. . these civilizations innovated in writing and the arts  Unlike Egypt. the city-state of Babylonia rose to Hammurabi (left) and Shamash power  Babylonian king Hammurabi centralized several Mesopotamian city states that had remained independent for centuries  He then recorded Babylonian law in the first-ever legal code: the Code of Hammurabi 19 Enrichment Fact: The Guti entered Mesopotamia from the Zargos Mountains in present-day Iran. or stepped pyramids  In c. Akkad coveted monarchical loyalty  Akkadian art centers on the dynasty’s kings  These monarchs appear in freestanding (visible from all sides) and relief (protruding from a Relief sculpture of an Akkadian surface) sculptures king trampling enemies  Mountainous Guti barbarians invaded Akkad in c.C.

538 – 330 B. Neo-Babylonians   Persia  The region of modern Iran gave rise to the Persian Empire (c. Babylonians c. Akkadians c.E. and wood form this palace 20 21 A stele is an upright. Babylonia ruled over Mesopotamia Ishtar Gate detail  Neo-Babylonians constructed the wondrous hanging gardens of Babylon 21  They also built the Ishtar Gate. hop on over to http://tinyurl.334 B.C.C. carved pillar or piece of stone that serves as a marker or monument. I only provide a picture of an animal on the Ishtar Gate because USAD emphasizes the animals.E Guti barbarians c. and other significant moments  Through the 7th century B.)  Persian artists expressed the most skill in architecture  The Palace at Persepolis epitomizes these artworks  Stone.E. . Akkadian.C. Assyria conquered the entire Near Assyrian relief carving East  Relief carvings stand out among Assyrian artworks  They illustrate battles. 2.C. 612 to 538 B. Babylonia gradually usurped Assyria  During the Neo-Babylonian period from c.E. 2. sieges. Sumerians c.com/TheIshtarGate.E.538 B. 4. 612 . an entrance to the Temple of Bel  The Temple of Bel is a giant ziggurat  This temple’s Ishtar Gate is one of the most famous pieces of architecture to position figures on a wall surface  The Ishtar Gate features animals22  c.. the sun-god Shamash inspires Hammurabi to write the code  The above periods of Sumerian.792 B.100 B..E.E.000 B.C. in a high-relief sculpture.E. NeoSumerians c. but if you want to see the full structure. 900 B. and Babylonian history occurred in southern Mesopotamia  At the same time.E.Art Power Guide | 35 The most acclaimed early Babylonian artwork is a stone stele 20 inscribed with Hammurabi’s code  The Louvre Museum houses this stele  Atop the code.E. brick.E. 1.C. the civilization of Assyria reigned over northern Mesopotamia  Then from c.. 2. 22 This image from the Ishtar Gate is the inspiration for Disney’s The Lion King.C.C.150 B.C.C. 900 to 600 B. Assyrians c.C.

jewelry.) employs hierarchical scale  This stone tablet dates to between Dynasties III and VI of Egypt’s Old Kingdom  Egyptians may have used the palette to mix cosmetics for rituals  In the palette center.E. 3. and symbolic servants  The crypt of the boy king Tutankhamen (1.000 B.C.361 – 1.E.C. “Walk like an Egyptian” is officially stuck in my head.E.Art Power Guide | 36  The design borrows from Egyptian architecture  Ancient Egyptian art  The birth of Ancient Egypt and the predynastic period occurred in c.  Alexander the Great’s conquest ended Ancient Egyptian civilization in 332 B. 3.  A plethora of legendary artworks comes from Ancient Egypt Larger than life pharaoh statues The portrait bust of Queen Nefertiti The Sphinx The Great Pyramids at Giza  Many Egyptian artworks feature hierarchical scale: status determines size The Palette of King Narmer (c.C. .) remains the most famous Egyptian tomb th  Thieves had plundered most pharaohs’ tombs by the 20 century  23 And now.E. King Narmer towers over other figures  He hoists a vanquished enemy by the hair  His raised arm prepares to strike a fatal blow  Two diminutive fallen enemies languish in the lower section below Narmer  Most subsequent ancient Egyptian art emulates the palette’s hierarchical scale  These works also reuse the organization and poses of the figures in the palette  The fractional representation technique derives from several poses  Head in profile Eye in frontal view Torso in frontal view Lower body in profile Including the legs and feet Centuries of Egyptian art follow the standard of depicting individuals in fractional representation23  Preservation of Egyptian artifacts and images increased with the culture’s burial customs  The ancient Egyptian elite buried their dead as mummies in tombs full of furnishings.500 B.C.352 B.

C. however. have attracted the interest of modern society  These figurines express simple.C.200 B. the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete superseded that of the Cycladics nd  The Minoan golden age occurred in the 2 millennium B. however. the Cycladic culture blossomed on the Cyclades archipelago in the Aegean Sea  Much remains unknown about the Cycladic civilization  Cycladic nude female figures.  Minoan culture revolved around Knossos.000 B. ensured the nearly perfect preservation of Tutankhamen’s tomb until 1922  In this year. 3.E. a city on Crete Cycladic nude female figurine  Knossos’ royal palace consists of a sprawling labyrinth  The legend of the Minotaur centers on this palace  This half-man. half-bull lorded over the maze and consumed intruders  Archaeologists have exposed the site of Knossos’s palace  Sea life recurs as the dominant theme in Minoan art  Minoans even crafted statues of a female snake goddess  The Minoan style favors naturalism . however. 2.Art Power Guide | 37 A well-hidden site. geometric forms  Cycladic artists also crafted decorative pottery alongside marble bowls and jars  Over time..E.C. and Mycenaean cultures thrived in the region of the Aegean islands  These three civilizations’ artistic advances were instrumental in later Greek art  From c. archaeologists extracted a wealth of treasures fashioned out of precious materials  Tutankhamen’s burial mask is one of the most exalted treasures  This work of art is an idealistic portrait of the king  Excavators retrieved this artifact from the interior of Tutankhamen’s stone coffin  Ancient Egyptians had placed the mask atop the mummy’s head and shoulders  Blue glass and semi-precious stones adorn this gold mask Tutankhamen’s burial  Nubian art mask  The Nubian kingdom spanned a wide area of Africa to the south of Egypt  Only modern scholars interested in diversifying art history have begun studying this civilization  Historians recently learned that Nubia controlled Egypt for a period of time  During this era. Minoan.E. will update these collections as well as the body of art history  Greek Art  Cycladic. to c. Nubians fulfilled the role of pharaoh  Nubian works rarely appear in art collections  Additional exploration of Nubian civilization. Minoan and Mycenaean art  The Cycladic.

was the hub of Mycenaean society  This culture built elegant tombs  Their burial customs sustained a wealth of artifacts  The most acclaimed Mycenaean treasures consist of gold  These items prove the culture’s superb goldsmithing skills  Mycenaean artists were also adept in creating relief sculptures Mycenaean gold  Greek Archaic Period earring  The Greek Archaic Period occurred from c. a Greek mainland city. also showed proficiency in architecture  Four large Minoan palaces stand on Crete  None of these palaces contain defensive elements24  Light. and a palace fresco of sea life  Minoan culture declined at the same time Mycenaean civilization peaked Historical consensus theorizes that the Mycenaeans obliterated the Minoans  Mycenae. a statue of the snake goddess. the Greek Doric order lacks a base and the Tuscan order lacks a detailed shaft  The Composite column order combines the Ionic and Corinthian styles  24 Enrichment Fact: The Minoan civilization’s island location protected them from enemy invasions. and organic designs define this Minoan architecture From left: Knossos palace reproduction. Egyptian art’s frontal poses recur in Greek figures  Greek art. . however. 660 to 475 B. delves further into realistic features and dynamic movement  Greek temples also arose during this period  New temples employed the Doric and Ionic column orders  These styles and the later Corinthian style differ in the extent of their ornamentation  For example. however.  Archaic Greek sculptors sculpted freestanding figures in marble and limestone  Mesopotamian and Egyptian stone sculptures inspired these creations  Indeed.E.Art Power Guide | 38   Palace wall frescoes and pottery designs form the majority of Minoan artworks This civilization. flexible.C.

C. complex forms and poses Early Classical  Among these new poses were contrapposto sculpture poised to  Contrapposto means “counter positioning” fire an arrow  In this pose. 448 – 400 B. Baroque. solemn. and Neoclassical artists strove to match the idealism of extant Greek statues  Architectural breakthroughs distinguish the Middle Classical Period (c.)  Middle Classical temples exemplify these architectural advances . and simple forms  Most sculptors captured figures poised directly before or after a significant action.E.E. a standing figure shifts it weight to one leg  The position appears relaxed and naturalistic  Western artists emulated Greek sculptures for thousands of years th th  From the 15 to the early 19 centuries.E.)  The Early Classical Period dates from c. as seen in the picture to the right  The Early Classical age marked major sculptural innovations  Greek sculptors renounced rigid Archaic frontal poses  This positioning derived from Egyptian art  Sculptors explored realistic.C. 475 to 448 B.Art Power Guide | 39 Classical Greek and Roman column orders  Vase painting became fashionable in Greece and featured countless styles •Black silhouette: Simplistic black figures •Athenian style: Includes black figures.  Thin Doric columns characterize temples from this period  This era’s sculptures feature strong. but also a linear style •Corinthian style: Floral and ornate background •Red figure: Includes a black background  Greek Classical Period  The city-state of Athens created ancient Greece’s most acclaimed art during the Classical Period (475 – 323 B. Renaissance.C.

gained popularity  Greek Hellenistic Period  Hellenistic Period (c. have survived  These building models incorporate columnsupported gables26 and tiled roofs  This style borrows from Greek architecture  Other remaining Etruscan artifacts are works of bronze and baked clay  Some of the baked clay objects serve as sarcophagus Etruscan tomb painting lids  The bronze items demonstrate the Etruscans’ proficiency in this art form  Tomb decorations supply most art historical knowledge of the Etruscans  Studies of several aforementioned cultures also rely on this source  The walls and ceilings of these crypts contain the only enduring Etruscan paintings  Bright and flat colors characterize these paintings  The subjects engage in funeral festivities featuring music and dancing 25 26 Enrichment Fact: Alexander the Great’s conquests in the east merged the cultures of Greece and Asia Minor.E. over 2. The Pantheon picture from earlier provides an example.)  Plain Doric columns continued to support new temples  Ornate Corinthian columns. 331 – 23 B. architectural advances subsided during the Late Classical Period (c. the Etruscan civilization emerged in modern Italy  This group’s art bridges idealistic Greek art and pragmatic Roman art  The Etruscans’ short-lived brick and wood buildings left behind no traces  Fortunately.) remains one of the most acclaimed artworks in history  Persian annihilation of the temple in 480 B. the restored Parthenon temple (447 B. ceramic models.C. .E.) art fused the styles of Greece and Asia Minor 25  In short.C.. 400 – 323 B.E.C. compelled the restoration  The Parthenon’s example of column construction remains a central model in Western architecture today.Art Power Guide | 40 For instance. presumably of Etruscan temples. eastern civilizations impacted this period’s artworks  Two acclaimed Hellenistic masterworks are the Venus de Milo and the Laocoön Group  These freestanding sculptures express ideals of beauty  Etruscan and Roman Art  Etruscan art  In the 1st millennium B.E. however.E. a fundamental development in architecture Parthenon façade plan  Due to Athens’ loss in the Peloponnesian War.000 years later  This structure also portrays post-and-lintel construction. A gable is a triangle-shaped wall between two sloping roofs.C.C.

) still stand in Rome today and exhibit the ingenuity of Roman engineering  For example..E. stronger bridges and aqueducts became possible  A new paved road network included these bridges  The empire’s roads facilitated widespread communication and control  The Colosseum (70 – 80 C.E.E.) and the Pantheon (118 – 125 C. sculptors and legions of other Roman artists had turned to adapting Greek art  Idealized portraits of Roman rulers derived standards from Greek art  Rome invented several groundbreaking engineering and architecture techniques. aqueducts. including concrete  Concrete mixed with rocks and rubble served as a strong mortar to bind stone walls  This invention enabled the construction of massive domed buildings. and baths as well as other civic buildings  Roman architects also introduced the curved arch  With the curved arch.C. vaulted construction features in the Colosseum  Giovanni Battista Piranesi engraved an image of the Colosseum in 1757  Roman art also includes a wealth of sculptures Massive triumphal arches: •Many include relief sculptures of emperors towards the top of the structure •The reliefs may also celebrate military victories Funerary relief sculptures: •Appear on tombs or sarcophagi •Tomb reliefs may consist of non-figurative decorations •Other reliefs are narratives Small portrait busts: •A Roman Republic funeral tradition developed in which the procession carried small sculptures of the deceased •Some busts served this purpose Large statues: •Commemorate honorable statesmen or nobles •Stand in public locations   The examples of portrait busts and large statues only present two extremes  Roman portrait sculptors explored a myriad of different sizes for their portraits This civilization’s sculptures center on Roman ideals  Both the funerary sculptures and public statues use idealism  None of these works’ sculptors attempted to execute realistic portraits .Art Power Guide | 41  Roman art  Military conquests and the formation of an empire define Roman history  Etruscan influences permeated early Roman art  But by the 2nd century B.

375 to 1025  A highlight of this time period is Nomadic Germanic art  This culture excelled in abstract. and geometric metalwork  Many Nomadic Germanic metalworkers crafted small ornaments or jewels of bronze. and Celtic Irish influences  Throughout the medieval age.)  This structure stands in Constantinople  Medieval art  The early medieval period spans the years c. Italy  Despite Ravenna’s Italian location.Art Power Guide | 42  Roman art strongly influenced the art of the Middle Ages  In addition. wars diverted large portions of medieval Europe’s population from creating art  The Catholic Church preserved most of this period’s artworks  In addition. decorative. but the empire’s eastern half endured as Byzantium  Mosaic work remains the most renowned Byzantine art form  Mosaic artists cobble surfaces with compact ceramic tiles. Byzantium ruled this city after Rome’s downfall Hagia Sophia  Byzantium also achieved one of history’s most wondrous architectural feats. glass shards. Rome’s artworks inspired Renaissance artworks and countless later artworks Byzantine and Medieval Art  Byzantine art  The decline of the vast Roman empire reduced the domain’s regions to warring kingdoms  Rome collapsed in Western Europe. only nobles and clergymen enjoyed the Jesus in the Book of Kells privilege of an education  In the medieval era.E. or stones  The resulting large murals often feature Christian subjects  Exemplary Byzantine mosaics appear on the brilliant walls of reputed churches in Ravenna. Anglo-Saxon English. or gold  Patterns of jewels adorn these trinkets  Scandinavia’s Viking culture preferred the medium of wood  Viking carvers added designs and sculptures to wooden ships  Viking invasions produced a Hiberno-Saxon artistic style combining Viking. most of the population lacked the ability to read  In general. silver. Latin remained the international language of Europe  Book preservation and production revolved around monasteries . the Hagia Sophia (532 – 537 C.

500  During this age. 800) and the Coronation Gospels (c. France  A barrel vault. 800 – 810) exemplify illuminated manuscripts  The late medieval period dates from c. kidskin. or tunnel of arches.Art Power Guide | 43 Monks wrote and illustrated vellum27 or parchment28 copies of books by hand  The original books from which the monks drew copies were extremely valuable  Indeed. or calfskin prepared especially for writing on or for binding books. and village  Several church designers pulled out all the stops on size  The construction of these churches often exceeded a century but resulted in artistic masterpieces  The first church architects of the late medieval age based their plans on Roman arches Saint-Sernin Basilica  As a result. church architecture became the prevailing art form  A church stood at the heart of each city. served as a church’s underlying structure  Vault structures are arched ceilings or roof supports  Types of arches and vaults Romanesque churches utilize stone vaults  These churches replaced earlier buildings with wood roofing  Wooden roof churches caught fire easily  Hefty stone arches. required huge walls  Romanesque architects minimized the sizes of windows and doors  Carvings and relief sculptures usually adorned these doors  Gothic art matured in the early 12th century and endured into the 16th century  Some secular buildings exhibit Gothic traits  Church construction. (Merriam-Webster Dictionary) 28 Parchment is the skin of a sheep or goat prepared for writing. (Merriam-Webster Dictionary) . however. town. 900 to 1. the Romanesque style refers to this design method  Saint-Sernin (1070 – 1120) is a renowned Romanesque basilica in Toulouse. however. monks chained these tomes to tables in their monasteries  Monks’ brilliant illuminated manuscripts qualify as fine art  These books brought artistic ideas from northern to southern Europe and vice versa  The Book of Kells (c. was the forte of the Gothic style  27 Vellum is a fine-grained unsplit lambskin.

stylized. must have surprised his original viewers  Renaissance and ancient Greek art share a strong influence on present-day art Fresco using simple perspective. his depictions may appear unrealistic  Giotto’s departure from flat. flying buttresses strengthened exterior walls enough to permit bigger windows and loftier ceilings  Gothic architects placed resplendent stained glass in these windows. economic change was a key instigator of possibly by Giotto the Renaissance 29 “In the round” is another term for freestanding (visible from all sides) sculpture. and unemotional Gothic art. a transitional period of mixed styles separates Gothic and Renaissance art  Florentine Giotto di Bondone (1267 – 1337) remains this period’s most noteworthy artist  Giotto’s most esteemed artworks are frescoes  His crucial contribution to art. simple perspective. overlaps subjects to imply depth 29  He also drew his figures from in-the-round models to achieve simple perspective  Giotto’s method hints at a stage setting  Viewers feel as if they are witnessing an event  Contrary to Gothic artists. adding light and color to the interior  These architectural changes resulted in the skeletal. thinwalled style which characterizes Gothic buildings France’s Chartres Cathedral epitomizes Gothic churches in its towering arches and iridescent stained glass light  These elements draw visitors’ gazes to the heavens  Architects initiated this cathedral in 1134 and rebuilt it after 1194 Chartres Cathedral Southern European Renaissance  Seeds of the Renaissance  The shift from the late medieval period to the Renaissance serves as a reminder of history’s complexity and subtlety  History is not a chronology of distinct styles and events  For instance.  Interestingly. however. Giotto endowed his subjects with emotions and meaningful gestures  Today. lofty mood of Gothic interiors   An imperative early Gothic invention. .Art Power Guide | 44  Three popular architectural techniques feature in Gothic buildings Ribbed vaults Two lean stone arches (ribs) cross and support the intersection of two vaults Flying buttresses Exterior half-arches reinforce walls to offset barrel vaults' downward and outward thrust Pointed arches Crested arches enhance the vertical.

he received another door sculpture commission for a different entrance to the baptistery  Ghiberti spent over 25 years crafting these doors  His final product.Art Power Guide | 45 The invention and circulation of paper money allowed notables such as the Medici family to hoard their wealth  These figures were instrumental in Renaissance art patronage  Italian artists’ access to specimens of Greek and Roman art was also influential in the beginning of the Renaissance  Artists receive invitations to dinner parties  As art history delves into post-Gothic styles. Abraham reluctantly obliges. achieved enormous success when he employed a double-shelled dome  Generations of subsequent architects adopted this design  Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. was so extravagant that Michelangelo dubbed the doors the Gates of Paradise  This name has stuck to this day  Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – 1446) was the runner-up in the baptistery door competition  This loss compelled Brunelleschi to absorb himself in architecture  Fortunately. however. painters and sculptors lived in the artisan class due to Greek artistic traditions  This lesser status seemed proper because artists worked with their hands  Renaissance culture. artist biographies receive much more attention  Individual-centric Renaissance society afforded this tendency  Society began to value a new concept of individual genius  Previously. Florence held this competition to determine which artist would design the structure’s doors  Lorenzo Ghiberti’s (c. established artistic masters as reputable intellectuals  All artists ascended to the higher echelons of society  Early Italian Renaissance  The city of Florence’s design competition in 1400 was a vital event in the early Renaissance 30  Upon the completion of a new baptistery. Right before the father thrusts a dagger into his son’s throat. an angel intervenes and reveals that God merely meant to test Abraham’s loyalty. which is a Christian sacrament marked by ritual use of water and admitting the recipient to the Christian community (Merriam-Webster Dictionary). he triumphed in a competition to build Florence Cathedral’s dome  Earlier architects’ failures to conceive a wide enough vault had placed construction at a standstill for many years Masaccio's linear perspective  Brunelleschi. or single vanishing point perspective  30 A baptistery is a part of a church or formerly a separate building used for baptism. 31 Enrichment Fact: In this biblical tale. however. Isaac is free to live. however. 1381 – 1455) door panel proposal won the contest  Ghiberti designed an image of the sacrifice of Isaac31  He portrayed Isaac with classical Greek features  After Ghiberti concluded his work on the door panels. God orders Abraham to sacrifice his son. . Isaac.

1482) reflects his work  Except for several Renaissance painters. . first applied linear perspective  Masaccio’s frescoes employ both linear and aerial perspective  The advent of linear perspective exerted a profound. Rodgers  The High Renaissance  The High Renaissance generation of artists succeeded Botticelli’s generation  Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519) and Michelangelo di Buonarroti (1475 – 1564) were illustrious High Renaissance artists who inspired the term “Renaissance Man”32  Leonardo earned prestige for his work in several different occupations: Inventor Architect Engineer Painter Sculptor Scientist Musician   He invented modern-day canal locks that allow ships to move between levels of water  In addition. loose hair. character. the Gates of Paradise.Art Power Guide | 46 Renaissance painter Masaccio (1401 – 1428). 1503 – 1505). and Botticelli’s The Birth of Venus Photo of Donatello’s David by Patrick A. The Last Supper (c. The Birth of Venus (c. and theatricality  Botticelli (c. 1444 – 1510) worked a generation after Donatello  His work implemented an ideal of female beauty that remained for centuries  Botticelli’s most celebrated painting. 1495 – 1498) and Mona Lisa (c. have even attained popular culture icon status 32 A Renaissance man is a person who has wide interests and is expert in several areas (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary). 1430 – 1432)  No known freestanding nude statues exist between the classical period and Donatello’s creation of David  Donatello’s later works lean towards naturalism. Leonardo’s submarine and helicopter sketches are functional designs His legendary paintings. David (c. enduring influence on art  Donatello (c. however. no other artist had painted a full-length female nude since the classical period  Venus’ most alluring aspects include a long neck. 1386 – 1466) is one of the giants of Renaissance art  The majority of art historians deem him the founder of modern sculpture  He drew largely from classical art  This tendency appears in his bronze statue masterpiece. Donatello’s bronze David. and a relaxed pose  From left: Detail of Ghiberti’s Sacrifice of Isaac.

and grime from the frescoes  Michelangelo’s original brilliant colors reappeared  The cleaning. he received a commission from Pope Julius II to plan the pope’s tomb  To fill this massive tomb. and smooth marble texture all attract viewers  At the time of its creation. pose. fumo  In sfumato. Julius II issued Michelangelo a new commission to paint the Sistine Chapel’s ceiling  Michelangelo was reluctant to accept the pope’s commission  He ultimately acquiesced and spent four years painting the 700 square yard ceiling  This endeavor lasted from 1508 to 1512 33  The finished Sistine Chapel ceiling frescoes remain one of history’s most celebrated creative masterpieces  In recent decades. however. generated controversy because some individuals felt that altering an artwork reduces its original integrity  33 If you have time. surpassed this difficulty to create David  This statue guaranteed Michelangelo’s fame as a sculptor  David’s form exceeds human scale because an early plan positioned it high above ground on the façade of Florence Cathedral  This statue needed a large form to remain visible from below but was never placed on the cathedral  David’s carving. Michelangelo is more renowned for painting than sculpture  Soon after the tomb project fell through. however. however. And if you’re like me. suddenly retracted his commission  His reasons for cancelling the tomb project remain unknown  Michelangelo’s despair at the wasted effort marked one of the lowest points of his career  Today. attempts to restore this work attracted publicity  The restoration purged centuries-old layers of oil.com/ygspf5h. sfumato  This term derives from the Italian word for smoke. visit the Sistine Chapel panorama at http://tinyurl.Art Power Guide | 47 Mona Lisa demonstrates Leonardo’s groundbreaking painting technique. it symbolized the spirit of the Florentine republic  Michelangelo produced a plethora of noteworthy sculptures but led a chaotic career  In 1505. Michelangelo was sculpting David (1504)  Florence obtained the source marble and Michelangelo won the Sfumato in the city’s competition for the right to sculpt a statue out of the Mona Lisa marble  The city discovered too late that this marble contained a sizable crack inside  Michelangelo. soft colors and outlines blur transitions between forms  Michelangelo and Leonardo worked in Florence at the same time  At this time. 1513 – 1515)  The Dying Slave (1513 – 1516)  The Bound Slave (1513 – 1516)  Pope Julius II. wax.  . you can leave the page up for a few hours to listen to the music. Michelangelo initiated work on a collection of outstanding statues  Moses (c.

Moses. despite a rivalry between the two  This study proved instrumental in Raphael’s education While Michelangelo lived as a recluse. 1513 – 1514) From left: David. School of Athens. 1508) established the landscape as a painting subject  Previously. most artists had painted human figures before adding the background  In The Tempest. including Sistine Madonna (c. 1477 – 1510) pioneered landscape painting  His scenes signify a new independence from Biblical. allegorical. he received several commissions from Pope Julius II  Raphael also studied Michelangelo’s work.Art Power Guide | 48  Debates surround other art restorations for this same reason  Raphael Sanzio (1483 – 1520) was another highly influential High Renaissance artist    The painter Raphael traveled to Rome in his youth  There. and Bound Slave by Michelangelo. Dying Slave. a potential storm imperils the humans  The weather overshadows the humans in importance  Titian Vecelli (1488 – 1576) worked in portraiture The Tempest by Giorgione . School of Athens and Sistine Madonna by Raphael  The Renaissance in Venice  Venice and many other cities joined Florence and Rome in contributing to the Renaissance influx of creative art  The Venetian painter Giorgione (c. (1509 – 1511) commemorates Greece’s most exalted philosophers and scientists Raphael also produced history’s most acclaimed paintings of the Virgin Mary  Religious artworks from the Renaissance to the present emulate his masterpieces depicting the Virgin. or classical references  Giorgione’s The Tempest (c. Raphael recruited many assistants in painting dazzling frescoes on the walls of Julius II’s official chambers  The most esteemed of these works.

and twisted poses with numerous different arrangements of small models before finally settling on the most dramatic angle for a painting  His juxtaposition of light and dark. symbolizes the Counter Reformation 34 USAD loves testing on somewhat opinion-based facts such as this. Just remember. Titian was the greatest colorist of the Renaissance and Donatello was the founder of modern sculpture. intensifies emotions  Religious subject matter determines much of Tintoretto’s late work  His chiaroscuro and carefully honed perspectives prelude Baroque art  Reformation and Counter Reformation art  The Reformation was significant in molding 16th-century art  In this movement. . he worked with a different color palette  He also sought theatricality in his art through dramatic angles and shading contrasts Tintoretto employed dramatic angles.  Tintoretto supposedly experimented chiaroscuro. not just scale and perspective  While Tintoretto branched into Mannerist illustration methods. emotional subjects  An eminent Mannerist painter.Art Power Guide | 49  Titian surpassed all of his Renaissance contemporaries in his talent for coloring34  His prolific career also stands out among those of Venetian Renaissance painters  Creativity in portraiture earned Titian formidable fame  Titian departed from the convention of neutral portrait backgrounds  He presented his patrons in front of various settings. or chiaroscuro. El Greco. Protestants railed against perceived excessive luxury and corruption in the Catholic Church  Artists began to abandon the Renaissance’s elaborate El Greco’s dramatic poses church decoration and religious imagery embody the Counter Reformation  The Church’s retaliation involved a Counter Reformation  Counter Reformation art further pushed upscale church decoration and theatrical. such as columns or curtains  This revolutionary technique impacted portraiture well into the 20th century Tintoretto (1518 – 1594) ranked among the prominent Venetian painters  Art historians generally categorize his work in the Mannerist style  Mannerism peaked in popularity in the late 16th century and featured distinct stylistic traits  Warped perspective  Toxic colors Subjects in twisted poses Distorted scale Mannerist artists freely deformed all elements of art.

1510 – 1515) spans nine panels  Double sets of folding wings hold these panels  Dürer stands above all other artists from Reformation Germany in his fame  His first artistic studies centered on late Gothic works 35 A magnum opus is a great work. the Isenheim Altarpiece (c.Art Power Guide | 50 His birth name was Dominikos Theotokopoulos Tintoretto’s paintings held a powerful influence over El Greco  El Greco’s experience also included a stint working in Titian’s Venetian workshop  In 1576. did not hold sway over all northern artists  Several northern artists adhered to traditional styles  Even artists who accepted Renaissance colors and linear perspective retained some traditional methods  Artists  Southern Germany prospered artistically in the 15th and early 16th centuries  Germans Matthias Grünewald (c. but his influence was The Four Horsemen of the extensive Apocalypse by Albrecht  Grünewald specialized in religious scenes. Spain  El Greco stretched his figures into dramatic positions  This technique expressed the Counter Reformation’s zeal  Tintoretto and El Greco embody the transition between the Renaissance and Baroque eras   Northern European Renaissance  History  Relative to southern European artists. . northern European artists produced smaller but much more realistic art during the 15th century  The advent of oil paint empowered this realism  At the time of the Italian Renaissance. however. 1475 – 1528) and Albrecht Dürer (1471 – 1528) remain the most eminent Northern European Renaissance artists  Only 10 works by Grünewald survive. Italian Renaissance ideas proliferated in northern European art Northern artists visit Italy and study Renaissance masterpieces  Italian artists travel in Northern Europe Italian Renaissance art influences Northern European art Commerce connects Venetian traders and rich German merchants Engravings of famous Italian artworks circulate through Europe These ideas. especially the chief work of a writer or artist (Dictionary.com). art north of the Alps was still predominantly Gothic  The classical craze did not captivate northern artists because they lacked their Italian contemporaries’ proximity to classical art and ancient Roman inspirations  In the 16th century. he traveled from Italy to Toledo. especially Christ’s Dürer crucifixion 35  His magnum opus. however.

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Italian Renaissance ideas, however, permeated northern Europe in the 16th century and affected Dürer’s work  Dürer visited Italy to peruse the artworks of present Italian artists  As a result, his style merges Italy’s art theories with northern Europe’s naturalism and sharp detail  Dürer also shared his newfound knowledge back in Germany  Dürer produced discourses on art theories and serial woodcut as well as copper engravings  These engravings include The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (c. 1498) and Veronica  Veronica uses hatching in lighter areas such as the background and crosshatching in darker areas  Another distinguished Northern Renaissance artist was Hans Holbein the Younger (1497 – 1593)  His fame stems from his portraits, which rank among the greatest of the Renaissance  Though a native of Germany, Holbein earned the most recognition in England  English King Henry VIII employed Holbein as a court painter  Holbein painted a portrait of his sovereign  The portrait exhibits Holbein’s gift for reproducing both details and sitters’ personalities  English painters modeled their work after Holbein’s standard well into the 19th century Portrait of Henry

The Baroque Era

VIII by Hans Holbein the Younger

 Baroque history and style  Between the Renaissance and Baroque eras, Europe changed politically  Wars now pitted empires, not city-states, against each other  The Catholic Church poured its energy into retaining power over Spain and Italy  Jesuits and other missionary orders arose during the Baroque era to convert natives of new colonies  These Counter Reformation goals shaped Baroque art’s theatrical and emotionally moving calls to faith  To meet these aims, Baroque artists abandoned the simple classical style  In the 17th and 18th centuries, European society submitted to the ruling class  Monarchs justified their power as divinely ordained  Some Baroque monarchs stand among the most powerful rulers in history  Utter control over subjects’ lives characterized the reigns of several rulers
Peter the Great of Russia King Louis XIV of France Empress Maria Theresa of Austria Catherine the Great of Russia

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 Throughout the Baroque period, rulers continued to amass wealth and power until the

poverty of the lower classes reached a breaking point  The average European lived a challenging life while his or her ruler basked in luxury  Several individuals spoke out against the exorbitant rich-poor gap  Forms of protest included Enlightenment writings, especially those of JeanJacques Rousseau  The monarchy, however, supplied the patronage behind Baroque masterpieces  Baroque usually describes art created between the late 16th and mid-18th centuries  This time period cultivated a style distinct from Renaissance art

Renaissance Static Calm Simple

Baroque Dynamic Energetic Ornamental

As a term, baroque also refers to majestic coloring and ornamentation  These elements imbued the energy and emotion common in Baroque masterpieces  Baroque artists strove to maximize dramatic impact  They frequently applied the chiaroscuro technique to enhance theatricality  Chiaroscuro amplifies contrasts of light and dark to immerse a subject in a theatrical spotlight  Italian Baroque artists  The Italian Baroque painter Caravaggio (157136 – 1610) Caravaggio’s art shows earned fame for his chiaroscuro extreme contrasts between  Centuries’ worth of subsequent artists emulated his light and dark technique  Caravaggesque even describes artworks juxtaposing harsh light and dark tones  This new term shows the extent of Caravaggio’s influence  Caravaggio’s paintings also took naturalism to a whole new level  Traditional art depicts the Virgin and the apostles as regal characters draped in classical attire  Caravaggio’s art illustrates these subjects as simple paupers in tattered clothes  He even recruited the poor as models to fulfill his goal of naturalism  Some of his patrons took offense and cast aside their purchased paintings  Feminist art historians have recently placed Artemisia Gentileschi (c. 1593 – c. 1652) among noteworthy Baroque artists  Social norms rarely permitted women to study art
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USAD Error: Caravaggio was born in 1571 not 1573.

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Gentileschi, however, was born to a painter and worked in her father’s studio She tailored and reapplied Caravaggio’s methods which brought her artistic prestige  Gentileschi painted women from the Old Testament and self-portraits37  Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598 – 1680) was the most important Baroque artist  He first demonstrated artistic virtuosity as a child  The Pope formally recognized Bernini when the artist was only 17  As the son of a sculptor, Bernini executed most of his masterworks in sculpture  His talent, however, also manifested itself in architecture,
 

painting, and drawing Ecstasy of Saint Teresa  One of Bernini’s careers involved theater design by Bernini  This line of work affected much of his art  Bernini’s primary masterpiece is the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa (1647 – 1652)  He created this sculpture as part of the altar in the Cornaro Chapel  Above the altar, a stained glass window shines dramatic gold lighting onto Saint Theresa  The overall effect resembles a theatrical stage  Bernini also followed a new approach in the sculpture itself  Traditional sculptors carved calm, classical, and naturally flowing drapery  Saint Theresa’s drapery devolves into a more realistic maze of creases  Bernini also sculpted clouds around Saint Theresa, a groundbreaking use of marble38  Northern European Baroque artists  Baroque art’s significance transcended Italy  For instance, Peter Paul Rubens (1577 – 1640) worked as a Baroque painter in Flanders Fall of Phaeton by Peter Paul Rubens  He established a sizable workshop in his home country  His early paintings exude energy and color  Numerous later artists looked up to Rubens  Dutch artist Rembrandt van Rijn (1606 – 1669) produced some of the most esteemed Baroque artworks

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If you have time, compare Gentileschi’s Judith to http://tinyurl.com/CaravaggioJudith. Gentileschi’s and Caravaggio’s versions share the chiaroscuro technique, but differ in their portrayal of women. 38 She actually reclines on a single large cloud.

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Rembrandt’s prestige lay in both painting and printmaking  He was also one of the most adept draftsmen in history  The Night Watch (1642) is likely Rembrandt’s most acclaimed artwork  The proper title is Sortie of Captain Banning Cocq’s Company of the Civic Guard  In the contemporary group portrait tradition, each guard paid Rembrandt a specific amount to appear in The Night Rembrandt's The Night Watch Watch  Rembrandt applied a highly untraditional arrangement for a group portrait  Some guards appear in more visible positions than others  Rembrandt’s departure from convention compounded various other problems, sending his career downhill  He died a poor man but spent his final years painting self portraits  These paintings rank among the most exceptional personality studies in history  French and Spanish Baroque art  The long reign of Louis XIV in France may mark the pinnacle of the Baroque era  This ruler united modern France and presided over a flourishing of French culture  In 1669, he initiated the construction of the extravagant Palace of Versailles  This chateau sprawled across 200 acres in Versailles, France and incorporated multiple smaller structures  A stable with a full capacity of hundreds of horses  Multiple majestic buildings and gardens  A stately orangerie (greenhouse) to shelter Louis XIV’s orange trees  Later, the king added three other elements to the palace  A zoo Palace of Versailles  A network of fountains and waterfalls  A gigantic canal  The canal’s size accommodated mock sea battles  Louis XIV’s court dispensed art patronage through the Salon system  The annual Salon exhibition enacted art judging regulations  These rules still influence present-day art criticism th  Salons remained influential in France throughout the 19 century  The king also founded the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture  The Academy is a common name for this institution  Upper classes soon used the Academy as a tool for standardizing artistic tastes and styles

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 Louis XIV even styled himself the Sun King, or the earthly court’s center of revolution

Other European rulers strove to duplicate the French monarchy’s power and splendor  King Philip IV, the sovereign of Spain, also aspired to match his northern neighbor’s court  Bernini’s contemporary, Diego Velázquez, (1599 – 1660) worked as Philip IV’s court painter  Velázquez first applied fields of color to the canvas and then detailed his figures  Most other artists based paintings on underlying sketches  Velázquez’s unorthodox style, however, inspired generations of later artists  The artistic movement of Impressionism also borrowed this method

Rococo art
 Baroque versus Rococo art  Some may consider Rococo art an offshoot of Baroque art  Artists working in the two schools, however, pursued different styles and subjects  Baroque artists worked towards striking emotional appeal  Rococo artists reveled in good cheer, romance, and lighthearted court life  Versailles’ court often served as the setting for the third subject  Ebullient decorations in creamy colors and gold characterize Rococo art  Artists  Since aristocrats commissioned Rococo art, the style centered on witticism and grace  Three artists mastered these two principles and stood at the forefront of the Rococo movement  Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684 – 1721) spearheaded the first Rococo generation 39  He concocted fête galante , a new painting genre  In most fête galante paintings, nobles luxuriate in the countryside  The nobles don elegant and modern clothes  François Boucher (1703 – 1770) drew inspiration from Watteau’s delicacy Archetypal Rococo painting of frolicking nobles  His works place characters from classical myths in nobles’ grand celebrations  Most of these characters appear as comely nudes  Madame Pompadour favored Boucher above all other artists  Pompadour was a mistress of Louis XV  Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732 – 1806) also enjoyed Pompadour’s patronage  Fragonard’s works parallel those of his mentor, François Boucher

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The term fête galante literally translates to “gallant feast” or “festival”.

wonder at the power of nature frequently features in this style  Artists  Romantic artist Eugène Delacroix (1798 – 1863) and Ingres were rivals  Delacroix’s exotic themes and favorite art subjects represent Romantic tastes . and passionate art  The divide between emotion and reason also distinguished the two styles  Romantics stressed the former and Neoclassicists the latter  Both Romanticism and Baroque art stressed emotion  The two styles shared other similarities  Romantics. introduced new subject matter  Exotic. Neoclassicism  The linear style. dreamlike.Art Power Guide | 56 Neoclassicism  Ideology  France’s Revolution of 1789 ignited change across the European continent  This period’s artworks reflect the growing popularity of democracy  Patrons promoted a people's republic  Interest in Greco-Roman democratic ideas spurred a resurgence in classical art  Neoclassicism refers to artworks which follow this trend  Enlightenment philosophy cultivated Neoclassicism as it matured in the decades before the Revolution of 1789  Artists  Neoclassical art attacked Rococo art and its aristocratic ties  Jacques Louis David (1748 – 1825) led the Neoclassicists in touting classical virtues  David’s Oath of the Horatii (1784) encapsulates these virtues  After the French Revolution. David worked under the new government Oath of the Horatii  He served as master of ceremonies for proby Jacques Louis David revolution mass rallies  Napoleon Bonaparte then employed David as a propaganda painter  David’s propaganda may seem to contradict his earlier classical paintings  Changes in his career and patronage explain these contradictions  Jean Dominique Ingres (1780 – 1867) studied under David  Four elements of Ingres’s art typify the Neoclassical style Sharp linear style Unemotional subjects Precise geometric composition Rationality Romanticism  Style  The artistic approach of Romanticism diverged from its predecessor. however. and lack of passion define Neoclassicism  Romanticism favored imaginative. theatrical subjects pervaded Romanticism  For instance. order.

claimed he was not part of the Luncheon on the Grass movement by Edouard Manet . however. illustrates common laborers repairing a road  This revolution in subject matter infuriated conservative Salon viewers  The Stonebreaker also delivers a political message in the wake of the year 1848  A surge of uprisings across Europe began in this year  Honoré Daumier (1808 – 1879) and Jean François Millet (1814 – 1875) also worked in the Courbet's The Stonebreakers Realist style Impressionism  History  In Paris. the Académie des Beaux-Arts controlled the annual Salon exhibitions through stringent rules  Salons publicized the works of select artists  Frustration resulting from Salon rules resulted in the Impressionist movement  Artists  Most art historians identify Édouard Manet (1832 – 1883) as the first Impressionist  Manet.Art Power Guide | 57 Foreign locales Animals engaged in violence Historical events  Other prominent Romantics included Théodore Gericault (1791 – 1824) and William Blake (1757 – 1827) Realism  Style  Realism mainly responded to Neoclassicism and Romanticism  This movement promoted a lack of bias in portrayal or subject matter  Unbiased portrayal referred to completely accurate images including even negative details  Unbiased subject matter meant that a painting of a commoner equaled a historical or religious painting in importance  Artists  Gustave Courbet (1819 – 1877) led the Realists’ charge with an extroverted and flamboyant personality  Courbet exhibited The Stonebreakers (1849 – 1850) at a government-funded Salon  Historical and religious painters controlled exhibitions before the advent of Realism  Courbet’s painting. however.

Art Power Guide | 58 Regardless. Monet (mohawk). Manet continued submitting artworks to Salons  Meanwhile. (Manet. spheres. other artists frustrated with the Salon cultivated Impressionism as a style  The movement takes its name from Claude Monet’s (1840 – 1926) Impression Sunrise (1873)  When Monet exhibited this work. Pissarro (bizarre)) . 1863)  This piece surfaced in public at the Salon des Refusés of 1863  The Salon des Refusés displayed works that the Salon rejected  This piece borrows from a classical-inspired engraving  Manet. Sisley (sister). For the impressionists. portrayed two clothed men with a nude woman  At the time. That’s pretty bizarre. They’re all pretty weird. however. the Impressionists revered his artworks’ lighting methods  Disparities between different bright colors define light in Manet’s work  Manet painted Le Dejéuner sur L’herbe (Luncheon on the Grass. My team told me I should share with you all some of my memory tricks. critics quickly Impression Sunrise adapted impression as a derogatory term by Claude Monet  Monet pressured Impressionists to work outdoors  New paint and paintbrush technologies allowed this approach  Impressionists’ quick brushstrokes reflect the transient nature of light  Scientific discoveries at the time proved that an object’s shadow represents the object’s complementary40 color  Camille Pissarro (1830 – 1903) and Alfred Sisley (1839 – 1899) also represented the Impressionist movement41  Post-Impressionism  Artists  Artists working in Post-Impressionism altered various elements of Impressionism  Paul Cézanne (1839 – 1906) was the most influential PostImpressionist  Impressionism’s lack of solid forms inspired him to revolutionize form in art  He claimed that every object in art consists of simple geometric forms  Cubes. Manet’s sister has a mohawk. yellow versus purple. so please bear with me. orange versus blue). only classical characters or women in exotic locations appeared as nudes in art  Manet’s violation of this convention ensued in tremendous mockery and controversy  Nevertheless. or cones exemplify geometric forms Georges Seurat’s  Cubism mirrors Cézanne’s philosophy optical mixing in action  This style matured in the early 20th century  Cézanne also proposed dividing paintings into sets of three 40 41 Or opposite color (red versus green.

one drop at a time. greens. Gauguin left his mentor and traveled to Tahiti  He hoped painting the tropical island would bring striking color and nature into his art  Gauguin’s work in Tahiti portrays the verdant tropical landscape and natives  Colonialism affected the perspective of these works Other 19th-century Influences and Styles  Inventions and imports  External influences transformed the art world in the 19th century  After the advent of the camera. I imagine someone reading about it and saying “Gawsh!” (as in gosh.) Recall that some artists add texture to their paintings through a lumpy surface called impasto. Gauguin aimed for powerful light and clear colors  Dissatisfied with van Gogh’s color. not 1843. some artists doubted the purpose of reproducing reality 42 43 Embarrassing memory trick #2: Seurat paints with a syringe. and reds exude decadence Night Café by Vincent Van Gogh  The idea of emotionally based coloring exerted a huge influence  Van Gogh also used energetic brushwork and convoluted forms  His technique aimed to evoke potent reactions  Despite van Gogh’s brief career.Art Power Guide | 59 planes  Foreground  Middle ground  Background  Georges Seurat (1859 – 1891) typified the countless Post-Impressionists who sought vivid colors  His art applied the scientific properties of color 42  Seurat’s method of optical mixing combined small dots of complementary colors  These dots formed brilliant colors  Prioritizing technique over subjects. not realistic. colors  Night Café (1888) reflects van Gogh’s perception of poolrooms as immoral  Shrill yellows. however. his family. 45 Embarrassing memory trick #3: Gaugin had a rather scandalous and intriguing life. except how Goofy says it) Anyway. Vincent van Gogh (1853 – 1890) was an art student  He used color contrast theories and thickly applied impasto43 paint to replicate southern France’s brightly lit landscapes  Van Gogh also applied his own idea of depicting emotions through intensified. his works have achieved legendary status  Paul Gauguin’s (184844 – 1903) biography draws just as much interest as his art45  He abandoned a thriving career as a stockbroker. . 44 USAD Error: Gaugin was born in 1848. and his wife to explore art  Van Gogh briefly mentored Gauguin in southern France  Like other Impressionists. gawsh = Gaugin. drained artworks of their energy  During the peak of Seurat’s and Cézanne’s careers. (He drops paint onto the canvas.

Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973) and Georges Braque (1882 – 1963) collaborated in Paris to invent a new system of art  Cubism reflects psychology. which explains that human experience consists of multiple mental images  These images vary in their angle of view and setting in time  Braque and Picasso cobbled together multiple perspectives into single figures to imitate human experience  Cubists borrowed from African rather than European art Art Nouveau stained glass window . and design came into fashion during the late 19th and early 20th centuries  Art Nouveau favors the motif of flowing. architecture.Art Power Guide | 60    Impressionists became the first artists to paint outdoors after the inventions of the paint tube and chemical paint Colonialism produced an influx of exotic objects in Europe  These items shaped Impressionist art and countless subsequent works  African masks and Japanese prints exemplify the influence of foreign items  Japanese merchants used prints as packaging material in their exports to Europe Impressionist artist Edgar Degas (1834 – 1917) applied a snapshot style and a perspective from just above his subject  His approaches reflect the influence of photography and Japanese prints. respectively Edgar Degas applied the slight  Styles overhead perspective of  The English Pre-Raphaelite art movement objected to Japanese prints Industrial Revolution influences  Pre-Raphaelites revived simplistic pre-Renaissance art  Romantic. Matisse and his contemporaries disregarded realistic color  Instead. but attacked form rather than color  In c. and moralizing elements lend Pre-Raphaelite art a religious semblance  Art Nouveau drew from the Pre-Raphaelites’ broad curves and depiction of nature  This style of decoration. serpentine lines representing leaves and flowers Modernism  Early styles  Many new artistic styles blossomed at the turn of the 20th century  Henri Matisse (1869 – 1954) led a group of artists in continuing the Post-Impressionists’ quest to increase the scope of color  Like Vincent van Gogh. they freely applied intense arbitrary color  Disgruntled art critics dubbed Matisse and his contemporaries fauves. archaic. 1908. or wild beasts  The style of Cubism followed suit.

1913  Other early abstract artists included Russian artist Kazimir Malevich (1878 – 1935) and Dutch artist Piet Mondrian (1872 – 1944) 49  Mondrian executed De Stijl paintings of flat fields of primary color  Many modern artists follow the De Stijl style  Modernism in the United States De Stijl painting by Piet Mondrian  World War I and The Armory Show contributed to New York City replacing Paris as the center of the art world  Until the 1913 Armory Show. 49 Dutch for “The Style. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner used  Die Brücke invented Expressionism in their effort to arbitrary color and strong illustrate the inner mind emotions  Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880 – 1938) and Emil Nolde (1867 – 1956) joined this circle of artists 47 48  Der Blaue Reiter followed their founder. not Vasily. which took place from February 17 to March 15. 1913  Controversy raged around this first major exhibition of modern art in the United States  Several artworks that later became icons of European art movements appeared in the Armory Show   Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon (1907) Marcel Duchamp’s (1887 – 1968) Nude Descending a Staircase (1912) Brancusi’s (1876 – 1957) The Kiss Kandinsky’s nonrepresentative paintings 46 47 German for “The Bridge.” German for “The Blue Rider. America remained unexposed to the modern art movements in Paris  The Barnes Foundation organized this event.Art Power Guide | 61 They valued intuition and nature over intellect Abstraction also replaced naturalism in Cubist works  Dislike for realistic and sentimental artworks popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries motivated Cubism  The Expressionist style manifested in two German artist groups 46  Die Brücke adapted the Fauvists’ bright arbitrary colors and Edvard Munch’s powerful emotions  Norwegian artist Edvard Munch lived from 1863 to 1944 As a Die Brücke artist. Russian artist Wassily Kandinsky (1866 – 1944)  Kandinsky abandoned traditional subjects and created completely abstract paintings beginning in c.” .” 48 Minor USAD Error: Kandinsky’s first name is Wassily.

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Picasso 50 and Duchamp’s unorthodox figures and space appalled American viewers  Brancusi’s abstract, blocky figures and Kandinsky’s work also infuriated their audiences  The exhibition, however, propagated European modernism through the United States  The advent of modernism coincided with the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s  African-American fine arts blossomed in Harlem during this movement  The popularity of African-American jazz musicians inspired black writers and artists to contribute their works Nude Descending a Staircase  After just a decade, the Harlem Renaissance stagnated by Marcel Duchamp  The next generation, however, included several famous black artists such as Romare Bearden and Jacob Lawrence who reflected the influence of the Harlem Renaissance  Dada  The modernist art movement of Dada grew during and after World War I  This movement’s artists defied traditional ideas about art  The first Dadaists included dissident intellectuals in the city of Zurich51  As World War I rankled more artists, the Dadaist movement grew  Dada channeled the artists’ frustrations and ridiculed all of

society Fountain by Marcel Duchamp  This art embraced satires of traditional values and norms  For instance, Marcel Duchamp painted a mustachioed Mona Lisa in the offensively titled LHOOQ52 (1919)  Duchamp also attempted to pass off Fountain (1917), a porcelain urinal, as art  Fountain exemplifies Duchamp’s new genre of art, which he called ready-mades  Commonplace objects placed in a new context create art  Duchamp challenged the traditional role of the artist  Instead of manually creating an artwork, he or she simply selected an object to display as art  Several of Picasso’s pieces qualify as ready-mades  His Bull’s Head (1943) combines bicycle handlebars and a bicycle seat into a makeshift bull’s head

50 51

The title of Picasso’s piece is French for The Young Ladies of Avignon. The largest city in Switzerland. 52 Google “LHOOQ translation” if you are not easily offended.

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 Surrealism  Psychologist Sigmund Freud inspired a circle of artists to paint the inner mind  These Surrealists included Salvador Dalí (1904 – 1989), René Magritte (1898 – 1967), and Joan Miró (1893 – 1983)  Bauhaus  Between the world wars, the Bauhaus school in Germany standardized architecture and design  This style remains influential in modern architectural plans and curriculums  Streamlined furniture and buildings reflect Bauhaus ideas  Ambitious Bauhaus standards integrated aesthetical form and industrial function  In the Bauhaus school, a building’s form reflected its function and the source material Surrealism  In 1933, Nazi Germany dissolved the Bauhaus institution  Bauhaus professors, however, moved to the United States and continued teaching  These teachers included Josef Albers (1888 – 1976), an eminent painter, graphic artist, and designer

Abstraction
 History  World War II paralyzed organized art movements  Art production continued, but the war drew far more attention  Many artists either served as soldiers or created pro-war propaganda  After the war, during Europe’s recovery, New York City cemented its position as the capital of the art world  English, French, Italian, and German artistic centers did not ascend to their former prominence for at least 50 more years  In the 1950s, critics like Harold Rosenberg and Clement Greenberg controlled the art scene and stylistic development in New York  For instance, Greenberg’s support guaranteed the popularity of abstract art  Abstract Expressionism  Abstract Expressionism grew out of Kandinsky’s abstraction during and after the 1940s  Kandinsky likened his art to non-representational music  Artworks in this style fit in one of two categories: action-paintings or color field paintings53

The example of the action-field painting is a detail of Jackson Pollock’s No. 5, 1948 and the color field painting is Mark Rothko’s No. 3/ No. 13 (Magenta, Black, Green on Orange).

53

Art Power Guide | 64

Action-paintings
•Emotional colors and dramatic, often sweeping brushstrokes represent feelings •Jackson Pollock (1912 1956) epitomized this approach in his dripping of paint on the canvas

Color field paintings
•Feature large areas of color inside simple, usually geometric forms •Mark Rothko and Josef Albers earned fame for their color field paintings

 Other Abstract Expressionists included Willem de Kooning (1904 – 1997), Lee Krasner

(1908 – 1984), and Franz Kline (1910 – 1962)54  Reactions  Some artists turned against the popularity of abstraction and revived naturalism  Though their style may seem to overlap with Abstract Expressionism, these artists adapted consumer objects as subjects  Jasper Johns’s (1930 – present) works include commonplace items such as flags, numbers, maps, and letters  Robert Rauschenberg (1925 – 2008) executed combines using discarded objects or silkscreens and paint  In Bed (1955), he treated his bedclothes as a wall canvas  In Monogram (1959), he made a collage of found items: a stuffed goat, a tire, a police barrier, a shoe heel, a tennis ball, and paint  The entry of everyday objects into art inspired the prominent Pop Art movement

Other 20th-century Influences and Styles

 Influences  A myriad of new factors shaped 20th century art  These influences included atomic power, electronics, and the exponential growth of new technologies  Pop Art  Pop Art flourished in the 1960s  Mass culture entered formal art, breaching subject matter conventions  Andy Warhol (1928 – 1987) symbolized the Pop Art movement  His popularity equated that of a rock star  Warhol created silkscreens of soup cans, Brillo boxes, and movie stars  These images appear mechanically generated, a twist on fine art
54

Silkscreen of a soup can by Andy Warhol

Memory trick #4: Kandinsky, Pollock, Rothko, Kooning, Krasner, and Kline are all Abstract Expressionists. (don’t forget Josef Albers is as well)

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Roy Lichtenstein’s (1923 – 1997) art mimics the stippling of comic book illustrations on a large scale  Robert Indiana (1928 - ) used commercial sign stencils to produce his artworks  Photorealism  Pop Art inspired Photorealism, an art movement centered on extreme realism  Photorealist works imitate photographs through their crisp focus  Their sharp outlines complement the Renaissance’s hazy sfumato outline technique  Chuck Close (1940 – ) created portraits and Duane Hanson (1925 – 1996) sculpted humorous images of common people Tourists II, two sculptures  The advanced realism of Photorealism resembles Gustave by Duane Hanson Courbet’s style  Minimalism  Simple forms and monochromatic color ranges characterize Minimalism  Minimalists reduced art to its most rudimentary elements  This style favors hard-edge paintings of large, abstract images with highly precise lines  Two inventions, acrylic paint and the airbrush, permitted these sharp lines  Frank Stella (1936 – ) remains the most eminent hardedge painter  David Smith (1906 – 1965) and Dan Flavin (1933 – 1996) sculpted abstract minimalist pieces  Smith’s sculptures consist of stainless steel and Flavin Hard-edge painting by Frank Stella used neon tubing55

 Postmodernist art56  Postmodernism reacts to modernism and manifests in many types of media  Extreme modernism sometimes characterizes postmodernist works  Postmodernists may also revive earlier art to challenge contemporary values and beliefs  Philip Johnson (1906 – 2005) advocated Postmodernist architecture  Johnson once worked as an eminent International Style architect Philip Johnson's Sony Building  The Bauhaus ideal of form based on function controlled architecture for decades  Almost all skyscrapers featured steel and a glass exterior
55 56

Embarrassing memory trick #5: Flavin adds more flavor to his work by using neon tubing. The section on Processes and Techniques contains information on environmental and performance art, which USAD originally placed in the section on Western Art.

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In 1970, however, Johnson reintroduced decorative elements to architecture  His design for the AT&T Building (1984), later the Sony Building, included a finial57

57

Finials are elaborate ornaments forming an upper extremity, especially in Gothic architecture (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)

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NONWESTERN ART
POWER PREVIEW
In art history, nonwestern cultures encompass Asia, Oceania, Africa, and the civilizations of pre-Columbian America. 58 Due to the globalized nature of the contemporary art styles mentioned earlier in the overview of Western art, this section only explores traditional art stemming from the early histories of nonwestern cultures.

POWER NOTES
 According to the USAD outline, 10 questions (20%) should come from Section I  10 questions (20%) come from Section I on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pgs. 28 - 32 of the USAD Art Resource

Asian Art
 Chinese art  Chinese civilization and artwork originated thousands of years ago  Some excavations in China match those in Mesopotamia and Egypt th  For instance, painted Chinese pottery fragments date back to the 4 millennium B.C.E.  Ancient China’s most renowned artwork, the Great Wall, spans 2,000 miles  The Great Wall’s construction stretched across several centuries  This structure’s function has shifted from utilitarian to artistic  People now appreciate the engineering and beauty of the Great Wall  The structure no longer serves as a defense against invaders  As seen in the Great Wall, an artwork’s Part of the Great Wall of China meaning may change over time  The function of many artworks in this section similarly changed over time  Long-reigning dynasties influenced Chinese art history  These dynasties’ kings demanded rich tombs, an abundant source of artistic treasures  The Emperor of Qin (c. 210 B.C.E.) first united China  His tomb houses an entire army of clay soldiers, complete with equipment and horses  The Qin sculptors demonstrated extraordinary skill in crafting naturalistic sculptures  Successors of the Qin dynasty constructed majestic walled cities, palaces, and tombs  Their artists also produced bronze sculptures and ritual vessels  Ornate patterns identify these ritual containers  The casting method used in these vessels remains unexplained  India’s Buddhism later entered China, reshaping the country’s art and culture
58

I have relocated other information from USAD’s introduction to the previous section on Western art.

Japan organized a band of artists to visit France  Western art ideas migrated to Japan through these students th  In the late 19 century.600 disparate languages and dialects prove the diversity of India  The mosaic of India also comprises many different religions and cultures  India boasts some of the world’s oldest artworks  Early Indian civilizations’ ruins match those in Egypt and Mesoamerica  Sensuous Indian sculptures influenced centuries of subsequent artworks  Surprisingly.) marks China’s Golden Age Tang dynasty artists crafted several of the most outstanding ceramic sculptures in history  Ink drawings also enjoyed tremendous popularity in traditional Chinese art  Many Chinese scrolls serve contemplative purposes. painting. traditional Japanese art remained steady. has softened since the late 1970s  Indian art  1. curvilinear style  For example. Greek influences joined Buddhism in shaping Indian art  Classical representations of Buddha derive from Greek art  Hinduism strongly affected many Indian artworks  Artworks based on this polytheistic religion evolved into a Buddha in Classical Greek drapery lively. even after Western cultures gained access to the country  As Impressionism flourished in Europe. often propagandistic tool  The role of politics in Chinese art. linear perspective Japanese print depicting Mount Fuji and Impressionist colors as well as subjects  . China followed cultural traditions for writing. however. a communist revolution founded the People’s Republic of China  Chinese art transformed into a political.Art Power Guide | 68  The Tang dynasty (618 – 907 C.E. dynastic rule characterizes Japanese history  Japanese stylistic history parallels the art of these dynasties  Buddhism spread from China to Japan and molded traditional Japanese art  This island state secluded itself from the West throughout most of history  Consequently. the Hindu god Shiva performs an elegant dance with his multiple arms in Hindu-inspired artworks  Japanese art  Japan’s diminutive size contrasts its profound influence on international art  As in China. and sculpture  In this year. a common aspect of Asian art  Until 1949.

soon fell out of popularity as Japanese artists reiterated the traditional techniques of flat areas of color and isometric (same size) perspective  Superb paintings. art history for two reasons  Mediterranean civilizations interacted with Egypt  The history of Sub-Saharan African civilizations strongly differs from those of Northern African civilizations  Africa’s western.E.C. and textiles above all other material possessions  Poor preservation of African art has limited art historical study  African societies produced artworks in many different mediums  The region’s climate. British troops sacked Benin’s royal palace and obliterated many Benin artworks  The British. in modern Nigeria  Nok artists crafted highly naturalistic terracotta sculptures  Many of these works likely portray political and religious leaders  Early Nok culture perhaps influenced later cultures like the Yoruba  The Benin Kingdom also matured in Nigeria between the 13th and 18th centuries Nok terracotta  Many extant Benin Kingdom artworks functioned in the upscale royal court  These pieces include portrait busts cast in bronze and placed on ancestors’ altars  Other items embellished the might of the oba.  These artworks are likely older than any known European paintings  In c. eastern. merely confiscated several treasures. earned Japan the most recognition in the Western world th  In the late 19 century. however. not African. 23.E. however.Art Power Guide | 69 appeared in some Japanese artworks  European art. ceramics. or Benin King  In 1897. however. central.000 B. 500 B. architecture. crafts.C. however. which is why more Benin artifacts remain in European and American museums than in Nigeria  Art historians only recently began perusing African art and artistic Benin bronze traditions  A myriad of traditional artworks from this continent only serves utilitarian purposes  For instance. and southern regions refined art traditions early in history  Present-day Namibia contains cave paintings that date to c. many African communities value their baskets. has decimated many fiber and wood items . French artists gathered Japanese prints and modeled new artworks after their flat colors and overhead perspective African and Oceanic art  African art  Ancient Egyptian art belongs in Western. and sculpture populate the body of Japanese art  Printmaking. the Nok civilization arose in Western Africa.

and white abstract patterns adorned large wooden Asmat shield Asmat shields Picture by 23 dingen voor  Asmat culture originally practiced head-hunting but musea discontinued this tradition  Their shields now function as cultural symbols instead of protection in battle  Melanesian communities also centered on carved masks  Many of these items served in rituals aimed towards summoning ancestors’ spirits  The summoning ceremonies paid tribute to Melanesia’s dead  As in African art. including tattoos. a museum context detracts from the meaning of these masks  Present-day Oceania continues to cultivate artistic customs  New Zealand’s Maori and other groups apply older practices to the context of modern civilization hoping to revive their culture  Art empowered many traditional groups to retain their heritage in the face of colonialism  Islamic art  History  The expansive religion of Islam reaches into many areas of the world  Islam grew in the Arabian Peninsula and derived from the edicts of the prophet Muhammad (c. 570 – 632) . jokes. music. Africa’s Dan and Bwa communities are known for their masks  These masks function in performances featuring full-body costumes. non-durable mediums and inhospitable climates create an art historical situation akin to Africa  Polynesian body art.Art Power Guide | 70 In addition. European colonists and traders crushed many African artifacts  These individuals viewed many African finds as menacing pagan symbols  As purported threats to colonialism. African artworks often faced destruction rather than preservation  Most remaining African artifacts came from excavations  Such archaeological discoveries often lack crucial contextual information  Museum settings further diminish this vital information  For example. formerly identified social status  Historians may only view this art through documentary engravings from artists who traveled to Polynesia before the advent of photography  The art of Melanesia’s Asmat group centered on warfare  Black. revelry. and communal feasts  Art historians have also discovered a wooden fang mask from 19th-century Gabon  Gabon’s culture crafted masks for ngil ceremonies meant to expose sorcerers  A museum fails to convey the purpose of the masks to the typical viewer  Oceanic art  The region of Oceania includes the thousands of islands in Polynesia. Melanesia. dance. and Micronesia  Here. red.

mosque architecture Phillip Baldensperger published this picture of the appears in various buildings around Dome of the Rock in “The Immovable East: Studies the world of the People and Customs of Palestine” (1913)  Art of the Americas  Art historical background  Until recently.000 years ago .Art Power Guide | 71 This faith centers on the Quran. most famously Mexico’s Pyramid of the Sun  Early American pyramids rivaled Egypt’s Great Pyramids  Ornate masonry decorates Mayan ruins  Early Americans crafted other notable works  Stone and clay statues  Jewelry  Quality textiles  Natives settled in the present-day United States and Canada as early as 12. has resulted in more American artifacts entering art museums  Several noteworthy civilizations bloomed in Mesoamerica and South America Olmec  Maya Toltec Inca Aztec These cultures’ cities centered on pyramids. which contain qibla walls facing Mecca  Today. art historians categorized early artworks from North America and South America as simple crafts  Only archaeological and anthropological museums housed these artifacts  Increased interest and studies in early American art. however. artists employ calligraphic or abstract decoration  Their patterns grace the surfaces of religious buildings  The Dome of the Rock (687 – 692) exemplifies Islam’s prolonged history of religious architecture  This building stands in Jerusalem and declares Islam’s presence in this holy city  Jews and Christians also claim Jerusalem as a sacred city of their religion  Prayer features in the practice of Islam  Communal prayer takes place in mosque structures. representational figures seldom appear in Islamic art  Instead. the holy book containing Muhammad’s revelations  Many cherished Islamic artworks are elegant copies of the Quran or containers for the text  Style and purposes  Per the Quran’s decrees.

Art Power Guide | 72 AFRICA AND EUROPE POWER PREVIEW The saga of European influence in Africa begins with the Portuguese in the 15th century. they still claimed to conquer for the good of Christianity  Explorers also found the possibility of discovering the fabled land of Prester John especially exciting  Prester John supposedly ruled a lost Christian kingdom in Ethiopia  Rich resources and plentiful markets also lured Europeans to Africa Drawing of Prester John on a British map  A mythical source of African gold intrigued of Africa explorers  Merchants traded this gold across the Sahara desert  Muslim traders told Europeans of its existence  Finally. The artworks included in this section draw from both European and African influences and illustrate a bridge between the two cultures. Europe conquered new territory in the name of Christianity  This movement responded to the spread of Islam to the Mediterranean  When Europeans reached Africa. controlling Africa would allow Europeans to access a trade route from Europe to India  India supplied highly valuable spices • The Europeans traveled • • to Africa to • Preach Christianity Find Prester John Gain resources and markets Find a trade route from Europe to India . POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. Europeans participated in the Crusades  During the Crusades. 15 questions should come from Section II  15 questions (30%) come from Section II on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 43 through 59 of the USAD Art Resource Early Explorers  Reasons for exploration  Centuries before the first explorers arrived in Africa.

explorers reached the Kingdom of Benin in 1484  Making an impact  By the mid 15th century. 60 Enrichment Fact: The Slave Coast was an area of the Gulf of Guinea where Britain and Holland carried out extensive trade in slaves and other commodities. Europe had formed a dependence on African goods  Purchasers especially prized ivory and bronze items  Africans made their goods skillfully and of high quality materials  Eventually. a Portuguese prince. especially in the late 17 and 18 centuries 59 Enrichment Fact: The Gulf of Guinea is the indent on the western coast of Africa.Art Power Guide | 73  A Portuguese beginning  The Portuguese pioneered a longlasting trade relationship with Africa in the 15th century  This relationship impacted both cultures for centuries  Henry the Navigator. providing one of the most convincing pieces of evidence for the theory of continental drift. bronze. strongly supported exploration  The journey began with the challenge to get past Cape Bojador  The cape lies on the northwest coast of Africa  Ships ventured south of the Cape in 1434  The first ships to reach the Gulf of Guinea59 arrived in 1455 and 1456  Continuing south. demand for slaves mounted. It is just north of the Benin Kingdom. the importance of ivory. demand for slave labor increased th th  In North America. and gold goods paled in contrast to the enormous demand for slaves Europe and the Origins of the Slave Trade  The slave trade begins  The first Portuguese slave-raiding exhibition began in the early 1440s in present-day Mauritania 60  This location lies far north of the area called the Slave Coast  The slave trade expanded in the following centuries  Large scale production of sugar in Brazil and the Caribbean suddenly ramped up in the 17th century  As a result. It is about level with the equator and interestingly aligns almost perfectly with South America. .

and firearms  African leaders incorporated European goods into regalia. Asante. bronze. many have objected to the practice  Slavery dehumanizes and oppresses the enslaved  As Great Britain lost her colonies in America.Art Power Guide | 74  As the slave trade expanded. African slaves did not endure the brutality of chattel slavery  Participation in the slave trade helped African kingdoms along the coast  Kingdoms like Benin. and were often traded for goods. 62 Regalia: an ensign or emblem of royalty (ex. were taken advantage of. the Europeans provided luxury goods like silk. beads. crown. chattel slaves in Mauritania (post-European arrival) were used for labor and breeding. According to www.org. Chattel slavery in Mauritania was not abolished until 1980. Even once slaves were freed they were required to pay tribute to their previous owners. Britain and Holland gained power and wealth and Portugal lost its place as the biggest commercial power in Africa British Slave trade in Americas Dutch Portuguese Spanish  Africans already owned slaves before the Europeans arrived Tribes captured enemies or foreigners and enslaved them  Africans afforded their slaves rights and the ability to gain freedom 61  Unlike European slaves. and Kongo supplied the Europeans with slaves and other resources  In exchange. the British economy depended less on slavery  England led the charge to end the slave trade  The 1807 British Slave Trade Act A Kongo royal complete with regalia abolished the slave trade in the British Empire  61 Enrichment Fact: Chattel literally means any article of movable property.antislavery.62 extending the power of these already dominant rulers  Opposition to the slave trade arises  Throughout the history of slavery. scepter) . porcelain.

an exception. West Africa suffered from increased social inequality and ethnic tension  The effect of the slave trade. further binding Africa to European trade  In addition. from the north. productive output decreased  Demand for imported goods increased. and in areas involved in the slave trade  Before the end of the 19th century. the American Colonization Society founded Liberia as a home for African American settlers  Powerful European countries participated in the scramble for Africa France Germany Belgium Italy England By the late 19th century. the Empire abolished slavery Slavery. the meeting of these western powers only formalized an ongoing occurrence  The 1880s led to systematic political control of the interior of Africa  Before.Art Power Guide | 75 In 1833. remained in the Americas for decades  West Africa lost a significant number of young men to the slave trade  As a result. coffee. like hawks… . Europeans ruled almost all of Africa  Ethiopia. and figuratively. land. Europeans were only present along major rivers. Portugal still only played a minor role  European Rule  European rule varied greatly based on the following factors  63 Both literally. the Berlin Conference was held to decide the fate of Africa  As colonization was occurring. the coastline. however. and labor  Traders especially valued rubber. left the area vulnerable to European imperialism   The Scramble for Africa  The Europeans descend63  The scramble for Africa describes a period of intense European colonization of the African continent  This frenzy began in the 1880s when the slave trade declined and lasted for two decades  Without slave income. and palm oil  Conquering nations also wished to control imports to Africa  This control increased demand for and dependency on European goods  In 1884 and 1885. combined with social and ethnic problems. maintained its independence and has since its founding  Another exception was Liberia  In 1822. Europe sought control over African resources.

65 Kongo refers to the tribe while Congo refers to the river. after European conquerors removed local power. the production and importance of royal regalia both soared in Yoruba society  New imported materials. France chose to enforce assimilation  As part of the process of assimilation. was either completely abandoned or greatly expanded  For example. agreement. railways. the Africans had to abandon Colonial Times Present Day traditional languages. . European rulers pressured the Africans to speak French in official dealings  In addition.Art Power Guide | 76 the colonized region the colonizing country the political organization present before European arrival the resources in the area  In French West Africa. or episode in the village’s history. Each nail pushed into the figure is an oath. or sealing agreements. they destroyed or confiscated symbols of his rule such as palaces and artwork  With these actions. a visual way to represent a ruler’s power. such as textiles. taking oaths. religions and cultural Asante Kingdom Ghana practices  In areas dominated by a central power. such as the Benin Kingdom Nigeria Benin or Asante Kingdoms. and improved communication to a primitive and uncivilized world 64 Kongan nkisi Enrichment fact: Minkisi are figures used for healing. European conquerors sent the ruler into exile  In addition. Europeans dismantled the existing governments  Local rulers became powerless  Regalia. arrived and began to play a part in native art and culture  Christian missionaries stamped out indigenous religious art 64  One fatality of this practice was the nkisi (plural minkisi)  The Kongo groups created and used minkisi in the Western Congo65 Basin  Belgian conquerors forbade and eliminated the minkisi Decolonization and Postcolonial Art  The effect of the European presence  Imperialist powers brought roads.

leaders of these nations struggled to form a truly national identity and agenda  Post-colonial difficulties also affect contemporary artists  The most profitable markets for artwork are in Europe and the United States  As a result. some artists rejected traditional African art in favor of European themes.Art Power Guide | 77  They also believed that they brought “progress” Progress came at a great cost. Algerians faced violent resistance from many French settlers in the area in their bid for independence  West African countries then gained independence in the late 1950s and 1960s  Country Nigeria Côte d’Ivoire Sierra Leone Independence Gained 1960 1960 1961  Post-independence challenges  All colonies faced challenges after independence  Africa still relied on European goods and markets  Nations faced high debts and economic difficulties  In a time of great ethnic conflict. the first sub-Saharan country to gain independence. or abandon Africa to move to Europe or the United States  The Western art world perceives African art as fulfilling the following characteristics without outside influences primitive tribal naïve  Critics sometimes marginalize or disregard artists who do not fit this stereotype African artwork is often cheaper than American and European art  In response. and materials  . some African artists choose to expatriate. however  Africa lost many of its natural resources  The continent depended more on European markets and imports  Forced assimilation decimated indigenous languages and cultures  Africans suffered from ethnic and cultural tensions  The plight for independence  Imperial control slipped when several countries in northern Africa gained independence in the 1950s  Ghana. styles. threw off British rule in 1957  The process was gradual and relatively free of violence due to the lack of European settlers in this British colony  In contrast.

have revived traditional African materials and themes  These artworks often critique society Some artists craft traditional and functional art such as textiles or pottery  These artists often adapt as they incorporate newly available materials such as factory-produced cloth or other European imports . however.Art Power Guide | 78   Other artists.

and Bolum groups descend from the Sapi  All of these groups are located in Sierra Leone  The Portuguese first encountered this civilization along the coast of Guinea and Sierra Leone  Explorers often described the Sapi with admiration  A local chief led each small community  A paramount chief ruled over the local chiefs  This organization greatly differed from that of the highly centralized Benin Kingdom to the south  The Benin Kingdom also made ivory luxury items for the Europeans  Before the arrival of the Europeans. the Portuguese collected ivory objects from Sapi carvers  Portuguese patrons purchased a variety of objects carved from elephant tusks.Art Power Guide | 79 LIDDED SALTCELLAR SAPI-PORTUGUESE. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. German artist Albrecht Dürer bought two ivory saltcellars  This purchase indicates that ivory goods had spread beyond Portugal . 15 questions should come from Section II  15 questions (30%) come from Section II on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 47 through 48 of the USAD Art Resource The Sapi  Identity  The modern-day Temne. and knife handles  By the early 16th century. SIERRA LEONE TH TH 15 -16 CENTURY POWER PREVIEW The Sapi people lived in modern-day Sierra Leone and supplied Portuguese explorers with ivory carvings in the 15th and 16th centuries. oliphants (horns). commissions funded the production of elite art  A patron-client structure organized artists into workshops  Contrary to common belief. these artisans were not independent and anonymous  Although western patrons did not record these artists’ names. spoons. their contemporaries knew them well  Relationship with the Europeans  Portuguese explorers often purchased ivory carvings as presents for their patrons  Ivory represented wealth and prestige in both African and European cultures  From the 15th to 16th centuries. West African ivory objects were arriving in Portugal and then spreading to the rest of Europe  According to records from 1520 to 1521. forks. including saltcellars. Such carvings as Lidded Saltcellar reflected influences from both cultures. Kissi.

Vital Stats frontal poses Artist: Sapi artisan  The man has no shirt but wears a cap. most art historians and collectors had mislabeled or forgotten the origins of oliphants in private and public collections Ivory Oliphant picture  Portuguese patrons and African by art traveler artisans created the style  Indigenous expertise and materials like ivory blended with European motifs  In 1550. and a necklace  She folds her hands below her waist  The figures alternate with abstract dogs 66 The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines finials as elaborate ornaments forming an upper extremity. limiting Sapi ivory production  The Europeans turned to the Benin Kingdom for their ivory carvings Lidded Saltcellar  General design  Saltcellar is a lidded bowl supported by a conical base and topped with a finial66  The base takes up half of the piece  Abstract decorative carvings in low relief and figures in medium and high relief cover the base  Interlocking ribbons at the bottom of the piece resemble Celtic manuscripts Lidded Saltcellar:  A man and a woman stand in stiff. . especially in Gothic architecture. he holds a sword  His face appears naturalistic but generalized  His expression is calm  The woman also has no shirt but wears a cap. Mande-speaking groups arrived in the region  Political conflict arose between the Sapi and this new ethnic group.8 cm) with a simple floral design  In his right. and leggings or tights Medium: Ivory  In his left hand. a long skirt. he carries a shield Size: 11 3 4 in (29.Art Power Guide | 80  Art historians refer to West African ivory objects as Afro-Portuguese ivories  Art expert William Fagg coined the phrase “Afro-Portuguese ivories” in 1959  He recognized the African origins of the goods  Before. Date: 15th through 16th century shoes.

that many African groups considered dogs to be highly attuned to the spiritual world  As a result. however. an import that only the wealthy could afford  . dogs were often companions to shamans  We also know that the Sapi considered snakes to be intermediaries between the earth and the heavens  These motifs did not have the same meaning in European cultures  Lidded Saltcellar represents the relationship between Africans and European explorers in the early period of contact  The piece hybridizes two cultures by mixing indigenous beliefs and styles with a European luxury good  Saltcellars held salt.Art Power Guide | 81  The dogs are alert. with ears back and backs bristling The design of the base conforms with West African stylistic ideals  The style also reflects the figurative sculpture of Medieval Europe  The finial adds a •Four slightly curved legs surround a thicker sense of lightness central column •A decorative floral piece tops the finial The bowl is divided into two equal halves •Abstracted floral pieces decorate the lid •These designs resemble medieval stained glass rose windows Snakes hang down from a pillow-like tier •The dogs in the level below tilt their heads upward to confront the snakes  The form resembles European cast metal cups The artist may have looked at these prints or drawings of these cups for inspiration  Most Sapi-Portuguese objects favored by foreign collectors had European prototypes  Symbolism  Art historians do not know the exact significance of the dogs and snakes in Saltcellar because of a lack of written documentation  We do know.

however. the Benin Kingdom had gained power by conquering other groups  At its height. 15 questions should come from Section II  15 questions (30%) come from Section II on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 48 through 50 of the USAD Art Resource The Edo Peoples  The history  The Edo peoples live in the Benin Kingdom. ivory. NIGERIA 16TH -17TH CENTURY POWER PREVIEW The prosperous Benin Kingdom traded with the Europeans and created many beautiful sculptures.Art Power Guide | 82 PLAQUE BENIN KINGDOM COURT STYLE EDO PEOPLES. or coral  Cast metal sculptures could be relief sculptures or three-dimensional figurative representations of leaders and members of the court .E. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. When the British invaded the Oba palace. rule the Edo peoples  The prince originated from the Yoruba Kingdom in the nearby city of Ife  His arrival further strengthened the Benin Kingdom  By the 15th century. believed to be the divine descendants of Oranmiyan. the Benin Kingdom created a large Benin portrait head variety of artworks depicting the Oba  The most valued artworks were made of cast metals. when the Portuguese arrived. and had become a great political state by the late 13th or early 14th century  Rulers called ogiso led the Benin Kingdom  Ogiso translates to “rulers of the sky”  At the end of the 14th century. the Benin artworks were stripped from their context and the Edo people were deprived of their heritage. Benin kings called Oba. to the south of Sierra Leone and the Sapi  This kingdom lies along the western coast of Africa in present day Nigeria  According to archeology and oral tradition. the prince Oranmiyan founded the second dynasty  To this day. the Kingdom was founded in 900 C.

This kingdom is about eighty leagues long and forty leagues wide. fueled the slave trade. during the reign of Oba Ewuare.  In the late 15th century. . the Oba’s palace compound flourished  A wall and a moat surrounded the palace and its acres of land  The compound contained buildings for the Oba. or for copper bracelets. The Europeans buy these slaves for a mere twelve or fifteen brass or copper bracelets. ~ A Portuguese explorer 1490s Regarding the Benin Kingdom DemiTranslation The Portuguese refer to the Benin Kingdom as the Kingdom of Beny. whom we buy at twelve or fifteen brass bracelets each. the kingdom strengthened again in the 19th century  This upturn resulted from the Oba’s control over the trade of highly valuable Benin brass plaque and palace decoration palm oil  The forests of the Edo people supplied this valuable resource  In 1897. She has her own smaller palace within the palace compound. or slaves. The Benin practice of warfare and desire for European goods. it is usually at war with its neighbours and takes many captives. which they prize more. Great Britain began to assert its power over the Benin Kingdom 67 The Queen Mother (Iyoba) is a distinguished title for the mother of the Oba. the Queen Mother67. then. and other political figures  Artists specializing in metalwork and carving labored in palace workshops  The palace particularly impressed European explorers  The Benin Kingdom reached its height in the 16th century  After a period of decline.Art Power Guide | 83  Many of these artworks functioned in rituals or on altars  Relationships with the Europeans  Portuguese explorers arrived in the Benin Kingdom in 1484  One Portuguese explorer described the kingdom in the 1490s The Kingdom of Beny is about eighty leagues long and forty wide. The Benin people value copper more than brass. It is usually at war with other nations and takes captives.

the artworks gain exposure to a larger audience in Europe than in Plaque: Vital Stats their native countries   Artist: Edo artist Plaque  The design  Plaque depicts six figures  The central figure is either a highranking warrior or the Oba. ruined much of the city. The first was annihilated by a surprise attack from a secret Benin force. opponents of repatriation believe that European museums can preserve the artworks better than in any other location  For this reason.2 x 8. with four items Date: Mid 16th through 17th century Medium: Copper alloy Size: 18 1 2 x 13 716 x 3 1 4 in (47 x 34. and sent the Oba into exile  The debate of repatriation  The largest collections of Benin ivories and metal sculptures are in the British Museum in London and the Ethnological Museum in Berlin  Representatives of the Benin Kingdom have requested that museums repatriate the Benin items 69  To repatriate means to return something to its country of origin  Supporters of repatriation feel that the presence of the items in European museums continues the legacy of colonialism  They believe that European museums should return the objects because they were taken by force  On the other hand. who stand in stiff. the country of Egypt. torched residences within its walls. the Portuguese men are seen in profile 68 Enrichment Fact: Punitive means inflicting punishment. or the European museums that funded excavation expeditions? . Thus the Benin Punitive Expedition took on added meaning as punishment and vengeance. frontal poses. they argue. the artwork should remain in their current locations  In addition.2 cm) armor    headdress sword shield To his right stands a page holding a ceremonial sword A musician stands to either side of the page and the central figure In the space above are two Portuguese men. The Benin Punitive Expedition was the second attempt to destroy Benin City and capture the king. confiscated artworks. 69 Repatriation is a tricky issue with many types of art. one to the left and one to the right  Unlike the rest of the figures. the conflict culminated in February 1897 with the Benin Punitive68 Expedition  Rear-Admiral Harry Rawson headed an attack on Benin City  His men looted the Oba’s palace. Consider Egyptian mummies: Do they belong to the mummy’s descendants.Art Power Guide | 84 The British wanted to control the kingdom’s lucrative palm oil trade After a series of violent attacks.

detail. Plaque is made of a “copper alloy”  Most Benin plaques are made of bronze or brass  Both bronze and brass contain a large percentage of copper 70  Bronze also contains tin while brass contains zinc  The artist used the lost wax casting technique to create Plaque  70 I always remembered this because it seems like no words ever start with “z.Art Power Guide | 85 These men likely traded with Portuguese merchants at the time  The artist probably used Portuguese material to make Plaque  This trade with Portugal increased Benin’s power and wealth. the Edo also connected them with an intermediate realm between life and death and with Olokun.” so zinc is bold as brass to start with a “z.000 very similar pieces exist  The National Museum of African Art displays a piece quite similar to Plaque  Only the background decorations and proportions differ  Dress. and size convey the importance of each of the figures  The central figure wears full regalia. appears in great detail. relief. identifying him as either a high-ranking warrior or the Oba  This figure also projects the most from the surface. and is scaled the largest  Hierarchy of scale presents the central figure as the most significant  The three slightly smaller musicians and page rank second in importance  Two very small Portuguese men rank as the least important  These Portuguese men appear in very low relief and with little detail  The artist probably intended them more as decoration than contributors to the theme of the piece  The materials and technique  According to the National Museum of African Art. the god of the waters  When creating plaques.” . artists represent Olokun with crocodiles or mudfish  This subject matter is very typical of Benin artworks  Nearly 1. allowing it to produce extravagant palace decorations like Plaque  Since the Portuguese came from across the ocean and the fabled land of death. the Edo associated them with death  Since the Portuguese traveled across the ocean to reach the Benin Kingdom.

however. however.Art Power Guide | 86 The lost wax casting technique form fullscale model from hard yet pliable wax use model to create mold use mold to cast final work in a copper alloy This process requires great skill and allows for very detailed final products Recall that each piece is original because the technique requires the artist to destroy both the wax model and mold  Function  Art historians do not know the original function of pieces like Plaque  Scholars have suggested that they represent specific historical or ceremonial events  Paula Ben-Amos. they were no longer on display  Later accounts indicate that by the 1890s. a professor of anthropology and African studies. the plaques were in storage  The British removal of these plaques from their context leaves us with no way to discover their original function without more primary accounts   . has commented that “very few of them now appear to us to convey narratives”  These plaques supposedly once lined the palace walls  By the time the British arrived in the region.

linguists. however. GHANA. flag bearers. and spiritual leaders such as priests and priestesses . is always male  Members generally join based on paternal connections  Each unit has a commander. 1935 POWER PREVIEW The Fante peoples are governed by a chief and Asafo groups.Art Power Guide | 87 ASAFO FLAG KWEKU KAKANU FANTE PEOPLES. These military organizations use vibrant flags to communicate with each other and to display their history and identity. various captains. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. 15 questions should come from Section II  15 questions (30%) come from Section II on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 50 through 52 of the USAD Art Resource The Fante Peoples  Identity  The Fante peoples live in the coastal area of Ghana next to the Asante peoples  The Europeans referred to this area as the Gold Coast before its independence  Both the Fante and Asante are part of the large Akan language group  Akan refers to a number of related groups in this region  The Fante have a highly centralized government  Chiefs hold most of the power  The presence of Asafo companies balances the chief’s power  These companies are important military organizations  The name means “war people”  Sa means war while fo means people  Each town has its own Asafo company  Larger towns have a company for each sector  Asafo organizations welcome both male and female members  The leader.

Ghana. and confrontations with other Asafo groups  A flag bearer will then parade. the Asafo work in public festivals. are also extremely valued  Famous local male artists usually create these elaborate and symbolic flags  These artists gain their expertise through tailoring apprenticeships  Some flags are made through appliqué.4 cm) . Asafo organizations march in formation. only flags after 1957 feature the Ghanaian flag  Today. public celebrations. the Fante do not wage war  Instead.Art Power Guide | 88  17th-century European accounts describe the highly organized military groups in this region Europeans sometimes hired these groups as mercenaries  Beginning in the 17th century. political events. name and number their companies. and use flags to identify themselves  Scholars note that the earliest Asafo flags contain elements of European flags  Typically. and other activities that bring the community together  The art culture  Asafo companies highly value posuban  Posuban are multi-storied cement shrines that house important items such as drums and flags  Flags. artists have favored very bright. the installation and removal of chiefs. Asafo culture based its regalia and practices off European models  For example. or frankaa. spinning and twirling the flag while dancing and doing somersaults  Flag bearing requires great strength and skill  This performance echoes West African masquerade dances  Asafo Flag  The artist  Kweku Kakanu created Asafo Flag in 1935  He was born in Mankassim. a process in which the artist sews the designs directly onto the surface  Other flags are painted  In modern times. attention-grabbing colors  Asafo flags are generally very large  Asafo Flag measures only five feet long but some measure eight feet or longer  The Asafo usually store away their flags and bring them out only for very special occasions  These occasions include the placement of a chief in power. in 1910  Kakanu was most active in the 1930s and 1940s Asafo Flag: Vital Stats Artist: Kweku Kakanu Date: 1935 Medium: commercial cotton cloth Size: 42 1 2 x 60 in (108 x 152.

the New Orleans Flag. and white border the red cloth  Four figures are sewn onto the background72 black crocodile pond with five fish British Union Jack four birds These symbols do not form a narrative but. Bermuda. refer to common Akan proverbs of the time  The crocodile sprawls on the left half of the flag. It has appeared often throughout history including in royal coats of arms. Many flags across the world contain this recognizable and famous design. crocodiles represent power  Two interpretations explain the presence of the fish  The fish in the pond could represent the water spirits the company wishes to protect  Enrichment Fact: Fleur-de-lis is a stylized lily.Art Power Guide | 89  The design  The flag features a broad background with figures sewn onto the surface using appliqué  Appliqué requires the figures to be simple and bold  This characteristic works well for a flag  A vivid red cloth with a fleur-de-lis71 pattern dominates the background  A series of triangles in black. slave branding. the British attempted to control the use of flags  Contemporary Asafo flags communicate between groups and recount each company’s history and identity  The symbols on Asafo Flag offer many possible meanings  The crocodile represents the Asafo company for which the flag was created  In general. showing the extent of British influence. snout. Baton Rouge (Louisiana). Taunton (Massachusetts). yellow. facing the center  The animal is made of black fabric and appears as if seen from above with its protruding four legs and tail  The crocodile’s head appears in profile with a toothy smile. and the symbol of the Boy Scouts. Great Britain still ruled the Gold Coast  To the right of the crocodile lies an overhead view of a pond containing five fish  Four green fish circle a large central gold fish  Four blue birds in profile walk around the pond  The meaning  All Asafo flags communicate between Asafo organizations. and large eye  His accentuated sharp claws threaten us  Above the crocodile lies the British Union Jack  In 1935. Fiji. rather. Fleur means flower and lis means lily. when Kakanu created this piece. asserting the power of their company  When serious Asafo conflicts occurred. Examples of flags containing the British Union Jack are New Zealand. 71 . 72 The British Union Jack is the official flag of the United Kingdom. and Hong Kong.

the flag attests to the prestige and power of its company  . the crocodile By labeling the company as a powerful crocodile which either protects or utilizes the smaller fish. the fish could relate to a proverb about fish that grow fat for the benefit of the crocodile  This interpretation holds that the fish represent small creatures that ultimately serve a higher power—in this case.Art Power Guide | 90   Asafo companies are connected with nature spirits Alternately.

73 . believed to be the center of the spiritual essence  These crowns were brightly colored and suggested connections to orishas. and Islam. Yoruba beaded crowns emphasize the head. or deities Yoruba beaded crown  In fact. th  Ile-Ife has been a flourishing city state since the 11 century  Like the Benin Kingdom.E. Great Britain. 15 questions should come from Section II  15 questions (30%) come from Section II on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 52 through 53 of the USAD Art Resource The Yoruba  Background  The Yoruba are one of the most ancient urban groups on the African continent 73  They originate from the metropolis Ile-Ife and are closely connected with neighboring groups such as the Benin Kingdom and the Fon  Yoruba believe that the world was created at Ile-Ife. Yoruba artwork reflects the influence of many nations including itself. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. the Yoruba are ruled by kings believed to be connected to deity  As a result. much of the art that has survived was created for royalty and supports the connection between political and spiritual power  For example. located in southwestern Nigeria  This site was populated as early as 350 B. NIGERIA TH MID 20 CENTURY POWER PREVIEW The Yoruba peoples are an ancient Nigerian urban group. beads were the most highly prized luxury European import of the Yoruba  Neighboring groups like the Benin Kingdom and the Asante preferred gold and copper alloys for their royal art Recall that the prince Oranmiyan who started the second Benin dynasty and the line of the obas originated from the Yoruba nation at Ife.C.Art Power Guide | 91 WRAPPER YORUBA PEOPLES.

the Yoruba regained political power and art production capabilities  This revival quickly ended when Great Britain emerged as a colonial power in the region Yoruba bronze head Currently.2 cm) image to commemorate their silver jubilee in 1935 th  This image of the rulers in their coronation robes and crowns celebrates their 25 anniversary of rule  European versions represent the king and queen in profile but this version portrays both in frontal.sorry about that. continues to play an important role as a cultural leader  Wrapper  Design  This adire 74 wrapper contains elaborate Wrapper: figurative panels Vital Stats  Queen Mary and King George V of Artist: Yoruba artist England stand regally in the center Date: Mid 20th century  This image was probably inspired by a Medium: Cotton. over 30 million Yoruba people live in Nigeria The contemporary Yoruba Oba. adire.6 x 87. stiff poses  This pose follows traditional Yoruba artistic style and emphasizes the couple’s regalia  Many repeating motifs surround the medallion containing the royal couple  Islam inspired some of these motifs 74 Do. . or king. indigo dye popular image circulating at the time  The king and queen requested this Size: 77 x 34 516 in (195. the slave trade and wars with neighboring groups weakened the Yoruba After the abolition of the slave trade in the 19th century. a female deer….Art Power Guide | 92      Beads originate from Bohemia and Venice  The Yoruba traded slaves for beads and then incorporated the imports into royal regalia Some of the most remarkable Yoruba artworks are highly naturalistic and detailed heads in terracotta and cast metal th th  These heads date from the 12 to 15 centuries In the 18th century.

British. and Islamic  This hybridization is evident in the variety of the motifs  Material  Adire is a type of tie-dyed cloth traditionally produced by Yoruba women for use by the common people  The women die the cotton cloth with indigo. meaning “Everything is known to God”  This wrapper represents the blending of three cultures: Yoruba. a grassy fiber onto the base cloth in patterns Mohammed's winged horse or Al-Burāq  The artist then submerges the cloth in a bath of dye  The patches under the raffia resist the dying  The cloth turns dark blue while the covered portions remain a light blue  Another method of resist dying involves turning the cassava plant into a starchy paste  The artist then paints this paste onto the fabric and dyes the piece  This technique allows for more detail  The final method uses stencils to cover parts of the fabric  The artist that created Wrapper likely used this method since the same panel repeats throughout the cloth 75 Enrichment Fact: According to Islam. Al-Burāq is a mythological horse from the heavens which transported the prophets. His most famous journey is carrying the prophet Muhammad from Mecca to Jerusalem and back again. the artist stitches raffia.Art Power Guide | 93  These images include Mohammed’s winged horse75 and Islamic mosques Some of the motifs are particularly important in Yoruba culture and art  birds elephant lion man with a gun  Abstracted floral designs fill the rest of the space  The text below the medallion includes the Yoruba phrase Ise kosehin oluwa. . turning it a vibrant blue  They use the technique called resist dying  In one method of resist dying.

imported. onto the cloth turn cassava plant into starchy paste and paint it on the cloth dye in indigo dye in indigo this method allows for greater detail dye in indigo Yoruba women create adire from cotton cover part of the fabric with stencils allows for repeatable images. Olokun. artists preferred multi-colored.Art Power Guide | 94 Adire creation process stitch raffia. women tended to use imported cotton material from Europe as their base material  The arrival of this cheaper and more plentiful material to southwestern Nigeria hurt the traditional cotton weavers of the area  Popular patterns of the time included abstract references to the sea god. factory-produced cloth over the traditional adire  Some artists like Nike Davies-Okundaya managed to promote traditional techniques and materials . and the royal jubilee  By the mid 20th century. method used for Wrapper  The highly figurative Wrapper probably was meant as a decorative rather than utilitarian piece  The work also commemorates the silver jubilee of the king and queen  The tradition of using cloth for commemoration extends beyond Nigeria to all of West Africa  Cloth can also express affiliation with a group or leader  Factory produced cloth with portraits of political leaders shows political affiliation in the modern world  Modern adire making  Adire reached the height of its popularity in the early 20th century  During this time. a grassy fiber.

Anyi. leading to persisting similarities  European activity in this area began with the Portuguese in the 15th century  Later. extends from Senegal in the north to Côte d’Ivoire in the south. the ethnic groups in this region shared many artistic and cultural traditions. CÔTE D’IVOIRE TH MID 20 CENTURY POWER PREVIEW The Guro culture centers on masquerades. Guinea. 15 questions should come from Section II  15 questions (30%) come from Section II on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 53 through 55 of the USAD Art Resource Guro Peoples  Background  The Guro live in Côte d’Ivoire. the French colonized a large portion of Guinea  Culture  The Guro people live near the much larger Baule group as well as the Yaure. Liberia.Art Power Guide | 95 FACE MASK GURO PEOPLES. Wan. located on the Atlantic coast.  Guinea includes Côte d’Ivoire. One artwork created for a masquerade is Face Mask. and Attie groups Guro neighbors Baule Yaure Wan Anyi Attie . POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. Sierra Leone. Guinea Bissau. This mask mixes contemporary and traditional art styles to form a representation of the deity Mami Wata. in the region the Europeans referred to as Guinea  This forested area. and Senegal  Before the arrival of the Europeans.

the Guro create most of their art for masquerades  These masquerades play a role in upholding the social order  . family networks form support while male elders solve disputes  Cultural groups also value people with special skills such as blacksmithing or woodcarving  Since the Guro are not ruled by kings. Europeans have preserved many of these artworks  The Guro choose their leaders because of their age and wisdom rather than a supposed connection to divinity  Rather than prestige arts. a council of elders oversees issues of land ownership and kinship in the 50 Guro villages  If need be.Art Power Guide | 96 All these groups are known for their rich masquerade traditions  They also all produce similar carved wooden masks and sculptures  The Guro traditionally do not have kings  Rather. this council can appoint a war chief  The Guro do not expand through warfare  The Guro organize into villages based on agricultural production  In these villages. prestige art does not play a central role  Other societies reserve the best materials for elite art  Guro mask Traditional royal art The Edo create bronze and brass sculptures The Yoruba value beaded regalia The Asante make gold ornaments Since artists make elite art out of materials valuable to both Europeans and Africans.

playing a flute to four erect snake heads  The superstructure features a much wider variety of colors than the substructure  These colors include red. green. scarification marks. yellow.Art Power Guide | 97 Face Mask  Design  Face Mask consists of two parts carved from one block of wood  A stylized face fills the bottom half  Shaped like an oval.6 x 17 closed eyes and perfect teeth exposed cm)  A high degree of symmetry indicates beauty and moral strength  Scarification marks on the cheeks and forehead and the hairstyle reinforce the feeling of symmetry  This perfect face probably depicts an ideal rather than an actual face  A completely different superstructure fills the top half of the mask  A woman sits on a platform with six enormous snakes and a snake charmer  She wears a stylish red dress with lipstick and red painted toenails  Her face is calm despite the snake across her shoulders and the one just below her chin  The snake charmer sits to the right. black. blue. and brown  The superstructure figure is also more natural than the face mask  For example. Mami Wata is the African imitation of the English term Mot her Water. and Vital Stats outlines of the eyes are black Artist: Guro artist  The teeth and outline of the hair are Date: Mid 20th century white Medium: Wood. the woman’s skin color is a natural brown as opposed to the mask’s red  The significance  This type of mask is very typical among the Guro and Baule  It is known as a Mami Wata mask  Mami Wata is a pidgin English term that means “Mother Water”76  Mami Wata represents the ability to mediate The original German chromolithograph of Mami Wata between the earth and the water Pidgin is the name for a language which forms from the attempts of two cultures of different languages to speak to each other. white. paint  A calm expression fills the face with Size: 21 1 4 x 11 1 4 x 6 1116 in (54 x 28. 76 . the face tapers slightly at the chin and has delicate features  White and black accents highlight the red face Face Mask:  The hair.

the artist draws on a plate. and their trade partners along with the creativity and ingenuity of African artists  Mami Wata masks often feature in masquerades  Masquerades can be sacred rituals. dips the plate in water. and then inks the plate. or both  Mami Wata is a powerful spirit and many revere her. modernity. masquerades represented an act of resistance  The large amount of French citizens living in Côte d’Ivoire and the officials forced assimilation into the French culture  They emphasized French language. a different plate is used for each color. usually a stone. and culture  Despite French pressure. admiring the dark hair. In this printing process. literature. With chromolithography. with wax. she represents the ability to find balance in opposition  Many different versions of the Mami Wata image exist throughout traditional West Africa th  The specific image included in Face Mask arrived in Africa during the early 20 century th 77  Sailors acquired a late 19 century German chromolithograph in Hamburg and brought it to Africa  This image was popular in many parts of coastal West Africa and the African Diaspora  The snake charmer image originally appeared on an East Indian calendar  The German chromolithographers copied the image. yet masks of Mami Wata function as entertainment  These masks appear at community events and dance competitions  Here Guro males dress in full ensembles and perform with music  In this situation. Mami Wata represents elegance.Art Power Guide | 98 She is sometimes depicted as half-human and half-fish She can also cross the boundary between the ordinary and spiritual worlds  As such. entertainment. The ink sticks only to the wax. masquerades continued and are still a key part of the Guro culture   77 Chromolithography is essentially lithography with color. The plate is then pressed against a sheet of paper to form the image. and innovativeness  When Côte d’Ivoire became a French colony in 1897. history. . and exotic features of the figures  Face Mask is a hybrid image  The substructure represents the face traditionally while the superstructure uses a more contemporary style  The mask also brings together the pre-colonial image of Mami Wata with the depiction of her on a German chromolithograph  These combinations reveal the interconnectedness of Europe. skin. Africa.

El Anatsui attended the College of Art of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology  This university lies in Kumasi. Anatsui investigated traditional Ghanaian art by himself  Convinced that he needed traditional art to portray what it meant to be truly African.Art Power Guide | 99 FADING CLOTH EL ANATSUI. . a large city in Ghana’s Asante region  There he learned about European history and traditions  This education system began when the British arrived in Ghana and continued even after independence  Frustrated with his limited education. the Gold Coast changed its name to Ghana. Anatsui studied the sculpture and textile traditions of the Asante and Ewe cultural groups  Both the Asante and Ewe are famous for their woodcarvings and textiles  Anatsui’s brother and father were Ewe weavers  Following his education. 15 questions should come from Section II  15 questions (30%) come from Section II on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 55 through 57 of the USAD Art Resource El Anatsui  Home  El Anatsui was born in 1944 in Anyako. Anatsui established himself as a teacher in Ghana  In 1957. Ghana was a British colony called the Gold Coast  In 1957. the Gold Coast gained its independence. becoming the first political state in subSaharan Africa to do so78  El Anatsui was a teenager at the time  Growing up in this time influenced the thematic and aesthetic development of his art  Education  In the late 1960s. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. the University of Nigeria in Nsukka offered Anatsui a teaching position  He currently works as a sculpture professor at the university 78 At this point. a town in Ghana’s Volta Region  When he was born. His art reflects the blending of European and African cultures and the effect of imperialism. GHANA 2005 POWER PREVIEW El Anatsui is a contemporary African artist who lives and works in Nigeria.

this group currently numbers 15million people. Anatsui joined a group of artists called the Nsukka Group  These artists focused on blending traditional motifs and European methods  This group emerged in the post-independence era  A founding member of the group. cassava is the third largest source of carbohydrates in the world. Anatsui had become a major African artist and had gained international recognition  His reputation peaked when his work appeared in international exhibitions like the Venice Biennale in 1990 and Africa Remix in 2004 through 2007  Africa Remix traveled through major cities like London and Tokyo and led to Anatsui’s current presence in many international collections  Anatsui works and lives in Nigeria  Art critics have noted that European and Close-up view of El Anatsui's Man's Cloth American art collectors are slower to recognize the skills of African artists still living in Africa than those who have immigrated to the west  As a result. 79 . Uche Okeke. Africa is its largest center of production. Before occasions such as weddings or funerals. found objects bearing cultural significance in choosing his materials 81  Some of his works feature broken ceramic pots and cassava graters Enrichment Fact: The Igbo is one of the largest ethnic groups in Nigeria. gouache. In fact. was particularly interested in Igbo 79 traditional motifs called uli80  The group soon incorporated uli motifs with El Anatsui's Man's Cloth European materials such as acrylic and oil paints. and pen and ink  By the 1970s. or left their home continent  Anatsui’s success proves that African artists can fully embrace their heritage and still gain international recognition  Also. Centered in southeastern Nigeria. 81 Enrichment Fact: Cassava is a woody shrub with a starchy. his position as a sculpture professor at the University of Nigeria allows him to influence the development of West African art Fading Cloth  Materials  Anatsui favors local. 80 Enrichment Fact: Uli are designs which Igbo women traditionally paint on each other or on murals in buildings.Art Power Guide | 100  Influence  In Nigeria. Igbo women cover each other in these abstract tattoo-like symbols. Interestingly. tapioca is made of cassava root. edible root like a potato. many African artists have expatriated.

his wooden structures often reference cultural traditions  Rather than traditional sculpting tools. flexible piece can be arranged in an infinite number of ways  Each position reflects the light differently. a hero from the independence movement. Anatsui also alludes to the historical relationship between West Africa and Europe  In pre-colonial times. however. hence the name Fading Cloth  Up close. flattened into rectangles and woven together using wire  Most of the bottle caps are gold with accenting caps of red. Fading Cloth is very reminiscent of kente cloth  In referencing kente cloth. was Ghana’s first democratically elected president . and copper wire wire  Fading Cloth is an example of this Size: 126 in x 21 ft (320 x 640 cm) type of work Anatsui began to work with metallic materials by chance  He encountered a bag of bottle caps on the side of the road  Now he buys the caps in bulk and hires studio assistants to pound them flat  Design  Fading Cloth consists of countless bottle caps. however.Art Power Guide | 101    In addition. the most prized kente cloths were made of silk imported from Europe  In post-colonial times kente became a political symbol of the independence movement  Kwame Nkrumah. Vital Stats colorful textiles  To create these artworks. Anatsui references kente cloth  The Asante and Ewe cultural groups of Ghana weave kente cloth  Traditionally. then Date: 2005 weaves them together using copper Medium: Bottle caps. changing the appearance of the piece  Anatsui leaves it up to the curators to decide how to arrange the work  Meaning  In this work. the colors form a visual pattern  Anatsui’s monumental artwork measures over 10 feet high and 21 feet wide  The artist did not intend for Fading Cloth to merely hang from a wall  This malleable. the colors seem completely random  Once the viewer backs away. he flattens Artist: El Anatsui bottle caps and metal cans. and silver  The cloth starts with vivid reds at the top and fades to gold and cream in the center. male artists weave imported silk threads for use by royalty  The cloth features bright colors and syncopated patterns  In this respect. metal cans. blue. Anatsui uses a chainsaw His more recent work features wall Fading Cloth: installations that resemble large.

Art Power Guide | 102 He promoted using the kente cloth as a political statement The inclusion of the kente cloth not only references pre-colonial trade with Europe and therefore the slave trade but also Ghana’s post-colonial agency and independence movement  The bottle tops Anatsui used to create his sculpture reference trade and exchange  Liquor was a key import in the pre-colonial and colonial eras. helping to encourage the slave trade  All of his bottle caps come from African distilleries  Fading Cloth is not just beautiful  This artwork also forces the viewer to confront the negative sides of the history and legacy of imperialism   .

This extensive trade with her colonies affected the culture of every part of the British Empire. stabilizing the empire’s economy  The selected works  All of the works in this section relate to the issue of trade  The Chinese plate and Indian watercolor illustrate the hybridization of techniques and designs in the context of imperialism  Both of these artworks were produced by native artists for European patrons  The painting originated from the time when India was under the control of the East India Company  The porcelain plate originated from southern China when Britain did not dominate the area but did play an important role as a trade partner  A North American artist painted the third work for a client in Boston  This object seemingly has no involvement with trade 82 Such a good game. 12 to 13 questions should come from Section III  13 questions (26%) come from Section III on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers page 60 of the USAD Art Resource The Colonies. Britain sought to turn foreign lands The British Empire is highlighted in red into British colonies  Colonies also served as ideal markets for British goods. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline.82 Great Britain was not fixated on power  Rather. Commodities.Art Power Guide | 103 ART AND IMPERIAL POWER POWER PREVIEW The British Empire sought expansion primarily because of the trade and commodities new colonies would bring. imperialist England sought commodities and trade  Imports from foreign lands soon became necessities  The British could not live without luxuries like teas and spices  For this reason. and Trade  The real reason for imperialism  The formation of the British Empire spanned centuries and continents  At the height of the Age of Empires. .

the East India Company controlled India Reflects the effect of British trade on the colonies A Common Indian Nightjar Paul Revere .Art Power Guide | 104  The artist did not intend the painting to be traded and the piece has stayed in North America since its creation The painting. however. reflects the effect trade with Britain had on the American colonies  The inclusion of the teapot especially indicates this relationship  Artwork Name Plate Artist and Patron By Chinese artists for the English Okeovers By the Indian Lucknow School for a European member of the East India Company By an American for an American Context Influenced by trade with Britain During this time.

delicate material fascinated Europeans. in northern China  By the 10th century.Art Power Guide | 105 CHINA. often kaolin. however. so southern porcelain differed slightly  In this early period. buyers especially valued porcelain from Jingdezhen  This city lies in the present-day Jiangxi Province  The first porcelain to reach Europe came through a land route called the Silk Road in the early 14th century  Porcelain often broke in transport due to its fragile nature  These breakages made porcelain much rarer and more valuable in Europe . These porcelain pieces combine Chinese artistry with European ideals and designs. 12 to 13 questions should come from Section III  13 questions (26%) come from Section III on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 60 through 61 of the USAD Art Resource China  The porcelain monopoly  The Chinese monopolized hard paste porcelain production for centuries  This beautiful. PLATE POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline.E. white clay. and fire it at very high temperatures  In this process. mixed with pulverized feldspathic rock. 18TH CENTURY (1739-43) POWER PREVIEW The Chinese monopolized the production of hard-paste porcelain for centuries. artists in southern China had begun to make porcelain as well  Southern China could access a different type of clay than northern China. artists take a very soft. porcelain reaches 1400 degrees Celsius  Soft paste porcelain is the European imitation of hard paste porcelain  This method fires the clay at a lower temperature  The growth of a Chinese tradition  The first porcelain emerged around 600 C. Wealthy European patrons sent designs for porcelain goods and decorations to China to be mimicked by Chinese artists. especially as a pleasant contrast to previous table goods of heavy pottery and wood  They could not. successfully imitate the method for production for many years  Porcelain is a type of ceramic Porcelain Properties Hard Strong Nearly impermeable to water  Delicate Fragile Nearly translucent Skilled hands can manipulate porcelain into almost any shape  When making hard paste porcelain.

Art Power Guide | 106  Soon the Portuguese developed trade routes by sea. now Guangzhou. commissioned the set of 50 plates and four dishes  The couple lived as aristocrats in Staffordshire. making porcelain much more easily     available By the 16th century. England . and mugs  These forms were completely foreign to Chinese artists  Completely undiscouraged. the porcelain would be ready to ship home within two to three months  If the commission were taken to Plate: Jingdezhen. it would Vital Stats not be ready for at least two Artist: Southern Chinese artist years  The monsoon rains delay travel Date: 1739 through 1743 to Canton. in the early 18th century. wealthy European patrons ordered specific shapes and designs for their porcelain imports  The patrons wanted teacups. Europeans sent along models for the Chinese to use to create the desired Traditional porcelain workshop in Jingdezhen products Photo by Ariel Steiner  Patrons also provided designs for enameling workshops to copy onto the porcelain  These workshops either were located in Canton. Mary Nichol. the major port city.9 cm) and cause the time difference Plate  Design  This highly decorated plate was produced as part of a set in southern China in the 18th century  Leake Okeover (1702-65) and his wife. European artisans discovered the secret to Chinese porcelain production  Hard porcelain still remained rare During this time. Medium: Hard-paste porcelain Size: Diam. or Jingdezhen  If the commission arrived in Canton. Chinese artists were producing porcelain specifically for export  Most of these goods were shipped out of the ports at Canton  Canton has been renamed Guangzhou and lies in the present-day Guangdong Province European collectors highly prized these porcelain goods  They often embellished their imports with custom-made metal mounts and turned them into showpieces Finally. 9 in (22. candleholders. however.

Okeovor and Nichol likely intended the set to be purely decorative rather than functional  The otherwise simple plate contains elaborate and colorful decorations  This plate’s central motif83 contains the Okeover and Nichol coats of arms rising out of a pool of blue water  Two horses carrying heraldic banners flank the motif  Blacks. arrived in England between 1740 and 1743  Since the decorations are so elaborate and the set contains only plates and dishes. copying the designs sent from Europe In the Art Fundamentals section of this power guide. along with many other goods from southern China. 83 . reds. and golds fill the center. but the rest of China remained independent  Plate resulted from collaboration between Chinese artists and European patrons and combined the two cultures  An English artist drew a detailed design of the plate and sent it to southern China A Chinese potter created the simple. according to the dictionary. Great Britain captured Hong Kong and made it a colony. Another definition is. the artist placed a design of the initials of the patrons  LMO stands for Leake and Mary Okeover  Floral designs fill the remaining space on the rim  Significance  This transaction between a wealthy European client and a Chinese artist represents much of the history of trade between England and China  The English desire for the trade of goods inspired and fueled imperial expansion th  Particularly through the 18 and 19th centuries. I define a motif as an element repeated in a pattern. unadorned plate A Chinese painter decorated the plate. Great Britain sought to control China  Eventually.Art Power Guide | 107 Their order. a dominant idea or feature. drawing attention to this area  A gold enamel around the inner and outer rim replicates the appearance of metal embellishments  Along the outer rim of the plate.

and indigo 84 My niece saw the picture on this page. cotton. ran to get her own toy parrot. yelled “Pretty parrot!”. 12 to 13 questions should come from Section III  13 questions (26%) come from Section III on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 62 through 63 of the USAD Art Resource POWER PREVIEW The East India Company’s presence greatly influenced the Indian art scene. including traditional Indian miniature paintings and contemporary English styles  Many of the original patrons of Company School paintings were members of the East India Company Green-Winged Macaw 85  This joint-stock company enjoyed a special A Calcutta Company School painting for Lord Impey relationship with the British crown and helped administer India as well as parts of Asia for 200 years  The East India Company traded large quantities of tea. and proceeded to stab me with the beak saying “Caw! Caw!” I hope you all appreciate this. many Indian artists adapted their style to accommodate new European patrons  These new patrons filled the gap in local patronage  The resultant style is called Company School painting  Indians refer to the style as kampani kalam  Company School painting combines Indian artistry with European ideals  Company School artists were trained painters  They gained extensive experience working for the Mughal Court  These painters worked in various styles. . 18TH CENTURY POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline.Art Power Guide | 108 A COMMON INDIAN NIGHTJAR (CAPRIMULGUS ASIATICUS) INDIA. These stock owners then become partners in the business venture. Company School84  History  During the 18th and early 19th centuries.  85 A joint-stock company begins by selling shares of itself to investors. A new style of art developed called Company School painting and embodied the work of Indian artists for European patrons. These artworks blend the two cultures and show the beautiful artistry of Indian artists. Many North America colonization efforts were results of joint-stock companies where Europeans invested in the New World.

but the patron wished to document a bird that did not exist in Europe  Each region of India with access to East India Company patrons developed its own company school  Each of these company schools developed a distinct style  The style first emerged in southern India and quickly spread  Important schools of the Company School style surfaced in Calcutta. fruits.Art Power Guide | 109 European members of the Company often settled with their families in India  Once there. artists simply produced paintings for sale without waiting for specific commissions  Style  Company School paintings are generally documentary  They often include flowers.9 x 28. birds. commissioned many paintings  Another supporter was Marquess Wellesley. Patna. Agra. architecture. and other centers  Legacy  Company School paintings. or landscapes  For example. as small. Chief Justice of the High Court from 1777 to 1785. animals. the governor-general from 1798 to 1805  Once the style became fully established. these members desired documentation of their stay and ordered souvenir artworks from the Company School painters  These patrons either put the paintings into albums or sent them home as gifts  The support of a few patrons in particular spurred the popularity of Company School paintings  Lord Impey. people. trees. essentially served as 18th and 19th century versions of tourist photographs  When photography reached India in the 1840s. inexpensive images.3 cm) A Common Indian Nightjar  Lucknow School  The Lucknow Company School produced the painting Nightjar  We do not know the name of the specific artist that created Nightjar  The patron of the piece likely thought his name unimportant . the bird in Nightjar is not particularly beautiful or rare. the popularity of Company School paintings dwindled  Today we can appreciate more the artistry of these paintings and their union of Indian and European styles  Europeans in every colony hoped to document their experiences  This desire stems from a scientific A Common Indian Nightjar: impulse to record experiences and new Vital Stats knowledge  Documentation also makes sense from a Artist: Lucknow Company School colonial perspective Date: 18th century  Possessing images of a place is a Medium: Watercolor on paper form of ownership 5 1  Size: 8 8 x 11 8 in (21.

ruled most of the Indian subcontinent. gray. not watercolor  Both paints allow the artist to depict tiny. standing on the ground. artists creating Indian miniature paintings used gouache. and casting a large shadow  The artist painted each feather clearly and colored the bird with a range of brown. at its height. the East India Company debated whether to take control of northern India  The area was rich agriculturally but had a strong representation from the Mughal Empire86  The British Empire hesitated but eventually took control of the Awadh region in 1856  In the 18th century. it is a glorious thing to be a Major General. 87 And it is. remaining there until his death in 1800  In Lucknow. elaborate details  The bird is in profile. and black  This bird stands in the extreme foreground  Small trees and shrubs behind the bird make up the background  The artist painted both the land and sky in neutral. plain colors  A bizarre sense of scale also appears in Nightjar  The bird is much larger and the landscape much smaller than perspective allows  This distortion of scale resembles the traditional Indian miniature paintings  These small. the British Empire had a strong influence on the Awadh region  The Lucknow School formed to take advantage of European patronage opportunities  Claude Martin  French collector Claude Martin (1735-1800) commissioned Nightjar  Martin served as Major General87 in the East India Company  Previously he worked as a French military officer  As a member of the East India Company. Its leaders were of Turkish and Mongol descent with a Persian lifestyle. or South Asia. Eventually the Mughals lost their potency when the British Empire exiled the Mughal Emperor. highly detailed depictions of architecture or scenery were very popular in the Mughal courts 86 Enrichment Fact: The Mughal Empire was an Islamic imperial power which. Pirates of Penzance? Anyone? .Art Power Guide | 110  Lucknow lies in the Awadh region in northern India  In the late 18th century. Martin collected an album of documentary paintings by local artists  The painting  Nightjar is a very small. detailed watercolor  The painting is about the size of a notebook paper  Traditionally. he moved to Lucknow in the 1770s.

His portrait of the strong patriot Paul Revere not only displays the subject’s metalworking prowess but also comments on the trade situation between Great Britain and her colonies. leaving Copley to fend for himself in the world of art  In the 1750s. however. Benjamin West  By this time. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. 1768 POWER PREVIEW John Singleton Copley painted portraits during the time of the American Revolution. as West had done  West composed his North American pieces from a distance  He created Penn’s Treaty in England after all the subjects of the painting had died  In contrast. so we know very little about his early life  His father died when he was young  His mother married the artist Peter Pelham in 1748  Pelham was a painter and an engraver and likely taught Copley these techniques  Pelham. Copley painted colonial figures in person in North America during the colonial period . Boy with a Squirrel. Copley established himself as a portrait painter  By the 1760s. Copley had gained recognition in Europe Boy with a Squirrel  Career by John Singleton Copley  In 1766.Art Power Guide | 111 PAUL REVERE JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY. died in 1751. Copley exhibited a portrait of his halfbrother in London  This piece. caught the attention of Copley’s contemporary. 12 to 13 questions should come from Section III  13 questions (26%) come from Section III on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 63 through 66 of the USAD Art Resource John Singleton Copley  Early life  John Singleton Copley (1738-1815) was born in Boston in 1738  His parents were not wealthy. Benjamin West was already a well-established painter in London  He eventually convinced Copley to move from North America to England.

he still painted portraits of American aristocrats  Copley lived and worked in London until his death in 1815  Paul Revere  Life  Paul Revere (1734-1818). Revere was most famous for being a silversmith  Revere came from a tradition of silversmithing Paul Revere: Vital Stats Artist: John Singleton Copley Date: 1768 Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 35 18 x 28 1 2 in (89. historical account  In 1768.22 x 72. when he sat for his portrait for Copley. however. Revere rode from Boston to Lexington to warn the patriots that the British were coming  The patriots could then prepare to defend themselves from a British invasion  In actuality.Art Power Guide | 112 Copley created portraits of important colonial figures such as Samuel Adams. and traveled to four locations London Paris Rome Florence Returning to London. is most famous for his midnight ride  Right before the battles of Lexington and Concord. in April 1775. a proud patriot of the American Revolution.39 cm) Paul Revere's midnight ride . he painted portraits in New York and Philadelphia  Nevertheless. Revere was only one of several riders  He became famous after Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s romanticized poem in 1861  Longfellow portrayed the ride as fantastic. daring. and solitary  Readers considered his poem an accurate. Copley sailed to Europe. his career options in North America were more limited relative to those of European portraitists   In 1774. Copley again painted portraits  This time he also expanded his painting to include historical themes  Though he lived in London. and John Hancock  Copley’s reputation as a portrait artist in Boston grew  In the early 1770s. Thomas Mifflin.

Revere participated actively in his local church and politics  In 1765. British policies became more outrageous and the group unified in their objections  The main outrage of 1765 was the Stamp Act  The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act in March 1765 and enacted it in November 1765  This direct tax on the colonists required them to pay extra fees for newspapers. Revere was about 34 and now ran the family business  He produced practical items like buckles and buttons along with specialty goods such as teapots. declaring himself decidedly to be a patriot  In that same year. he joined the Sons of Liberty. half-length pose  He sits behind a polished table. like Revere. and trading cards  Politics  Samuel Adams created the group the Sons of Liberty in Boston in August 1765  The group protested against some British colonial policies  The Sons of Liberty soon sprouted branches across the colonies  Most of the members were middle class and many were. the Sons of Liberty clearly showed their displeasure with a new tax on tea  Throughout his life. bookplates. holding an elegant silver teapot with a wooden handle in his left hand  His chin rests in his right hand and he looks up at the viewer as if he were just interrupted in a moment of thought   . Revere also worked as a goldsmith  He put these two talents to work in dentistry. pamphlets. however. legal documents. coffee pots. salt cellars.Art Power Guide | 113 He probably learned the trade in his father’s workshop at a young age By the time of his portrait. making false teeth  In the 1760s. made his political affiliations obvious with his political prints  The portrait  Revere’s portrait portrays him in a casual. and other serving items for wealthy homes  Though primarily a silversmith. and other items  The tax was fairly small but seemed to embody the outrage of “taxation without representation”  Finally. responding to the Stamp Act  Most of the members of the Sons of Liberty worked secretly  Revere. in the 1773 Boston Tea Party. artisans  As the 1760s continued. Revere also began to craft engravings for magazines. they simply replaced the act with equally unfair taxes  For instance. he created his first political print. Parliament repealed the controversial act in 1766  To the Sons of Liberty’s frustration.

so Revere is likely putting finishing touches on his work Revere is dressed unusually informally for a portrait in colonial America  He wears the clothes of a craftsman  He sports a partially open. Copley was a client of Revere  That year. striking an ideal balance with the casual aspects This painting is an oil on canvas  Copley. the family A teapot created by Paul Revere donated the portrait to the  . is obviously carefully posed  Revere’s waistcoat has gold buttons  Such attire is extremely impractical for work but references his skill as a metal smith  Also.Art Power Guide | 114       The table holds a few engraving tools. created a lifelike and detailed portrait with a meticulous finish  Because of its size and materials. white linen work shirt  Over his shirt lies an unbuttoned waistcoat  He wears neither an overcoat nor a wig His attire lends the portrait a casual air as if the viewer has just stumbled upon a craftsman at work The portrait. simple. he ordered a gold bracelet  Copley purchased more items in later years  Revere could have provided Copley with some gold or silver goods in exchange for the portrait Revere’s portrait stayed in his family for generations  The family displayed the picture publicly for the first time in 1928  Shortly afterward. remaining within his usual style. though. this portrait was likely very expensive  Copley normally painted portraits of wealthy merchants and their families who could afford his high prices  Revere could not have been able to afford the full price of his portrait Revere and Copley possibly traded services for the portrait  By 1763. Revere’s clothing and the table he sits behind are completely spotless  These elements lend a formality to the portrait.

sugar. and tea  The colonies and Great Britain struggled for control over these imports and exports. buttons. eventually leading to a colonial bid for independence  The teapot in this portrait may carry some political implications  Silver teapots were luxury items and very expensive in colonial America  Each teapot sold for a little more than 10 pounds  The average Boston laborer made 30 pounds a year and could never afford such an item  Teapots were not Revere’s most expensive item nor his most frequently made good  Most of the time he created simple items such as buckles. tools. about 40% of shipping from the colonies passed through Boston  These goods included lumber. Boston was a center of commerce and trade with the British Empire th  In the early 18 century. and furs  Goods from Great Britain to the colonies also passed through Boston  These goods included rum. and spoons  Out of the 5000 objects he created during his career. beef. Revere made 64 teapots  Copley likely included the teapot to comment on the trade relationship between Great Britain and her colonies .Art Power Guide | 115 Museum of Fine Arts in Boston  Politics of his portrait  During this time.

and private homes  The selections  The buildings in this section all draw on a variety of influences th  Gothic architecture experienced a revival in the 19 century  Gothic pointed arches and large windows often hybridized with colonial traditions  Many colonial buildings also draw from Classical influences Train station in Mumbai. administrative or government buildings. train stations. Guyana . Australia Colonial architecture from the 19th century still in use today Church in Georgetown. India Building representing progress and technology in Melbourne. 12 to 13 questions should come from Section III  13 questions (26%) come from Section III on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers page 66 of the USAD Art Resource Architecture and Power  The British Empire and architecture  Throughout history. humans have used architecture to declare power and dominance  Architecture. or Victorian Era. more than other art forms. can completely transform its location  The British Empire utilized architecture to assert its dominance throughout the colonies  The 19th century. In the colonies.Art Power Guide | 116 ARCHITECTURE AND POWER POWER PREVIEW In the 19th century Victorian Era. We will be studying three of these buildings in the next few pages of the Power Guide. libraries. the British Empire built various secular and Brazil from the colonial era religious buildings  These buildings included churches. the British Empire expanded quickly. the Empire often created secular and religious buildings to assert its own power and dominance. was a time of tremendous expansion for the British Empire Gothic revival cathedral in  During this time. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. commercial buildings.

in either 1847 or 1848  In his hometown. essentially defining the visual culture of the area  Stevens earned fame for his Gothic architecture  Frederick William Stevens died in 1900 Municipal Corporation Building Victoria Terminus Building  History  The British Empire constructed the Victoria Terminus Building in Bombay. he received a formal education in architecture at a young age  In 1867. the country decided it did not appreciate the colonial legacy and renamed the building. and celebrate the progress colonialism was bringing to this uncivilized land. After India gained its independence. however. India to assert its own power. England. modernize the city. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. 12 to 13 questions should come from Section III  13 questions (26%) come from Section III on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 66 through 68 of the USAD Art Resource Frederick William Stevens  Life  British architect Frederick William Stevens was born in Bath. to function as the headquarters for the Great Indian Peninsular Railroad . completed in 1893 after his retirement  He created many public and private buildings in Mumbai. 1887 POWER PREVIEW The British Empire built the Victoria Terminus Building in Bombay. India. he gained the commission to design the Victoria Terminus Building for the Great Indian Peninsular Railroad  Stevens designed many other large-scale buildings in the area  He designed the Municipal Corporation Building.Art Power Guide | 117 VICTORIA TERMINUS BUILDING FREDERICK WILLIAM STEVENS MUMBAI. he became assistant engineer in the Public Works Department of India  After a decade of work.

6 cm) state in southwestern India  Great Britain invested a remarkable amount of time and money establishing Bombay as a modern and westernized city  The architecture of this city. blends Gothic and Indian styles and reflects primarily the presence of colonial rule  In modern times. decorated tile. Stevens took inspiration from Italian and English churches and St. Pancras Railway Station in London  Construction on St. and towers  These elements emphasize the building’s verticality  The building consists of local red sandstone  Poly-chromatic stone. marble.Art Power Guide | 118 The design began in 1877. then. St. the Empire Victoria Terminus Building: named the building Victoria Terminus Vital Stats Building to celebrate the jubilee of Queen Victoria Artist: Frederick William Stevens  When it was built. construction started in 1878. the core of the building has remained the same  Design  In designing the Victoria Terminus Building. a Size: 7 316 x 9 516 in (18. approximately three million passengers pass through the station each day  Despite expansions. turrets. and stained glass  Goods from across the country Photograph: Albumen silver print from glass traveled by rail to and from Bombay negative  The city is the capital of Maharashtra. the building was a Date: 1887 central point in India Medium:  Bombay was the most important port Building: Red sandstone. city in the country decorated tile. polychromatic stone. and stained glass add visual interest  .3 x 23. the city of Bombay had a population of less than one million  Now. and final construction ended in 1887  The year construction began. the station has undergone some structural changes  Specifically. Pancras ended about a decade before Stevens designed the Victoria Terminus Building  Victoria Terminus Building combines traditional Indian architecture with the Italian Gothic style  Gothic architecture was very popular in England in the late 19th century  The Gothic influence emerges in the pointed arches. the station has expanded to accommodate increased traffic  When the station was first built. Pancras Railway Station marble.

or the modernization that came with European colonization A lion and a tiger stand on either side of the entrance The lion.Art Power Guide | 119  Symbols of colonial rule abound in the design of the building   The statue atop the building is an allegorical figure representing Progress. maybe you’ll be featured in next year’s USAD Art Reproductions Guide. Both the Victoria Terminus Building and Bombay have new names  Victoria Terminus Building 1996 Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus Bombay 1995 Mumbai  India gained independence in 1947 and since then. tiger. Who knows. the country has changed many names of cities and places to eliminate the colonial legacy 88 The next time you go on vacation. be sure to take some pictures. and allegorical figure representing Progress on the Victoria Terminus Building  They symbolize the combination of British might and indigenous Indian culture that created modern Bombay  Today. . Company School artists would have painted it  Legacy  Since the station’s completion in the 1880s. this building is one of the most prominent locations in Bombay and a central tourist spot  A tourist likely took the photograph of the Victoria Terminus Building included in the Art Reproductions Guide as a souvenir88  If this building had existed a century earlier.

a political party supporting the name changes emerged in 1995  The party intended the changes to reject the city’s colonial past and strengthen the indigenous culture. or Marathi.Art Power Guide | 120  These name changes are extremely political  In 1995. the state that contains Mumbai. however. referred to the station as VT while delivering a public address  This action was especially hypocritical since he had previously criticized a film director for using Bombay instead of Mumbai in his film Name usage is a controversial topic  Some political groups in India are pushing for use of indigenous Indian languages instead of English  Others. identity in the region The group named the city Mumbai after the Hindu goddess. Bombay became Mumbai      Bombay is the English version of the Portuguese words for good bay In Maharashtra. Shivaji was a hero of the independence movement  This name change switched the train station from a celebration of colonial dominance to a declaration of independent identity Many people still accidentally refer to the train station as VT (Victoria Terminus) instead of CST (Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus)  One such instance occurred in 2010  Raj Thackery. object that English is the language of international progress  . the Victoria Terminus Building became Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus th  Chhatrapati Shivaji was a 17 century Hindu king  A wise and just ruler. he led the resistance against the Mughals to form the Marathi nation  As someone who led the indigenous people to throw off the foreign oppressor. Maharashtra Navnirman Sena. the controversial leader of the ethnocentric political party. Mumbadevi In 1996.

England. Frederick Barnes (1824Note the Classical influence 84) and resemblance to the Pantheon  The two architects formed a firm called Reed and Barnes  The work of this architectural firm reflected the influence of the Classical and Greek styles  Barnes retired in 1883  Reed’s firm continued to obtain many commissions and Reed himself worked with a variety of new partners  Reed married in 1884 and died in 1890 . the building housed the Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880 and a plethora of other exhibitions and events. 12 to 13 questions should come from Section III  13 questions (26%) come from Section III on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 68 through 70 of the USAD Art Resource Joseph Reed  Life  Joseph Reed was born in Cornwall. 1880 POWER PREVIEW The Royal Exhibition Building sits in Melbourne. he won a competition to design the State Library of Victoria  He also received commissions to design the Bank of New South Wales. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. Australia. Reed arrived in Melbourne  He soon rose to the rank of one of the city’s most important architects  His skill extended to designing public.Art Power Guide | 121 ROYAL EXHIBITION BUILDING JOSEPH REED MELBOURNE. commercial. in 1823  In 1853. Emblematic of European ideals of progress. and Wesley Church  In 1862 Reed began to work with his first State Library of Victoria architectural partner. and ecclesiastical architecture  In 1854. Geelong Town Hall.

Artist: Joseph Reed Melbourne houses about four million Date: 1880 people Medium: Exterior walls of brick. or transepts  Above the central crossing lies a large dome on top of an octagonal drum  The Florentine Cathedral inspired A Romanesque portal and the Royal Exhibition Building entryway this dome  The large central entryway resembles a Romanesque portal  The building sits in Carleton Gardens  Reed designed these gardens to be “pleasure grounds” that display exotic and native plants and trees If you go to Melbourne during the winter. 89 the capital city of the state Vital Stats Victoria. you’ll see flocks of penguins waddle onshore. roof of  Europeans coming from Tasmania settled timber. interior of timber Melbourne in 1835  They quickly transformed the city into a representation of the European idea of progress  Queen Victoria recognized Melbourne as a city in 1847  The city began to thrive in the 1850s  In 1851.Art Power Guide | 122 Royal Exhibition Building  The history of Melbourne Royal Exhibition Building:  Melbourne. Melbourne emerged as a wealthy city of international commercial importance  The design  The architectural firm Reed and Barnes designed the Royal Exhibition Building  This building thus reflects the Greek and Classical influences the architects admired  The basic architectural design resembles a church  This structure is cruciform. or the nave. – Sophy 89 . lies on a bay in southern Australia  One of Australia’s most populous cities. I went when I was seven for my birthday and it was one of the coolest things I’d ever seen. lies perpendicular to two side pieces. entrepreneurs discovered gold in Victoria  As a result. and steel. the city benefited from the discovery of gold  In just a few decades. and wait by the beach. slate. or crossshaped  A long central space. the population greatly expanded  Melbourne served as Australia’s major port  As such.

just in time for the Melbourne International Exhibition  The exhibition lasted from October 1880 to May 1881 and received about 1.Art Power Guide | 123  The interior of the building is open and filled with galleries The plentiful aisles and windows along the nave and transepts provide a sense of lightness and ideal viewing of the main exhibition space  The exterior walls consist of brick while the roof features timber. while the interior remains light  The use of local timber in Reed’s design likely won him the competition to design the building  Timber is cheaper and makes construction much quicker  Use and significance  Construction of the Royal Exhibition Building ended in 1880. highlighting European ideals  . and incredibly expensive exhibitions are also known as World Fairs  The tradition began with the 1851 Great Exhibition in London and the unveiling of the Crystal Palace  World Fairs display new advances in science and technology alongside samplings of art and culture  The building and exhibition highlight European ideas of progress  This artwork reflects Gothic and Classical architecture. lengthy. the interior columns.5 million visitors from around the world  This exhibition was part of a series of international exhibitions that began in the 19th century  These large. imposing look. and dome all consist of timber  This construction lends the exterior a solid. and steel  In contrast. ceiling. floors. slate.

workers demolished the side wings and installed a number of new additions to this venue  The main core. a celebration of 100 years of European settlement in Australia  In 1901. remains intact  In 1888.Art Power Guide | 124 In addition. right after Australia became a commonwealth. school examinations. the locale hosted a wide variety of events including Olympic competitions. the Royal Exhibition Building was monumental in size  As the largest building in Australia at the time. the Royal Exhibition Building housed the first opening of the Australian Parliament th  From the mid to late 20 century. car shows. this gallery hosted the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition. and graduation ceremonies  The Royal Exhibition Building still functions today  . the Royal Exhibition Building has served a variety of purposes  To accommodate these new uses. the Royal Exhibition Building featured a walkway in the dome for visitors to view Melbourne  Visitors considered the city Europe’s modern masterpiece  Since construction. however.

Guyana.Art Power Guide | 125 ST. Andrew’s designed by Arthur Blomfield Church in Surbiton. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. 12 to 13 questions should come from Section III  13 questions (26%) come from Section III on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 70 through 71 of the USAD Art Resource Arthur Blomfield  Life and work  Arthur Blomfield (1829 – 1899) was a renowned English architect and member of the Royal Institute of British Architects  His father served as an important Bishop of the Church of England  Young Blomfield attended the elite Rugby School and Trinity College at Cambridge  He served as an apprentice to the architect Philip Charles Hardwick and later started his own practice  Blomfield designed both ecclesiastical and secular buildings  His most recognized work is the College of Music in London (1882)  He also designed churches in the Gothic Revival style The Church of SS Peter and Paul  One such example is St. 1894 POWER PREVIEW The official religion of the British Empire was the Anglican Church. An example of this effort is St. As such. GEORGE’S CATHEDRAL ARTHUR BLOMFIELD GEORGETOWN. the British Empire would spend much money and care building beautiful churches in its colonies. GUYANA. George’s Cathedral in Georgetown. England (1872)  In 1891. Blomfield received the Royal Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects in recognition of his work .

and British all settled the country. Georgetown. such as pointed arches. flying buttresses.Art Power Guide | 126 St. British Guiana based its economy on slave labor  Slaves provided cheap labor in the production of sugar and other internationally valuable goods  With the abolition of slavery. Arthur Blomfield included Gothic features. and large windows with stained glass depicting scenes from the Bible  These elements lend the architecture a sense of lightness and height . the British claimed the colony and named it British Guiana in 1814  Until 1834. George’s Cathedral: the northern coast of South America Vital Stats  Before the arrival of the Europeans. George’s Cathedral  The history of Georgetown and Guyana  Guyana’s capital city. immigrants from all over the world. lies on St. the country gained independence and changed its name to Guyana  Today the majority of the population of Guyana lives along the coast  Georgetown became a European settlement in the 18th century  The city sits near the mouth of the Demerara River  Georgetown has had many names over the course of its history  The Dutch called the city Stabroek  When the French occupied the region briefly in 1782. Georgetown is Guyana’s most populated city  Georgetown houses the central government and serves as the commercial center  Guyana is a very ethnically diverse country  The Dutch. including India. British Guiana declared its official state religion to be the Anglican Church  Other religions in the area include Hinduism and Islam  Design  St. they referred to Georgetown as Longchamps  Finally the British named the city Georgetown in 1812 after King George III  Today. new immigrants met the demand for cheap labor  In 1966. French. the Artist: Arthur Blomfield area housed the Arawak and Carib Date: 1894 Native American groups  Dutch settlers arrived in the area in the 17th Medium: Local wood and 18th centuries  After decades of conflict over the region. bringing their citizenry with them  A slavery-dependent economy also forced many Africans to settle in the area  Once slavery was abolished. Christianity remains the dominant religion  Most of the Christians identify with the Anglican Church  Before independence. came to work  Due to the country’s European heritage. George’s Cathedral is one of the tallest wooden churches in the world  The structure rises to a height of 143 feet  The church’s basic design is a Latin Cross with a central tower  In his design.

Blomfield painted the walls white. as the home of the Bishop’s Cathedra. which was also well in keeping with the style of the area  History and significance  St. tropical climate  In addition. George’s Church. the structure was too small for the growing city’s needs and the colony added on a few galleries  Nevertheless. by 1877. a larger church seemed necessary  Georgetown completed the larger. George’s Cathedral in the city  In addition. plentiful wood to build the church  This decision was very costefficient and allowed the cathedral to blend in with the surrounding buildings  In addition. George. the reliance on a celebrated British architect to design the colonial church indicates the importance of the Anglican Church  St. ended in 1810  Within a decade. stone version of St. a small chapel dedicated to St.Art Power Guide | 127 George’s Cathedral displays Blomfield’s ability to adapt European architectural styles in a Caribbean setting  Most European Gothic churches are stone  A building of stone would have looked rather odd in a light. became a cathedral  Unfortunately. George’s Cathedral is the last in a line of Anglican churches built in Georgetown  Construction of the first building. 1894  The Anglican Church was the official state religion of Great Britain and its colonies  This emphasis is evident in the prominent position of St. Georgetown became the seat of the Diocese of Guiana  St. George’s Church in 1842  Within a few months. the new cathedral’s foundation was weak and unsuitable for use  The seat of the Diocese relocated briefly while Georgetown built yet another church  Construction for the St. Blomfield chose to use local. . George’s Cathedral that stands today began in 1889 and ended with the church’s consecration on November 8.

Benjamin West and J. Romantic artists supported the idea of the noble savage  According to this concept. Since people living in Great Britain very rarely traveled to the colonies.A. John Frederick Lewis and William Hodges were both born in England and traveled extensively to areas affected by British imperialism  J. then. we will discuss six artists whose work spans nearly 250 years  All of these artists gained prestige in England and responded to British imperialism with visual art  Some of these artists gained international experience which gave them a unique perspective about British imperialism  For example. produced romanticized images of distant and exotic colonial lands  In particular. grew up in Nigeria. a contemporary artist. and currently lives in London  In contrast. however. foreign people were Benjamin West's depiction of a uncivilized and consequently more simple and pure Native American in The Death of  Supposedly. Turner experienced very little international exposure  His paintings.M. still focus on key aspects and effects of British imperialism  The European perception of the colonies  During the height of the British Empire. Whistler hailed from North America and expatriated to England  Yinka Shonibare. 12 to 13 questions should come from Section IV  12 questions (24%) come from Section IV on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers page 74 of the USAD Art Resource Visions of the Empire  The selections  In this section of the Art Power Guide. the “noble savage” was to be envied for General Wolfe exemplifies the idea of a "noble savage" his simple life free from the complexities of modern .” while others reflected critically on the British Empire and imperialism. was born in England. in the 17th through 19th centuries.W.Art Power Guide | 128 EUROPE ENVISIONS THE EMPIRE POWER PREVIEW All of the artists in this section commented on British imperialism with their visual art. artists often presented a valuable perspective on what the rest of the British Empire was like. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. Some of these perspectives displayed the colonies as exotic and uncivilized places populated by the “noble savage.M. most residents of Great Britain never visited the colonies  Artists.

and the construction of power and identity  Yinka Shonibare. a figment of the European imagination  In contrast. for example.M. some artists of the time criticized the British Empire  J.Art Power Guide | 129 European society  This concept was. draws from past and present as well as European and African sources to question ideas that were accepted as facts in previous generations . of course. Turner criticized the slave labor that went into building the Empire th  Great Britain’s American colonies kept slaves until the 19 century  The British Empire actually supported abolition much more than other European powers  Great Britain expanded into areas that did not use slavery  Turner produced his artwork while the abolitionists were rallying for an end to the slave trade and chattel slavery  Turner with his criticism of the Empire was a rare case  Most artists during the Age of Empire did not question the great powers of imperialism  Contemporary artists have much more of an opportunity to look critically at their position in the world.W.

Venice. he established a strong reputation as a portrait painter  By the late 1750s. generous historical figure.Art Power Guide | 130 PENN’S TREATY WITH THE INDIANS BENJAMIN WEST. Pennsylvania. greatly helping his career Portrait of Charles Willson Peale  In 1759. so West relied on practice and informal study  Nevertheless. a trip to Europe was absolutely essential for a young American artist who aspired for international recognition  West traveled to Rome. West. West had a natural talent for drawing  Unfortunately. He determines the curriculum for the school and appoints professors. in 1738  Interested in art from a young age. provost90 at the College of Pennsylvania. William Smith. . as a teenager. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. supported by his Pennsylvania By Benjamin West patrons. This sort of painting full of political statements and justifications for imperialism were very typical of the Age of Empire. Michelangelo. traveled to Europe  In the mindset of the time. became impressed with West’s painting  Smith provided West with new educational opportunities and patrons. and Florence before finally settling in England in 1763  During his trip he studied the work of Italian Renaissance masters such as Raphael. 1771-72 POWER PREVIEW Benjamin West painted remarkable historical scenes. 12 to 13 questions should come from Section IV  12 questions (24%) come from Section IV on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 74 through 78 of the USAD Art Resource Benjamin West  Early life  Benjamin West was born in Springfield. One of these is Penn’s Treaty which displays William Penn as a heroic. and Titian  He also studied masterpieces of the Baroque and Classical sculpture and architecture from the ancient world 90 The provost at a university is essentially an administrator. Pennsylvania offered few educational opportunities during the colonial age.

West exhibited his work at the Society of Artists in London  This exhibition brought him to the attention of British art critics  In 1769. many young artists in the late 18th and 19th centuries traveled to Europe for an education  Europe was the source of the great artistic traditions  Many artists traveled from the United States to London to study under West  These artists included Charles Willson Peale. and John Trumbull  After learning from West. was a place for teaching and exhibiting Britain’s The Death of General Wolfe by Benjamin West finest art  West served as president of the Royal Academy from 1792 to 1805 and again from 1806 to his death in 1820  Benjamin West spent his adult life working in London  Though he never actively promoted his work in the United States.Art Power Guide | 131  Career  In England. a large historical scene. the King appointed West as a court painter  Over the next 30 years. Gilbert Stuart. and Baroque art  They also expected historical paintings to be illuminating and inspiring. these artists traveled back to the Americas and there influenced their own artistic traditions  The Death of General Wolfe. West painted 60 paintings for the king. with West as a founding member. he influenced the art tradition in that country through teaching  Due to the limited formal education opportunities in the United States. teaching viewers about the best parts of human history  In 1764. West received his first royal commission from King George III  Soon. including both portraits and historical paintings  King George III established the Royal Academy of Arts in 1768  This institution. Renaissance. West continued to paint portraits and increased his reputation as a history painter  Critics and the public expected artists who painted historical paintings to have mastered a classicizing style like that of ancient. was one of West’s most influential paintings  Benjamin West painted the scene in 1770 and exhibited it at the Royal Academy in 1771  The painting illustrates the final moments in the life of General James Wolfe .

however. connected him to the monarchy  Penn’s family belonged to the Anglican Church  Recall that this religion was the official religion of the British Empire  Penn. however. a promoter of freedom. Quakers. the public loved the painting and both Reynolds and the king eventually accepted the idea Finally. West’s painting depicted a scene in North America rather than Europe  All of these innovations paved the way for West’s next major historical work. Penn and a group of Quakers purchased land in North America in 1677 . point out that he benefited from an unjust system that was condescending and oppressive toward the Native Americans  William Penn was born in London to prosperous parents  His father. heroic. a painter in the Royal Academy. Penn’s Treaty with the Indians  Penn’s Treaty with the Indians  William Penn Penn’s Treaty with the Indians:  William Penn (1644-1718) founded Vital Stats Pennsylvania Artist: Benjamin West  Historians often view William Penn as fair. Penn found his relationship with his family and their religion tense  Penn’s father died in 1670 William Penn  Seeking a religious refuge. the Anglican Church criticized Catholics. Puritans. and followers of other religions  Persecuted for his beliefs.8 x 273.Art Power Guide | 132    He died in 1759 during the Battle of Quebec His painting was revolutionary because it depicted recent history rather than a heroic story of the distant past In addition. and King George III were outraged by the characters’ attire  King George III vowed that he would never buy a painting in which the characters wore contemporary clothing  Much to their chagrin.7 cm) the Native Americans  Critics of Penn. West chose to dress his figures in contemporary styles instead of the customary drapery of ancient art  Both Joshua Reynolds. and a leader Date: 1771-72 in the quest for friendly relationships with Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 75 1 2 x 107 3 4 in (191. Admiral Sir William Penn. however. favored the Quakers  During this time.

000 square miles  The King gave Penn full governing rights and responsibilities over the land  Penn wanted to call the land Sylvania. as a newcomer. the King of England gave Penn a proprietary grant in payment for a debt to his father  The grant totaled approximately 45. especially the Lenape tribe  This tribe is also known as the Leni Lenape or Delaware tribe  He felt it only right that.Art Power Guide | 133  In 1681. this event happened under a giant elm tree in Shackamaxon  There is no formal documentation of this treaty. he pay the Lenape tribe for the land he was now filling with Europeans  The painting  Penn’s Treaty depicts a historical. West painted how he thought the event would have looked  The painting focuses on the exchange of goods  Two European men kneel and present a bolt of cloth to the Lenape chief  Elders and male warriors surround the chief while women and children look on  Some figures lean forward and admire the cloth while others put hands to their chests as if accepting the cloth and the peace offering  Outside of this focus. meaning “forests” in Latin  The King. however. but historians agree that the event probably happened in either 1682 or 1683  Penn’s attempt at peaceful relationships with the Native Americans was very generous in the context of the time  Most colonies merely applied brute force  Penn’s treaty took place about 100 years before West painted A depiction of Penn's treaty with the Lenape the event  With no firsthand accounts. called the land Pennsylvania after Penn’s father  Penn wanted to establish a land of religious tolerance for all Christians  As governor of Pennsylvania. he created a just government based on elected representatives and fair trials  He started planning for Philadelphia and began to explore the interior of his newly acquired territory  Soon Penn developed a good relationship with the local Native Americans. almost legendary event  Penn offered the Lenape goods for their land and a promise of peace  According to the story. Native Americans are going about their daily lives  A group of tents with natives clustered in front stand in the background  A mother nurses her baby in the extreme right foreground  These figures resemble images of the Virgin and Child .

the natives wear very little clothing  Such illustrated differences served to justify European colonialism  According to the thinking of the time. but his work captured the feelings of the time  Imperialism had to strike a balance between peaceful relationships and domination of groups different from Europeans West used the housing in the background to show the replacement of natives with European settlers  . drawing the viewer’s and mother’s gazes European men fill the left side of the painting  West based his image of Penn on an earlier portrait of Penn as a young man  West aged Penn by turning him into a heavy-set man  Penn wears a sober brown outfit with a white neck cloth  He holds out his arms.Art Power Guide | 134     An older child next to the mother gestures toward the circle. ornamented attire  Compared to the Europeans. two men sit on boxes that seem to hold more goods for trade  Penn’s gesture also forms a bridge of peace between the two groups of people West depicted the Native Americans as calm and composed  He modeled the figures after Roman and Greek sculptures  This depiction epitomizes the Romantic concept of the “noble savage” He also emphasized the differences between the Europeans and the Native Americans  The Quaker men surrounding Penn wear sober and plain clothing th  This style was typical of Quakers in the 18 century th  17 century Quakers wore highly ornamental clothing with silk stockings and lace detailing  West portrayed the Quakers so contemporary viewers would recognize them  The Quakers’ dress also emphasizes the difference between the Europeans and the Native Americans  The natives wear brightly colored. the superior settlers brought civilization to a simple and primitive world  British control of the Americas ended soon after West created his painting. pointing toward the cloth being presented with one and another cloth with the other  He seems to indicate that there are more goods he would like to offer the Native Americans  In the left corner.

carrying goods for the settlement of the town  After this event. Thomas Penn (1702 – 1775). it is not an unbiased depiction of an event. spending time in prison for his debts  As a result. commissioned Penn’s Treaty  Thomas Penn differed from his father  He rejected the Quakers and joined the Church of England  Unlike his father. but a constructed image showing a key event in the formation of an empire  . William Penn had signed a treaty with the Lenape Indians granting to him an area of land equivalent to the distance a man could walk in a day and a half  The two then hired three runners to “walk” the distance. at the end of the 18 century  In England he faced financial difficulties. defines authority and identity  As a highly politicized painting. Penn’s sons took his place as proprietor of Pennsylvania  Thomas Penn  William Penn’s son. briefly. sided with the French in the French and Indian War (1756 – 1763)  The Native Americans led raids on Pennsylvania settlements  Opponents of proprietorship such as Benjamin Franklin and Quaker leaders used the Walking Purchase as evidence against the institution  Franklin petitioned the British crown to replace Pennsylvania proprietorships with royal charters  Other colonies used the royal charter system  By this system. small tents in the shadows  An entire community of two-story structures stand in the final stages of construction  Small boats wait in the harbor in the distance  Men walk back and forth from the harbor. like other art of the British Empire.Art Power Guide | 135 Modern. citing the Walking Purchase as inspiration. men governed by royal decree rather than inheritance  Franklin’s petition directly challenged Thomas Penn’s claim to governing Pennsylvania  Thomas Penn likely commissioned a painting of his father’s peaceful dealings with the Native Americans to shed positive light on his name  The depiction of his father also legitimizes his own claim to the land  This painting. Penn returned to England th  He only returned once. he could not visit his territory and his authority there faded  After his death in 1718. marking much larger boundaries than the Lenape had expected  In the 1750s. Thomas Penn oppressed the Native Americans  The Walking Purchase of 1737 exemplifies this attitude  Thomas Penn and his secretary James Logan claimed ownership of a tract of land  According to them. the Walking Purchase became even more controversial  During this time the Native Americans. permanent. European housing is quickly replacing primitive-looking. who worked to develop fair and friendly relationships with the Native Americans.

HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’ displays an exotic. Easter Island. nearly reaching the Antarctic coast. Hodges worked to document everything the crew encountered. 12 to 13 questions should come from Section IV  12 questions (24%) come from Section IV on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 78 through 80 of the USAD Art Resource William Hodges  Life and Career  William Hodges was born in 1744 in London  He trained to be an artist from a young age  He began in an art school but soon became an apprentice to Richard Wilson in 1758  Wilson worked as a landscape painter in the Royal Academy  For his first independent artwork. On this trip. His painting.Art Power Guide | 136 HMS ‘RESOLUTION’ AND ‘ADVENTURE’ WITH FISHING CRAFT IN MATAVI BAY WILLIAM HODGES. Hodges painted landscape scenery for London theatrical productions  In 1772. touched the southern coast of Australia. Hodges traveled with Commander James Cook on his second voyage to the Pacific  James Cook served as a commander in Great Britain’s Royal Navy  Cook traveled to the Pacific the first time between 1768 and 1771 Captain James Cook  During this trip he traveled around Cape Horn in by William Hodges South America. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. and New Caledonia . 1776 POWER PREVIEW William Hodges traveled with Commander James Cook on his second expedition to the Pacific. mapped the coast of New Zealand. accompanied by the HMS Adventure The expedition crossed the Antarctic Circle. faraway land and the peaceful relationship there between Europeans and the Tahitian natives. and contacted native groups in Tahiti  Cape Horn New Zealand Australia Tahiti  Cook returned to the Pacific between 1772 and 1775   He commanded the HMS Resolution. then sailed on to Tahiti.

the Duke of York Unfortunately. USAD seems to have mixed up the titles of these artworks. Hodges marred his reputation with two of his works: The Effects of War and The Consequences of Peace91  He exhibited these two anti-war. drawing scenes of whatever the expedition saw  His most famous pictures depict Tahiti and Easter Island When Hodges returned to London in 1776. allegorical landscapes on Bond Street in 1794 and 1795  The Duke of York insisted that the paintings were inappropriate and dangerous  He feared the paintings protested Britain’s campaign against France  Hodges had to close the exhibition and could not find another audience Humiliated. Governor-General Warren Hastings and the East India Company.Art Power Guide | 137 Antarctic Circle Easter Island New Caledonia Tahiti  During this trip. 91 . Hodges abandoned painting and faced poverty in his early 50s As far as I can gather. he exhibited large scale paintings inspired by the voyage at the Royal Academy  These paintings were valuable from a scientific perspective but also were exotic and fascinating to the British population A View of the Monuments of Easter Island by William Hodges Between 1780 and 1784. he established a studio in London to display his drawings of India  In 1793. he published a book of his drawings Hodges was a member of the Royal Academy  He became an associate member in 1786 and a full member in 1787  He exhibited his work at the Academy until 1794 Frederick. sent him there to record the English military expansion in India  Hodges thought of himself as a recorder of history and an “artist-historian”  After his return. Hodges worked as       the official draughtsman. Hodges traveled to India His supporters. William Hodges painted The Consequences of War and The Effects of Peace.

gazing at the ships in the bay  The Tahitians wear very little clothing 92  Instead. sit on the dock over the water  The two figures look toward the Hodges' Tahitian natives reflect the influence of Greek and Roman sculpture viewer.2 x 193.1 in (137. simpler Tahitian fishing boats  In the left foreground. like Classical sculptures  This emphasis on both the exotic and classical illustrates the idea of the “noble savage” 92 Recall that a contrapposto pose is relaxed with the weight shifted onto one leg. controversy surrounding his bank investments  Historians speculate that he may have committed suicide  HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’  Design HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’:  HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’ is a large Vital Stats landscape painting showing a protected bay Artist: William Hodges along Tahiti’s northern coastline Date: 1776  Everything is in harmony Medium: Oil on canvas  The water and sky are calm and the sun shines down on the volcanic mountains Size: 54 x 76. Hodges unsuccessfully experimented with bank investments  He died in 1797 with very little money.Art Power Guide | 138 He no longer produced large-scale paintings and had to pay to publish his book of illustrations  Attempting to improve his financial situation. one sitting and the other standing with his back to the viewer  A woman and child. drawing him into the scene  A man farther in the background sits. float peacefully in the center left of the composition  These elaborate ships contrast with the smaller. HMS Resolution and HMS Adventure. .2 cm) meeting the water  Two British ships. they stand in contrapposto poses and wear loose-fitting drapery. recalling images of the Virgin Mary and the Christ Child. a few Tahitian natives carry out their daily activities  Two men converse with each other.

though  In order to fit all of the landmarks he wanted to.94  A chicken struts in the immediate foreground  Two men paddle a canoe in the center of the middle ground  In the right foreground. they established peaceful relationships with the natives and founded an informal settlement called Point Venus  The sick members of Cook’s crew traveled to Point Venus for recovery  93 94 Why did the chicken strut across the foreground? To get to the background! . appear dignified  As if to make up for the posed formality of his pictures in the foreground. though obviously uncivilized and unforgivably different from Europeans. Hodges utilized both linear and atmospheric perspective  The figures in the foreground have clear outlines and vivid colors. Hodges focused on the relationship between the two groups  The Tahitian ships create a “V” with the European ships at the point  This arrangement brings the viewer’s focus onto the European presence  The sailors. Hodges slightly manipulated the scale  In reality. Hodges replaces the ships in the background with Tahitian war galleys  HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’ consequently appears much less threatening  Hodges also includes the peaceful European The War Boats of the Island of Tahiti settlement of Point Venus in his painting by William Hodges  The small white tent in the left background represents Point Venus  Creation  Hodges used documentary sketches he made on his voyage to create this large-scale painting  His painting is not entirely accurate.Art Power Guide | 139 The Tahitians. Tahitian men in boats go about their daily activities  Though we see no Europeans interacting with Tahitians in this painting. no viewer could see both Mount Orofena and the shoreline at the same time  Mount Orofena is Tahiti’s highest peak and the tallest mountain in the painting  To create a realistic sense of perspective. while the background figures are much fainter and less clearly delineated  History  James Cook’s expedition reached the northern coast of Tahiti in August 1773  There. on the deck and in small boats around the ships. have anchored the ships and raised the sails to dry in the sun  Hodges creates the impression that Matavi Bay is welcoming and the European presence is peaceful  In a different painting of the bay. Hodges includes several spontaneous elements in the painting 93.

Art Power Guide | 140  Hodges’ assignment on the voyage was to document everything the expedition encountered He accurately documents life in the Matavi bay  He depicts everything with rich detail. documentation and exploration are the first steps of imperialism and lead to eventual ownership  . from the volcanic mountains in the background to the Tahitians making boats  HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’ idealize an exotic paradise and begins the process of ownership of the new land  Though the British wielded very little power in Tahiti during this time.

M.W.M. eventually becoming a full member Self portrait of Joseph Mallord William in 1802 at the remarkable age of 27 Turner  Career  During his life. Turner painted a politically charged criticism of the brutality of the slave trade. 1840 POWER PREVIEW In a time of passionate abolitionists and blatant cruelty toward slaves. His painting is based off a story of a slave ship captain who tossed dead and dying slaves overboard in order to collect more insurance money. Turner traveled to many parts of Europe   Scotland France Switzerland Venice While traveling. he brought drama to calm landscapes  USAD slips back and forth between the correct spelling and the name of a duck. he studied the works of great 17th century landscape painters such as Claude Lorrain and Jacob van Ruisdael  The landscapes he observed while traveling and the landscapes of his native country greatly inspired his art  Turner’s landscapes were remarkable in that he painted them on an extremely large scale  Previously. Turner enjoyed depicting dramatic landscape scenes such as shipwrecks or fires  In addition. however. in 1790.W. he enrolled in classes at the Royal Academy in London  When he was only 15. J. help you remember his name.Art Power Guide | 141 SLAVE SHIP JOSEPH MALLORD WILLIAM TURNER. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. This slip up should. 95 . The artist’s name is Joseph Mallord William Turner. only history paintings featured this scale  As a painter. Turner was born in London in 1775  Turner obtained a high-quality formal art education at a young age  At the age of 14. Turner exhibited his first watercolor painting  This accomplishment was extraordinary for one so young  Turner became a great success in the Royal Academy. 12 to 13 questions should come from Section IV  12 questions (24%) come from Section IV on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 80 through 82 of the USAD Art Resource Joseph Mallord95 William Turner  Early life  J.

M.Hannibal Crossing the Alps (Turner Collection. London. this painting is sublime  In both of these paintings. Turner Hannibal  In 218 B.Art Power Guide | 142  His landscapes were picturesque and sublime     The word sublime. Turner chose the landscape as the main subject with the human subjects secondary Snow Storm-Hannibal Crossing the Alps When painting. describes a situation of two opposing emotions  For example. picturesque landscape  Also. 1815) depicts ancient Roman history in a monumental.W.W. a dramatic thunderstorm evokes the sublime emotions of awe and fear  Any painting depicting the power of nature dominating humans is sublime Some of his landscapes reference history and politics  For example. in the old sense. Turner reduced landscapes to their essential elements and became a forerunner of the Impressionist movement His landscapes transcend time or space  In contrast.C. a viewer of a horror film feels both thrilling excitement and terror  Similarly. Turner  He applied very loose brushstrokes. 1812) illustrates a struggle for the ancient Roman military leader. Turner focused on color by J. Snow Storm . Dido Building Carthage (National Gallery. the Impressionist Claude Monet painted very familiar and recognizable subjects such as the façade of a cathedral  Monet focused on the effect of changes of light in different seasons and different times of the day Turner died in 1851  . Dido Building Carthage by J. a snow storm caught Hannibal and his troops in the mountains  Dark clouds envelop the sun over an ominous landscape  As a depiction of the power of nature dominating humans.E.M.. London. contrasting undefined areas of color  These colors form a landscape when the viewer perceives them from a distance  In this way.

Turner includes frightening and graphic visual imagery to illustrate his point about the inhumanity of the slave trade  Context  The abolition movement emerged in the 18th and early 19th century  Turner based his painting off an account in Thomas Clarkson’s book. Clarkson describes the Zong Affair of 1781  Captain Luke Collingwood decided to throw over 100 sick and dying slaves overboard  The captain believed that insurance companies would reimburse him for slaves lost at sea but not slaves that died of sickness on board  Unlike the captain in Turner’s painting. overboard  A violent swirl of water.8 x 122.6 cm) animals attacking the drowning slaves.M. Artist: J. An essay on the slavery and commerce of the human species. slave arms reach up. translated from a Latin dissertation to write his book  In his book. particularly the African.W. indicating sea Size: 35 3 4 x 48 1 4 in (90. The History of the Abolition of the Slave Trade (1808)  Clarkson expanded his 1786 treatise. Turner desperate to stay afloat Date: 1840  The captain of the ship tossed these Medium: Oil on canvas slaves. the enormous waves toss Slave Ship: the slave ship mercilessly Vital Stats  In the foreground. chained together.Art Power Guide | 143 Slave Ship  Design  Slave Ship is a very abstract painting with vivid color contrasts  Turner separated the composition into four quarters The horizon line separating the sea and the sky divides the piece horizontally while the setting sun divides it vertically  In the center left. fills the lower right quadrant  This landscape features as one of Turner’s most emotionally evocative pieces  He contrasts sharply between the warm and dark colors  In addition. Luke Collingwood encountered no storms and arrived safely in Jamaica  .

a new society formed  Abolitionists created the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in 1839  This organization strove to abolish slavery throughout the world The British and Foreign AntiSlavery Society held a convention in London in 1840  500 delegates from around the world attended  Thomas Clarkson addressed the gathering and even republished his anti-slavery writings  Turner displayed his support by exhibiting his anti-slavery landscape in the Royal Academy in 1840  His painting graphically The Anti-Slavery Society Convention of 1840 by Benjamin Robert Haydon depicted the murder of slaves in the name of profit Art historian George Landow suggests that Turner included the typhoon in his painting so as to inflict a just punishment on the captain of the slave ship  Mother Nature will claim revenge for the lives of the murdered slaves  . abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire  Despite this new law. were Quakers  The Society focused on passing legislation to outlaw the slave trade and on educating the public about the horrors of the practice In 1807. came very gradually th  The transatlantic slave trade continued through the 19 century  In 1833. when insurers entered a court case against his claims for lost slaves Thomas Clarkson helped found the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade  This group originated in London in 1787  Almost all of the members of the group. except Clarkson.Art Power Guide | 144       The fortunate sailor even died before 1783. however. the British Parliament finally abolished the slave trade  Parliament also took on the responsibility to enforce the ban militarily Success. Parliament passed the Slavery Abolition Act. enforced labor in other forms continued in the British Empire and slave trade and chattel slavery abounded beyond the Empire’s boundaries As a result of this disappointment.

Purple and Rose. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. Whistler slipped easily into the life of a typical Parisian bohemian97 artist  He studied in the studio of Charles Gleyre  Gleyre also mentored several French Impressionist painters 96 I’m not entirely sure how these dates are possible. was born in the United States but moved to Europe for his artistic career. 12 to 13 questions should come from Section IV  12 questions (24%) come from Section IV on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 82 through 84 of the USAD Art Resource James Abbott McNeill Whistler  Early life  James Whistler was born in Massachusetts in 1834  He died in 1903  He spent most of his life abroad  Whistler’s father worked as an engineer  As a result. 97 A bohemian is a person who lives and acts free of regard for conventional rules and practices (www. like Benjamin West.Art Power Guide | 145 PURPLE AND ROSE: THE LANGE LEIZEN OF THE SIX MARKS JAMES ABBOTT MCNEILL WHISTLER. 1864 POWER PREVIEW James Abbott McNeill Whistler. . In his painting.dictionary. Whistler traveled to Russia and England as a boy  He enrolled in art classes in St. out of all the subjects he took. he only Portrait of James Abbott McNeill Whistler excelled in art  Whistler worked briefly as a cartographer before traveling to Paris in 1855  He did not leave Europe for the rest of his life  Career  Once in Paris. Petersburg from 1845 to 1848 and in London from 1847 to 184896  When Whistler was a teenager.com). Whistler references the influence of Chinese art and the trade of tea on the British Empire. Whistler painted radically abstract paintings for the time. As far as I can gather. Whistler’s father stayed in Russia while Whistler traveled with his mother to London in 1847 and 1848. Whistler attended West Point Military Academy  He lacked academic and military talent  In fact. his father died and he and his mother moved back to the United States  For a brief time.

and Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket  He accused Whistler of “flinging a pot of paint in the public’s face” Outraged.. At the time. Whistler became a forerunner of abstraction and a lead proponent of American modernism. Paris. 1862) 98  Arrangement in Grey and Black: The Artist’s Mother (Musée d’Orsay. Arrangement in Grey and Black: The Artist's Mother. Whistler. or falsely speaking against his reputation  98 99 Have you seen the Mr. No. Detroit.C. accusing him of libel. it was extremely radical to paint something so fleeting and seemingly pointless. artists still favored paintings of important historical events  In contrast. With this painting. especially Rembrandt van Rijn  Whistler learned Rembrandt’s skill of creating highly emotional. Bean movie about Whistler’s Mother? Possibly the funniest movie of my childhood. thought that the beautiful yet meaningless fireworks were perfect art subjects. No. 1871) 99  Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (Detroit Institute of Arts. was especially critical   James McNeill Abbott Whistler's Symphony in White. 1874)  The titles of these paintings emphasize a complete lack of meaning  Public viewers responded especially strongly to Nocturne in Black and Gold  Art critic John Ruskin. the art academies of France and England insisted on moral and enlightening art  Also. evocative works with only a limited range of tones  Whistler believed in the idea of “art for art’s sake”  At the time. a supporter of Turner. his paintings capture subtle emotions with color  In order to avoid literal or moralizing interpretations of his work. Whistler copied the works of his favorite artists. Washington D. Whistler believed that the primary purpose of an artist was to create beauty  As a result. .Art Power Guide | 146 In addition.1: The White Girl (National Gallery of Art. however. Whistler sued Ruskin. he befriended Realist painter Gustave Courbet In order to learn painting. Whistler titled his pieces using musical terms  Symphony in White.1: The White Girl. – Sophy Enrichment Fact: Whistler painted his Nocturne in Black and Gold after witnessing a display of fireworks.

1: The White Girl and Symphony in White.Art Power Guide | 147 The trial discussed issues such as the goal of art and the role of the artist in society Whistler won the trial but could not recover his damaged reputation  Whistler incorporated art from the Far East in his painting  He greatly admired the art of the Chinese.3 x woman surrounded by porcelain objects 87. a tray. No. Japanese art strongly of the Six Marks influenced the Impressionist style Vital Stats   Artist: James Abbott McNeill Whistler Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks Date: 1864 Medium: Oil on canvas  Design Size: image: 36 3 4 x 24 18 in (93. Hiffernan sits. Whistler’s mistress in the 1860s.2: The Little White into a tight bun. imitating Chinese fashions Girl by James Whistler  An assortment of Chinese objects surrounds the central figure  Various blue and white porcelain pieces appear as if they are on display in a shop  These objects include a tea cup. No. and a large ginger jar  A painted fan with a design of a crane rests behind the tea cup . posing for some of his works as well  In the picture. especially porcelain  The porcelain objects in Whistler’s paintings were highly valuable collectables  Later. Japanese woodprints fascinated French Impressionists  Great artists such as Claude Monet and Vincent van Gogh collected hundreds of prints Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen  As a result. Hiffernan holds a brush.2: The Little White Girl (Tate Gallery. relaxed and casual  Her body makes a diagonal line from the lower left to upper right corners  She wears a Chinese brocade robe covered in peach and rose-colored flowers  The lower section and trim of the robe are dark purple  The coloring of the robe inspired the Philadelphia Museum of Art’s name for the work: Purple and Rose  In her right hand.3 x 61. London. modeled for this painting  Hiffernan modeled for other works by Whistler including Symphony in White. in the 1870s. 1864-1865)  Hiffernan also had a relationship with Gustave Courbet.3 cm)  Purple and Rose is a small painting of a framed: 46 916 x 34 3 8 x 2 3 4 in (118. raised and poised as if to paint the blue and white porcelain she holds in her left  She wears makeup and has pulled her hair back Symphony in White. No.3 x 7 cm)  Joanna Hiffernan.

European designers imitated Chinese motifs and styles in their work  100 Romita Ray is an assistant professor of art history at Syracuse University in New York. Chinese porcelains. over 90% of the tea in Britain originated in China  In fact. like the objects in the painting. . She specializes in the visual history of tea consumption in Britain and the colonies. Britain even battled with Holland over control of Chinese tea exports  The Chinese first produced blue and white porcelain. furniture. the Chinese exported these objects to Europe  As a result.Art Power Guide | 148  Several Chinese brushes lie on the table behind the central figure  The background of the painting is simple and mostly beige and brown This coloration accentuates both the figure and the imported objects  The obsession with porcelain  Porcelain objects in Purple and Rose likely came from Whistler’s own collection  Whistler. fabrics. as a patron to many shops of Chinese imports. and other decorative items were available in department stores and specialty shops  Middle and upper class citizens especially enjoyed these objects  The obsession of Chinese porcelains primarily stemmed from the of tea consumption in first half of the 19th century 100  Romita Ray points out that tea was exotic and foreign before but in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. access to tea imports partly inspired Britain’s imperialistic exploits in India. China. was an avid collector  He especially favored the Oxford and Sloan Street shops owned by dealer Murray Marks  During this time period. tea became the national beverage of Britain  When Whistler created his painting. and other parts of East Asia  In addition. in the 14th century  By the 17th century.

viewers of the painting would notice the tea and the possible reference to British trade with India and China  . the Dutch created the Lange Leizen design  The pattern shows delicate. Hiffernan holds a porcelain piece which features a Lange Leizen design  With the inclusion of this Dutch imitation of Chinese art. Whistler references the conflict between Great Britain and Holland over Chinese tea exports  The “six marks” in the title of Purple and Rose refers to a special Chinese character which verifies the authenticity of a porcelain piece  The viewer cannot really determine if Whistler hid political significances in his painting  Whistler himself insisted that the meanings in his paintings lie in the arrangement of colors and forms  He often denied the presence of any deeper meaning  Nevertheless. willowy Chinese women  Lange. means “long”  Whistler called this pattern Long Eliza  In Purple and Rose.Art Power Guide | 149 For example. in Dutch.

even documentary. Lewis traveled to Spain from 1832 to 1834. the Turks. POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. Notes of a Journey from Cornhill to Grand Cairo (1846) Lilium Auratum by John Frederick Lewis  Thackery proclaimed that Lewis had taken on the lifestyle of an Ottoman pasha. or governor  The artist even dressed in Muslim clothing  During this time. lived in Cairo from 1841 to 1851  Novelist William Makepeace Thackery documented Lewis’s time in Cairo in his book. then to Greece and Turkey. and finally to Cairo101  Lewis immersed himself completely into the Egyptian culture and. adopting the lifestyle of a wealthy Turkish man. a future addition to the British Empire. ruled Egypt  The account of Lewis’s native behavior fascinated the British 101 Because these places are so far “East”… . 12 to 13 questions should come from Section IV  12 questions (24%) come from Section IV on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 84 through 86 of the USAD Art Resource John Frederick Lewis  Life  John Frederick Lewis was born in London in 1805  His father worked as an engraver and landscape painter  Lewis’s uncle George Robert was also a painter  Lewis spent much of his adult life traveling and working abroad  Fascinated by the East. hopefully. living in Cairo and maintaining the lifestyle of a wealthy Turkish man for a decade. under the Ottoman Empire. His paintings were also extremely interesting to a British audience who viewed Egypt as.Art Power Guide | 150 A LADY RECEIVING VISITORS (THE RECEPTION) JOHN FREDERICK LEWIS. Lewis’ paintings of Egypt and the Ottoman Empire were highly reliable. As one who “lived it”. 1873 POWER PREVIEW John Frederick Lewis was born in London but spent much of his life abroad.

especially the idea of harems  A picture of Lewis in Turkish Muslim clothing circulated throughout England  His reputation as an “authentic” Muslim lent his art a legitimacy for his British audience  His audience thought of his paintings as documentary rather than fictional  Once he returned to England in 1851. blue. a woman sits with a gazelle  Both look at the lady in the center as well  Sunlight filters through the elaborate wooden screens and glass windows on the walls.5 x 76. cushioned seat without arms or back which is usually placed against a wall. the lady stares off peacefully into space  A female servant stands above her. servants stand.Art Power Guide | 151 The Romantics were obsessed with everything exotic about Eastern culture. a lady lounges on an upholstered divan102  She wears vivid and elegant clothing  Undisturbed by the arrival of a visitor implied by the title. holding a large fan  The servant looks out at the viewer as if noticing the arrival of a visitor  Two separate. creating beautiful shadows  In the foreground lies a pool. he produced over 600 watercolors and drawings  He utilized these sketches in London to construct large-scale oil paintings of his exotic life.2 cm) of a complex interior space with a high ceiling  In the center of the main chamber. Lewis used his experiences in his travels as inspiration for his painting for the rest of his life  While in Cairo. . especially intimate interiors of mosques and harems  The high level of detail in these paintings convinced British audiences that they were accurate and documentary  Lewis’s images of the East contributed to the Western Orientalist perception of the East  Western Orientalists imitated the culture and art of the East A Lady Receiving Visitors (The Reception)  Lewis became a member of the Royal Vital Stats Academy in 1865 and died in 1876  Artist: John Frederick Lewis A Lady Receiving Visitors (The Reception) Date: 1873 Medium: Oil on panel  Design  This painting is a highly detailed depiction Size: 25 x 30 in (63. recessed chambers lie on either side of the main chamber  On the left side. Basically it’s a big pillow. sunken into the floor  Tiles of gold. and red decorate the pool  The pool shows the lady’s reflection  This painting is highly detailed and looks almost like a photograph  The brushstrokes are practically invisible  The colors are bright and vivid and the one-point perspective is very convincing 102 A divan is a long. looking expectantly at the lady in the center  On the right side.

in the 19th century  Egypt would provide an ideal trade route  Without this route. Muhammed Ali. waiting to receive guests  Traditionally only men could be in the mandarah  Lewis. the treatment of women concerned the British Empire and. Lewis displayed an accurate relationship between the lady of the house and her many servants  The inclusion of a gazelle in the picture is also period-accurate  Gazelles were very common pets in upper-class Egyptian homes  These animals represented female beauty  One inaccuracy. and the Ottoman Empire were all vying for control of North Africa.Art Power Guide | 152  Historical context  Emily Weeks103 analyzed this painting in detail  The clothing. consultant. so British interest in gaining control over Egypt similarly increased th  In the late 18 century. and museum curator. Europeans would have to travel all the way around Africa to get to India th  British interest in trading with India increased in the 19 century. or mandarah. England. took control and drove out the British  Needless to say. . partially excused intervention in the region  Of course. in 1805. certainly would have known this and must have inserted this inaccuracy purposefully  Perhaps he reversed the social norm to make a statement about the treatment of women in the Ottoman Empire  Indeed. however. in the British mindset. though. after living in Cairo for so long. specifically Egypt. She lived in Egypt and even wrote a book entitled Cultures Crossed: John Frederick Lewis and the Art of Orientalist Painting. France. lies in the situation the painting depicts  A lady would not sit in the front of the house. the British and the Ottoman Empire were not on good terms for awhile  By the time Lewis traveled to the Ottoman Empire. furnishings. Napoleon attacked North Africa  England allied with the Ottoman Empire and drove the French out  Then. the Ottoman leader. and arrangement of the interior are all accurate to the time period  In addition. the relationship between the two countries had improved 103 Emily Weeks is an art historian.

the French built the Suez Canal  This canal provided water access to important trade routes. controlling more of the area than France  Despite this European debate over Egypt. faced with high debts and bankruptcy of the treasury. helping France economically  By the 1870s. though. Egypt was a region of extremely high interest to Lewis’s British audience  .Art Power Guide | 153 In fact. however. surrendered control of Egypt to the British Empire  Lewis painted and exhibited A Lady Receiving Visitors in 1873  Great Britain had not yet gained control over Egypt but the French had already built the Suez Canal  At the time. Great Britain soon became very interested in trade with Egypt  The American Civil War in the 1860s forced Great Britain to look somewhere besides the American southern states for cotton imports  Egypt now not only provided an ideal strategic location but also valuable cotton supplies  The French also wished to gain control over Egypt  In 1869. Great Britain had the largest portion of shares in the canal. the Ottoman Empire held the upper hand until 1882 Inauguration of the Suez Canal  In this year the Ottoman Empire.

he studied at Wimbledon College in London  When he was 19. His work. 12 to 13 questions should come from Section IV  12 questions (24%) come from Section IV on the USAD Art Practice Test  This section covers pages 86 through 89 of the USAD Art Resource Yinka Shonibare  Life  Yinka Shonibare was born in 1962 in London to Nigerian parents  His father studied law in London  When Yinka turned three. Shonibare proceeded to recover and. Nigeria had already gained independence from Great Britain Nelson's Ship in a Bottle by Yinka Shonibare  The family spent most of their summer breaks in London. a teacher asked Shonibare why he did not create “authentic African art”  This confrontation caused Shonibare to question the meaning of African identity and authenticity  Finally. eventually. leaves the responsibility to the viewer to question the British Empire and determine its flaws. his family moved back to Nigeria  He spent most of his childhood in Lagos. post-colonial artist who. Shonibare attended a boarding school in England  Next. Shonibare attended Goldsmiths College in London . POWER NOTES  According to the USAD outline. addresses issues with cross-cultural identity and flaws in the British Empire. the capital city  By this time. in his art. 2008 POWER PREVIEW Yinka Shonibare is a contemporary.Art Power Guide | 154 THE SLEEP OF REASON PRODUCES MONSTERS (ASIA) YINKA SHONIBARE. The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters. so Shonibare experienced a very multicultural upbringing  During his late teens. MBE. however. walk again  He still struggles to overcome partial paralysis  Some of his artwork addresses this challenge  Shonibare studied at Brym Shaw School of Art in London from 1984 to 1989  Once while studying there. an inflammation of the spinal cord  After receiving a grim prognosis. Shonibare suffered paralysis from transverse myelitis.

though especially controversial in the United States. some groups promote the replacement of Dutch wax cloth with locally produced textiles  These groups hope to reduce dependence on foreign imports  Dutch wax cloth stands in the midst of complicated trade relations and heavily affects the West African economy  Shonibare chose to work with Dutch wax cloth because he feels that the cloth represents cultural hybridity  He purchases his cloth from London’s Brixton Market  In his early work. Sydney (2008). brought Shonibare to the attention of Europeans and Americans  Shonibare’s importance in the art world increased in the 1990s and early 21st century  In 2004 he received a nomination for the prestigious Turner Prize. Shonibare spread the cloth like a canvas and painted directly on top  Later he used the cloth as a sculpting material  Most commonly. Holland. or Member of the Order of the British Empire. is slightly ironic  The Empire awarded him the title in 2005  Shonibare is a conceptual artist. meaning he relies on sculptors. resist-dyed cloth to sell in Indonesian markets  When the Dutch wax cloths did not sell in Indonesia. he is both British and Nigerian  His artwork seeks to address issues of cross-cultural identity and the faults of imperialism  Thus his title of MBE. and filmmakers to bring his ideas to life  In his art. costume makers.Art Power Guide | 155  He earned a Master of Fine Arts degree  Afterward he became associated with the group called Young British Artists (YBAs) Many of these artists also graduated from Goldsmiths  The YBAs exhibited their work in a 1997 show called Sensation  The British art collector Charles Saatchi organized the show  The exhibition.M. named after J. the Brooklyn Museum (2009). the traders took the cloths to Africa’s Gold Coast  Since then. Africa. he reconstructed famous European paintings in three dimensions with headless dummies wearing wax cloth  . Shonibare works with Dutch wax cloth th  19 -century Dutch traders designed factory-produced. Dutch wax cloth has become a symbol of African identity  The elaborate patterns on the cloth mean different things throughout Africa and even serve as a form of communication  Today. Turner  Every year. the Turner Prize goes to one British artist under 50 years of age  After his nomination. and China all produce Dutch wax cloth  European wax cloth is the most expensive and the most valuable variety  Chinese wax cloth is much cheaper than any African-produced textile  In Africa. Shonibare received solo exhibitions in the Museum of Contemporary Art. England. photographers.W. and the National Museum for African Art (2009-2010)  Art  Though Shonibare lives and works in London today.

Shonibare creates Size: image: 72 x 49.5 x 58 x 2. alert and watchful. aristocratic.5 in photographs and film framed: 81. a Spanish painter and printmaker. Shonibare has based artworks off the work of famous British artists like William Hogarth and Thomas Gainsborough  The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (Asia)  Origin  In his piece.Art Power Guide | 156 For example. has the exact same name as Shonibare’s artwork: The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters. MBE piece and to assert his own Date: 2008 control over the subject Medium: C-print mounted on aluminum  Along with sculpture. however. meaning The Caprices or The Follies  Goya produced this particular etching between 1796 and 1798  The etching depicts a man asleep on a desk.5 in  All of his art borrows from the past and resets the imagery in a new context  In addition to Fragonard. standing on the table. Shonibare quotes The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters104  Francisco Goya (1746-1828). . his head in his arms  The man could either be the artist himself or a representation of the creative mind  The desk on which the man rests displays the writing “the sleep of reason produces monsters”  Threatening owls and bats surround the man  Goya's The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters These creatures symbolize ignorance and superstition  One owl. Shonibare based The Swing (after Fragonard) (2001) on the famous painting by French Rococo artist Jean Honoré Fragonard  Shonibare replaced the central figure with a headless dummy and the figure’s fashionable. created this famous print in the late 18th century  The Sleep of Reason is one of a set of 80 etchings in a folio called Los Caprichos. Goya’s piece. lies behind the figure’s chair  Art historians are not sure what exactly Goya meant by his print 104 USAD says Francisco Goya produced a print entitled The Sleep of Reason Produces Nightmares. 18th The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters: century dress with Dutch wax cloth Vital Stats  The artist uses headless figures to lend a timelessness to the Artist: Yinka Shonibare. pokes the main figure with a pen as if to wake him  A lynx.

and Europe  The varying ages. Africa. the only things that change are the nationality and dress of the central figure and the continent in the inscription on the desk  In this particular image. Australia. full color photographs and looks three dimensional  Another difference lies in Shonibare’s choice of clothing for his main figure  Shonibare mimicked Goya’s style but created his clothing out of Dutch wax cloth  Also. used his work to criticize the path society was taking Shonibare could have chosen Goya to quote because of his own role as social critic  Design  Shonibare created almost an exact replica of Goya’s print. but with a few differences  His work consists of large scale. Shonibare references Asia. as an artist during the Enlightenment. ethnicities. the writing reads “The sleep of reason produces monsters in Asia?”  Shonibare’s work is part of a set  In each different image. America. however. the central figure is bald and African  The inscription on the desk is in French and references Asia  The different figures throughout the set range from young to old and include many ethnicities  For example. and continents all reference the complex and far-reaching networks as well as influences of the British Empire  Shonibare’s work leaves the viewer with a plethora of unanswered questions  Instead. the artist leaves the unresolved issues as a responsibility for the viewer to question history and find the answers . that Goya. the inscription on the desk is slightly altered  In this image. one image includes a white-haired Caucasian man  Throughout the set.Art Power Guide | 157   They do know.

57 – 59. sculpture. gained popularity in Baroque and Renaissance art  The Protestant Reformation and other socioeconomic changes encouraged a secular mindset  Renaissance artists contributed linear perspective and naturalism while their Baroque successors fashioned more dramatic and dynamic artworks  Rococo art relied on a powerful aristocracy in France before the Revolution of 1789  Neoclassicism reacted to Rococo art and the revolution’s political as well as social forces  Afterwards. Impressionism. painting. shape and form. These reviews often bring to light new comprehensive facts not listed in the actual section. Greece. the Aegean islands. Test questions refer to descriptions mentioned only in the section summaries. Romanticism rose up against the classicism of this style  Romantic artworks attempt to kindle the emotions and senses  The late 19th century witnessed Realism. Egypt. Nubia. 41. color. Like the introduction. and architecture  Western art history  Art historians often study western art chronologically. economic. 71 – 73. folk art. photography. and composition  Various documents and sources allow formal and contextual analysis  Art history extends to many different mediums: printmaking. perspective. beginning with prehistoric cave paintings in southeastern France and continuing through contemporary art  Early cultures significant in art history include those of Mesopotamia.Art Power Guide | 158 SECTION SUMMARIES AND CONCLUSION POWER PREVIEW Section summaries recap the major points of each section. Post-Impressionism. texture. performance art. mixed media. and 89 – 91 of the USAD Art Resource  The Conclusion covers pg. and cultural context  Recreating historical context permits an understanding of this artwork’s function and meaning  Art history also explores an artwork’s formal qualities of line.42. which continued through the Renaissance and Baroque eras  Secular artworks. and the PreRaphaelites develop as artistic movements  Realism and Impressionism both explored everyday life . the conclusion is not testable. however. POWER NOTES  The Section Summaries cover pgs. crafts. 92 of the USAD Art Resource Section I Summary  The study of art history  The academic field of art history recreates an artwork’s social. and Rome  Only durable and well-sheltered artworks survive from ancient history  Christianity rose to prominence in medieval art  The church’s art patronage empowered this trend.

performance art. and environmental art revolutionized the definition of art  Nonwestern art history  Early art historians studied art from different regions separately.Art Power Guide | 159  Impressionism. the abolishment of the slave trade inspired Europeans to rule Africa directly  The colonial era began  Colonialism affected African culture. and Photorealism  Postmodernism. Minimalism. a foremost world religion. however. beginning a centuries long conflict with other European powers over control of markets and resources in the area  The Europeans traded luxury goods to the large coastal kingdoms in return for slaves and other resources  This access to trade strengthened the already powerful coastal kingdoms  In the 1880s. and Japan produced political and religious art. resulting in artistic traditions that have survived to the present  Africa and Oceania’s early cultures also developed long-standing artistic traditions  Primarily utilitarian African and Oceanic art differs from aesthetic Western art  Islam. tuned in to visual ideas  A group of movements known as modernism rocked early 20th-century art Cubism Expressionism Dada Surrealism Abstract Expressionism Key modernist styles  In 1913. however. India. New York’s Armory Show introduced progressive art to America and elevated the United States to prominence in the art world  Post-World War II industrialization inspired Pop Art. dictated a non-figurative style  Archaeology directs studies of society and art in the early Americas Section II Summary  Europeans in West Africa  In the 15th century. the Portuguese landed on the African continent  The explorers settled in the coastal area of Western Africa. note the increasingly interconnected nature of art worldwide  The major ancient Asian civilizations of China. reducing Western art to an Eurocentric perspective  Modern art historians. especially art and government  New imported materials became part of new artistic traditions  European rulers wreaked havoc on existing African governments  Prestige art that asserted royalty either faded out of tradition or became even more important with this challenge to native rule  Contemporary African art  The best markets for art are located in Europe and the United States  Consequently. contemporary African artists face challenging circumstances  African artists choose to respond to the current art world in a variety of ways .

these artists adapt their work by incorporating newly available materials  Sapi-Portuguese.E. activists debate if these works should be returned to their homeland  Plaque reflects the Benin Kingdom artistic style with the highly stylized figures. – Sophy . ivory. and the hierarchy of scale  This work also indicates the Benin expertise with casting metal  Historians do not know the original function of works such as Plaque. some African artists create traditional. especially since the British removed these pieces from their historical context  Kweku Kakanu. No joke. and coral  Eventually the European presence harmed the Benin art tradition  In 1897. Nigeria. Ghana. the Asafo groups commission local artists to create flags called frankaa  These detailed and symbolic works of art serve as communication between Asafo organizations   105 I had to read the book Salt by Mark Kurlansky for Robert Layne’s World History class and craved salt the entire time. play important roles in Fante society  Since the Fante no longer wage war with their neighbors. Then I went to my kitchen and ate a pinch of salt. Benin Kingdom Court Style. the most favored collector items were based on European prototypes  Native Africans produced saltcellars as references to African culture and traditions  In European hands. the symmetrical layout. the kingdom had grown to a thriving political state  Expanding through warfare. Fante Peoples. Lidded Saltcellar (15th – 16th century)  An African artist produced Lidded Saltcellar for a Portuguese visitor in the 15th or 16th century  Portuguese explorers often purchased ivory carvings as gifts for their patrons  This piece represents the early collaboration between Europeans and Africans  Lidded Saltcellar consists of carved ivory with abstract designs and figurative motifs  The motifs held a different meaning for the European purchaser and the Sapi carver  The Sapi artist likely based his piece off a European cast metal cup  This model would have been available to the artist in sketches or prints  Typically. th th  By the late 13 or early 14 century. functional artwork  Often. called Asafo groups. the British colonized this area  Military organizations. the British attacked the Benin Kingdom. Asafo Flag (1935)  The Fante cultural group lives in the coastal region of Ghana  Eventually. Sierra Leone.Art Power Guide | 160 Some artists abandon African materials and themes in favor of European alternatives Others adopt materials and techniques as a form of critique of society  Finally. contemporary Asafo groups organize community events  Traditionally. confiscating many artworks  Today. the kingdom became a powerful trade partner when the Portuguese arrived in the 15th century  The Benin Kingdom produced a variety of artworks for use in rituals and on altars  The most valuable artworks consisted of cast metals. they became luxury goods and containers for the much desired import salt105  Edo Peoples. Plaque (mid-16th – 17th century)  The Benin Kingdom began in present-day Nigeria around 900 C.

Ghana men weave kente cloth for royalty  . Côte d’Ivoire. while the upper section represents imported and more modern views  The upper section of Face Mask consists of an imported representation of Mami Wata  German lithographic copies of an East Indian snake charmer inspired the depiction  El Anatsui. Face Mask (mid 20th century)  The Guro Peoples live in the coastal region of Côte d’Ivoire  Like other groups in the area.  The kingdom lost power and influence with the beginning of British colonial rule  Traditionally. multicolored cloth replaced adire  Wrapper contains a very elaborate. Wrapper (mid-20th century)  The powerful Yoruba group has lived in western Nigeria since 350 B. imported. Ghana. in 1910  His career peaked in the 1930s and 1940s  To create Asafo Flag. the Guro peoples are particularly famous for their masquerade tradition  Masquerades affirm social status  Consequently. factory-produced. Ghanaian. Yoruba women produce a utilitarian cloth called adire  This tie-dyed cloth serves as clothing for common people  Adire reached its peak in popularity in the colonial period when artists began to fashion imported materials th  By the mid-20 century. Fading Cloth (2005)  El Anatsui was born in 1944 in Ghana  He currently lives and works in Nigeria. inspired by their silver jubilee image of 1935  Guro Peoples. producing works that comment on issues in postcolonial Africa  Recently.C. depending on how they are hung. most Guro artwork centers on the ever-important masquerades  Face Mask includes two sections carved from one piece of wood  The lower section illustrates Guro ideals of beauty. figurative depiction of King George V and Queen Mary of England.Art Power Guide | 161 Contemporary flags function not only as communication but also as emblems of an Asafo group’s history and identity  Kweku Kakanu created Asafo Flag in 1935  Kakanu was born in Mankassim. they refer to traditional Fante proverbs  Yoruba Peoples.E. Kakanu sewed symbols on a background flag using appliqué  A crocodile looms next to a pond of fish surrounded by four birds  The British Union Jack flies above the crocodile  These symbols do not form a narrative  Rather. El Anatsui has been creating wall hangings  He flattens discarded metal cans and bottle caps and weaves them together with copper wire  These hangings look like colorful textiles and. Nigeria. reflect light off the flattened metal  Anatsui’s wall hangings reference kente cloth  Traditionally.

1739 – 1743)  In the 18th century. A Common Indian Nightjar (Caprimulgus asiaticus) (18th century)  Company School paintings are works Indian artists produced for European patrons in the 18th and 19th centuries  Many of the European patrons were part of the East India Company  In India. people. birds. aristocrats in Staffordshire. the hanging is a beautiful. called kaolin. and landscapes th th  In fact. and other luxury goods  China. radiant textile  A closer look. England. this style is called kampani kalam  Company School artists had a lot of experience painting for the Mughal court  They often painted in the style of Indian miniature painting  Company School paintings are usually documentary  They record interesting aspects of Indian life such as flowers.Art Power Guide | 162 Adire •Woven by Yoruba women •Tie-dyed cloth intended for the common people Kente •Woven by Ghanaian men •Illustrious cloth intended for royalty   By connecting his work to African tradition. fruits. reveals a commentary on the history and impact of imperialism Section III Summary  Commodities and Trade  The Age of Empire focused largely on access to and control over commodities and trade  Great Britain imported tea. however. works of art. Anatsui comments on the relationship between Europe and Africa His work contains many possible meanings  At first glance. hard-paste porcelain remained scarce  India. trees. with pulverized feldspathic rock to form the ceramic-like porcelain  Even after Europeans discovered the method. architecture. animals. Plate (18th century. spices. commissioned the set  The Okeover and Nichol coats of arms form the central motif of this highly decorated porcelain plate  Plate combines Chinese artistry with European design  The creation of hard-paste porcelain remained a mystery known only by the Chinese until the early 18th century  Artisans mix a very fine white clay. artisans in southern China produced Plate as part of a set of 50 plates and four dishes  Leake Okeover (1702 – 1765) and his wife Mary Nichol. these paintings are essentially 18 and 19 century photographs .

Revere was most famous for his skills as a silversmith  The portrait commemorates his talent in metalsmithing and presents a political commentary  Revere. For now.Art Power Guide | 163 As a result. seeking larger career options  Paul Revere embarked on his “midnight ride” in 1775  When he sat for his portrait in 1768. when photography emerged in India in the mid-19th century. was very controversial at the time  Architecture and power  The British Empire used architecture to support colonial rule throughout the colonies  Most examples of this kind of architecture originate from the Victorian Era  Imperial architecture can include churches. and private homes  Most colonial architecture combined local traditions with Gothic and Classical elements  Pointed arches and large windows were especially popular  Frederick William Stevens. train stations. administrative or government buildings. Revere kept his political affiliations as an American patriot open and obvious  Revere’s portrait contains a teapot which possibly portrays a political message  Trade. the station received the name “Victoria Terminus Building” in honor of the jubilee of Queen Victoria  Stevens also constructed many other buildings in Mumbai  106 There is a frustrating inconsistency between this date and the earlier date USAD provided for the completion of the station. libraries. Copley moved to England. I will attempt to refrain from this fact. I hope USAD issues a correction for this soon. joined the Sons of Liberty in 1765  He also made his first political print in this year  Unlike most of the other members of the Sons of Liberty. who was active in church and politics. the building opened in 1887 but was finally completed in 1888. Company School paintings became less popular  Many explorers of new lands seek to document their experiences  This tendency stems not only from a scientific desire for documentation but also from a colonial mindset  Having images of something is a way of asserting control over that thing  John Singleton Copley. commercial buildings. Mumbai. Victoria Terminus Building (Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus) (1860s – 1870s)  The Victoria Terminus Building served as the main railway station in Bombay  Since construction. Paul Revere (1768)  John Singleton Copley (1738 -1815) painted portraits in North America during the colonial period  Just before American independence. especially the trade of tea between Britain and the colonies. . From what I can gather. the name of the building has changed to Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus. while the name of the city has become Mumbai  Both of these name changes were extremely political  Frederick William Stevens began designing the Victoria Terminus Building in 1877 106  Construction began in 1878 and ended in 1888 In that same year. but otherwise will expect this later number.

Georgetown. George’s Cathedral. the building held the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition. lies on the northern coast of South America  Originally. 1894  Guyana’s capital city. which helps the building to visually fit in with the surrounding buildings  Blomfield adapted European styles and ideals into a Caribbean setting  The Anglican church was central to British colonial rule  This relationship is evident in the experienced architect commissioned to build the church and the prominent placement of the church in the city Section IV Summary  Europe envisions the empire  During the Age of Empire. George’s Cathedral is one of the tallest wooden churches in the world at 143 feet high  The church consists entirely of wood. designed the Royal Exhibition Building  To create the building’s cruciform design. British artists often created art. St. 1894  St. Penn’s Treaty with the Indians (1771 – 1772)  Benjamin West was born in colonial Pennsylvania  He moved to England. celebrated one hundred years of European settlement in Australia  Right after Australia became a commonwealth in 1901. imagining the people and lands under British colonial rule  These artworks were often very romanticized. George’s Cathedral in 1888  This church replaced a line of previous churches in the area  Construction began in 1889 and the building was consecrated on November 8. Georgetown. Reed incorporated elements from churches and Gothic as well as Classical influences  The city of Melbourne intended the building to embody European ideals of progress  The building first housed the Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880 through 1881 th  A series of international exhibitions began in the 19 century  Each fair lasted several months and attracted much international attention  In 1888. endorsing the idea of a “noble savage”  Other artists created works critiquing imperialism  Benjamin West. Melbourne. Guyana.Art Power Guide | 164  His architecture integrates traditional Indian styles with Gothic influences  As a highly visible building in Bombay. Reed and Barnes. the Parliament of Australia opened in the Royal Exhibition Building  Arthur Blomfield. the Arawak and Carib Native American groups lived there  European countries fought for control over the area until finally the British seized control of the colony and named it British Guiana in 1814  Arthur Blomfield designed the Anglican St. where he created history paintings  Penn’s Treaty with the Indians is unique in that the painting depicts a relatively recent event from North American history . Royal Exhibition Building (1880)  Joseph Reed (1823? – 1890) and his firm. the Victoria Terminus Building functioned not only as a tourist attraction but also as a symbol of colonial rule  Joseph Reed.

historic paintings like Penn’s Treaty defined authority and identity in the First British Empire. Typhoon Coming On)107 depicts a slave ship in a storm at sea  A number of slaves drown in the water and are eaten by fish and sharks  With vivid contrasts between the bright sun and the dark water. Turner. the founder of Pennsylvania and a Quaker. Penn’s son.W. a successful British painter. a British artist. traveled with James Cook on his second expedition to the Pacific (1772 – 1775)  Hodges worked as the draughtsman  When he returned to London. and nature all coexist peacefully  HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’ with Fishing Craft in Matavi Bay is an idealized. just in case you can’t tell what’s going on in the painting… . large-scale landscape painting of a protected bay along the northern coast of Tahiti  James Cook’s expedition reached this bay in August 1773  Hodges created sketches while at this location and later used these drawings to create the painting  Hodges’ paintings served as accurate documentation and paintings of idealized exotic paradises for his audience  Also. natives.M. Typhoon Coming On) (1840)  Contemporaries recognized J. Hodges created large-scale paintings from his sketches from the trip  His idyllic large-scale landscape paintings appealed to a public eager to witness more exotic. William Penn offers Native Americans payment in exchange for land rights  This legendary meeting probably occurred in 1682 or 1683  In contrast. Thomas Penn.Art Power Guide | 165  Nearly 100 years after William Penn’s legendary treaty with the Indians. Europeans. commissioned the painting  William Penn. painting pictures of new lands is a preliminary step toward colonial ownership  Joseph Mallord William Turner. HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’ with Fishing Craft in Matavi Bay (1776)  William Hodges. especially in North America  William Hodges. Thomas Penn received recognition for unkind treatment of Native Americans  He likely commissioned the painting to remind the public of his own virtuous and praiseworthy heritage  In this way. primarily for his revolutionary historical and landscape paintings  Slave Ship (Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and the Dying. received recognition for his equitable and positive relationship with the Native Americans  In the painting. yet familiar colonial lands  In his paintings. Slave Ship is highly emotional  Turner portrays the murder of slaves in the name of profit to comment on the inhumanity of the slave trade 107 I mean. Slave Ship (Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and the Dying.

a central figure sits. especially porcelain  The blue and white porcelain included in his Purple and Rose would have been valuable collectors’ items  As the consumption of Chinese tea increased in the first half of the 19th century. Egypt held great interest for Great Britain  If the British obtained Egypt. the demand for Chinese porcelains escalated as well  In fact. The History of the Abolition of the Slave Trade. the primary goal of art is to create beauty  His paintings capture moods and emotions with subtle color contrasts  Whistler. surrounded by servants  With paintings like this one. access to tea inspired British imperialism in India. he used these sketches to create large-scale paintings  Lewis lived in Egypt before the country became a colony of the British Empire  Nevertheless. Britain and Holland fought over access to Chinese tea imports  Whistler included a Dutch Lange Leizen design on his porcelain to reference this relationship  In Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks. surrounded by a number of Chinese objects  Several of these objects are blue and white porcelain pieces such as a tea cup and large ginger jar  Whistler probably painted his own porcelain objects in this piece  John Frederick Lewis. like many other Europeans. Lewis created hundreds of watercolors and drawings  After his return to England. artists provided British audiences with highly romanticized views of colonial lands  Yinka Shonibare. MBE. Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks (1864)  Whistler was born in Massachusetts but he became an artist in England  He believed in the idea of “art for art’s sake”  According to this belief.Art Power Guide | 166  His work comments on the abolitionist book. and other parts of eastern Asia  In previous centuries. contemporaries considered his paintings of his experience there to be reliable and documentary  While living in Cairo. China. collected Chinese art. they could transport goods directly to India without having to go around Africa  British interests in India also increased in the 19th century  A Lady Receiving Visitors (The Reception) is a highly detailed depiction of the interior space of a lady’s home  The upper-class lady sits in the main chamber of a large room. The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (Asia) (2008)  Yinka Shonibare was born in London to Nigerian parents  He grew up in Nigeria but moved to England to study art  He currently lives and works in London  Shonibare’s art addresses issues of cross-culturalism and imperialism . (1808) by Thomas Clarkson  The piece also shows Turner’s support of the abolitionist cause and the 1840 international anti-slavery convention  James Abbott McNeill Whistler. A Lady Receiving Visitors (The Reception) (1873)  John Frederick Lewis spent a portion of his life in the Middle East  Consequently.

Francisco Goya produced the print. . he challenges the viewer to question history and seek out the flaws in imperialism  Conclusion  The end  The imperialism artworks altogether provide a variety of perspectives on European and especially British colonialism  Just as the British Empire transformed over decades. Shonibare provides the viewer with no answers  Rather.Art Power Guide | 167  He frequently utilizes Dutch wax cloth in his work This cloth originated in Holland and England 108  Today. artworks commenting on the Empire changed  In postcolonial times. many various opinions exist about the true impact and meaning behind imperialism 108 The African diaspora includes every person of sub-Saharan African descent in the western hemisphere. large-scale photographs  Each photograph used a model of a different ethnicity clothed in Dutch wax cloth  Small differences exist between Goya’s print and Shonibare’s replicas  As is frustratingly typical of post-modern artists. the culture both on the African continent and in the African diaspora has adopted the cloth as a symbol of identity  Shonibare also often references historical Western art pieces in his work th  In the late 18 century. the Spanish painter and printmaker. The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters  This print inspired Shonibare’s series of five photographs of the same name  Shonibare created an almost exact copy of Goya’s work with full-color.

50-ton stones. early work of Islamic architecture in Jerusalem Ancient Chinese artwork.E. dates to the New Stone Age. 3. her stubby arms.E. shows the hierarchical scale and fractional representation popular in ancient Egypt Native Americans built these dwellings in the Southwest United States Famed Mesoamerican pyramid in Mexico.E.000 B. built under the first Neo-Sumerian king One of the seven wonders of the ancient world.C. 538 – 330 B. Subsections of Artworks. and People – Artists follow the same order as the USAD guide rather than alphabetical order. or Neolithic Period The Neo-Babylonian Ishtar Gate serves as the entrance to this ziggurat Treasure from the Egyptian boy king’s tomb. composed of gold.000 B. discovered inside the last layer of his sarcophagus. stands on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire. 4 1/8 inches tall.000 miles. most famous megalith. and wood. the outermost ring contains hulking posts and lintels made of sarsen stone. 28. originally fulfilled defensive purposes but now holds aesthetic and engineering appeal Temple near Nasiriyah. the largest at Stonehenge..E. 2. Dates. and lack of feet contrast her oversized belly.. and pubic area. breasts.C.) Vertical stone to the northeast of Stonehenge.). spans 2. 11) Pueblos (32) Pyramid of the Sun (32) Stonehenge (9) Stone slab engraved with the first legal-code in history. missing facial features. England. the innermost ring includes five more sarsen posts and lintels arranged into a horseshoe shape.C. selected artworks. typifies many stone statuettes from the Old Stone Age. ARTWORKS – ANCIENT AND NONWESTERN ART  Code of Hammurabi stele (10) Dome of the Rock (32) Great Wall (28) Great Ziggurat of Ur (9.000 – 1. perhaps held cosmetics for mixing in rituals. also known as the Woman of Willendorf See Venus of Willendorf              Temple of Bel (10) Tutankhamen’s burial mask (11) Venus of Willendorf (8)   Woman of Willendorf (8) . 10) Hanging Gardens of Babylon (10) Heel-stone (9) Ishtar Gate (10) Palace of Persepolis (10) Palette of King Narmer (10. borrows from Egyptian architecture c.C. famous in architecture for animal figures placed over the wall surfaces Primary artwork of the Persian civilization (c.C. and blue glass c. form the innermost ring..000 B. and important cultural groups appear in the Power Tables instead of Power Lists. central feature of the city c.E. Iraq.E. brick. built during the Neo-Babylonian period (c. gems. a carving features a king towering over small enemies. consists of stone. 612 – 538 B. pinpoints the location of the sunrise from the center of Stonehenge on the midsummer solstice Entrance to the Neo-Babylonian ziggurat of the temple of Bel. Art Styles.Art Power Guide | 168 POWER LISTS All numbers in parentheses refer to the page numbers of the USAD Resource Guide where you can find the original context of the defined term. in a relief image towards the top. their artists..000 – 25. sun-god Shamash inspires the writer of the code 687 – 692 C. the middle ring consists of bluestones.

800 C. along with the Pantheon.E.. soaring arches and luminous light from stained glass windows draw attention heavenward c. 38) ARTWORKS – BYZANTIUM AND MEDIEVAL EUROPE   Book of Kells (14) Chartres Cathedral (15) c. 1482. along with the Colosseum.E. Michelangelo overcame an unexpected crack in the marble to sculpt a statue that embodied Florence and guaranteed his fame as a sculptor See The Bound Slave   The Dying Slave (17) .E. 448 – 400 B. influential use of columns.E. embodies the pinnacle of ingenious Roman engineering. along with the Venus de Milo. lasting image of female beauty 1513 – 1516.E.. 800 – 810 C. exemplifies illuminated manuscripts 532 – 537 C. marble sculpture.. by Renaissance artist Botticelli. first known freestanding nude since the classical period 1504. France    Coronation Gospels (14) Hagia Sophia (14) Illuminated manuscripts (14) Saint-Sernin (15)  ARTWORKS – THE RENAISSANCE    The Birth of Venus (16) The Bound Slave (17) David (by Donatello.E.C.E. sculpture by Michelangelo for Pope Julius II’s tomb 1430 – 1432. located in France. Hellenistic Greek masterpiece..Art Power Guide | 169  Ziggurat (10) Stepped temple pyramids at Sumerian and Neo-Sumerian city centers.. rebuilt after 1194 C... along with the Laocoön Group. these structures also fulfilled administrative and economic functions ARTWORKS – GREECE AND ROME  Colosseum (14) Laocoön Group (13) Pantheon (14) Parthenon (13. 17) c. exemplary Gothic cathedral. exemplifies illuminated manuscripts Began construction in 1134 C. reflects ideals of beauty     Venus de Milo (13. Greeks restored this building during the architecturally significant Middle Classical Period (c. embodies the pinnacle of ingenious Roman engineering Persians annihilated this Greek temple in 480 B. Byzantine architectural masterpiece in Constantinople Monks produced these illustrated copies of existing books. exemplifies vaulted construction Freestanding sculpture. exemplifies post and lintel construction Freestanding sculpture.C. Hellenistic Greek masterpiece. 40) 70 – 80 C.). borrows from classical sculpture..E. these works propagated artistic ideas between northern and southern Europe 1070 – 1120 C. renowned Romanesque church in Toulouse. bronze statue by Donatello. reflects ideals of beauty 118 – 125 C..E. 16) David (by Michelangelo.E.

69) This building’s colossal dome posed an architectural impossibility for years until Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – 1446) introduced a double-shelled dome. due to the cancellation of an earlier work. 1498. Michelangelo was reluctant to accept this commission from Pope Julius II. exemplifies the shading techniques of hatching and crosshatching  The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (19) Gates of Paradise (16) Isenheim Altarpiece (19) The Last Supper (17) Mona Lisa (17) Moses (17) Pieta (38) School of Athens (17) Sistine Chapel ceiling (17)           Sistine Madonna (17) The Tempest (17) Veronica (36)  ARTWORKS – THE BAROQUE  Cornaro Chapel (20) Ecstasy of Saint Teresa (20) Baroque artist Gianlorenzo Bernini built his primary masterpiece. engraving by northern Renaissance painter Albrecht Dürer Michelangelo’s name for Lorenzo Ghiberti’s second set of doors for the Florence baptistery. a controversial restoration effort recently improved this masterpiece c. demonstrates the artist’s sfumato painting technique c. Rembrandt collected payments from each person visible in this group portrait. 1510 – 1515. honors Greek philosophers and scientists 1508 – 1512. well known in popular culture c. includes nine panels and two sets of folding wings c. 1513 – 1515. influential painting of the Virgin Mary by Raphael c. Ghiberti spent over 25 years on this work c. sculpture by Michelangelo for Pope Julius II’s tomb Example of a freestanding sculpture by Michelangelo One of the upscale frescoes Raphael and his assistants painted in Pope Julius II’s official chambers. departs from smooth and flowing classical drapery. 1477 – 1510). a storm. well known in popular culture. by Leonardo da Vinci. Rembrandt van Rijn’s most famous work. deviates from the group portrait tradition because some guards are more visible than others. seminal landscape painting by Venetian Renaissance painter Giorgione (c. by Leonardo da Vinci. 1508.Art Power Guide | 170  Florence Cathedral (16. especially in marble carved to resemble clouds 1642. 1495 – 1498. sculpture by Gianlorenzo Bernini. dome inspired the large dome mounted on an octagonal drum of the Royal Exhibition Building c. serves as the subject Engraving by Albrecht Dürer. actually titled Sortie of Captain Banning Cocq’s Company of the Civic Guard. Ecstasy of Saint Teresa (1647 – 1652) into an altar at this chapel 1647 – 1652. part of an altar underneath a stained glass window that casts golden light on Saint Teresa. a decision that damaged Rembrandt’s career   The Night Watch (21) . 1503 – 1505. not humans. 1513 – 1514. northern Renaissance painter Matthias Grünewald’s masterpiece.

Dadaist work by Marcel Duchamp. a network of thin iron beams supports this building’s glass walls. a network of fountains and waterfalls. contrasts yellow. reviled for depicting a nude woman in a casual setting 1888. by Jacques-Louis David. gardens. contains stately châteaux. depicts common road workers. exemplifies Duchamp’s idea of creating ready-made artworks out of common items placed in a new context 1851. Post-Impressionist painting by Vincent van Gogh. early Realist painting by Gustave Courbet. and a colossal canal for holding mock sea battles See The Night Watch  Sortie of Captain Banning Cocq’s Company of the Civic Guard (20) ARTWORKS – 18TH AND 19TH CENTURY ART  Impression Sunrise (23) Le Dejéuner sur L’herbe (23) Luncheon on the Grass (23) Night Café (24) Oath of the Horatii (21) The Stonebreakers (22) 1873. early Impressionist piece by Édouard Manet. features the artist’s painted bedclothes 1943. a zoo. typifies Neoclassicism’s response to the aristocrat-centric Rococo style through paintings of republican virtues 1849 – 1850. epitome of Industrial Revolution advances in building materials. and red to represent sinful human emotions 1784. ”Sun King” Louis XIV commissioned this extravagant palace. which represents his majesty's wealth and might. actually a porcelain urinal Abstract and blocky painting by Brancusi (1876 – 1956). politically significant in light of recent uprisings across Europe. glass forms the majority of this structure’s exterior. this piece by Pablo Picasso pairs a bicycle seat and bull horns. a stable. by Claude Monet.Art Power Guide | 171  Palace of Versailles (21) Began construction in 1669. green. architect Philip Johnson added a Postmodernist ornamental finial to the top of this office building. critics of this work adapted “impression” as a derogatory term and Impressionists embraced the label See Luncheon on the Grass 1863. infuriated Salon audiences accustomed to traditional historical and religious paintings      ARTWORKS – 20TH CENTURY ART  AT&T Building (28) Bed (27) Bull’s Head (26) 1984. by Pablo Picasso. spans 200 acres. by Robert Rauschenberg. exhibited at the Armory Show 1907. exhibited at the Armory Show    Crystal Palace (41)    Eiffel Tower (41) Fountain (26) The Kiss (25) Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon (25)  . an orangerie (greenhouse for orange trees). housed the World’s Fair in London in 1851 Monument in Paris composed of a wrought iron framework 1919. later the Sony Building 1955.

1959. criticized by the Duke of York due to possible criticism toward the British war with France Large historical painting by Benjamin West. by Marcel Duchamp. 1871. traditionally died by Yoruba women. Plate is an example of hard paste porcelain  Arrangement in Grey and Black: The Artist’s Mother (83) Beaded crowns (52)   Boy With a Squirrel (63)  The Consequences of Peace (79)  The Death of General Wolfe (75)  Dido Building Carthage (81)   The Effects of War (79) Frankaa (51) Hard paste porcelain (61)  . or orishas Portrait of John Singleton Copley’s half-brother. SCULPTURES. tire. these items draw connections between the wearer and the Yoruba gods. dyed using the resistdying technique and indigo dye Painting by James Abbott McNeill Whistler. illustrates General Wolfe’s death in the 1759 Battle of Quebec. completed in 1770. no narrative Yoruba indications of royalty. shoe heel. exhibited on Bond Street in 1794 and 1795. a mustachioed Mona Lisa by Dada artist Marcel Duchamp. very important to the Asafo organizations Ceramic material made from mixing kaolin and crushed feldspathic rock. exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1771. exhibited in Musée d’Orsay. exhibited in London in 1766. after mixing. used by the common people. tennis ball. and paint 1912. created by commission. technique for creation developed in China and monopolized for centuries. exhibited at the Armory Show See AT&T Building   ARTWORKS – AGE OF IMPERIALISM PAINTINGS.400 degrees Celsius. displayed in the National Gallery of London in 1815 See The Consequences of Peace Elaborate and symbolic flags. traditional cloth of the Yoruba peoples. focus attention on the head. AND TEXTILES  Adire (53) Tie-dyed.Art Power Guide | 172   LHOOQ (26) Monogram (27) Nude Descending a Staircase (25) Sony Building (28) 1919. exhibited in the Museum of Fine Arts in London in 1765. shows Roman history in a scenic landscape. where it came to the attention of Benjamin West Allegorical landscape by William Hodges. one of Robert Rauschenberg’s combines. fired at up to 1. includes a stuffed goat. Paris. revolutionary because West depicted recent history and clothed the figures in contemporary clothing rather than traditional classical drapery Landscape painting by Joseph Mallord William Turner. or the center of the wearer’s spirit. police barrier. constructed from brightly colored beads imported from Europe.

exhibited in Tate Gallery. fired at lower temperatures Post-colonial work by Yinka Shonibare. gouache. completed in 2001. favored by Uche Okeke.2: The Little White Girl (83) Uli (56)    ARTWORKS – ARCHITECTURE  Bank of New South Wales (69) Carleton Gardens (69) College of Music in London (70) Designed by Joseph Reed shortly after 1854. 1864 to 1865. 1862. brightly colored and patterned Plural form of nkisi Empowered sculptures. depicts a storm in 218 B. no narrative. Jean Honoré Fragonard. which kept the ancient Roman leader Hannibal and his troops in the mountains.C. generally contain items such as drums or flags. completed in 1882. no narrative Painting by James Abbott McNeill Whistler. no narrative Traditional motifs from the Igbo culture. imitated by the Nsukka group with acrylic. Washington D.Hannibal Crossing the Alps (81)   Soft paste porcelain (61) The Swing (after Fragonard) (88) Symphony in White No. destroyed by Christian missionaries of colonizing Belgium Painting by James Abbott McNeill Whistler. one of 80 etchings in a folio entitled Los Caprichos. London. Australia Area around Royal Exhibition Building.1: The White Girl (83) Symphony in White No. model named Joanna Hiffernan. multiple possible meanings Landscape painting by Joseph Mallord William Turner. produced between 1796 and 1798. replaces main figure with a headless mannequin dressed in Dutch wax cloth Painting by James Abbott McNeill Whistler. based off The Swing by French Rococo artist. designed by Joseph Reed. oil paints. dark clouds almost block out the sun. contains local and exotic plants and trees Designed by Arthur Blomfield.E. traditionally woven from imported silk threads. located in Melbourne. exhibited in the Turner Collection in London in 1812. a founding member of the Nsukka group. made by men from the Ewe and Asante cultural groups of Ghana. model named Joanna Hiffernan. caused John Ruskin’s accusation to Whistler of “flinging a pot of paint in the public’s face” Cement. exhibited in the Detroit Institute of Arts in 1874. inspired Yinka Shonibare’s work of the same name. his most recognized work   ..C. exemplifies sublime landscape painting European imitation of hard paste porcelain. created by Kongo groups in West Congo Basin. and pen and ink   Minkisi (46) Nkisi (46) Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (83) Posuban (51) The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (88)     Snowstorm. multi-story shrines. very important to the Asafo organizations Famous print by Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco Goya.Art Power Guide | 173  Kente (57) Woven cloth worn by royalty. exhibited in National Gallery of Art.

400 – 323 B.Art Power Guide | 174  Geelong Town Hall (69) Municipal Corporation Building (67) St. examples include columns. located in Melbourne.).C. located in Surbiton. AND EGYPT  Athenian (12) Classical (12. Australia London railway station completed a decade before Frederick William Stevens began to design Victoria Terminus. uses a scroll-shaped capital This column order lacks fluting. more sizable and linear relative to the black figure style Ancient Greek and Roman styles and ideals.E. contrapposto.C. after Stevens retired Church in the Gothic revival style. 660 – 475 B. this column order dominated temples in Greece’s Archaic Period (c. 14. along with Italian and English churches. designed by Frederick William Stevens. Australia      ART STYLES – GREEK. etc. Pancras Railway Station (67) Wesley Church (69) Designed by Joseph Reed shortly after 1854.). located in Melbourne.C. ROME. vaults. located in Melbourne. 66) Vase painting style similar to the black silhouette vase painting style. or lines running up the column shaft    Composite (12) Corinthian (12. completed in 1893.. Andrew’s Church (70) State Library of Victoria (69) St. inspired Victoria Terminus Designed by Joseph Reed shortly after 1854. 13. this column order dominated temples in Greece’s Archaic Period (c. completed in 1872. also the name of a Greek vase painting style in which floral decorations fill the background Along with Ionic.). 660 – 475 B. influenced British colonial architecture in the 19th century This column order combines the Ionic and Corinthian orders This ornate column order gained popularity in Greece’s Late Classical Period (c. lacks a base Ancient Egyptian method of depicting human figures: the head and lower body appear in profile while the torso faces the viewer Along with Doric. 13)  Doric (12) Fractional representation (11) Ionic (12) Tuscan (12)    . Australia Large building in India designed by Frederick William Stevens.E.E. England Joseph Reed won a competition to design this building in 1854.

and twisted poses. 900 – 1500). ribbed vault. 17. Baroque painters usually cast a theatrical spotlight on the subject through this approach Rococo painter Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684 – 1721) invented this genre. standardized clear outlines. and splendorous colors. 19) Describes art from the late 16th through mid-18th centuries. or glass on a wall or other surface to fabricate images Originated before the French Revolution of 1789 and opposed the aristocratic Rococo style through paintings of republican virtues. uses gold and pastel colors. popular in the Mughal Court. and flying buttress to maximize church height and window size. Neoclassicism. while feuding cities affected the Renaissance. combined Viking styles and the art of Anglo-Saxon England as well as Celtic Ireland Highly detailed.Art Power Guide | 175 ART STYLES – EARLY STYLES AND INNOVATIONS  Baroque (13. affected the emotions of Romanticism Baroque technique contrasting light and dark. involved churches built around a Roman arch. very small paintings of architecture and scenery. or dramatic contrasts of light and dark. and rationality This 18th-century style embellishes romance. geometric figures. adapted advances such as the pointed arch. common traits include warped elements of art. warring empires affected this period. ornamentation. 66)    Hiberno-Saxon (15) Indian miniature painting (63)   Mannerism (17)  Mosaic work (14) Neoclassicism (21)   Rococo (21)  Romanesque (15) . thrived in the late 16th century This Byzantine art form places ceramic tiles. stoic characters. seen in some secular buildings. influenced the scale of A Common Indian Nightjar Transitional style between the Renaissance and Baroque. theatricality. favored energy. this style popularized chiaroscuro. in which fashionably dressed nobles frolic in the countryside Architectural style common between the early 12th and 16th centuries. the Venetian Mannerist artist Tintoretto (1518 – 1594) preceded this style in his sharp perspectives and lighting contrasts. a ludicrously wealthy ruling class funded art during this era. shards of stone. and this period. departed from the Renaissance’s static classicism. most apparent in church architecture. Greek sculpture impacted works from the Renaissance. revelry. incorporated into British colonial architecture in the 19th century Byproduct of Viking invasions. preferable to earlier wooden churches due to fire-resistant stone vaults  Chiaroscuro (19) Fête galante (21) Gothic (15. toxic colors. aristocratic patrons of this style favored witty and elegant subjects Early architectural style of the late medieval period (c. and court life through carefree decorations. perhaps peaked in France under King Louis XIV.

or foreign locations Derives from the Italian word for smoke. favored nature and broad curves. this style was also influenced by Japanese woodblock prints in the 1870s Indian term for Company School painting Post-Impressionist Georges Seurat (1859 – 1891) applied this technique in which specks of complementary colors produce vivid hues Includes various offshoots of Impressionism. ferocious animals. causes forms to blend together  Sfumato (17) ART STYLES – 19TH CENTURY STYLES AND INNOVATIONS  Art Nouveau (24) Pre-Raphaelites’ nature-inspired works gave rise to this architectural and decorative style in Europe and the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. this group of artists reproduced evanescent light through swift brushstrokes. artists paint with subtle colors and soft outlines. this style proliferated through the widespread cynicism after World War I Baroque painter Diego Velázquez’s (1599 – 1660) color-based approach affected this style. fumo. 29. 83)   Kampani kalam Optical mixing (24) Post-Impressionism (24) Pre-Raphaelite (24)    Realism (22) . this style favored flowing lines mimicking leaves and flowers Style of art produced by Indian artists for British patrons in the 18th and early 19th centuries. produced moral and seemingly religious paintings.Art Power Guide | 176  Romanticism (22) Unlike Neoclassicism. especially values and norms. critics named this style after a 1873 painting by Claude Monet (1840 – 1926). exalted simple styles from before the Renaissance. in this approach. built on characteristics of Romanticism and archaic art. Leonardo da Vinci applied this groundbreaking technique in the Mona Lisa (c. pursued a belief that ordinary subjects and negative aspects of traditional subjects held a place in painting  Company School painting (62)  Dada (25)  Impressionism (21. most of the artists from this style sought intense colors Originated from a circle of anti-Industrial Revolution artists in England. served as documentation of India and a blend of British and Indian styles. wonders of nature. drew inspiration from Édouard Manet’s (1832 – 1883) color contrasts that mimicked light. A Common Indian Nightjar is an example This style freely lambasted society. paintings from this style appear fantastical and feature historical subjects. 1503 – 1505). both of which inspired Art Nouveau Reacted against Neoclassicism and Romanticism. dissident intellectuals from Zurich hatched this movement. this movement’s artists banded together to protest strict rules regarding subject matter at annual Salon exhibitions. this style temporarily influenced late 19th-century Japanese artists. this style’s building blocks include emotions and the imagination. 23.

Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque invented this style in Paris in c. redefines a particular space See Earthworks Modernist movement. Norwegian artist Edvard Munch’s (1863 – 1944) potent emotions and Fauvism’s bold arbitrary colors inspired this style. invented by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in c. 1912. an example includes Joseph Cornell’s boxes of items that form symbolic or metaphoric meanings Mixed media medium. featured wild brushstrokes or Jackson Pollock’s paint-dripping approach This two. typically involves impermanent sculptures placed outdoors. simple forms. critics applied this label to a group of early 20th-century artists who pioneered arbitrary color. especially Frank Stella (1877 – 1946) painted in this genre featuring sharp outlines. this approach meshes together multiple perspectives to emulate the human experience Dutch artist Piet Mondrian (1872 – 1944) cultivated this painting genre. 39)    Environmental art (39) Expressionism (25)  Fauves (25)  Hard-edge painting (27)  International Style (27) Minimalism (27)  . this style generally produced either action-paintings or color field paintings Subcategory of Abstract Expressionist art. favored emotional colors and brushstrokes. acrylic paint and the airbrush allowed these clear lines Before creating Postmodernist designs.or three-dimensional artwork may combine an endless variety of found objects. 27) Cubism (24. and clear lines dominate compositions in this style  Action-paintings (26) Assemblage (39)   Collage (39)  Color field paintings (26) Combines (26. featured simple and geometric areas of color Robert Rauschenberg (1925 – 2008) fashioned sculptures out of discarded objects and coined this name for his new medium Paul Cézanne’s geometric compositions influenced this 20th-century modernist movement. Vassily Kandinsky’s abstract art inspired this group. Henri Matisse (1869 – 1954) spearheaded this movement Minimalist artists. and tickets and apply them to a surface Subcategory of Abstract Expressionist art. which juxtaposes flat areas of primary color Also known as environmental art. first appeared in the 1960s and gained popularity in the 1970s. “wild beasts”. papers. architect Philip Johnson earned fame for his work in this modern style Emphasizes the rudimentary aspects of art. 1908. 25)    De Stijl (25) Earthworks (27. monochromatic colors. artists include the German groups of Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter Literally.Art Power Guide | 177 ART STYLES – 20TH CENTURY STYLES AND INNOVATIONS  Abstract Expressionism (26) Developed in the 1940s. artists collect items such as photographs.

provided an account of the Zong Affair. the artist functions as the artwork and interacts with viewers This painting style mimics photography in its advanced realism. the artist places a common item in a new context. this prize was named after Joseph Mallord William Turner. expanded to form The “An essay on the slavery and History of the Abolition of the Slave Trade commerce of the human species. expanded version of Clarkson’s treatise. “An essay on the slavery and commerce of the human species. translated from a Latin dissertation”. Andy Warhol’s soup cans and pictures of movie stars exemplify this style Response to modernism. the subject appears in sharp focus. translated from a Latin dissertation” The History of the Abolition of the Slave Trade (82) Written in 1808 by Thomas Clarkson. inspired Joseph Mallord William Turner’s Slave Ship 1913. particularly the African. and Surrealism Impermanent medium akin to environmental art. Expressionism. 39) Photorealism (27) Pop Art (27) Group of art movements including Abstract Expressionism. features the unconventional subject of consumer culture. Philip Johnson’s ornamental finial-capped AT&T Building (1984) offers an example of Postmodernist architecture Marcel Duchamp introduced this medium. revives traditional art or extends modernist techniques. Dada. Cubism. combines theater and art. an artist must be British and under 50 years of age   BOOKS. particularly the African. in order to be eligible. contrasts with sfumato painting Arose in the 1960s. TEXTS.Art Power Guide | 178  Modernism (42) Performance art (27. Picasso’s Bull Head offers an example Sigmund Freud’s theories inspired these artists to render the machinations of the human mind     Postmodernism (27)  Ready-made (26) Surrealist (26)  AWARDS AND DEGREES  Master of Fine Arts (87) Royal Gold Medal (70) Turner Prize (87) Yinka Shonibare earned this degree when he graduated from Goldsmiths College Arthur Blomfield received this award from the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1891 Yinka Shonibare was nominated for this prize in 2004. AND POEMS  Treatise written by Thomas Clarkson in 1786. publication by Phillip Baldensperger that included a picture of the Dome of the Rock   “The Immovable East: Studies of the People and Customs of Palestine” (31) .

dominant color in A Common Indian Nightjar along with gray and black. Pliny the Elder (23 – 79 C. 77. color along with green. 51. and yellow. 34. color of the abstract patterns on the shields of the Asmat of Melanesia. blue. contains Muhammad’s revelations.E. along with green. red. 12. cool color. 62) Neutral color. and red triangles border the background of Asafo Flag which contains a black crocodile. black. prominent color in the Chauvet Cave paintings. 56. and the water the coat of arms rises from in Plate. dominant color in A Common Indian Nightjar along with brown and black Secondary hue. not a hue. color of the glass on King Tutankhamen’s burial mask. accenting color along with gold. 51. documented John Frederick Lewis’ life in Cairo and described him as living the lifestyle of an Ottoman pasha or governor Baroque artist Artemisia Gentileschi painted women from this part of the Bible Holy book of Islam. along with red and gold. 62. main color along with brown and gray in A Common Indian Nightjar Primary hue. not a hue. eyes. 54. 83. 62) Green (24. along with beige. notable Islamic artworks include copies of this book or containers for the book  Natural History (7) Notes of a Journey from Cornhill to Grand Cairo (85) Old Testament (20) Quran (31)    COLORS  Black (8. accenting color with gold and red in the pool tiling of A Lady Receiving Visitors An equal mixture of two complementary colors makes this color. this book proves the advancement of artists in Renaissance society and a new concept of artistic genius In ancient Rome. 51. clashes with intense yellows and reds in Vincent van Gogh’s Night Café (1888) to represent human emotions associated with the poolroom. draws attention to the central motif of Plate. 54)  . color of figures in the Athenian vase painting style. 60. yellow and brown on the superstructure of Face Mask. 54. cool color. along with red and white. yellow. accentuates hair. the background of Purple and Rose Neutral color.Art Power Guide | 179  The Lives of the Artists (7) Collection of Italian artist biographies by Giorgio Vasari (1511 – 1574). and silver on Fading Cloth. 31. color of the four fish that swim around a central gold fish in Asafo Flag. 34. color of the background in the red-figure vase painting style. 53.) wrote analyses of art in this text Written by William Makepeace Thackery in 1846. 85)  Brown (34. along with red. present with white on the porcelain in Purple and Rose. and scarification in Face Mask. yellow. present in the superstructure of Face Mask. color of the four birds in Asafo Flag. color along with blue. 54. 84)  Gray (34. 34. color of William Penn’s clothing in Penn’s Treaty with the Indians. makes up. 60. adire after dying with indigo. and brown on the superstructure of Face Mask  Blue (11.

warm color. and the tent on Point Venus in HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’. 83. color along with blue. 34) Pink (27) Red (8. George’s Cathedral. 38. color of the hair of the Caucasian man in a painting in Yinka Shonibare’s set of five of The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters Primary hue. 34. not a hue. along with red and black. of the triangles bordering Asafo Flag. 34. color along with blue of the porcelain in Purple and Rose. 31. 85) Secondary hue. caused the death of General James Wolfe and subsequently inspired Benjamin West’s painting. Paul Revere’s shirt. color of the abstract patterns on the shields of the Asmat of Melanesia. confiscating artworks. The Death of General Wolfe  Benin Punitive Expedition (49) British attack on Benin City in February. 54) DISEASE  Transverse myelitis (86) Inflammation of the spinal cord. and Mami Wata’s dress and toenails in Face Mask. along with black and white. caused paralysis in Yinka Shonibare when he was 19. along with gold and blue. and green on the superstructure of Face Mask     Violet (34) White (31. clashes with intense yellows and greens in Vincent van Gogh’s Night Café (1888) to represent human emotions associated with the poolroom. 54. color of the abstract patterns on the shields of the Asmat of Melanesia. along with black. the St. prominent color in the Chauvet Cave paintings. warm color. 54. along with yellow and black. 51. 24. color of the background of Asafo Flag. cool color Neutral color. 51. accenting colors of the pool tiles in A Lady Receiving Visitors Secondary hue. warm color. setting homes on fire. and eventually sending the Oba into exile . 24. 65. still causes Shonibare to struggle to overcome some paralysis EVENTS – CONFLICTS  Battle of Quebec (75) Conflict in North America in 1759. color of the fabric in gates Christo and Jeanne-Claude placed around Central Park’s pathways Color of the wrapping Christo and Jeanne-Claude placed around 11 islands in Florida Primary hue. type of sandstone used to construct the Victoria Terminus Building. the main face in Face Mask. 34. 80. seldom appears in watercolor paint palettes. looting the palace. 1897. 70. 88)  Yellow (8. color of kaolin.Art Power Guide | 180  Orange (27. 67. color along with black and white of the triangles bordering Asafo Flag. brown. 51. Rear-Admiral Harry Rawson headed the attack. color. plays a small role in Chauvet Cave’s ochre paintings. 61. color of the teeth and outline of the hair in Face Mask. 77. Penn’s neck cloth. clashes with intense greens and reds in Vincent van Gogh’s Night Café (1888) to represent human emotions associated with the poolroom.

between World War I and this event. 660 – 475 B. the Royal Exhibition Building was initially constructed to house this event. after this uprising. 475 – 323 B. organized and formalized by the Berlin Conference of 1884 and 1885.. they leaned towards additional dynamism and realism. also called the Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880 to 1881   French Revolution (21) Mexican Revolution (37) Peloponnesian War (13) Revolution of 1789 (21)    Scramble for Africa (45)  World War I (25.) Neoclassicism grew in the decades before this conflict. 400 – 323 B.E.C. increased British interest in Egypt See Revolution of 1789 Cheap. this event spurred New York’s replacement of Paris as the center of the art world. vase painting and Doric as well as Ionic temples also originated during this period c..E. mass-produced prints circulated social protests during this war that erupted in 1910 Athens’s defeat in this conflict caused architecture to stagnate in Greek’s Late Classical Period (c. the Bauhaus school standardized architecture England constructed the glass Crystal Palace (1851) in London to house this event.Art Power Guide | 181  Civil War (86) Conflict in America in the 1860s. Dada originated in Zurich during this period. the Bauhaus school standardized architecture The omnipresence of this war halted organized art movements.C. between this event and World War II.E. Egyptian and Mesopotamian stone sculptures inspired the Greeks of this period to craft freestanding works out of marble and limestone. 26)  World War II (26. 38)  World’s Fair (41. while these Greeks borrowed Egypt’s frontal poses. began in the 1880s and lasted until the start of the 1900s. forced Great Britain to look for an alternative to the American south as a source of cotton. Jacques Louis David served as master of rally ceremonies under France’s new government An intense conflict between the European nations over the control of Africa. 68) EVENTS – ANCIENT TIME PERIODS  Archaic Period (12) c. acrylic paint originated after this event. disillusionment resulting from this event propagated modernist art. led to the rule of Africa by various European powers Along with the Armory Show. Athens executed the most famous ancient Greek artworks during this era The Narmer Palette dates to this period of Old Kingdom Egypt  Classical Period (12) Dynasties III – VI (10)  . including Dada and Cubism.C.

C. two freestanding sculptures from this era.E. the restoration of the Parthenon temple (447 B.) cave drawings in France and Spain.C. 13.000 B.C. 448 – 400 B..Art Power Guide | 182  Early Classical Period (12. Athens’ failure in the Peloponnesian War caused architecture to stagnate in this period. Greek temple architecture progressed rapidly during this time.E. a lone figure in the Lascaux cave is the only human form to appear in Paleolithic art First period of Ancient Egyptian civilization. time period of the Chauvet Cave paintings. due to a warmer climate.) in this period produced one of the most influential artworks in history Also known as the Mesolithic Period. (c. sculptors generally carved strong.C.) and stone figurines like the Venus of Willendorf (c.000 B.000 – 1. 331 – 23 B. (c. the cave paintings from this period may have served in rituals such as hunting ceremonies. rock shelters replaced caves as human dwellings during this period. 475 – 448 B.C.C.).. including those at Lascaux and Altamira. 3500 B. See Old Stone Age  Hellenistic Period (13)  Late Classical Period (13)   Mesolithic Period (8) Middle Classical Period (13)  Middle Stone Age (8.E.000 B. the Venus de Milo and Laocoön Group.000 – 25. this period’s art integrated styles from both Greece and Asia Minor. 4. unlike Paleolithic cave drawings.E. formations of megalith stones characterize this era. portray ideals of beauty c. 13) c. historians have named the megalithic culture after the rock formations they built. this period’s temple builders preferred thin Doric columns. Mesolithic artists habitually drew humans defeating animals See New Stone Age Also known as the Neolithic Period. the contrapposto pose originated in this era c..C. 7.E.C.E.C. megaliths arose in Western Europe as early as 4. 2.. ornate Corinthian columns gained popularity See Middle Stone Age c.E. a common estimate places these paintings in the period between c. 28.E. these paintings contain humans.E..000 B. Stonehenge (c. 30.000 – 11. extensive scholarly debate surrounds the age of paintings on rock shelters in eastern Spain.000 B. 400 – 323 B. solemn.000 B. and simple forms depicting figures poised before or after a significant action.E.) remains the best known megalith The Narmer Palette dates to Dynasties III – VI of this Egyptian period Also known as the Upper Paleolithic Period.E.C. and c. 9)   Neolithic Period (9) New Stone Age (9)   Old Kingdom (10) Old Stone Age (8)   Predynastic period (10) Upper Paleolithic Period (8) . began in c.C.E.C.C..E. Greek sculpture evolved into a more complex and natural style during this period.000 B.

sought to parcel out European control of Africa Act passed by the British Parliament in 1807 abolishing the slave trade. this era highlighted church architecture. and Raphael Sanzio (1483 – 1520) This breakthrough in technology introduced a myriad of new building materials and techniques. disillusionment resulting from this event united Pre-Raphaelite artists in England and inspired their themes from nature c. Michelangelo (1475 – 1564). 900 – 1500. the slave trade continued through much of the 19th century The Catholic Church’s response to the Protestants’ split from the church. as seen in the innovations of the Romanesque and Gothic styles. also gave the British Parliament the responsibility of enforcing the ban militarily. 82)   Counter Reformation (18)  Crusades (43) Early medieval period (14)   Enlightenment (7. the Church preserved most of this era’s artworks. addressed by Thomas Clarkson. 41)   Late medieval period (15)  Medieval period (14)   Middle Ages (14) Reformation (17) . including villages. 17) Industrial Revolution (24. Viking invasions produced the Hiberno-Saxon style This 18th-century philosophical movement shaped modern art history and stimulated protests against the excessively dominant Baroque monarchy Generation of artists including Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519). 19)  High Renaissance (16. the construction of several colossal churches took over a century War preoccupied much of Europe’s population in this period. in this 16th-century movement. art from this time period includes nomadic Germanic metalwork and Viking woodwork. 375 – 1025. monks in monasteries copied and illuminated valuable books See Medieval period Source of the Protestant religion. launched further church decoration campaigns and called for dramatic as well as emotional art The expansion of Christianity through military means. erected a church at the town center. Protestants objected to the church’s corruption and decadence  Berlin Conference (45) British Slave Trade Act (45. inspired by the entrance of Islam into the Mediterranean c. only nobles and the clergy received formal education. attended by over 500 delegates.Art Power Guide | 183 EVENTS – EUROPEAN HISTORY  Anti-Slavery Convention (82) International abolitionist convention held in London in 1840. despite the abolition. sought worldwide abolition of slavery A meeting of major European powers in 1884 and 1885. every settlement.

the Greek tradition of classifying artists in the artisan class ended as this movement embellished artistic genius and awarded artists advanced roles in society. slavery continued in different forms and in locations outside of the British Empire Infamous event of 1781 detailed in Thomas Clarkson’s book. despite this act. 28) Revival of Greek and Roman artistic concepts. 17. the ship arrived safely in Jamaica and Collingwood died before 1783.). this event inspired Joseph Mallord William Turner’s Slave Ship  Slavery Abolition Act (82)  Zong Affair (82) EVENTS – MISCELLANEOUS  China’s Golden Age (28) Christ’s crucifixion (19) Melbourne Centennial Exhibition (68) Melbourne International Exhibition (68) Sacrifice of Isaac (16) Tang Dynasty (28) Occurred during the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 C. the Protestant Reformation argued against the excessive church decoration of this era.S. Australia. produced extraordinary ceramic sculptures and contemplative ink drawings Northern Renaissance artist Matthias Grünewald earned the most fame for illustrations of this religious scene 1888 event held in the Royal Exhibition Building of Melbourne. abolished slavery throughout the British Empire. The History of the Abolition of the Slave Trade. and engravings of Italian artworks This act. exhibited Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon (1907). 1913. trade. and abstract paintings by Vassily Kandinsky Battles in the American Revolution that occurred right after Paul Revere’s midnight ride in April 1775  Battles of Lexington and Concord (64) . 1378 – 1455) illustrated this scene in his winning design for the competition to design the doors of Florence’s baptistery See China’s Golden Age      EVENTS – U. Nude Descending a Staircase (1912). this movement’s ideas reached northern Europe in the 16th century through traveling artists. the invention of paper money allowed patrons to consolidate their wealth and spurred this artistic movement. 16. passed in 1833.Art Power Guide | 184  Renaissance (15. Captain Luke Collingwood threw over 100 slaves overboard in order to collect an insurance payment. commemorated 100 years of European settlement in Australia Original purpose for the Royal Exhibition Building. The Kiss. a wealth of Greek and Roman art in Italy influenced the art of this time period. first modern art exhibition in the United States. 18. crucial in New York replacing Paris as the center of the art world.E. event held there between 1880 and 1881 Lorenzo Ghiberti (c. HISTORY  Armory Show (25) February 17 – March 15.

located in Paris Site of Yinka Shonibare’s solo exhibition in 2008.Art Power Guide | 185  Boston Tea Party (65) French and Indian War (78) American response to a tax on tea in 1773. along with the British Museum in London. repealed in 1766 Infamous 1737 event. occurred just prior to the battles of Lexington and Concord Passed by the British Parliament in March 1765. used as evidence against proprietorships by Benjamin Franklin   Harlem Renaissance (25)  Midnight ride (64)  Stamp Act of 1765 (65)  Walking Purchase (78) INSTITUTIONS – ART MUSEUMS. cited as inspiration for Native American rebellion against the British settlers in the French and Indian War. Paul Revere and others rode from Boston to Concord to warn of the impending approach of the British. along with the Ethnological Museum in Berlin. GALLERIES. Thomas Penn and his secretary. inspired artists such as Jacob Lawrence and Romare Bearden April 1775. included Anatsui’s work Organized the Armory Show from February 17 through March 15. James Logan. 1913 This museum. holds the largest collection of Benin artworks as a result of the Benin Punitive Expedition. citing the Walking Purchase as inspiration African American surge of creativity. but fuel for the idea of no taxation without representation. Native Americans sided with the French and led raids on settlements in Pennsylvania. located in Detroit This museum. small actual tax amount. located in Sydney     Brooklyn Museum (87) Detroit Institute of Arts (83) Ethnological Museum (49)    Louvre Museum (10) Musée d’Orsay (83) Museum of Contemporary Art (87)  . jazz culture propagated this movement of the 1920s. AND EXHIBITIONS  Africa Remix (56) Barnes Foundation (25) British Museum (49) International exhibition between 2004 and 2007. lasted one decade. located in London Site of Yinka Shonibare’s solo exhibition in 2009 Exhibited James Abbott McNeill Whistler’s painting. put into action in November 1765. Arrangement in Grey and Black: The Artist’s Mother in 1871. Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket in 1874. located in Berlin Houses the Code of Hammurabi stele Exhibited James Abbott McNeill Whistler’s painting. traveled to major cities such as Tokyo and London. supported by the Sons of Liberty Conflict between 1756 and 1763. holds the largest collection of Benin artworks as a result of the Benin Punitive Expedition. direct tax on the American colonists with a focus on taxing printed items. hired three very fast runners to “walk” out the boundaries of the land they claimed from the Lenape.

C. John Frederick Lewis was also a member This annual exhibition debuted during the reign of Louis XIV and continued to control the art scene in France through the 19th century. Houses an artwork very similar to Plaque. Joshua Reynolds. differing only slightly in background decorations and proportions. brought Shonibare’s work to a wider audience Exhibited James Abbott McNeill Whistler’s Symphony in White No. D. a landscape painter at the institution. located in London. located in Boston Exhibited James Abbott McNeill Whistler’s painting. was a member of the institution. artists frustrated with this exhibition’s stringent rules launched Impressionism This exhibition showcased works barred from the governmentsponsored Salon such as Édouard Manet’s Luncheon on the Grass (1863) A 1997 show exhibiting the work of the Young British Artists. William Hodges was a member and exhibited paintings there inspired by his voyages in 1776. located in London 1990 international exhibition. Benjamin West was a founding member and served as president. critic of West’s Death of General Wolfe.1: The White Girl in 1862. 78. organized by the British art collector Charles Saatchi.Art Power Guide | 186  Museum of Fine Arts (65) National Gallery of Art (83) National Museum of African Art (50. West also exhibited The Death of General Wolfe there in 1771. located in Washington. Hodges also apprenticed to Richard Wilson. included El Anatsui’s work      Salon (21. 82. 87) Philadelphia Museum of Art (83) Royal Academy (75. 22)  Salon des Refusés (23) “Sensation” (87)   Tate Gallery (83) Venice Biennale (56)  INSTITUTIONS – STRUCTURES AND MARKETS   Brixton Market (88) Orangerie (21) Yinka Shonibare buys his Dutch wax cloth at this location in London This structure at Versailles sheltered Louis XIV’s orange trees . Symphony in White No. 84) Received the gift of the Paul Revere portrait from the Revere family shortly after 1928. site of Yinka Shonibare’s solo exhibition in 2009 and 2010 This museum named James Abbott McNeill Whistler’s painting Purple and Rose after the main figure’s robe King George III founded this institution in 1768 to teach and exhibit fine art. 80. aristocrats chose artists to sponsor at this event.2: The Little White Girl in 1864 and 1865. 76. 79. Joseph Mallord William Turner became a member at a very young age and exhibited Slave Ship there in 1840. controversial in the United States.

. supported William Hodges’ trip to India between 1780 and 1784 Gave Company School artists experience. 49) Founded Liberia in 1822 as a home for African American settlers First opened in the Royal Exhibition Building in 1901. traded slaves with the Europeans for brass or copper bracelets. called Beny Kingdom by the Portuguese. traded primarily tea. formed in 1839. expanded through warfare by 15th century. he worked here for a decade before receiving the assignment to design a railway station for the Great Indian Peninsular Railroad James Cook served as a commander in this institution Abolitionist organization founded in London in 1787. members of the company often moved to India and consequently commissioned Company School paintings. held an international convention in London in 1840 A joint-stock company connected with the British Empire. 82)  British and Foreign AntiSlavery Society (82) East India Company (62.Art Power Guide | 187 INSTITUTIONS –GOVERNMENTS AND SOCIAL GROUPS  American Colonization Society (45) Australian Parliament (68) Benin Kingdom (48. along with Governor-General Warren Hastings. raided by the Benin Punitive Expedition in 1897.E. mostly Quaker with the notable exception of founding member Thomas Clarkson. later ruled by the Oba. passed the Stamp Act in March 1765. favored traditional Indian miniature painting Appointed Frederick William Stevens to be assistant engineer in 1867. south of Sierra Leone. cotton. enforced the act in November 1765. held an administrative role in India and parts of Asia for 200 years. sought to promote public awareness and involvement in the prevention of the slave trade    British Parliament (65. became a thriving political state in the late 13th or early 14th century. initially ruled by the Ogiso. created Plaque Abolished the slave trade in 1807 and slavery in the British Empire in 1833. 80 leagues long and 40 wide. and repealed the act in 1766 Society of abolitionists aiming to abolish slavery throughout the world. founded in Nigeria in 900 C. populated by the Edo people. 79)   Mughal Court (62) Public Works Department of India (67) Royal Navy (79) Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade (82)    . and indigo. right after Australia became a commonwealth Kingdom along the western coast of Africa.

better known as the Academy This highly influential school in Germany standardized modern architecture and design. located in Kumasi. here a teacher asked him why he did not create “authentic African art”. Nigeria. education focused on European rather than African traditions The region and branch of Company School painting that produced A Common Indian Nightjar Post-independence era artists that blend traditional African motifs with European materials. located in London Arthur Blomfield attended Trinity College in this university William Smith was provost at this institution Vassily Kandinsky (1866 – 1944) led this German Expressionist group This German artist group fashioned Expressionism out of Fauvism’s striking arbitrary colors and Edvard Munch’s (1863 – 1944) potent emotions. Benjamin West exhibited his work at this art group. this institute’s style preferred designs based on the building or object’s functions and materials Yinka Shonibare studied at this institution between 1984 and 1989. El Anatsui moved to Nsukka. his exhibition brought him to the attention of British art critics See Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture Arthur Blomfield attended this school at Cambridge    Brym Shaw School of Art (86)     Cambridge University (70) College of Pennsylvania (75) Der Blaue Reiter (25) Die Brücke (25)  Goldsmiths College (87) Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (55) Lucknow School (62) Nsukka Group (56)     Royal Institute of British Architects (70) Rugby School (70) Society of Artists (75) The Academy (20) Trinity College (70)     . in 1975 and joined this group. tool for standardizing aesthetics and taste in the fine art sphere. founding member Uche Okeke encouraged the use of the Igbo motif uli.Art Power Guide | 188 INSTITUTIONS – SCHOOLS AND ART GROUPS  Académie des Beaux-Arts (22) Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (20) Bauhaus (25) Impressionism arose among artists who despised this prominent and highly conservative Parisian institute that controlled Salon exhibitions Founded in France during the reign of Louis XIV. awarded Arthur Blomfield the Royal Gold Medal in 1891 Arthur Blomfield attended this elite school as a young man In 1764. a large city in Ghana’s Asante region. this faction included Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880 – 1938) and Emil Nolde (1867 – 1956) Yinka Shonibare studied at this institution in London and earned a Master of Fine Arts degree El Anatsui attended the College of Art at this school. represents the hybridity of the postindependence era Arthur Blomfield is a member of this group.

Nigeria. Micronesia. Cubism drew from the art of this continent. Yinka Shonibare attended this institution in London Group of artists of which Yinka Shonibare was a member. in his first voyage to the Pacific. and more resources for European countries. Akkadian. the Royal Exhibition Building stands in Melbourne. the first European traders and colonists to set foot on this continent destroyed a wealth of artworks that they perceived as dangerous pagan symbols. the Sumerian. traveled to the southern coast of this continent. a city on this continent. exhibited work in 1997 in a show called “Sensations” which was organized by Charles Saatchi. Yinka Shonibare referenced this continent in his set of images for The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters Archaeologists have yet to venture into many known sites in this region and South America Oceania consists of Polynesia. 88) Masks from this continent inspired late 19th-centrury artists. 88)  Central America (7) Melanesia (30. home of the Asmat cultural group. which formerly practiced war and headhunting. in this position El Anatsui is able to influence the development of art in West Africa James Abbott McNeill Whistler briefly attended this school but had no skill for the military arts As a young adult. and this region. this continent also served as a source of cheap labor. 79. and this region See Mesopotamia Until recently. El Anatsui moved to Nsukka. 30. 570 – 632) established Islam here Hellenistic art integrates styles from Greece and this region This continent became a commonwealth and formed a parliament in 1901. art historians dismissed art from South America and this continent as crafts    Arabian Peninsula (31) Asia Minor (13) Australia (68. Polynesia. and Assyrian civilizations thrived in this fertile region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers Oceania consists of Melanesia. and white patterns as cultural symbols. to become the professor of sculpture at this institution. broader markets. red. Babylonian. show was very controversial in the United States  West Point Military Academy (83) Wimbledon College (86) Young British Architects (87)   LOCATIONS – CONTINENTS AND WORLD REGIONS  Africa (24. 25. 31)   Mesopotamia (10)    Micronesia (29) Near East (10) North America (32) . Yinka Shonibare referenced this continent in his set of images for The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters The prophet Muhammad (c. this region’s cultures used carved masks in rituals to summon and honor ancestors Also known as the Ancient Near East. James Cook. but still uses wooden shields with black. most graduated from Goldsmiths College.Art Power Guide | 189  University of Nigeria (56) In 1975.

Art Power Guide | 190  Oceania (30) The thousands of islands in Melanesia. Nok civilization originated here in modern Nigeria in c.E. and this region. art historians dismissed art from North America and this continent as crafts. types of body art such as tattoos signified social status here Vikings from this region crafted art. 375 – 1025) Archaeologists have yet to venture into many known sites in Central America and on this continent. gained independence and changed name to Guyana in 1966 Conditions unfavorable to preservation in the United States and this country have decimated most of 12. and Polynesia form this region. 32. during the early medieval period (c. especially woodwork. 30) LOCATIONS – COUNTRIES  Algeria (46) Belgium (46) British Guiana (70) Canada (32) In the quest for independence. until recently. 70)    West Africa (7. Melanesia.000 years’ worth of artifacts. the city of Georgetown and St. Micronesia. the climate here does not favor art preservation.C. this country faced violent resistance from numerous French settlers in the area This conquering country wiped out the Kongo’s minkisi in the Western Congo Basin British colony on the northern coast of South America founded in 1814.  Polynesia (31) Scandinavia (14) South America (7. the Maori on New Zealand and other cultures make up this region Oceania consists of Micronesia.000 years old    . George’s Cathedral are located on the northern coast of this continent The humid climate disintegrates many artworks in this part of Africa. especially items more than 2. 500 B.

this country houses the Guro peoples who made Face Mask This country’s dry climate favored art preservation.) presided over the golden age of this country. because of this region’s connection to Mediterranean civilizations. 55)  Egypt (7. and gained independence in 1960. 61. Great Britain sought cotton and a trade route to India that this country would provide. France built the Suez Canal here. wax cloth produced here serves as a cheaper alternative to European or African wax cloth.E.E. 83. the Persians based their palace at Persepolis off this country’s architecture. the Nubian civilization grew to the south of here. 11. in 1882. the Emperor of Qin united this country in c. dynasties and Buddhism influenced art history in this country. 88) Pottery from this area dates back as far as the 4th millennium B. in 1949.E. 84. a communist revolution changed this country to a people’s republic and political art abounded. art historians treat this country in Western and not nonwestern art history.E. the Tang dynasty (618 – 907 C. hairstyle. and artifacts featured in Purple and Rose. this country was highly desirable to European powers. 29.. 53. the civilization here developed writing and art at the same time as Mesopotamian civilizations. frontal poses in art from this country inspired Archaic Greek sculptors.C.. in the late 1970s. 86)  Ethiopia (43. this country became a French colony in 1897. the fabled Prester John and his lost Christian city were rumored by the Portuguese to be located in this country  Côte d’Ivoire (46. 10.C.C. Alexander the Great conquered this country in 332 B. especially after the Civil War. this nation’s artists also drew contemplative ink scrolls. used a rich masquerade tradition as a form of resistance. this nation’s rulers constructed elegant tombs. 12. due to financial difficulties. the style Lange Leizen depicts women from this country and the character “six marks. this nation’s art began to slowly move away from politics.” which adds authenticity to a piece of porcelain also originates from this country Located in Guinea on the Atlantic coast of Africa. 45) . 85. which produced supreme ceramic sculptures. Plate was produced in this country. James Abbott McNeill Whistler collected art from this country which reflected in the dress. over 90% of the tea in Britain originated from this country and Britain and Holland disputed over access to tea exports from this country.Art Power Guide | 191  China (28. 60. the Ottoman Empire turned over control to the British Empire This African country has maintained independence since ancient times. 210 B. John Frederick Lewis lived in this country for ten years while it was ruled by the Turks under the Ottoman Empire.. 38. this country held a monopoly on the production of hard-pate porcelain for centuries. ancient artists in this country applied wax-based encaustic paint to grave markers.

50. 78. also a city in this country. and c. 26. other cave drawings in this country date to between c. this mask functioned in the ngil ceremony. led by Napoleon. the Duke of York’s concern with William Hodges’ painting stemmed from the conflict between Great Britain and this country. notable Renaissance artists from this country include Albrecht Dürer.Art Power Guide | 192  France (8. 80. 15. chromolithographers from this country produced the famous image of Mami Wata This country was a British colony located in the Gold Coast. 21.C. 1070 – 1120) stands in Toulouse.C. Joseph Mallord William Turner traveled to this country. art prospered in southern regions of this country during the 15th and early 16th centuries. a city in this country.E. Johann Joachim Winckelmann. was born in this country. 55. gaining inspiration for some of his artworks Original site of a wooden fang mask dating from the 19th century. this country’s first democratically elected president was Kwame Nkrumah  Gabon (30) Germany (7. Paul Gauguin briefly studied under van Gogh here. the colony became the first sub-Saharan country to gain independence. the famed Romanesque church of Saint-Sernin (c. 70. King Louis XIV united this country. 25. 55)   Ghana (46. Baroque art perhaps culminated here under Louis XIV. Ewe.000 B. 46. 57) . the Asante. this country.E. this country briefly colonized Guyana in 1782 and referred to the region as Longchamps. a city in this country. the Fante peoples created Asafo Flag. this country built the Suez Canal. 19.000 B. 51. the Asante and Ewe peoples create kente cloth. in 1957. 19. a group of Japanese artists studied here during the ascent of Impressionism. and Fante peoples live here. attacked North Africa and was driven back by the allied forces of Great Britain and the Ottoman Empire. however. the Bauhaus school from this country standardized modern architecture between the world wars. the Revolution of 1789 took place here and sparked change throughout Europe. 15. Vincent van Gogh painted brightly lit landscapes from the southern region of this country. El Anatsui was born in Anyako. El Anatsui also attended school and taught here. 24. 55. the factions of Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter from this country cultivated Expressionism.. which exposed sorcerers Enlightenment philosopher. this country colonized Côte d’Ivoire in West Africa in 1897 and carried out a policy of forced assimilation into the European culture. 86) The oldest cave paintings come from Chauvet Cave in the southeastern part of this country. and Hans Holbein the Younger. Kweku Kakanu was born in Mankassim. 10. Matthias Grünewald. the Gothic Chartres Cathedral also lies in this country. 29.

83. Arthur Blomfield’s St. the central picture in Wrapper depicts Queen Mary and King George V of this country. John Frederick Lewis traveled through this country This country is located on the Atlantic coast of Africa in the Guinea region See Guinea This country lies on the northern coast of South America. 65.Art Power Guide | 193  Great Britain (9. 62. Leake and Mary Okeover live in Staffordshire. 78. this country expanded greatly into areas such as the Gold Coast and Hong Kong. this country was populated by the Arawak and Carib groups. 87)109 Stonehenge lies in Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire. guess Great Britain. 19. 24. especially the Stamp Act and the tax on tea. all in this country. Hiberno-Saxon art integrates the style of Anglo-Saxons from this country and Celtic Ireland with Viking art. by the 1870s. . 53. the official religion of this country is the Anglican Church. in 1966 this country gained independence and changed its name. Yinka Shonibare attended school in this country. the king of this country granted William Penn the land he called Pennsylvania. in his exploration of the East after 1834 and before 1841. 60. this country allied with the Ottoman Empire to drive Napoleon out of North Africa. George’s Cathedral is located here  Greece (85)  Guinea (54) Guinea Bissau (54) Guyana (70)   109 My conclusion? If you’re ever stuck. the Dutch arrived first and finally the British established the colony British Guiana in 1814. 71. 74. a city in this country. 55. Sheesh. today this country is extremely ethnically and religiously diverse. headed the Benin Punitive Expedition in 1897. 70. battled with Holland over access to Chinese tea exports. and Yinka Shonibare and William Hodges were born in London. Andrew’s Church is located in Surbiton. 49. before the arrival of the Europeans. related to the East India Company A site of great innovations in art that were very influential for later cultures. inspired by new trade and commodities. this country also produces wax cloth. James Abbott McNeill Whistler traveled to this country as a youth. the Sons of Liberty rebelled against this country’s colonial policies. 81. 69. 76. 61. especially as court painter of King Henry VIII. 63. Joseph Reed was born in Cornwall. 15. a town in this country. both Benjamin West and John Singleton Copley moved to this country to further their careers. this country abolished the slave trade in 1807 and slavery throughout its empire in 1833. 67. 84. Renaissance portraitist Hans Holbein the Younger earned the most repute here. Frederick William Stevens was born in Bath. this country held the largest portion of shares in the Suez Canal and eventually gained control of Egypt in 1882. the Pre-Raphaelite artistic movement arose here. the dominant religion here is Christianity. 86. St.

a city in this country.C. the Catholic church worked to preserve its hold over this country during the Baroque period Luke Collingwood’s ship. 84. 18. after this country gained independence in 1947. consequently. this country produces Dutch wax cloth Buddhism from this country shaped Chinese and Japanese art and culture. William Hodges traveled to this country between 1780 and 1784. the 1.600 languages and dialects in this country prove its diversity.) thrived at the location of this present-day country The Neo-Sumerian Great Ziggurat of Ur stands outside the city of Nasiriyah in this country Hiberno-Saxon art integrates the style of Celtics from this country and Anglo-Saxon England with Viking art Home to the Etruscan civilization in the 1st millennium B. 88) This country first settled the region on the northern coast of South America in the 17th and 18th centuries. Africa. 15. along with England. a city that built magnificent churches under Byzantine rule. Albrecht Dürer and scores of other Northern European artists traveled here to study Renaissance masterpieces. after slavery was abolished in the British Empire. far north of the Slave Coast  India (28. this country lies on the Atlantic coast of Africa in the Guinea region Location of the first Portuguese slave-raiding expedition in the early 1440s. Company School paintings originated here. this country provided cheap labor for British Guiana. Guyana. during the infamous Zong Affair. activists promoted a shift toward traditional Indian languages and names. this country battled with Britain over access to Chinese tea exports. the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus stands in Mumbai. eventually. making it a desirable trade partner for Europe. 538 – 330 B. the availability of Greek and Roman art in this country spurred the Renaissance.. 19)      Jamaica (82) Liberia (45. 54)   Mauritania (44) . 66. 14. and China. location of Ravenna. some of the world’s oldest civilizations and artistic traditions originated here.E. 79. A Common Indian Nightjar was painted here Originally. 86)  Indonesia (88) Iran (10) Iraq (9) Ireland (15) Italy (13.Art Power Guide | 194  Holland (70.C. 70. Dutch traders created Dutch wax cloth to sell to this country The Persian Empire (c. this country contains many valuable spices. this country referred to the area as Stabroek though it would soon become British Guiana and. Greek art influenced classical images of Buddha from this country. was headed for and safely reached this country This country was founded in 1822 by the American Colonization Society as a refuge for African-American settlers.E. 62.

86)  People’s Republic of China (28) Portugal (43. Wasily Kandinsky.. home to the Yoruba peoples which produced Wrapper. 37) Location of the Pyramid of the Sun. 48. or the Beny Kingdom as they called it. gaining inspiration for some of his artworks This country is located in the northern tip of the Guinea region on the Atlantic coast of Africa  Namibia (30)  New Zealand (31.000 B. the original name for Mumbai. El Anatsui lives and works in this country while Yinka Shonibare grew up here See China In the 15th century. giving rise to new traditions. 48. in 1484. the Edo peoples included a depiction of two men from this country in Plaque. James Abbott McNeill Whistler traveled to this country as a boy Joseph Mallord William Turner traveled to this country during his life. 52. this country landed on the African coast.E. activists utilized printmaking to cheaply mass produce images promoting social protest.C. originated in this country. 23. this country admired the Sapi and purchased ivory carvings. this country set up trade relations with the Edo people. 47. which thrived between the 13th and 18th centuries and created Plaque. which developed in c. 83)  Scotland (80) Senegal (53)  .. is an English version of the words from this country for “good bay” Der Blau Reiter founder. explorers from this country first arrived in the Benin Kingdom. 50.Art Power Guide | 195  Mexico (31. 46. contains the Yoruba origin of the world.C. this country’s trade route enabled European access to porcelain. home to the bronze-producing Benin Kingdom. and another abstract p[ainter. 61. Ile-Ife. 79)  Nigeria (30. Kazimir Malevich. the first slave-raiding exhibition by this country occurred in modern-day Mauritania in the early 1440s . India. cave drawings from here predate the first known European paintings The Maori cultural group from this country and other societies throughout Oceania reanimate older artistic traditions in the context of the present. Olokun. 54. Diego Rivera produced frescoes here and in the United States Contains cave paintings that date to c. including Lidded Saltcellar. Bombay. who associated these explorers with death and the sea god. in his first trip to the Pacific. James Cook mapped the coast of this country Location of the terracotta-producing Nok civilization. from the Sapi in the 15th and 16th centuries. becoming the first to establish trade relationships with Africa. gained independence in 1960. 500 B. once there.E. placing them among the oldest artworks in Africa. 68)   Russia (25. during this country’s revolution. 44. 56.

C. Philip IV modeled his court after that of King Louis XIV of France. and to the north of the Benin Kingdom. 63.Art Power Guide | 196  Sierra Leone (47. of which Yinka Shonibare was a part. the Counter Reformation artist El Greco traveled to Toledo. especially items more than 2. in the Guinea region. conditions unfavorable to preservation in Canada and this country have decimated most of 12. John Frederick Lewis traveled here from 1832 to 1834 Joseph Mallord William Turner traveled to this country. 18. 82. Diego Rivera produced frescoes here and in Mexico. located in this country In his exploration of the East after 1834 and before 1841. the institute’s professors moved here. HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’ portrays Matavi Bay.000 B.000 years’ worth of artifacts. 26. 48. the Catholic church worked to preserve its hold over this country during the Baroque period. 85)  Switzerland (80) Tahiti (24. 54) This country is located on the Atlantic coast of Africa. 87)  LOCATIONS –REGIONS  Alps (18) Asante Region (55) Awadh Region (62) During the early Italian Renaissance. conquered by the East India Company in 1856   . James Cook visited this country on both his first and second trips to the Pacific. 37. the Gothic style still determined artworks in the area of Europe north of here Located in Ghana. 15. after Nazis closed the Bauhaus school of design. contains the city Lucknow. 32.000 B. John Frederick Lewis traveled through this country After the Armory Show (1913) and World War I. was very controversial in this country  Spain (8. 21. 19. Kissi. as king of this realm. architect Antonio Gaudi designed ingenious organic buildings in this country.E. gaining inspiration for some of his artworks Post-Impressionist artist Paul Gauguin (1843 – 1903) traveled to this island seeking more vibrant colors.E.000 years old. a city in this country. in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. the Young British Artists exhibition. William Hodges’ most famous paintings depict scenes from this country and Easter Island. in 1576. 74. 10.C. Benjamin West. and Bolum groups Cave paintings in this country date to between c. 79)   Turkey (85) United States (25. 41. the art world centered on this country instead of France. and c.. Sensation. this country contained the Sapi group and consequently the creation of Lidded Saltcellar. contains the city Kumasi and the Kwame Nkrumah University Region in northern India. currently this country houses the descendants of the Sapi including the Temne. and James Abbott McNeill Whistler were all born in this country and expatriated to Europe in search for better art markets and broader careers. John Singleton Copley.

which saw a huge amount of slave trade between Africa and Europe Artists in this region began making hard paste porcelain in the 10th century. and Senegal. Belgium eliminated the minkisi of the Kongo people  East India (55) Flanders (21) Gold Coast (50. a town in this region. includes the Gulf of Guinea. where the Portuguese landed Area on the western coast of Africa. France. the ethnic groups in this region all share similar characteristics. the present-day countries in this region include Côte d’Ivoire. location of Stonehenge An area in Africa far south of Mauritania.E. 54)      Gulf of Guinea (43) Jiangxi Province (61)   Mediterranean (43) Northern Africa (86) Northern China (61) Salisbury Plain (9) Slave Coast (44) Southern China (61) Southern Germany (19) Tasmania (68) Volta Region (55) Western Congo Basin (46)          . Region in Wiltshire. located in Ghana This region was populated by the Kongo and colonized by Belgium.Art Power Guide | 197  Bohemia (52) Beads originated in this region and Venice. Sierra Leone. 88) Guangdong Province (61) Guinea (53. in 1835 by way of this island El Anatsui was born in 1944 in Anyako. these beads were then traded to the Yoruba peoples for slaves and incorporated into Yoruba regalia The image of Mami Wata that inspired German chromolithographers initially appeared on a calendar in this region Home of the influential coloristic Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens (1577 – 1640) An area in West Africa now known as Ghana. Guinea. this region also produced Plate This part of Germany prospered artistically during the Renaissance European settlers entered Melbourne. especially a prioritization of a rich masquerade tradition. Liberia. the Dutch sold Dutch wax cloth in this area when the Indonesian market faltered Contains the Chinese city Canton which produces hard paste porcelain and functions as an important port city Forested area along the Atlantic coast of Africa from Senegal in the north to Côte d’Ivoire in the south. and the Ottoman Empire all fought over control of this area and its valuable trade routes and resources This region developed the first porcelain objects in 600 C. Guinea Bissau. England. Portuguese explorers traveled here in 1455 and 1456 This region contains the Chinese city Jingdezhen which produced hard paste porcelain that was particularly valuable in the early years of porcelain production The Crusades responded to the alarming expansion of Islam into this region of the world England. Australia. once in this region.

location of Salisbury Plain and Stonehenge  LOCATIONS –TOWNS AND CITIES  Agra (62) Anyako (55) Bath (67) Benin City (49) Berlin (49) Bombay (68) City in India that contained an important school of Company School painting El Anatsui was born in this city in 1944. 4. Paul Revere. Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi won competitions to design this city’s baptistery doors and cathedral dome. Michelangelo meant for his David (1504) to stand high above ground on the façade of this city’s cathedral. workshops in this city could complete porcelain commissions in two or three months Site of the Byzantine Hagia Sophia (532 – 537 C.. 64.) Joseph Reed was born in this city in England in 1823 In the early 15th century. during this time. this city was under control of the Turks under the Ottoman Empire City in India that contained an important school of Company School painting Located in the Guangdong Province. name from English version of the Portuguese word for “good bay”. in his midnight ride. immersing himself completely into the culture and living the lifestyle of an Ottoman pasha. now called Guangzhou.Art Power Guide | 198  Western Europe (9) Wiltshire (9) After c. here. location of the Boston Tea Party. Paul Revere served as an active Patriot with the Sons of Liberty. Leonardo and Michelangelo created masterpieces in this city.C. India.E. rode from this city to Lexington John Frederick Lewis lived in this city in Egypt from 1841 to 1851. 17) . 65)  Cairo (85)  Calcutta (62) Canton (61)     Constantinople (14) Cornwall (69) Florence (16. renamed to Mumbai in 1995 John Singleton Copley was born in this city in 1738. the megalithic culture of the New Stone Age erected rings and rows of stones in this area of Europe County of England.000 B. located in Ghana’s Volta Region Frederick William Stevens was born in this city in England in either 1847 or 1848 Attacked in 1897 by the Benin Punitive Expedition Location of the Ethnological Museum where many Benin artworks are stored Important port city in Maharashtra. major port city of China. location of Victoria Terminus Building.E. respectively. Michelangelo’s David symbolizes this city       Boston (63.

E. this city is Guyana’s most populated city and commercial and governmental center Present-day name for Canton Sailors acquired the German chromolithograph that inspired the popular image of Mami Wata from this city A portion of China seized by the British A city in southwestern Nigeria. contains the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology where El Anatsui attended school Yinka Shonibare spent much of his childhood living in this city. origin of the prince Oranmiyan who founded the second dynasty in the Benin Kingdom in the end of the 14th century A city in Jiangxi Province which produced highly valued porcelain in the early years of porcelain production. Paul Revere rode from Boston to this city. porcelain goods produced in Jingdezhen required at least two years for completion due to the monsoons which made access to Canton. the capital of Nigeria In his midnight ride. the British named the city in 1812 in honor of King George III. became an English settlement in the 18th century. the Dutch called this city Stabroek while the French called it Longchamps. difficult Large city in Ghana’s Asante region.C. populated as early as 350 B. thriving city-state since the 11th century. the major port city. the Yoruba believe the world was created here..Art Power Guide | 199  Georgetown (70) City located at the mouth of Demerara River. announcing the impending arrival of the British   Guangzhou (61) Hamburg (55) Hong Kong (61) Ile-Ife (52)    Jingdezhen (61)  Kumasi (55)  Lagos (86) Lexington (64)  .

69)  Mumbai (66) . Australia’s most important and populated port city. contains the Royal Exhibition Building Important port city in Maharashtra. 87. 78. William Penn. 56. the Brixton Market where Yinka Shonibare purchases his Dutch wax cloth. renamed in 1995 in honor of the Hindu goddess. the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade began in this city in 1787. and Wimbledon College. 81. John Frederick Lewis. the Society of Artists where Benjamin West exhibited some of his work. William Hodges. represents European ideals of progress. 86. the Turner Collection where Turner exhibited Snow Storm. and Tate Gallery where James Abbott McNeill Whistler exhibited Symphony in White No. 64. first settled by Europeans in 1835. 82. William Hodges’ studio he established to display his drawings of India.2: The Little White Girl. the convention of the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in 1840. 70. the French occupied this area briefly in 1782 City in the Awadh region in northern India. James Abbott McNeill Whistler attended art classes here from 1847 to 1848. Mumbadevi  Longchamps (70) Lucknow (62)    Mankassim (51) Melbourne (68. originally named Bombay. Brym Shaw School of Art. also location of St. 88) Site of the 1851 World’s Fair and the Crystal Palace. contained strong presence of the Mughal Empire. 63. location of the British Museum which holds many Benin artworks. and Yinka Shonibare were all born in this city French name for Georgetown. 83. recognized as a city in 1847 by Queen Victoria. John Singleton Copley and Benjamin West expriated to this city. population of four million people. Arthur Blomfield’s College of Music. 80. James Mallord William Turner. 49. 67. 75. 76.Hannibal Crossing the Alps. 79. location of a prominent Company School painting school. located on a bay in southern Australia. rich agricultural area and desirable for the East India Company. India. and Goldsmiths College where Yinka Shonibare attended school. John Singleton Copley exhibited his Boy With a Squirrel here in 1766. location of Victoria Terminus Building. the Royal Academy. Africa Remix traveled through here along with Tokyo. taken over by the East India Company in 1856. the National Gallery where Joseph Mallord William Turner exhibited Dido Building Carthage. Pancras Railway Station which inspired the design of the Victoria Terminus Building. 85.Art Power Guide | 200  London (41. created A Common Indian Nightjar Kweku Kakanu was born in this city in Ghana in 1910 Capital city of the state of Victoria.

24. before settling in England. 1070 – 1120)  Patna (62) Philadelphia (64) Ravenna (14) Rome (14. Arrangement in Grey and Black: The Artist’s Mother City in India that contained an important school of Company School painting John Singleton Copley painted portraits in this city Under Byzantine rule. in his traveling through Europe. 64. location of the famed Romanesque church of Saint-Sernin (c. 1908. this Italian city built churches embellished with resplendent mosaics Location of the Colosseum and Pantheon. 75)     Shackamaxon (76)    Springfield (74) Stabroek (70) Staffordshire (60) St. Raphael traveled here and received commissions from Pope Julius II. as a young painter. and this city. traveled through London and this city After working under the Venetian painter Titian. John Singleton Copley visited Rome. home to Leake and Mary Okeover. New York replaced this metropolis as the center of the art world. and this city. Benjamin West visited Venice. 41. blossomed during the Renaissance. in his traveling through Europe. Petersburg (83) Surbiton (70) Sydney (87) Tokyo (56) Toledo (18) Toulouse (15)       . and this city Supposedly the event depicted in Penn’s Treaty with the Indians took place under a giant elm tree in this village. 33. patrons of the Chinese Plate James Abbott McNeill Whistler attended art classes in this city from 1845 to 1848 City of Arthur Blomfield’s St. modernist art rocked this city in the early 20th century. location of the wrought iron Eiffel Tower. location of Musée d’Orsay where Whistler exhibited his painting. London. linear perspective in a Sistine Chapel fresco by Pietro Perugino helped spread Renaissance ideas here. Florence. El Greco journeyed to this city in Spain in 1576 French city. located in England Location of the Museum of Contemporary Art where Yinka Shonibare had a solo exhibition in 2008 Africa Remix. James Abbott McNeill Whistler visited this city in 1855 and there immersed himself into the young artist culture. London. 83) The excessive conservatism of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in this city motivated Impressionism. there is no documentation that this actually occurred Benjamin West was born in this city in Pennsylvania in 1738 Dutch name for Georgetown City in England. Andrew’s Cathedral. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque invented Cubism here in c.Art Power Guide | 201  Paris (23. an exhibition containing El Anatsui’s artwork from 2004 to 2007. Florence. Florence. John Singleton Copley visited Paris. 25. 64. 17.

the revolutionary portrait painter Titian Vecelli (c. Portuguese explorers had bypassed this feature In his first trip to the Pacific. Benjamin West traveled to Florence. home to the dissident intellectuals who launched Dada   Versailles (21) Zurich (25) LOCATIONS – MISCELLANEOUS  African Diaspora (55) Antarctic Circle (79) Bond Street (79) The image of Mami Wata which originated from a German chromolithograph is popular throughout western Africa and this area James Cook’s second voyage to the Pacific crossed this area William Hodges showed The Effects of War and The Consequences of Peace at this location in 1794 and 1795 before criticism forced him to close the exhibition A nearly impassable obstacle for explorers located on the northwestern coast of Africa. William Hodges’ most famous paintings depict scenes from this island and Tahiti Holy city of Islam. and Judaism. 52. 19. El Greco studied under Titian here. located in Matavi Bay. site of the Islamic Dome of the Rock (687 – 692) Every Islamic mosque includes a qibla wall facing this sacred city James Cook’s second voyage to the Pacific encountered this area An informal European settlement represented by a white tent in William Hodges’ HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’. by 1434. and this city French King Louis XIV began building an upscale palace here in 1669 Swiss city. 81) Along with Rome and Florence. Christianity. James Cook rounded this formation in South America James Cook’s second voyage to the Pacific encountered this island. during his life. Tahiti. beads originated in this country and Bohemia and were traded to the Yoruba peoples for slaves and incorporated into Yoruba regalia. Switzerland. France. 18. 75. before settling in England. home of the seminal landscape painter Giorgione (c. and this city. Joseph Mallord William Turner traveled to Scotland. 1477 – 1510). prospered in the arts during the Renaissance. 1488 – 1576). Rome. merchants from this city contributed to the spread of Renaissance ideas in northern Europe.Art Power Guide | 202  Venice (17. served as a refuge for the sick members of James Cook’s crew    Cape Bojador (43) Cape Horn (79) Easter Island (79)    Jerusalem (32) Mecca (32) New Caledonia (79) Point Venus (80)    . and the Mannerist artist Tintoretto (1518 – 1594).

Hammurabi centralized other Mesopotamian city-states under his rule in c. home to the first Aegean Sea civilization Center of Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. and Mycenaean civilizations prospered here before Ancient Greece’s Archaic Period Georgetown is located near the mouth of this river Mesopotamian civilizations grew in the valley between this river and the Tigris River A protected bay along Tahiti’s northern coastline. this city-state built the hanging gardens and the Ishtar Gate Site of the oldest cave paintings.C..C.000 B. the paintings here consist of black charcoal. unlike Chauvet Cave’s drawings. red ochre.) and come from this city-state As king of this city-state.E. located in southeastern France. this site in Spain boasts some of the most famous cave paintings from between c. Hodges’ HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’ depicts this area. and mammoths Minoan civilization grew on this island in the Aegean Sea Aegean Sea archipelago. which date to c.000 B. the labyrinthine royal palace in this city gave rise to the legend of the Minotaur Along with Altamira in Spain.C.E. 11.C. after Assyrian rule. uncovered in 1994. 13. rhinoceros. cultural center of the Mycenaean civilization in the Aegean Sea region  Athens (12) Babylonia (10)   Chauvet Cave (8)    Crete (11) Cyclades (11) Knossos (11) Lascaux (8)   Mycenae (12) . and c.C.E. James Cook and his expedition reached this bay in August 1773 Tahiti’s highest peak.. unlike Chauvet Cave’s drawings. these caves contain outlines of human hands The most famous ancient Greek artworks date to the Classical Period (475 – 323 B.Art Power Guide | 203 LOCATIONS – NATURAL FORMATIONS  Aegean Sea (11) Demerara River (70) Euphrates River (10) Matavi Bay (79) The Cycladic. these caves contain outlines of human hands City on mainland Greece.000 B.000 B. Minoan..E.E. 13. lions. 1792 B.E. 11. displayed slightly inaccurately in William Hodges' HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’ Mesopotamian civilizations grew in the valley between this river and the Euphrates River     Mount Orofena (79) Tigris River (10)  LOCATIONS – SITES OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS AND ARTWORKS  Altamira (8) Along with Lascaux in France. this location in France boasts some of the most famous cave paintings from between c. and some yellow ochre and portray animals such as horses. buffalos.000 B. and c.E.C. and wrote the first law code. 30.C.

Penn wanted to name his new territory Sylvania. 36)     Soft pencil (36) MEDIUMS – MISCELLANEOUS  Beads (52) Cassava plant (53) Highly valuable portions of Yoruba regalia acquired through trade with Europeans. in 1677. 76) The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus is located in Mumbai. Penn’s land touted the philosophy of tolerance for all Christians Located on the southern bay of Australia. 6) . William Penn and a group of Quakers purchased an area of land. inspired the light-hearted colors of Rococo art Draws thicker lines that may appear light or dark  Chromolithograph (55) Hard pencil (36) Ochre (8) Pastel (21. constructed into crowns. originated in Bohemia and Venice A material which may be formed into a starchy paste. artists using this medium usually spray fixatives to prevent smearing. this state’s capital city is Melbourne    Victoria (68) MEDIUMS – DRAWING  Charcoal (8) Extremely soft drawing tool. light application of this tool leaves the white of the paper somewhat exposed. meaning “forests” in Latin. a city in this state. Penn received another section of land. but the king named it Pennsylvania after William Penn’s father. this medium allows for more intricate details than raffia Asafo Flag and Wrapper are made of this material   Cotton (UAREG 5. Chauvet Cave’s drawings use red and yellow ochre as well as this medium Late 19th century German drawing which inspired the image of Mami Wata Draws thinner and lighter lines Chauvet Cave’s drawings use charcoal and red as well as yellow variations of this pigment Soft colored sticks. soon afterward. a city in this state in India James Abbott McNeill Whistler was born in this state in 1834 Benjamin West was born in 1738 in Springfield.Art Power Guide | 204  Pompeii (37) The ruins of this Roman city contain an abundance of frescoes LOCATIONS –STATES  Maharashtra (68) Massachusetts (82) Pennsylvania (74. gained popularity in the 18th century. in 1681. popular medium in portraiture. extremely fragile. the paste is painted onto cotton before the cloth is dyed to create adire. the King of England presented him with a proprietary grant for the land. can mix to produce tints and shades.

17. currently produced in Holland. artists allergic to oil paint and turpentine prefer this medium. European versions are the most expensive and the most valued while Chinese versions are the cheapest Material which China monopolized for centuries. particularly hard-edge paintings Literally. much more versatile compared to oil paint but less rich in colors. the Minoans. steel. which makes any application of paint permanent Along with the paint tube. produced by Dutch traders for the Indonesian market in the 19th century. George’s Cathedral is made mostly from this material  Hard paste porcelain (61)   Indigo (53) Ivory (47) Raffia (53) Soft paste porcelain (61) Wood (54. 15. this material is fired at lower temperatures Face Mask is carved from one piece of wood. this invention allowed Impressionists to paint outdoors without difficulty The ancient Egyptians applied this durable wax based paint to grave markers using hot irons In this medium. kaolin and feldspathic rock are mixed and then fired at 1400 degrees Celsius. artists add a mixture of water and pigments to plaster set on a wall or ceiling. when not successful in Indonesia. and Pietro Perugino A type of fresco that uses dry plaster  Buon fresco (37) Chemical paint (24) Encaustic (38) Fresco (11. Giotto di Bondone (1267 – 1337). the roof of Royal Exhibition Building is made of slate. St. 37)     Fresco secco (37) . resist-dyed. 69. and synthetic materials. “true” fresco. painters of medieval and Renaissance churches. brightly colored textiles. ingredients include plastic.Art Power Guide | 205  Dutch wax cloth (88) Factory-produced. notable artists who worked in this medium include the citizens of Pompeii. Lidded Saltcellar is made of this material A grassy fiber which can be sewn onto cotton before the cloth is dyed to create adire The European imitation of hard paste porcelain. symbol of African identity. along with the airbrush. 33. England. Raphael (1483 – 1520). sold in Africa’s Gold Coast. polymers. Masaccio (1401 – 1428). 70)    MEDIUMS – PAINTING  Acrylic (27. and this material. Plate uses this medium Blue dye used to produce adire Portuguese explorers purchased carvings made of this material as presents for their patrons. Africa. 16. this invention allowed sharp lines in Minimalist painting. uses wet plaster. 38) Invented after World War II. and China. patterns created change with location and serve as a form of communication.

19)  Tempera (38)    True fresco (37) Turpentine (38) Watercolor (38. highly versatile compared to tempera. HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’ with Fishing Craft in Matavi Bay. resembles schoolquality tempera but has superior quality. this media restricts artists to a narrow range of either light or dark tones. 16. succeeded tempera as the standard painting medium. material of Plaque     . 17. artists cannot blend this paint after application because it dries quickly. Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks. Slave Ship. egg yolk serves as the binder in this medium. mistakes can have drastic effects in compositions using this paint. this medium’s translucent nature bares the white of the paper underneath. medium used for A Common Indian Nightjar. and slow-drying water-based paint. 15. Joseph Mallord William Turner exhibited his first painting in this medium at the Royal Academy in 1790  Oil paint (18. 80. unlike tempera artists. water functions as a solvent. 38.Art Power Guide | 206  Gouache (38) Thick. medium for Paul Revere. 18. oil painters can apply thin glazes. UAREG 11. opaque. and A Lady Receiving Visitors (The Reception) Water-based paint. the most common medium before oil paint gained popularity in the 15th century See Buon fresco Artists allergic to oil paint and this compound turn to acrylic Commonplace water-based paint. produces radiant colors and precise details First gained popularity in the 15th century in northern Europe. UAREG 10) MEDIUMS – PHOTOGRAPHY  Albumen silver print from glass negative (UAREG 12) C-print mounted on aluminum Medium for photograph of Victoria Terminus Building Medium of The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (Asia)  MEDIUMS – STONES. MINERALS. AND METALS   Bluestone (9) Bottle caps (56) Brass (50) Brick (69) Bronze (50) Copper alloy (49) Stonehenge’s middle ring uses this type of rock native to England El Anatsui flattened metal cans and this material then wove everything together with copper wire to create Fading Cloth Copper alloy with zinc The exterior walls of Royal Exhibition Building are made of this material Copper alloy with tin According to the National Museum of African Art. Penn’s Treaty with the Indians. artist working in this medium usually add water instead of using the color white.

Michelangelo’s David (1504). quartz. one of the ingredients in silica. mixed with kaolin. one of the ingredients in silica. flint. and this material Secondary material used in the construction of Victoria Terminus Building along with poly-chromatic stone. 20. Greek tradition established this view of artists as manual laborers  . and other raw materials. which makes glass Stonehenge’s outermost and innermost rings use this type of sandstone Sand. steel. and stained glass This rock is crushed. and stained glass Along with flint. and decorated tile The roof of Royal Exhibition Building is made of timber. quartz. which makes glass A fine white clay which is mixed with feldspathic rock and fired at high temperatures to create hard paste porcelain Common material for Archaic Greek sculptures Material in Cycladic bowls and jars. Archaic Greek sculptures. flint. marble. and other raw materials. 17. and stained glass El Anatsui flattened bottle caps and this material then wove everything together with copper wire to create Fading Cloth Secondary material used in the construction of Victoria Terminus Building along with decorated tile. 67) Secondary material used in the construction of Victoria Terminus Building along with poly-chromatic stone. marble. one of the ingredients in silica. found locally Along with quartz. 12. and other raw materials produce this compound. secondary material used in the construction of Victoria Terminus Building along with poly-chromatic stone. botht he Fante and Asante are part of this group Social status of artists before the Renaissance. slate.Art Power Guide | 207  Decorated tile (67) Feldspar (61) Flint (40) Kaolin (61) Limestone (12) Marble (11. sand and other raw materials. and fired at very high temperatures to create hard paste porcelain Along with sand. marble. and Bernini’s Ecstasy of Saint Teresa (1647 – 1652). and this material       Metal cans (56) Poly-chromatic stone (67) Quartz (40) Red sandstone (67) Sand (40) Sarsen (9) Silica (40) Slate (69) Stained glass (67) Steel (69)          MISCELLANEOUS  Akan (50) Artisan (16) The language group on the Gold Coast. which makes glass The roof of Royal Exhibition Building is made of timber. which makes glass Main material used in the construction of Victoria Terminus Building. decorated tile.

William Penn settled his famous treaty with the Indians in Shackamaxon under this kind of tree Art historians’ title for Donatello Italian word for smoke. which refers to a person with many diverse skills Benjamin Franklin and Quaker leaders attempted to convince the King of England to abandon proprietorships in the colonies in favor of this system. willowy Chinese women. James Abbott McNeill Whistler included this design in his painting. specialized in the technique According to the story. this is illustrated by William Hodges’ Tahitian natives in Classical drapery or Benjamin West’s stately. these rocks weighed up to 50 tons and measured as much as 17 feet tall This ritual involved wooden fang masks and supposedly exposed sorcerers. John Frederick Lewis’ paintings played a large part in forming this perception         Latin (14) Law (86) Libel (83) Long Eliza (84) Mande (47) Megaliths (9)      Ngil (30) Noble savage (74.Art Power Guide | 208  Caravaggesque (19) Elm (77) Founder of modern sculpture (16) Fumo (17) HMS Adventure (79) HMS Resolution (79) Lange Leizen (84) Describes artworks containing intense chiaroscuro. word root of sfumato During his second voyage to the Pacific. disrupting the Sapi trade with the Portuguese Literally. during the New Stone Age. Commander James Cook commanded this ship Dutch pattern on porcelain depicting long. Purple and Rose. accusing him of this crime James Abbott McNeill Whistler’s name for the Lange Leizen design In 1550. culture groups in 19th-century Gabon practiced this ceremony The Romantic perception of foreigners. Caravaggio. an Italian Baroque painter. 80)   Renaissance Man (16) Royal charter system (78)   Western Orientalist (85) . in order to reference the relationship between Great Britain and Holland International language during the medieval period Yinka Shonibare’s family stayed in London so his father could study this subject James Abbott McNeill Whistler sued John Ruskin. Commander James Cook was accompanied by this ship During his second voyage to the Pacific. humans erected formations of these rocks in Western Europe. mostly naked Native Americans Michelangelo and Leonardo inspired this term. “great stones”. the advocates used the Walking Purchase as part of their evidence Perception of the exotic East which was popular during the era of Imperialism and in the decades that followed. groups speaking this language arrived in the Sapi Kingdom. 77.

snakes the snake charmer plays to in Face Mask. Tuscan. number of snakes in Face Mask Height in human heads of a human figure in Classical Greek sculpture Some Asafo flags are this length in feet or longer Number of painted panels on Matthias Grünewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece (c. 51. Michelangelo painted the Sistine Chapel ceiling over this many years. 60)   4 ⅛ (8) 5 (9. number of rudimentary sculptural techniques111. 12. and construction. 48. number of photographs in Yinka Shonibare’s set of The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters Number of tertiary colors available through mixing a primary color (like red) and a secondary color (like orange) next to it on the color wheel. 17. Portuguese men in Plaque. 88)  6 (33. and runners hired for the Walking Purchase. and European men presenting the bolt of cloth to the Lenape Indians in Penn’s Treaty with the Indians. 53. types of stone used in Stonehenge (bluestone and sarsen). 45. total number of figures in Plaque. green fish in Asafo Flag. horses in Plate. Corinthian. number of legs around the central column of the finial of Lidded Saltcellar. musicians in Plaque. length in feet of Asafo Flag. saltcellars Albrecht Dürer bought. modeling. Great Britain. 61. 86)  4 (12. max amount of months needed for the completion of a Canton porcelain production. birds in Asafo Flag. 51. 112 Namely Doric. 1510 – 1515)  3 (9. 61. age of Yinka Shonibare when his family moved back to Nigeria Minoans built this many palaces on Crete. 78. . 76) Number of decades the Scramble for Africa lasted. 60. 50. number of classical orders112 in architecture. and Composite. 48. casting. Islam Carving. 54. 54)    7.Art Power Guide | 209 NUMBERS  2 (9. 38. Ionic. and dishes in the set of porcelain Mary and Leake Okeover ordered Approximate height in inches of Venus of Willendorf The innermost ring of Stonehenge contains this number of upright sarsen stones topped by horizontal stones arranged into the shape of a horseshoe. total number of fish present in Asafo Flag.5 (35) 8 (51) 9 (19) 110 111 Yoruba. cultures Wrapper blends110 . minimum amount of months needed for a Canton production of a porcelain piece and minimum amount of years needed for a Jingdezhen production Number of rings of stones in Stonehenge. 50.

which Michelangelo christened the Gates of Paradise Age at which Joseph Mallord William Turner became a full member of the Royal Academy. number of years John Frederick Lewis lived in Cairo (from 1841 to 1851) Number of islands in Florida that Christo and Jeanne-Claude wrapped in pink plastic Number of hues on the color wheel Age at which Joseph Mallord William Turner enrolled in classes at the Royal Academy in London Age at which Joseph Mallord William Turner exhibited his first watercolor painting at the Royal Academy. 85) Number of surviving works by Matthias Grünewald. height in feet of Fading Cloth. Pancras Railway Station and Frederick William Stevens’ creation of the design for Victoria Terminus Building. number of years between the completion of St. occurred in 1790 Height in feet of the largest megaliths (“great stones”) in rock formations erected during the Neolithic Period. 75)   40 (66) . the average Boston worker earned this many pounds per year. occurred in 1802 In ideal circumstances. cost in pounds of one of Paul Revere’s teapots in the 1760s. 67. 66.Art Power Guide | 210  10 (19. 56. number of years Frederick William Stevens worked for the Public Works Department of India before he received the assignment of designing the Victoria Terminus Building. the Pope recognized Baroque artist Gianlorenzo Bernini when the latter was this age Age at which Yinka Shonibare suffered paralysis from transverse myelitis Length in miles of the cloth fence Christo and Jeanne-Claude built in California Queen Mary and King George V’s silver jubilee commemorated this anniversary of their rule Lorenzo Ghiberti worked for this many years on his second set of doors for the Florence baptistery. number of years Benjamin West worked as court painter for King George III In the early 18th century. this percent of shipping from the colonies passed through Boston  11 (27) 12 (34) 14 (80) 15 (80) 17 (9. 20)      19 (86) 24 (27) 25 (53) Over 25 (16)     27 (81) 30 (66.

10. approximate length in years of the Guti barbarians’ reign in Mesopotamia between the civilizations of Akkad (c.400 (61) 1.000 (66) 12. most of these relics only come from the last 2. George’s Cathedral in feet. Italy. 2. 54.500 (35) 5. approximate number of years after World War II during which the artistic centers of England.000 years due to an environment unfavorable to preservation  60 (75)   64 (66) 80 (88) 90 (84) 143 (70) 200 (21. and spoons The oldest archaeological finds in present-day Canada and the United States date back this many years.Art Power Guide | 211  50 (9.E) and Neo-Sumer (established in c. 87) Weight in tons of the largest megaliths (“great stones”) in Stonehenge and other rock formations erected during the Neolithic Period. approximate number of villages of the Guro peoples. he created this number of watercolors and drawings Size in square yards of Michelangelo’s fresco covering the entire Sistine Chapel ceiling Maximum degrees Celsius at which hard paste porcelain is fired Number of languages and dialects in India Length in miles of the Great Wall of China. this height makes the cathedral one of the tallest wooden churches in the world Size in acres of Louis XIV’s palace at Versailles. the majority of archaeological finds related to cultures in present-day Canada and the United States only date back this many years due to an environment unfavorable to preservation Classical Greek sculptors formulated ideal human proportions this many years ago Total number of objects Paul Revere made during his lifetime. 2.000 (32)   .150 B.334 – 2.000 (28. most of these were common items such as buckles. and Germany stood in the shadow of New York City. 26. France. 62)     500 (82) 600 (85) 700 (17) 1. artists must be under this age and British to be eligible to receive the Turner Prize Number of paintings Benjamin West created for King George III while he was court painter. in this capacity he painted both royal portraits and historical scenes The number of teapots Paul Revere made in his lifetime Francisco Goya’s The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters is one in a set of this many etchings During the time that James Abbott McNeill Whistler created Purple and Rose. this percent of eta in England was imported from China Height of St. amount of time in years the East India Company held a dominant position in India and parts of Asia The Anti-Slavery Society Convention of 1840 in London was attended by over this number of delegates from around the world During the ten years John Frederick Lewis lived in Cairo.600 (28) 2. 32)       2.C. buttons.E).C.100 B.

000. crafted an enduring ideal of female beauty 1377 – 1446. 1444 – 1510.000. over this number of Yoruba people live in Nigeria      ORGANIZATIONS –FIRMS AND GROUPS  Great Indian Peninsular Railway (67) Jesuits (19) Oxford Street shop (84) Reed and Barnes (69) Frederick William Stevens designed Victoria Terminus Building for this company Founded in the Baroque era.000 (76) 1.000 (52) Number of square miles of land the King of England gave William Penn in 1681 in payment for a debt to his father In 1877.Art Power Guide | 212  45.000.500. founded in August 1765. owned by Murray Marks. most of the members kept their political affiliations secret      Sloan Street shop (84) Sons of Liberty (65) PEOPLE – ARTISTS – THE RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM  Botticelli (16) Brunelleschi. Leonardo (16) . Filippo (16) c.000 (66) 1. this firm designed the Royal Exhibition Building See Oxford Street shop A political group in Boston led by Samuel Adams. frequented by James Abbott McNeill Whistler Architectural firm of Joseph Reed and his partner. lived a generation after Donatello. Paul Revere joined this group in 1765.000 (68) 30. he turned to architecture and triumphed in another competition to construct the dome of the Florence cathedral.000 (69) 3. 1482). this mission and other Catholic orders aimed to convert natives of European colonies Shop featuring Chinese imports. Frederick Barnes. this architect invented the double-shelled dome and linear perspective See Leonardo   Da Vinci. when the Victoria Terminus Building was completed. the population of Bombay was less than this number Approximately this many people from around the world attended the Melbourne International Exhibition from October 1880 to May 1881 Currently more than this number of people go through the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus every day Melbourne is one of the most populous cities in Australia with a population of this number Currently.000. painted The Birth of Venus (c.000 (66) 4. opposed British colonial policies. placed runner-up to Lorenzo Ghiberti in the competition to sculpt doors for the Florence baptistery.

Lorenzo (16)  Giorgione (17) Grünewald. applied classical ideas in his work. which became known as the Gates of Paradise c. and theatricality 1471 – 1528. Giotto (15) 1267 – 1337. well known for his frescoes See Michelangelo See El Greco c. painted elongated subjects c. propagated Renaissance ideas in Germany. woodcuts. Albrecht (19. 1475 – 1528. trained under Titian in Venice. he spent over 25 years sculpting the second set of doors. this artist turned to combining Italian Renaissance techniques and northern European naturalism. the city of Florence commissioned this sculptor to craft a different set of doors for the same baptistery. masterfully reproduced details and psychological characters. 48)  El Greco (18)113  Ghiberti. served as court painter to King Henry VIII. painted the Isenheim Altarpiece (c.Art Power Guide | 213  Di Bondone. in 1400. 1498). Michelangelo (17) Dominikos Theotokopoulos (18) Donatello (16)    Dürer. published sets of copper engravings. and discourses on art theories. Tintoretto’s paintings impacted this artist. Matthias (19)   Hans Holbein the Younger (19) 113 USAD does not provide this artist’s lifespan. famous for religious images. 1477 – 150. his classical-inspired depiction of the Sacrifice of Isaac won a design competition for the doors of the Florence baptistery. 1386 – 1466. . only ten known works by this artist exist today. a model for English painters well into the 19th century  Di Buonarotti. 1510 – 1515) 1497 – 1593. moved from Italy to Toledo in Spain in 1576. created The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (c. especially those of Christ’s crucifixion. visited Italy to peruse Renaissance pieces. such as the bronze David (1430 – 1432). perhaps the finest Renaissance portraitist. based his figures on threedimensional models. afterwards. best known artist from the transitional period between the Gothic and Renaissance eras. between 1520 and 1521. he and Matthias Grünewald remain the most influential northern Renaissance artists. in the 15th century. this artist’s later sculptures express more naturalism. founder of modern sculpture. invented simple perspective. painted The Tempest (c. 1378 – 1455. born in Germany but gained the most fame in England. his early training revolved around late Gothic works. in which overlapping figures imply distance. departed from flat and stylized Gothic figures. he and Albrecht Dürer remain the most influential northern Renaissance artists. character. seminal landscape painter of the Renaissance in Venice. this artist purchased two saltcellars Eminent Mannerist painter who worked during the Counter Reformation. 1508) c.

along with Raphael and Michelangelo. painting. and other objects as acceptable backgrounds for portraits. monumental High Renaissance painter. particularly inspired Benjamin West  Masaccio (16)  Michelangelo (16. masterful Mannerist painter from Venice. female Baroque artist. pursued naturalism to a controversial degree. employed the dramatic angles and twisted figures of Mannerism but not the style’s acidic colors. Gianlorenzo (20) 1598 – 1680. 1513 – 1514) and other masterpieces. inspired the term Renaissance Man. received commissions from Pope Julius II to paint School of Athens (1509 – 1511) and other opulent frescoes in the Pope’s chambers. along with Titian and Michelangelo. he reluctantly accepted another commission from the same pope to paint the 700-square yard Sistine Chapel ceiling (1508 – 1512). 75) PEOPLE – ARTISTS – THE BAROQUE  Bernini. 17. sculpted the marble David (1504) and decorations for the tomb of Pope Julius II. painter. 1593 – c. applied emotional chiaroscuro contrasts of light and dark. born to a sculptor. even recruited impoverished commoners as models c. Titian (17.Art Power Guide | 214  Leonardo (16) 1452 – 1519. Italian Baroque painter. primary Baroque artist. and musician. particularly inspired Benjamin West 1518 – 1594. although Brunelleschi invented linear perspective. later. Raphael (17)  Tintoretto (17)  Vecelli. an avid inventor. when Julius II cancelled the commission for his tomb. 75)   Perugino. this artist’s perspectives and lighting contrasts precede Baroque art c. 1488 – 1576. 1503 – 1505). this artist agonized over the wasted effort. revolutionary portrait painter of the Renaissance in Venice. introduced curtains. painted The Last Supper (c. privileged because her father worked as a painter. 1495 – 1498) and Mona Lisa (c. painted Caravaggesque self-portraits and Old Testament scenes  Caravaggio (19)  Gentileschi. architect. engineer. columns. particularly inspired Benjamin West Painted a Sistine Chapel fresco containing linear perspective 1483 – 1520. and drawing. inspired the term Renaissance Man. sculpted the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa (1647 – 1652) 1573 – 1610. this artist also adapted aerial perspective 1475 – 1564. used dramatic contrasts of light and dark which influenced generations of later artists. 1652. sculptor. along with Raphael and Titian. this fresco painter first applied the technique. conceived a lasting image of the Virgin Mary in Sistine Madonna (c. gifted in architecture. his career as a theater designer affected his works. as seen in his depictions of the Virgin Mary and apostles as poor people. invented sfumato 1401 – 1428. trained in her father’s studio. greatest colorist of the Renaissance. Pietro (33) Sanzio. scientist. Artemisia (20) .

Neoclassicist and student of Jacques-Louis David. and rational as well as geometric organization 1684 – 1721. prominent Romantic artist 1780 – 1867. painted The Night Watch (1642) and later in life. Madame Pompadour favored him. 88)   Gericault. inspired François Boucher  David. received patronage from Madame Pompadour. primary Romantic artist and rival of Jean Dominique Ingres. joined 1798 – 1863. painted the popular Romantic subjects of exotic settings. died in poverty. painted using the Neoclassical preferences of sharp outlines. William (22) Boucher. 83) 1577 – 1640. prominent Romantic artist 1703 – 1770. court painter of Spanish King Philip IV. admired and studied by James Abbott McNeill Whistler. spearheaded the Rococo generation and the new genre of fête galante. which inspired Impressionists and other later artists   Velázquez. painted Oath of the Horatii (1784) and other exemplary republican images protesting the Rococo aristocracy. major Rococo artist. famous Dutch Baroque painter. Théodore (22) Ingres. Watteau’s delicate paintings inspired this major Rococo artist. violence involving animals. painted The Stonebreakers (1849 – 1850). Honoré (23) . Neoclassicist. through studying this artist’s work. this painter’s art brought classical mythical characters. set up a large workshop in Flanders. presented an exuberant and outgoing personality. Rembrandt (21. based his pieces on colors and not lines. François Boucher. Peter Paul (21) Van Rijn. friend of James Abbott McNeill Whistler 1808 – 1879. Diego (21) PEOPLE – ARTISTS – ROCOCO. after the Revolution of 1789. Jacques Louis (21)  Delacroix. Realist artist  Daumier. AND ROMANTICISM   Blake. into scenes of aristocratic revelry 1748 – 1825. and scenes from history 1732 – 1806. Flemish Baroque artist. and draftsman. painted in a style akin to his teacher. especially sensuous female nudes. François (21) 1757 – 1827. NEOCLASSICISM. Gustave (22. extraordinarily intimate self-portraits. printmaker. Whistler learned to convey great emotion with a limited range of tones 1599 – 1660. unemotional subjects. created the painting The Swing which Yinka Shonibare imitated in The Swing (after Fragonard) in 2001 1791 – 1824. contemporary of Bernini. Jean-Antoine (22) PEOPLE – ARTISTS – REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM  Courbet. 83) 1819 – 1877. prominent Realist artist. major French Rococo artist. his poignant energy and color inspired generations of artists 1606 – 1669. Jean Honoré (21. Eugène (22)  Fragonard. Jean Dominique (22)  Watteau.Art Power Guide | 215  Rubens.

painted and exhibited Impression Sunrise (1873). and background planes. applied energetic. Georges (24)  Van Gogh. a feature at the Armory Show (1913)  Brancusi. cones. reacted to Impressionism’s incoherent forms through geometrically structured paintings. or spheres defined all objects in a painting. while in his forties. influenced Cubism 1843 – 1903. 81. Édouard (23) 1834 – 1917. painted The Kiss. renowned painter. Edgar (24) Manet. Realist artist 1840 – 1926. some art historians still regard him the first Impressionist. notable Impressionist artist 1839 – 1899. middle ground. universal situations like what Joseph Mallord William Turner painted. professed himself a non-Impressionist. Vincent (24. Dutch painter who based his colors on emotions in works such as Night Café (1888). prioritized color science. traveled to Tahiti seeking rich tropical colors and the island’s aborigines as painting subjects 1859 – 1891. encouraged Impressionist artists to paint outdoors. Claude (23. family. this Post-Impressionist deserted his wife. applied the technique of optical mixing in which tiny dots of complementary colors blend into spectacular colors. ABSTRACTION & POSTMODERNISM  Albers. and stockbroker career to study art. proposed dividing compositions into well-defined foreground. known to have collected hundreds of Japanese woodprints 1830 – 1903. believed that arrangements of geometric forms such as cubes. emulated the slight overhead perspective of Japanese prints and the snapshot appearance of photographs 1832 – 1883. painted Luncheon on the Grass (1863) 1814 – 1875.Art Power Guide | 216  Degas. leading Post-Impressionist. one of the Bauhaus professors who moved to the United States after Nazis closed the institute in Germany 1876 – 1957. depicted the sunlit country of southern France in compositions with thick paint and contrasting colors. Jean François (23) Monet. and designer. Impressionist. Paul (23) 1839 – 1906. briefly trained under van Gogh. Josef (26) 1888 – 1976. unfortunately. which inspired the name of the Impressionist movement. 83)   Pissarro. known to have collected hundreds of Japanese woodprints  Gauguin. Paul (24)  Seurat. often painted recognizable landscapes as opposed to abstract. Constantine (24) . this artist could not paint active compositions due to his focus on technique 1853 – 1890. notable Impressionist artist    Millet. graphic artist. twisting brushstrokes. Camille (23) Sisley. Alfred (23) PEOPLE – ARTISTS – POST-IMPRESSIONISM & THE LATE 19TH CENTURY  Cézanne. his style contrasts intense colors to mimic light. 83) PEOPLE – ARTISTS – MODERNISM.

1908 and the collage (c. police barrier. Jackson (26)  Rauschenberg. reacted against abstraction through naturalistic artworks involving commonplace objects such as flags. assembled discarded objects into combines. Salvador (26) Duchamp. Surrealist artist 1887 – 1968. in which common objects in a new context equate art 1930 – . Abstract Expressionist artist 1898 – 1967. and letters 1906 – 2005. invented ready-mades. this Norwegian painter’s emotionally moving work inspired the German artist group Die Brücke to create Expressionism 1867 – 1956. invented Cubism (c.Art Power Guide | 217  Braque. shoe heel. created Bull’s Head (1943) out of a bicycle seat and bicycle handlebars 1912 – 1956. 39) Dalí. 1912) 1904 – 1989. Marcel (26) 1882 – 1963. Ernst Ludwig (25) Kline. Robert (26. René (26) Malevich. maps. treated his bedclothes as a canvas in Bed (1955). Der Blaue Reiter. Abstract Expressionist artist 1908 – 1984. Lee (26) Magritte. Russian artist at the head of the German group of Expressionist artists. painted purely abstract paintings in c. Willem de (26) Krasner. Vassily (25)         Kirchner. Dutch artist who invented the De Stijl paintings wildly popular in modern art. Jasper (26)  Johnson. 1913 1880 – 1938. numbers. painted Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon (1907). his De Stijl images contain only flat areas of primary color. and paint    Johns. Abstract Expressionist artist 1904 – 1997. Russian painter. Piet (25)    Munch. member of the German Expressionist group Die Brücke 1910 – 1962. Henri (25) Miró. 1912). one of the first purely abstract artists 1869 – 1954. created Monogram (1959) out of items like a stuffed goat. led the Fauves in painting with controversially bright arbitrary colors 1893 – 1983. his work fits into the actionpainting category of Abstract Expressionism 1925 – 2008. invented Cubism (c. renowned International Style architect who shifted to decorative Postmodernism in 1970. archetypal Abstract Expressionist artist. built the AT&T Building (1984) 1866 – 1944. 1908) and the collage (c. Franz (26) Kooning. Pablo (25. 39) . masterminded the Cubist Nude Descending a Staircase (1912) and the Dadaist Fountain (1917) as well as LHOOQ (1919). one of the first purely abstract artists 1863 – 1944. Kazimir (25) Matisse. Joan (26) Mondrian. along with Georges Braque. Edvard (25) Nolde. Surrealist artist 1872 – 1944. tennis ball. reacted against abstraction through naturalistic artworks involving commonplace objects. dripped paint onto the canvas instead of using a brush. tire. 39)    Pollock. along with Pablo Picasso. Surrealist artist 1878 – 1935. Philip (27) Kandinsky. member of the German Expressionist group Die Brücke 1881 – 1973. Georges (25. Emil (25) Picasso.

MINIMALISM. Chuck (27) Cornell. in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Frank (27) Warhol. Dan (27) Hanson. Michael (27) Jeanne-Claude (27) Smithson. pink plastic wrapping around 11 islands in Florida. the anonymous members wear gorilla masks in public. coordinated the creation of Earthworks by her husband. Philip Charles (70) . Roy (27) Smith. his creations include fabric wrapping around public monuments. Minimalist artist who created hard-edge paintings containing precise outlines 1928 – 1987. AND PHOTOREALISM   Close. and movie stars. a 24-mile long fence of cloth in California. Duane (27) Indiana. this architect disregarded flat surfaces and straight lines to give his structures a highly organic appearance Arthur Blomfield apprenticed himself to this architect before establishing his own practice  Hardwick. Christo 1938 – 1973. Pop Artist who imitated the colored dots of comic books on a massive scale 1906 – 1965. Brillo boxes. Pop Art celebrity who drew silkscreens of soup cans.Art Power Guide | 218 PEOPLE – ARTISTS – POP ART. Pop Artist who used commercial sign stencils 1923 – 1997. and gateways of orange fabric in Central Park Feminist group founded in 1985 in New York. along with his wife Jeanne-Claude. pioneered Earthworks through packaged architecture or landscapes. Minimalist sculptor. followed a mechanical approach that mocked fine art        PEOPLE – ARTISTS – ENVIRONMENTAL AND PERFORMANCE ART  Christo (27) 1935 – present. created Earthworks  Guerilla Girls (27)   Heizer. planned cut stone buildings in Spain. through posters. Robert (27)  PEOPLE – ARTISTS – ARCHITECTS  Gaudi. placed assorted objects in open boxes. Robert (27) Lichtenstein. Andy (27) 1940 – present. Photorealist who painted lifelike portraits 1903 – 1972. Photorealist who crafted humorous sculptures of common people 1928 – present. created Earthworks 1935 – present. public speeches. Antonio (41) 1852 – 1926. this faction protests white male dominance in the art world 1944 – present. and other guerilla warfare tactics. worked with neon tubing 1925 – 1996. symbols and metaphors unite the various objects in his boxes 1933 – 1996. worked with stainless steel 1877 – 1946. David (27) Stella. Minimalist sculptor. Joseph (39) Flavin.

E. Emily (85. analyzed artworks from the past and his time in Natural History Analyzed the importance of tea to the British during the time of James Abbott McNeill Whistler’s painting. Symphony in White. 86)  Winckelmann.E.. departed from Vasari’s art history centered on artist biographies. this historian’s work showcases the Renaissance’s influence on the new role of the artist and the concept of artistic genius Analyzed the historical accuracy of John Frederick Lewis’ A Lady Receiving Visitors. Joanna (83) . Symphony in White. 1: The White Girl. wrote The Lives of the Artists on biographies of illustrious Italian artists up to the Renaissance. Paula (50) Professor of anthropology and African studies. ancient Roman historian. promoted art history focused on parallels between history and stylistic changes. 2: The Little White Girl. Purple and Rose. TEACHERS. and some paintings by Gustave Courbet. mistress of Gustave Courbet’s as well   Hiffernan. Romita (84)    Vasari. exemplifies the effect of Enlightenment ideas on art history  Fagg. this man and his troops were caught in a snowstorm in the mountains in 218 B. Johann Joachim (7) PEOPLE – ART SUBJECTS. AND STUDENTS  Gleyre. this designation indicated that the production was a combination of the two cultures Interpreted Joseph Mallord William Turner’s Slave Ship as a judgment sentence on slavers and a retribution for the innocent lives lost 23 – 79 C. William (48)  Landow. Giorgio (7)  Weeks. in relation to the original function of plaques said that “very few of them now appear to us to convey narratives” Dubbed the ivory carvings produced by the Sapi for the Portuguese as “Afro-Portuguese ivories” in 1959. James Abbott McNeill Whistler attended classes in this artist’s studio in France Ancient Roman military leader. this event inspired Joseph Mallord William Turner’s painting. established artist-centric art history. determined that the painting is extremely accurate with the exception of the setting: a woman would never be allowed in the mandarah in a Muslim home 1717 – 1768. German Enlightenment scholar. Charles (83) Hannibal (81) Mentor to many French Impressionist painters.. Snow Storm – Hannibal Crossing the Alps Model for Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks. George (82) Pliny the Elder (6) Ray.Art Power Guide | 219 PEOPLE – ART HISTORIANS  Ben-Amos. claimed that by the late 18th and first half of the 19th centuries. No.C. tea had become Great Britain’s national beverage 1511 – 1574. No. James Abbott McNeill Whistler’s mistress in the 1860s.

red. part of the Akan language group.340 – 2. subjects revered the king and not the city state. CIVILIZATIONS. Sargon led this civilization in conquering Sumer. this culture assimilated Sumerian society despite a language barrier. 52.150 B. 55)  Asmat (31) . died in the 1759 Battle of Quebec.E. under this dynasty. created wooden shields adorned with black. religious tolerance. The Death of General Wolfe  Penn. active in church and politics. 2. after much European conquest and debate. traveled to London to study under Benjamin West. joined the Sons of Liberty in 1765. goldsmith. 50. founder of Pennsylvania. inspired Benjamin West’s controversial painting.C. famous for his “midnight ride” in April 1775. an invasion of Guti barbarians toppled this dynasty in c. AND EMPIRES  Akkadian (10) c. and white patterns. especially kente cloth. traded the Europeans slaves for luxury goods. Paul (64)    Stuart. produced engraving for magazines. from the 1760s on. Gilbert (75) Trumbull. Charles Willson See Peale. bookplates and trading cards.. located in Ghana. subject of Benjamin West’s Penn’s Treaty with the Indians 1734 – 1818. Richard (78) Wolfe. John (75) Wilson. bringing the influences of European classicism 1644 – 1718. William (76)  Revere. fashioned freestanding and relief portrait sculptures of monarchs.150 B. used gold and copper alloys in royal art. 46. sat for Paul Revere in 1768 when he was about 34 years old See Peale. and fair relationships with the Native Americans. the area became British Guiana and. James (75)  PEOPLE – CULTURES. eventually. designated art traditions centered on warfare. Charles Willson (75) American artist. and even dentist. returned to the United States. Charles Willson William Hodges apprenticed himself to this artist in 1758. currently uses wooden shields as cultural symbols and not war equipment  Anglo-Saxon (15) Anyi (54) Attie (54) Arawak (70)     Asante (45. Hiberno-Saxon art combines the innovations of Celtic Ireland and this English culture with Viking styles Cultural group connected to the Guro Cultural group connected to the Guro The northern coast of South America was originally populated by the Carib peoples and this tribe. Guyana Neighbors to the Fante.E. accomplished silversmith. woven by men for royalty Cultural group on Melanesia in Oceania. formerly a head-hunting culture. 2. associated with the Quakers. famous for creating woodcarvings and textiles.C. landscape painter and member of the Royal Academy General.Art Power Guide | 220  Peale.

the British raided this kingdom’s palace and destroyed or seized innumerable artifacts.C. dubbed “Beny Kingdom” and admired by the Portuguese Portuguese name for the Benin Kingdom Descendant of the Sapi in Sierra Leone African culture. produced objects related to lavish court life.C. power in culture held by chiefs and Asafo companies.E. along with the Bwa. and succumbed to the Neo-Babylonian civilization (c. crafted meticulous mosaics of ceramic tiles or pieces of stone and glass. the area became British Guiana and..C. dominated the Near East from c.E. hunts. 52)      Beny Kingdom (48) Bolum (47) Bwa (30) Byzantium (14)  Carib (70)  Celtic (15) Cycladic (11)      Dan (30) Delaware (76) Edo (48) Etruscan (13) Ewe (55. faltered throughout the 7th century B.E. Guyana Hiberno-Saxon art combines the innovations of Anglo-Saxon England and this Irish culture with Viking styles First Aegean Sea civilization.E. marble vessels. built the Hagia Sophia (532 – 537 C. geometric nude female figurines. neighbors to the Asante and part of the Akan language group. survived the fall of Rome. produced fascinating ritual masks Eastern half of the Roman empire.. bronze portrait busts. the Minoan culture dethroned this society African culture. 3.C. in 1897. and other noteworthy events. El Anatsui is the son and brother of weavers from this group Located in coastal area of Ghana.) in Constantinople The northern coast of South America was originally populated by the Arawak peoples and this tribe. battles. or the Gold Coast. founded in 900 C. c.C.E. crafted decorative pottery.E. created Asafo Flag   Aztec (32) Baule (54. after much European conquest and debate. 55) Benin Kingdom (30. along with the Dan.Art Power Guide | 221  Assyrian (10) Reigned over northern Mesopotamia during the eras of Sumerian.. 612 – 538 B.E. and Babylonian influence in southern Mesopotamia. Akkadian. 600 B.E. produced fascinating ritual masks See Lenape Inhabitants of the Benin Kingdom Greek art influenced early Roman art through this civilization that existed in Italy during the 1st millennium B. or king. this culture’s art Male weavers in this cultural group and the Asante create kente cloth. 900 B. eventually..C. 57) Fante (50)   . and relics emphasizing the authority of the oba.) One of the early civilizations in the Americas Cultural group neighboring and much larger than the Guro. placed mosaic work on church walls such as those in Ravenna. created Mami Wata masks very similar to Face Mask Nigerian civilization from the 13th through 18th centuries. and simple. 48. produced relief sculptures commemorating sieges. settled on the Cyclades archipelago. to c. neighbors of the Yoruba.200 – 2.000 B.

exemplifies Oceanic cultures that adapt older traditions to modern contexts The native people and culture of Mumbai. built four unfortified palaces on Crete in light and organic styles In the 17th century. connected to the Yaure. woodcarving. India Third Aegean Sea civilization. proficient in goldsmithing and relief sculpture  Guti (10) Igbo (56) Inca (32) Kissi (47) Kongo (45. India. produced Face Mask These barbarians vanquished Akkad and controlled Mesopotamia from c. family. in this culture’s legends.E. most prominent in the 2nd millennium B. Wan.C.C. the city of Mycenae on mainland Greece served as this civilization’s capital. to c. known for masquerade tradition.. created and used minkisi which were wiped out by Belgian conquerors Native Americans in Pennsylvania. based around the city of Knossos on the island of Crete.Art Power Guide | 222   Fon (52) Guro (53) Cultural group nearby and closely connected to the Yoruba Cultural group in Côte d’Ivoire. favored the use of this motif See Aztec Descendant of the Sapi in Sierra Leone Located in the Western Congo Basin. carved patterns on buildings Adjective form of a word meaning “great stones”. traded the Europeans slaves for luxury goods. Anyi. refers to a New Stone age culture that erected rock formations in Western Europe Second Aegean Sea civilization. artists from the Nsukka Group. sculpted statues of a female snake goddess. many of the name changes in Mumbai promote this identity. leading historians to believe that this culture wiped out the Minoans. 2. painted naturalistic pottery designs and palace frescoes depicting sea life.090 B.150 B. and blacksmithing. 2. also known as Leni Lenape or Delaware tribe See Lenape Cultural group on New Zealand. constructed elegant tombs that preserved many relics. focused on agriculture. neighbored by the Baule.E. 12)  .C.E. 12)   Mughals (68) Mycenaean (11. 46)      Lenape (76)   Leni Lenape (76) Maori (31) Marathi (68)    Maya (32) Megalithic (9) Minoan (11. especially Uche Okeke. and Attie groups. Traditional motifs of this group are called uli. the Hindu king Chhatrapati Shivaji led a resistance against this group and founded the Marathi nation in Mumbai. populated by approximately 50 villages. ruled by a council of elders which can appoint a war council if necessary. peaked at the same time as the decline of the Minoan culture. Chhatrapati Shivaji founded this nation One of the early American civilizations. the labyrinthine royal palace of Knossos housed the Minotaur. William Penn offered this tribe gifts in exchange for rights to the land. a bull-man creature that consumed intruders.

proficient in architecture. when France attacked. 500 B.. ancestor to the Temne..C. Muhammed Ali gained power and drove the British out as well.090 B. invented concrete and the curved arch. crafted relief sculptures for funerals. and Bolum. when John Frederick Lewis lived in Cairo. silver. perhaps affected later cultures like the Yoruba Source of abstract. the Colosseum. 2.E. controlled Egypt during one period of the civilization’s history. the King of Ur was the first monarch to rule this civilization.Art Power Guide | 223  Native Americans (32) Nazi Germany (26) Neo-Babylonian (10) Crafted pueblo complexes in the Southwest. created Lidded Saltcellar    Neo-Sumerian (10)  Nok (30)  Nomadic Germanic (14)  Northwest Coast Indians (41) Nubian (11)    Olmec (32) Ottoman Empire (85. built the Palace of Persepolis Drew from Etruscan art early on.E. which fulfilled administrative. succeeded Assyria as the major power in the Near East. this empire and the British Empire allied and drove the French out. the entrance to the temple of Bel In c. the region was ruled by the Turks under this empire. 86)  Persian Empire (10) Roman (14)   Sapi (47) .C. 375 – 1025). crafted highly realistic terracotta sculptures.E. in 1882.E. mostly likely portraits of political and religious leaders.C. sculpted triumphal arches celebrating emperors or military victories. and.C. in 1805. pharaohs came from Nubia during this time See Aztec This Empire competed with France and Great Britain for control of North Africa.. erected ziggurats at city centers. constructed aqueducts. emulated Greece by the 2nd century B.E. dethroned the Guti barbarians in the Near East.. admired by the Portuguese. c. bridges. and the Pantheon. and geometric metalwork in the form of small jewelry or ornaments from the early medieval period (c. religious purposes Blossomed in present-day Nigeria in c. and gold in gem-encrusted metalwork Native American culture. created works in an idealized rather than naturalistic style. organized into small communities ruled by local chiefs. during the 15th and 16th centuries. 538 – 330 B. decorative. currently crafts boxes and house boards bearing traditional decorative patterns Ruled a wide expanse of Africa south of Egypt. produced many ivory carvings for Portuguese explorers. 612 – 538 B.. Benton’s Indiana Murals depicts the deportation of these people from Indiana This regime closed the Bauhaus school of design in 1933 c.C. due to financial difficulties. used bronze. economic. Located along the coastline of Guinea and Sierra Leone. most importantly. Kissi. constructed the famed hanging gardens and the Ishtar Gate. this empire surrendered control of the region to the British Civilization based in present-day Iran.

Art Power Guide | 224  Sumerian (10) c. George (85)  PEOPLE – HARLEM RENAISSANCE  Bearden.340 B. Hiberno-Saxon art arose from this culture’s invasions and combines the innovations of Anglo-Saxon England and Celtic England with this culture’s styles Cultural group connected to the Guro Cultural group connected to the Guro The Nok civilization (originated in c. the slave trade was abolished and the kingdom revived. in the 19th century.C.000 – 2. this resurgence. father of John Frederick Lewis John Singleton Copley’s mother married this painter and engraver in 1748. introduced Copley to artistic techniques. large ethnic group in Nigeria. first major civilization in Mesopotamia. Descendant of the Sapi in Sierra Leone See Aztec Hailed from Scandinavia. created Wrapper    Temne (47) Toltec (32) Viking (14. Frederick Christian (85) Pelham. closely connected with the Benin Kingdom and the Fon.E. Frederick (69) 1824 – 1884. Peter (63) Robert. helped design the Royal Exhibition Building. uncle of John Frederick Lewis   Lewis. known for creating terra cotta and cast metal heads. revolved around religion. one of the most ancient urban groups on the African continent. began a partnership with Joseph Reed in 1862.C. 52) PEOPLE – FAMILIES AND PARTNERS OF ARTISTS  Barnes. died in 1751 Painter. especially on ships. 500 B.340 B. royalty dons beaded crowns to assert power and draw connections between the royal and the orishas. this culture’s simple platform temples became stepped pyramids. Sargon of Akkad subjugated this society in 2.E) in present-day Nigeria perhaps shaped this culture and other later societies. 15)    Wan (54) Yaure (54) Yoruba (30. Jacob (25) Artist from the generation after the Harlem Renaissance who drew inspiration from the movement See Bearden. or deities. Romare (25) Lawrence. valued loyalty to the city-state.C. or ziggurats. retired in 1883 Engraver and landscape painter. the slave trade and wars with neighboring kingdoms caused a period of decline in the 18th century. forming the firm Reed and Barnes. 4. ended with the arrival of the British.E. architect influenced by Classical and Greek styles. most skilled in wood carvings. over time. however.. Romare  .

Uche (56) Piranesi. created the Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters as part of a set of 80 etchings in a folio called Los Caprichos between 1796 and 1798. died on land in 1783. work quoted by Yinka Shonibare Thomas Penn’s secretary. assisted with the Walking Purchase 17th century landscape painter.M. reached his destination of Jamaica safely. inspired a portion of Thomas Clarkson’s The History of the Abolition of the Slave Trade and Joseph Mallord William Turner’s Slave Ship. along with King George III. Turner’s Slave Ship sentenced judgment on this captain Commander in Great Britain’s Royal Navy. inspired Yinka Shonibare’s Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters Famous British artist. creates textiles for local and international markets Famous British artist. ordered to head the British Punitive Expedition of 1897 and attack Benin City Painter at the Royal Academy. William (88) Logan. Luke (82) Published a picture of the Dome of the Rock in “The Immovable East: Studies of the People and Customs of Palestine” in 1913 1898 – 1976. threw over 100 slaves overboard in order to collect more insurance benefits. Francisco (88)      Hogarth. Alexander (39) Collingwood. Phillip (31) Calder. William Hodges accompanies this commander on his second journey to the Pacific from 1772 to 1775. James (79)  Davies-Okundaya. Joseph Mallord William Turner studied this artist’s work along with that of Jacob van Ruisdael Owned the Oxford and Sloan Street Shops where James Abbott McNeill Whistler purchased his Chinese imports Founding member of the Nsukka Group. Murray (84) Okeke.present. Claude (81)  Marks. Nike (53) Gainsborough. commanded the ship HMS Resolution and was accompanied by the HMS Adventure 1951.Art Power Guide | 225 PEOPLE – MISCELLANEOUS  Baldensperger. criticized Benjamin West’s use of contemporary clothing in The Death of General Wolfe    Cook. while in Europe. Spanish painter and printmaker. Thomas (88) Goya. Giovanni Battista (13) Rawson. works to promote traditional African techniques. work quoted by Yinka Shonibare 1746 – 1828. J.W. Joshua (76)     . Harry (49) Reynolds. James (78) Lorrain. this sculptor created mobiles in which forms hang from wires Captain of the slave ship in the infamous Zong Affair in 1781. favored the use of Igbo traditional motifs called uli Used engraving to illustrate the Roman Colosseum in 1757 British Rear Admiral.

Mary (60) Martin. commissioned A Common Indian Nightjar as part of an album of documentary images he was collecting The invention of paper money before the Renaissance enabled this family and other upper-class patrons to amass their wealth 1702 – 1765. England. previously French military officer. commissioned the set of 50 plates and four dishes that contained Plate. helping the style to develop  Nichol. organized the YBA 1997 show called “Sensation” Provost at the College of Pennsylvania. commissioned the set of 50 plates and four dishes that contained Plate. husband to Mary Nichol 1702 – 1775. French collector. commissioned Benjamin West’s Penn’s Treaty with the Indians to remind the public of the virtue of his family heritage In 1505. aristocrat in Staffordshire. wife to Leake Okeover 1735 – 1800. Jacob van (81) 17th century landscape painter. hired Michelangelo to plan his tomb but later cancelled the commission. helping the style to develop Aristocrat in Staffordshire. Thomas (78)  Pope Julius II (17)  Wellesley. became a Major General in the British East India Company. noticed Benjamin West’s work in the late 1750s. while in Europe. lived in Lucknow from the 1770s until his death in 1800. Charles (87) Smith. Claude (63)   Medici family (15) Okeover. commissioned Raphael to paint School of Athens (1509 – 1511) and other upscale frescoes in his offices Served as governor-general from 1798 to 1805. son of William Penn. England. accepted his commission to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling (1508 – 1512). infamous for unfair treatment of the Native Americans and the Walking Purchase. commissioned many Company School paintings. William (75) PEOPLE – PATRONS AND PATRON FAMILIES  Lord Impey (63) Served as Chief Justice of the High Court from 1777 to 1785.Art Power Guide | 226  Ruisdael. Joseph Mallord William Turner studied this artist’s work along with that of Claude Lorrain British art collector. Leake (60)   Penn. turned against the Quakers and joined the Church of England. Marquess (63) . albeit reluctantly. helped provide the artist with patrons and opportunities   Saatchi. Michelangelo still. commissioned many Company School paintings.

supported William Hodges trip to India from 1780 to 1784 Controversial leader of the radical political party. 53) Mumbadevi (68) Olokun (50)     Shamash (10) Shiva (29) Virgin Mary (17)   . Prester (43) Mami Wata (55)   Minotaur (11) Muhammad (31.Art Power Guide | 227 PEOPLE – POLITICIANS  Adams. finds balance in opposition. possesses multiple sets of arms. this sun god inspires Hammurabi to write the code Hindu deity. referred to the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus as VT in a speech. 570 – 632. since the Portuguese traveled across the waters. most common image originated from a German chromolithograph According to legend. had previously criticized a movie director for calling the city Bombay instead of Mumbai in his video   Franklin. a Boston political group founded in August 1765 which opposed British colonial policies Ottoman leader. Indian art depict him engaged in elegant dances Raphael painted Sistine Madonna (c. the people of the Benin Kingdom associated them with this deity In a relief sculpture towards the top of the Code of Hammurabi stele. in 2010. Maharashtra Navnirman Sena. his winged horse appears in Wrapper Hindu goddess that inspired the name Mumbai for the city in India Benin god of the waters. despite their help in expelling the French in the late 18th century. name is a pidgin English name meaning “Mother Water”. Raj (68)   PEOPLE – RELIGIOUS AND MYTHICAL FIGURES  Isaac (16) Lorenzo Ghiberti’s (c. often depicted as half-fish. Ghiberti’s depiction of this boy borrowed from classical Greek art Leader of a lost Christian kingdom believed to be located in Ethiopia. Samuel (65) Ali. mediates between the earth and the water. this man-bull creature feasted on those who entered the labyrinthine royal palace of the Minoan city of Knossos c. Warren (79) Thackery. halfhuman. referenced with crocodiles and mudfish. this leader gained control in 1805 and eradicated the British from Egypt Supported royal charters. this prophet founded Islam in the Arabian peninsula. 1378 – 1455) first relief for the doors of the Florence baptistery feature the sacrifice of this Christian figure. Muhammed (86) Led the Sons of Liberty. used the Walking Purchase to help convince the British Crown of the evils of proprietorships Governor-General. inspiration for Portuguese explorers Female West African deity. 1513 – 1514) and other highly influential images of this Christian figure  John. Benjamin (78) Hastings.

Holbein painted a detailed and psychological portrait of this ruler Portuguese prince. David’s propaganda pieces under this ruler seem to contradict his earlier republican works Russian empress of the Baroque era.E. this king centralized the city-states of Mesopotamia under the rule of Babylonia and wrote the first legal code Renaissance portraitist Hans Holbein the Younger served this English king as a court painter. his reign in France may represent the pinnacle of the Baroque period. this ruler’s tomb contains a life-size army of realistic terracotta statues. made important trips to the Atlantic coast of Africa First Neo-Sumerian monarch. one of the most powerful monarchs in history. symbolizes independence in Mumbai Criticized William Hodges’ The Effects of War and the Consequences of Peace for fear of political statements regarding the British conflict with France United China in c. including weapons and horses The British named Georgetown in 1812 in honor of this monarch.E Neoclassical painter Jacques Louis David worked for this emperor. 1.Art Power Guide | 228 PEOPLE – RULERS AND ARISTOCRATS   Alexander the Great (10) Bonaparte.. disapproved of the use of contemporary dress in Benjamin West’s The Death of General Wolfe.792 B. French aristocrats began dispensing patronage through Salon exhibitions during his rule. created the Royal Academy in 1768.C. supporter of explorations in Africa. 2. wise and just. image on Wrapper In c. led the resistance against the Mughals and founded the Marathi nation. along with Joshua Reynolds.C. commissioned a painting from Benjamin West in 1769 and later appointed him as court painter. initiated construction of the splendid Palace of Versailles in 1669.E. one of the most powerful monarchs in history 17th century Hindu king. 20)    Louis XV (21) . 75. Napoleon (21) This conqueror ended ancient Egyptian civilization in 332 B.C. this king presided over the founding of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (the “Academy”) Madame Pompadour was a mistress of this king  Catherine the Great (19) Chhatrapati Shivaji (68)   Duke of York (79)  Emperor of Qin (28) George III (70. 76)   George V (53) Hammurabi (10) Henry VIII (19)    Henry the Navigator (43) King of Ur (10) Louis XIV (19.090 B. succeeded the Guti barbarians in Mesopotamia in c.C. 210 B. French king of the Baroque era. christened himself the Sun King.E. or 25th anniversary of rule. awarded William Penn a proprietary grant for 45. with Queen Mary in 1935.000 square miles in 1681 Celebrated silver jubilee.

E. Australia as a city in 1847       Peter the Great (19) Philip IV (20) Sargon (10) Sun King (20) Tutankhamen (11)      Victoria (66. and semi-precious tombs The Victoria Terminus Building was given its name to celebrate the jubilee of this monarch.000 B.C. while thieves plundered most Pharaohs’ tombs by the 20th century.C. image on Wrapper Ruled Old Kingdom Egypt in c. in 1922. this ruler recognized Melbourne. employed Diego Velázquez (1599 – 1660) as a court painter In c. 3. with King George V in 1935. Sir Isaac (34) This psychologist’s theories inspired the Surrealist movement in which artists depicted the inner human mind During the 17th century.. the Oba is said to be the divine descendant of this ruler Russian emperor of the Baroque era. the tomb of this boy king remained untouched due to a well-hidden location. this scientist formulated the concepts that gave rise to the color wheel in the 18th century  . blue glass. one of the most powerful monarchs in history Spanish King who modeled his court after that of Louis XIV. 2. subjugated Sumer and began the Akkadian dynasty in Mesopotamia See Louis XIV 1361 – 1352 B. Sigmund (26) Newton. in his namesake palette. 68) PEOPLE – SCIENTISTS  Freud.340 B.Art Power Guide | 229  Madame Pompadour (21) Maria Theresa (19) Mary (53) Narmer (10. greatly expanded the Oba’s palace compound Prince who traveled from the nearby Yoruba kingdom at Ife to start the second Benin dynasty in the end of the 14th century. most famously his burial mask made of gold. or 25th anniversary of rule.E.C. supported Rococo artists such as François Boucher (1703 – 1770) and Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732 – 1806) Austrian empress of the Baroque era. archaeologists excavated a wealth of treasures from this king’s crypt. 11) Oba Ewuare (49) Oranmiyan (48) Mistress of Louis XV. holds an enemy by the hair and prepares to strike a deathblow Ruler of the Benin Kingdom in the late 15th century.E. one of the most powerful monarchs in history Celebrated silver jubilee..

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PEOPLE – WRITERS, POETS, AND CRITICS

Clarkson, Thomas (82)

Abolitionist author; expanded his 1786 treatise called “An essay on the slavery and commerce of the human species, particularly the African, translated from a Latin dissertation” to write The History of the Abolition of the Slave Trade in 1808; inspired Joseph Mallord William Turner’s painting Slave Ship; addressed the 1840 Anti-Slavery Society Convention and republished his abolitionist writings for the occasion Along with Harold Rosenberg and other art critics, this writer controlled the art scene in New York in the 1950s; favored abstract artists Wrote a famous poem, romanticizing Paul Revere’s “midnight ride”, in 1861; account taken to be factual; failed to recognize the people that rode with Revere Along with Clement Greenberg and other art critics, this writer controlled the art scene in New York in the 1950s Enlightenment writer who criticized the dominant Baroque ruling class Art critic and supporter of Joseph Mallord William Turner; criticized James Abbott McNeill Whistler’s Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket; accused Whistler of “flinging a pot of paint in the public’s face”; sued by Whistler for libel Wrote Notes of a Journey from Cornhill to Grand Cairo in 1846; described John Frederick Lewis’ life in Cairo as the lifestyle and dress of an Ottoman pasha or governor

Greenberg, Clement (26)

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth (64) Rosenberg, Harold (26) Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (19) Ruskin, John (83)

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Thackery, William Makepeace (85)

PHRASE AND WORD TRANSLATIONS
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Asafo (50) Bombay (68) Ise kosehin oluwa (53) Lange (84) Mami Wata (55) Mandarah (86)

“War people” “Good bay”; English version of the Portuguese words; original name for the city Mumbai “Everything is known to God”; words in Yoruba at the bottom of Wrapper “Long” in Dutch “Mother Water”; pidgin English name; female deity in West Africa Area of a Muslim house that only men were allowed in; John Frederick Lewis painted a woman in this area in order to possibly make a political statement about the treatment of women “Rulers of the Sky”; original leaders of the Benin Kingdom; replaced by the Oba “Forests” in Latin; William Penn’s name for his territory; named Pennsylvania by King George III in honor of Penn’s father

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Ogiso (48) Sylvania (76)

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PHRASES AND QUOTES

“Art for art’s sake” (84)

James Abbott McNeill Whistler’s philosophy that art could simply be created for its beauty and powers for evoking emotions; Whistler denied any deeper meanings to his artworks; to support this philosophy, Whistler named his works with musical terms While attending Brym Shaw School of Art, Yinka Shonibare was asked why he did not create this; this question cause him to question African identity and art The offense John Ruskin accused James Abbott McNeill Whistler of doing with his Nocturne in Black and Gold; The Falling Rocket; due to this quote, Whistler sued John Ruskin for libel and won William Makepeace Thackery’s account of John Frederick Lewis’ life in Cairo fascinated British audiences since he had adopted the lifestyle and done this Description of the Benin Kingdom by a Portuguese explorer in the 1490s

“Authentic African art” (86)

“Flinging a pot of paint in the public’s face” (83) “Gone native” (85)

“The Kingdom of Beny is about eighty leagues long and forty wide; it is usually at war with its neighbours and takes many captives, whom we buy at twelve or fifteen brass bracelets each, or for copper bracelets, which they prize more” (49)

POSITIONS AND PROFESSIONS

Admiral Sir (76) Assistant engineer (67) Bishop of the Church of England (70) Captain (82) Chief Justice of the High Court (63) Commander (79) Engineer (83) Governor-General (70, 79)

Position of William Penn’s father, also William Penn; this position provided Penn with a connection to the British monarchy Frderick William Stevens was assigned to this position in the Public Works Department of India in 1867 Arthur Blomfield’s father served in this role Role of Luke Collingwood on the slave ship in the Zong Affair Lord Impey, prominent patron of the Company School style, served in this position from 1777 to 1785 James Cook’s position in the British Royal Navy James Abbott McNeill Whistler’s father’s work in this profession led the family to move to Russia when Whistler was young Marquess Wellesley, prominent patron of the Company School style, served in this position from 1798 to 1805; rank of Warren Hastings, supporter of William Hodges’ trip to India

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Major General (63) Master of ceremonies (21) Member of the Order of the British Empire (87) Oba (30, 48, 52)

Rank of French collector Claude Martin in the British East India Company; Claude Martin commissioned A Common Indian Nightjar Neoclassical artist Jacques Louis David (1748 – 1825) fulfilled this role in France’s post-revolutionary government Title awarded to Yinka Shonibare in 2005; ironic title considering Shonibare’s work criticizing imperialism Many relics of Nigeria’s Benin Kingdom from the 13th through 18th centuries embellish the might of this figure; the ruler of the Benin Kingdom since Oranmiyan founded the second dynasty in the end of the 14th century; each ruler is a divine descendant of Oranmiyan; also ruler of Yoruba kingdom Governor; William Makepeace Thackery described John Frederick Lewis’ lifestyle as an Ottoman man in this position William Smith’s position at the College of Pennsylvania Rank of Harry Rawson when he was ordered to lead the Benin Punitive Expedition Before his “midnight ride”, Paul Revere was primarily recognized for his abilities in this profession; over the course of his career, Revere created 5,000 objects, 64 of which were teapots

Pasha (85) Provost (75) Rear Admiral (49) Silversmith (64)

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PUBLICATION

Los Caprichos (88)

Translates to Los Capriches or The Follies; title of Francisco Goya’s set of 80 etchings produced between 1796 and 1798; includes The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters

RELIGIONS AND BELIEF SYSTEMS

Anglican Church (70, 71, 76)

The official religion of the British Empire; religion of William Penn’s family and Thomas Penn; opposing toward Catholics, Puritans, Quakers, and followers of other religions; religion of St. George’s Cathedral; also known as Church of England Alongside Hinduism, influenced art in India; also impacted China and Japan The Protestant Reformation in the 16th century protested this religion’s corruption and lavish decorations; in response to the Protestants, this religion commenced a Counter Reformation, which further pursued upscale decorations and melodramatic art Determined the subjects of most Byzantine mosaics; treasures Jerusalem as a sacred city; the rise of this religion shaped medieval art

Buddhism (28, 29) Catholic Church (18)

Christianity (14, 32, 42)

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Church of England (76) Hinduism (28, 68)

See Anglican Church Alongside Buddhism, influenced art in India; this religion inspired a lively and sinuous style in Indian art, as seen in depictions of the god Shiva dancing with his multiple arms; origin of goddess Mumbadevi who inspired the new name for Mumbai, India The prophet Muhammad (c. 570 – 632) founded this world religion in the Arabian peninsula; the Quran, a text sacred to this religion, records Muhammad’s edicts; rules in the Quran restrict most art from this religion to abstract patterns or calligraphy; Jerusalem’s Dome of the Rock (687 – 692) and mosque temples demonstrate the style of architects from this religion; treasures Jerusalem as a sacred city; expansion of this religion into the Mediterranean alarmed Europeans and sparked the Crusades This religion grew out of the Reformation that shaped 15th century art; followers of this Catholic denomination spurned the Catholic Church for its corruption and luxury Religion of William Penn; purchased land in North America to create a refuge for this religion and others that were persecuted for their faith; rejected by Thomas Penn; dressed in highly ornamental clothing with silk stockings and lace detailing in the 17th century; wore plain, sober clothing in the 18th century; opposed to proprietorships; faith of the majority of the membership of the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade; also known as the Society of Friends See Quaker

Islam (31, 43)

Protestantism (18)

Quaker (76, 77, 78, 82)

Society of Friends (78)

TERMS – ARCHITECTURE
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Aqueduct (14) Arch (40) Barrel vault (15) Curved arch (14) Dome (14, 16, 40)

Rome built these water bridges after inventing the curved arch The vault and dome extend this concept Tunnel of arches; common form for Romanesque churches Rome invented this structural element; visible in Roman bridges and aqueducts This element extends the concept behind the arch; concrete allowed the Romans to build large variations of this structure; Brunelleschi’s double-shelled version of this element tops Florence cathedral; The outer side of the arch An ornamental top portion of a building; seen in Philip Johnson’s Postmodernist AT&T Building (1984) Pivotal advance in Gothic architecture; arches and other structures stand on the exterior side of a wall and resist the wall’s outward as well as downward thrust; enabled large stained glass windows

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Extrados (14) Finial (28) Flying buttress (15)

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Gothic pointed arch (15) Horseshoe Islamic arch (14) Impost (14) Intrados (14) Key-stone (14) Mosque (32) Pier (14) Post-and-lintel (9, 40) Qibla (32) Ribbed vault (15) Roman arch (15)

Instrumental in Gothic architecture; culminates in a point to increase the height of both the arch and the ceiling the arch supports An arch that bulges out before terminating at the bottom In an arch, this base separates the arch and the posts on which the arch stands The inner side of the arch Central voussoir of the arch Islamic structure for communal prayer; includes a qibla wall facing Mecca One of the posts on which the arch rests In this construction method, two vertical pieces hold up a horizontal piece; seen in Stonehenge, the Greek Parthenon, and modern buildings In Muslim mosques, this wall faces Mecca In this construction method, stone arches support the underside of intersecting barrel vaults Church architects from the earlier part of the late medieval period (c. 900 – 1500) based their designs on this structural element, inspiring the name Romanesque The ancient Romans erected these massive arches and carved in relief sculptures to commemorate military victories Structure shaped like an arch; serves as a roof support or ceiling; challenges in building an enormous version of this structure prevented architects from completing Florence Cathedral for years; Rome’s Colosseum features this type of construction These wedge-shaped bricks are the building blocks of an arch

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Triumphal arch (14) Vault (15, 16, 40)

Voussoir (14)

TERMS – ART HISTORY
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Anthropology (5) Aesthetics (5) Art (5)

Along with sociology and history, sister discipline of art history This type of philosophy explores beauty and its expression; art history intersects with this field Modern concept that encompasses not only fine art but also crafts (such as pottery, textiles, and body art) and mass-produced objects (such as posters, advertisements, and household items); almost any manmade visual object with special meaning or aesthetic appeal fits this classification Informs the public of events in the art world through news media This field peruses an artwork’s social, cultural, and economic contexts in an attempt to understand the original meaning of the artwork Peruses an artwork’s historical context to discover its meaning

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Art criticism (5) Art history (5) Contextual analysis (6)

can imply three-dimensionality This type of spray prevents drawing mediums like pastel from smearing Shading technique. including line. Albrecht Dürer applied this technique to shade darker areas of his engraving Veronica. these mediums have eclipsed historic masterpieces and artistic genius     Formal analysis (5) History (5) Sociology (5) Visual culture (5) TERMS – DRAWING  Crosshatching (36) Shading technique. uses a mass of dots. and other similar works. shape. television. or arbitrary variations of this element of art The rudimentary aspects of an artwork. drawings. sister discipline of art history Along with anthropology and history.Art Power Guide | 235  Fine art (5) The focus of early art historians. dense dots produce darker values and sparse dots produce lighter values   Fixative (36) Hatching (36)  Stippling (36) TERMS – ELEMENTS OF ART  Color (34) Elements of art (32) Form (32) Line (32) Perspective (17. Mannerist art deforms scale and this element of art Two-dimensional geometric or organic area The figures in an artwork form this positive area. and architecture. space. sculptures. only objects produced for an audience (which perceives the object as an artwork) fit this classification Peruses an artwork’s formal qualities to discover its meaning Along with anthropology and sociology. 33) Shape (32) Space (32) Texture (34) Hue. photography. advertisement posters. and texture Three-dimensional geometric or organic volume Fundamental element of art. the other areas in an artwork form this negative area The surface feel of a real or perceived object        TERMS – ELEMENTS OF ART – COLOR   Adjacent color (34) Arbitrary color (34) A color next to another color on the color wheel A color’s value altered to reflect special emotions or aesthetics . optical. uses a mass of parallel lines. sister discipline of art history This category of art encompasses film. value. artists may use local. can imply three-dimensionality Shading technique. uses a mass of crisscrossing lines. refers to a point’s path through space The impression of depth as achieved through various techniques. color. prints. form. and intensity all describe this element of art. limited to paintings. Albrecht Dürer applied this technique to shade the background and other darker areas of his engraving Veronica.

seem to move towards the viewer. and yellow. opposite of a tint Red-violet. and blue-violet. the three primary colors – red. yellow. and yellow. or dry summer grass  Color wheel (34)  Complementary color (34) Cool colors (34) Hue (34) Intensity (34)       Local color (34) Neutrals (34) Optical color (34) Primary colors (34) Secondary colors (34) Shade (36) Tertiary colors (34)        Tint (36) Value (34) Warm colors (34) TERMS – ELEMENTS OF ART – LINE  Horizontal line (32) Implied line (32) Vertical line (32) This type of line adds stability. these colors are not hues A color’s value with special lighting effects. orange. and violet. produced through combining two primary colors (red and yellow make orange. for example Green. and violet. white. green. black. mixing in neutrals or complementary colors detracts from this attribute A color’s value without reflections or lighting effects Includes black. mountain lakes. yellow-orange. hearken to cool forests. such as moonlight or candlelight Red. blue-green.Art Power Guide | 236  Color relativity (34) According to this 19th-century discovery. this diagram of the 12 hues provides a chart which predetermines the results of mixing colors The hue directly across from another color on the color wheel. blue. or snow The name of a color. red-orange. red versus green. and gray do not fit in this category Identifies a color’s brightness or purity. opposite of a shade Describes the amount of light or dark in a hue or gray Red. white. seem to recede away from the viewer. for example) Lighter value of a color. and tranquility to a composition. yellow-green. and all values of gray. produced through combining a primary color and a secondary color next to it on the color wheel (blue and green make blue-green. hearken to warm sunlight. blue. for example) Darker value of a color. unlike active curved or jagged lines A path of dots or lines forms this type of line This type of line adds stability and draws the eye upward. peace. medieval churches use this line to engender spiritual awe   . and blue – represent the highest points of this attribute. fire heat. all other colors derive from mixtures of these colors Orange. colors next to another color change the color’s intensity: similar colors decrease the color’s intensity and contrasting colors increase the color’s intensity This 18th-century invention built on Sir Isaac Newton’s discoveries in the 17th century.

replicates the effect of fog. artists shorten lines so as to create an illustration of depth (Princeton WordWeb). 33)   Simple perspective (15)  Single vanishing point perspective (16) Vanishing point (16)  TERMS – ELEMENTS OF ART – SHAPE AND FORM  Foreshortening114 (32) Geometric (11. 21. also called atmospheric perspective See Aerial perspective The outlines of objects. 19. they used it in a different manner. smoke. artists using this method reduce color or shading contrasts and lower saturation when depicting distant objects. even though northern Renaissance painters learned this approach. paintings by Neoclassical artist Jean Dominique Ingres (1780 – 1867). 3. 32) Along with shading and perspective. also known as single vanishing point perspective. a method for implying form in a two-dimensional artwork Refers to precise. regular. 26. . artists alter these outlines to imitate light shining on the objects In this approach. 14. this term describes Cycladic nude female statuettes. the relative sizes of different figures or objects mirror their relative importance. 33) Renaissance painter Masaccio (1401 – 1428) used linear perspective and this technique in fresco paintings. popular in traditional Japanese art. this technique overlaps objectives to imply distance See Linear perspective In linear perspective.C. and Abstract Expressionist color field paintings  114 Recall that in foreshortening. Renaissance painter Masaccio (1401 . lines converge towards this point on the horizon   Atmospheric perspective (33) Contours (32) Hierarchical scale (10)   Isometric perspective (29) Linear perspective (16. medieval Germanic metalwork.000 B. in this technique.E. as seen in the Egyptian Palette of King Narmer (c.1428 first applied this technique in art. a fresco painter from the transition between the Gothic and Renaissance periods. add order or stability to an artwork. lines converge towards one or more vanishing points on a real or imaginary horizon Invention of Giotto di Bondone (1267 – 1337).Art Power Guide | 237 TERMS – ELEMENTS OF ART – PERSPECTIVE  Aerial perspective (16. and mathematically defined shapes or forms. all objects appear at the same size regardless of distance Florentine architect Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – 1446) invented this method. and airborne particles on distant objects.): King Narmer towers over other subjects Along with flat areas.

41) Refers to natural. and insect substances offer examples of natural materials Along with a pigment and a binder. one of the three main ingredients of paint. one of the three main ingredients of paint. and the like create this type of texture The impression of texture. irregular. this invention allowed Impressionists to paint outdoors without difficulty Along with a binder and solvent. such as the background The figures of an artwork occupy this area. one of the three main ingredients of paint. which they place over a color to tweak the color Thick application of oil paint creates this lumpy surface Along with chemical paint. a method for implying form in a two-dimensional artwork  Shading (32) TERMS – ELEMENTS OF ART – SPACE    Figure (32) Negative space (32) Positive space (32) See Positive space The areas of an artwork other than the figures. gemstones. and freeform shapes or forms. add movement or rhythm to an artwork.Art Power Guide | 238  Organic (12. clay. linseed oil. plant materials. paint uses substances such as oil or water for this ingredient   Glazes (37) Impasto (38) Paint tube (24) Pigment (37)     Solvent (37) . rope. particularly hard-edge paintings Along with a solvent and pigment. minerals. this ingredient synthesizes the grains of a pigment and bonds these grains with the surface. also called the figure TERMS – ELEMENTS OF ART – TEXTURE   Actual texture (34) Visual texture (34) Yarn. consists of egg yolk. grains of natural or artificial materials form this component. 32. this ingredient alters the paint’s consistency or drying time. as seen in a painting of coarse grass TERMS – PAINTING  Airbrush (27) Binder (37) Along with acrylic paint. this term describes the four Minoan palaces on Knossos and Antonio Gaudi’s (1852 – 1926) architecture Along with foreshortening and perspective. or wax Artists using oil paint may thin the paint into this translucent layer. shells. this invention allowed sharp lines in Minimalist painting.

one side of a central axis mirrors the other side but with slight variations. and asymmetrical variations of this concept This element contrasts the rest of the artwork. Americans believed this medium replicated an individual’s true character TERMS – POTTERY  Coil pottery (40) Kiln (40) In this method. artists may use symmetrical. thrown pottery refers to pottery created using this method In this method. potters cut out pieces of clay and use slip (liquid clay) to paste together the building blocks of a pot Liquid clay. potters use this as an adhesive material Refers to pottery created on a potter’s wheel   Potter’s wheel (40)  Slab pottery (40) Slip (40) Thrown (40)   TERMS – PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION AND TECHNIQUES  Approximate symmetry (35) Asymmetrical balance (35) In this type of balance. or motifs in a pattern. the viewer’s eye rests on this point A pattern repeats this element to achieve rhythm in an artwork Repeating motifs form this element to achieve rhythm in an artwork This principle of composition relies on relative sizes in an artwork. potters roll out clay into coils and then stack them to form a vessel Potters use this oven to purge moisture from clay forms. after applying paint to the hardened clay. scale defines different types of this concept This principle of composition relies on repeating elements of art. which reduce rigidity In this type of balance. which creates a sense of movement and guides the viewer’s eye   Balance (35)  Focal point (35) Motif (35) Pattern (35) Proportion (35) Rhythm (35)     . approximate. artists place their product in this oven once again to melt the paint into a glassy surface Common tool in ancient and modern art.Art Power Guide | 239 TERM – PHOTOGRAPHY  Daguerreotype (58) This low-cost alternative to painted portraits enjoyed a booming business in the mid-19th century United States. this invention spins a ball of clay which potters shape with their hands. artists organize dissimilar objects through several methods such as placing larger objects near the center of a composition and moving smaller objects away from the center This principle of composition relies on the arrangement of visual weight.

inking areas in relief Relief printmakers rub paper with this tool to force ink from the matrix onto the paper Intaglio process. a waxy pencil or crayon delineates an image on a matrix made of stone. finally. a press or rubbing burnisher applies the ink to the paper In this process. woodcarving knives. this art form has preserved images of Polynesian body art Intaglio process. this art form disseminated images of Renaissance masterpieces throughout northern Europe. printmakers incise images through a matrix covered in wax or varnish. printmakers use carving tools to cut out an image in the matrix. the artist then fills the grooves with ink. or aluminum. 37) Relief printmakers roll this tool over the matrix. linoleum. or another synthetic material. the artist rolls a brayer over the plate to ink the uncut surface of the plate. one side of a central axis mirrors the other side  Symmetrical balance (35) TERMS – PRINTMAKING   Brayer (37) Burnisher (37) Engraving (18. inks specific areas of silk or another synthetic fabric stretched across a frame See Screen printing Screen printmakers scrape this tool over a stencil. a press applies the ink to the paper. an example of tools available for carving the image in relief printmaking In this process. processes include engraving and etching Along with the gouge or woodcarving knife. also concerns the size of the entire artwork alone In this type of balance. finally. 88)  Gouge (37) Intaglio printmaking (37)   Linoleum knife (37) Lithography (37)    Matrix (37) Relief printmaking (37)  Screen printing (37)   Silk-screening (37) Squeegee (37) . an example of tools available for carving the image in relief printmaking Opposite of relief printmaking. inking exposed fabric   Etching (37. 19. or gouges cut areas out of a plate made of wood. Albrecht Dürer preferred woodcuts along with this medium. 31. only the wax lines become inked. the artist uses a squeegee to apply ink through a stencil. in the second step. much less difficult compared to engraving or woodcut The printing plate Opposite of intaglio printmaking.Art Power Guide | 240  Scale (35) Describes the size of artwork elements relative to other elements in the same artwork or the entire artwork. centers on the element of line. artists cut lines into a plate made of wood or soft metal. the printmaker applies water then ink to the plate. zinc. an acid bath etches away exposed metal. Francisco Goya’s Los Caprichos was a set of 80 works of this type Along with the woodcarving or linoleum knives. linoleum knives.

defines modeling See Low relief One of the four basic sculptural methods. famous Hellenistic works in this medium include the Venus de Milo and Laocoön Group. materials for the cast sculptures may include plaster. an example of tools available for carving the image in relief printmaking TERMS – SCULPTURE    Additive (38) Bas relief (33) Carving (38) Casting (39) Sculptural process. metal. artists use it as a mold to duplicate the original sculpture one or more times. hammers. bending wire. uses chisels. brainchild of sculptors from Greek’s Early Classical Period (c. wood. wax. Akkadian art portrays rulers in both this type of sculpture and relief sculpture. or found objects Italian for “counter positioning”. air. figures shift their weight to one leg.C. which aided his simple perspective. subtractive process. or papier-mâché   Construction (38) Contrapposto (12)    Counter positioning (12) Freestanding (10. and files to cut source material One of the four basic sculptural methods. both the original wax model and the mold are destroyed. 475 – 448 B. opposite of subtractive sculpture. board.). 15. additive process. or machines such as pulleys set these forms into motion One of the four basic sculptural methods. Giotto di Bondone (1267 – 1337) modeled his figures into this type of sculpture and based fresco subjects on these sculptures.E. Archaic Greek sculptors borrowed frontal poses from Egyptian art while working in this medium. plaster. so the artwork is not reproducible Sculpture that only protrudes slightly from the carrier surface Moving sculpture. after the plaster hardens. a full-scale wax model is created. in this approach. typically involves forms hanging from wires. in this process. examples are welding metal. wind.Art Power Guide | 241  Woodcarving knife (37) Along with the gouge or linoleum knife. 13. this model is used to create a mold and the mold is used to create the final work. sculptors cover an existing sculpture in plaster. Michelangelo created his Pieta in this medium Sculpture that protrudes significantly from the carrier surface See Freestanding Method used for producing Plaque. appears relaxed and realistic See Contrapposto Synonymous with in the round (three-dimensional) sculpture. plastic One of the four basic sculptural methods. or combining paper. 12. artists build forms out of soft and pliable materials such as clay. in this standing pose. first. 38)    High relief (33) In the round (33) Lost wax casting (50)   Low relief (33) Mobile (39) Modeling (38)  .

15. 86) Important American export to Great Britain Key trade item of the East India Company. opposite of additive sculpture. sieges. key trade item of the East India Company See Rum     Furs (66) Indigo (62) Lumber (66) Palm oil (49)     Rum (66) Sugar (66) Tea (62. previously supplied to Great Britain by the American south. Akkadian art portrays rulers in both this type of sculpture and freestanding sculpture.Art Power Guide | 242  Relief (10. making a pattern  Resist dying (53) TRADE   Beef (66) Cotton (62. parts of the fabric are covered in a different material and then the cloth is dyed. hunts. essentially. Great Britain turned to Egypt as a possible new source See Beef Key trade item of the East India Company See Beef In the 19th century. the Benin Kingdom regained some power due to its control of trade of this item. this produces fabric with lighter and darker spots. Kweku Kakanu attached the symbols to the background using this technique. after the American Civil War. desire for this item partially inspired the Benin Punitive Expedition Important British export to America See Rum See Rum. 33) This type of sculpture protrudes from a carrier surface. many Romanesque church windows contain this art form Sculptural process. 12. Mycenaeans were proficient in this medium. 14. Romans crafted these for funerals and carved them into triumphal arches. and significant events in this medium. 66) Tools (66) . he sewed the symbols directly on the background Method used to produce adire. Assyrians depicted battles. defines carving  Subtractive (38) TERMS – TEXTILES  Applique (51) In creating Asafo Flag.

Pancras Railway Station in London Influenced by Gothic and Classical styles in all his designs N/A The design of Royal Exhibition Building borrowed from churches. England Died 1890 . England Died 1900 Boy with a Squirrel (1765) Numerous portraits of wealthy merchants and American aristocrats such as Samuel Adams. Ghana Most active in 1930s and 1940s College of Art at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Independent studies of traditional Ghana sculptures and textiles Middle or lower class family Introduction to art by stepfather Peter Pelham Largely self-taught Probably gained tailoring skills through an apprenticeship Fante culture Created Asafo Flag for an Asafo company as an emblem of identity and power Ewe weaving of kente cloth influenced his design Strove to comment on the effect and consequences of imperialism and African cultural identity with the materials he used Benjamin West saw Copley’s work and convinced the artist to move to England Many of his portraits depicted American revolutionary figures Influenced by the Gothic style in all his designs Formal training as an architect in Bath For Victoria Terminus Building.Art Power Guide | 243 POWER TABLES TABLES AND DIAGRAMS Selected Artists Name & Vital Stats Kweku Kakanu Born 1810 in Mankassim. Inspirations & Goals Artworks Asafo Flag (1935) El Anatsui Born 1944 in Anyako. and a Romanesque portal Family Background & Education Influences. Thomas Mifflin. Stevens was influenced by Italian and English churches and especially by St. Ghana Fading Cloth (2005) John Singleton Copley Born 1738 in Boston Died 1815 in England Frederick William Stevens Born 1847/1848 in Bath. the Florentine Cathedral. and John Hancock Paul Revere (1768) Victoria Terminus Building (1887) Municipal Corporation Building (1893) Royal Exhibition Building (1880) State Library of Victoria (1854) Bank of New South Wales Geelong Town Hall Wesley Church Carleton Gardens Joseph Reed Born 1823 in Cornwall.

and the architecture of Georgetown. Guyana Wished to combine the Gothic style with the surrounding architecture economically and visually William Smith provided West with many opportunities and patrons Benjamin West Born 1738 in Springfield.Hannibal Crossing the Alps (1812) Self-portrait (1799) Slave Ship (slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying. Inspirations & Goals Designed many churches in the Gothic revival style Arthur Blomfield Born 1829 Died 1899 Father was a Bishop of the Church of England Attended Rugby School and Trinity College in Cambridge Apprentice to architect Philip Charles Hardwick For St. Andrew’s Church (1872) College of Music in London (1882) Numerous churches in the Gothic revival style Artworks St. Typhoon Coming On) (1840) . Pennsylvania Died 1820 in England Learned through practice and informal study His trip to Europe allowed him to study Italian Renaissance masters such as Raphael. and Titian This background allowed him to paint history paintings The Romantic idea of the ‘‘noble savage’’ influenced his portrayal of Native Americans Travels with James Cook to the Pacific inspired his work William Hodges Born 1744 in London Died 1797 Started art school as a young man Apprentice to Richard Wilson (1758) He viewed himself as an ‘‘artist historian’’ in his travels to India The British fascination with foreign exotic lands and the Romantic idea of the ‘‘noble savage’’ influenced his painting Studied work of great 17th century landscape painters such as Claude Lorrain and Jacob van Ruisdael Landscapes during his travels and at home inspired him Painted landscapes on the large scale normally used for historical paintings Landscape scenery for London theatrical productions Many drawings and paintings of his travels Many portraits in teenage years Historical scenes 60 paintings for King George III St.Art Power Guide | 244 Selected Artists Name & Vital Stats Family Background & Education Influences. drew on the influences of a Latin Cross. Gothic styles. Michelangelo. George’s Cathedral. George’s Cathedral (1894) The Death of General Wolfe (1770) Penn’s Treaty with the Indians (1771 -1772) The Effects of War (1794) The Consequences of Peace (1794) HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’ with Fishing Craft in Matavi Bay (1776) Picturesque and sublime landscapes Many landscapes feature shipwrecks Joseph Mallord William Turner Born 1775 in London Died 1851 Enrolled in art classes at the Royal Academy in London (age 14) Dido Building Carthage (1815) Snow Storm -.

2: The Little White Girl (1864 -. and Goldsmiths College. was an engraver and landscape painter Uncle. Frederick Christian Lewis. Brym Shaw School of Art (1984 -. Inspirations & Goals Artworks Worked as a cartographer Father was an engineer so Whistler traveled much as a boy Took art classes in St. was a painter Member of the Royal Academy in 1865 Fascinated by the East Traveled much.1851) - John Frederick Lewis Born 1805 in London Died 1876 Father. No. Nigeria.Art Power Guide | 245 Selected Artists Name & Vital Stats Family Background & Education Influences. and visiting London during the summers A Lady Receiving Visitors (The Reception) (1873) The Street and Mosque of the Ghoreeyah. photographs. films Artworks quoting William Hogarth and Thomas Gainsborough Nelson’s Ship in a Bottle The Swing (After Fragonard) (2001) The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (Five photographs) (2008) . produced over 600 watercolors that he later used to create large scale paintings Cross cultural background of living in Lagos. George Robert. Petersburg (1845 -1848) Briefly attended West Point Military Academy Studied in the studio of Charles Gleyre Symphony in White. all in London Paralysis from transverse myelitis inspired some of his art The contradictions of British imperialism African identity and Dutch wax cloth Many iconic images which he copied and slightly altered (including Francisco Goya’s The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters) Paintings using Dutch wax cloth as a ground Sculptural works.1: The White Girl Whistler copied ad admired the works of Rembrandt van Rijn Believed in ‘‘art for art’s sake’’ and denied any deep meaning to his artworks Fascinated with Chinese imports.1989). Wimbledon College. especially porcelain (1862) James Abbott McNeill Whistler Born 1834 in Massachusetts Died 1903 Symphony in White. Cairo Nigerian parents Yinka Shonibare Born 1962 in London Attended boarding school in England. No.1865) Arrangement in Grey and Black: The Artist’s Mother (1871) Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1874) Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks (1864) Arrangement in Gray: Portrait of the Painter (1872) Over 600 watercolor paintings from Cairo (1841 -. living in Cairo for a decade While in Cairo.

Yoruba Nigeria Suffered from the slave trade and wars with neighboring kingdoms Colonized by Great Britain Before the arrival of the French. and blacksmithing Trade with Europeans brought the Mami Wata image Naturalistic and detailed heads of terracotta and cast metal (12th -. and coral Many cast metal sculptures were used in rituals and on altars Plaque (mid 16th -. then Artworks Sapi Sierra Leone Traded ivory carvings with the Portuguese in the 15th and 16th centuries Lidded Saltcellar (15th -.17th century) - Posuban (shrines) Frankaa (Asafo flags) Early flags included the flag of the European state for which the company fought After 1957. Edo Benin Kingdom Nigeria Expanded with warfare Portuguese arrived in the area in 1484 Raided by the British in the Benin Punitive Expedition of 1897 17th century European records mention Asafo companies Fante Ghana or the Gold Coast Gold Coast was a British colony The Asafo companies no longer wage war but rather play important roles in society Ruled initially by Ogiso. so the persistence of the masquerade tradition became a form of rebellion for the Guro Indicate royalty with regalia such as beaded crowns British imperialism had a large influence as indicated by the image of the British king and queen in Wrapper Islam led to some motifs present on Wrapper Known for masquerades Fifty villages ruled by a council of elders which can appoint a war chief if necessary Focus on agriculture.16th century) Many ivory carvings such as saltcellars. and knife handles Oba Cultivated an impressive Oba palace and produced many artworks to glorify the Oba Greatly influenced by trade with the Portuguese Part of the Akan language group Power held by chiefs and balanced by Asafo companies Asafo companies communicate through flags or frankaa and based many of their practices on European models Ruled by Oba Most prized artworks were made of cast metals.C. spoons.15th century) Adire (height in early 20th century) Beaded crowns Wrapper (Mid 20th century) Art produced for masquerades such as carved wooden masks and sculptures Face Mask (mid 20th century) . spoons. ivory. flags included the Ghanaian flag Asafo Flag (1935) Ile-Ife populated in 350 B.Art Power Guide | 246 Selected Cultures Name & Location History Influences & Traditions Created ivory carvings for European patrons based on European prototypes Small communities ruled by local chiefs European motifs and syles evident on Saltcellar Founded in 900 C. woodcarving. oliphants. the Guro interacted much with other groups in Guinea Guro Côte d’Ivoire Côte d’Ivoire became a French colony in 1897 The French forced assimilation. family groups.E. forks.E.

Art Power Guide | 247 Selected Cultures Name & Location History Developed hard paste porcelain in 600 C. candleholders. documented Indian life for European patrons Traditional Indian miniature painting affected the style Typically Company School painters created highly detailed paintings in gouache Traditional Indian miniature painting: highly detailed. Chinese artists were creating porcelain specifically for European patrons The Company School style. including Lucknow The Chinese had a monopoly on porcelain production for centuries Chinese artists adopt European designs and styles to satisfy foreign patrons Influences & Traditions Artworks Hard paste porcelain objects for European patrons These include teacups. small paintings of architecture and scenery for the Mughal Court Company School paintings: documentary images of Indian life for European patrons A Common Indian Nightjar (18th century) . or kampani kalam. and Plate (1739 -. dishes.E. Southern China adopted the practice in the 10th century China Porcelain arrived in Europe by the early 14th century By the 16th century. after working for the Mughal Court. the East India Company took control of the Awadh Region. flourished in the late 18th through 19th century Lucknow School India The East India Company held a position of dominance in India for 200 years In 1856. mugs.1743) - Company School painters.

use of material likely gained from trade with the Portuguese Benin Kingdom court style: importance of possible Oba figure Commercial cotton cloth 42 1 2 x 60 in 108 x 152. four blue fish walk around a fish pond In the pond. wears armor and headdress. detail. a woman.2 cm Originally a Benin Kingdom court piece. removed during the Benin Punitive Expedition Important trade with Portuguese merchants: presence of the two Portuguese in the corners. and dogs confronting snakes hanging from the level above Second tier: snakes hang from a pillow-like circle Bowl: lidded bowl decorated with flowers Finial: Four legs around a central column topped by a flower European patron: creation of a European luxury item (saltcellar) Medieval sculptures: stiff formality of figures and abstract form of dogs Celtic manuscripts: design of interlocking ribbons on base Medieval stained glass rose windows: abstracted floral designs on bowl. and amount of regalia depicted Lidded Saltcellar (15th --16th century) SapiPortuguese Plaque (mid-16 -.8 cm Created by a Sapi artist for Portuguese patron Base: Abstract designs and figures of a man. black. and carries a sword and shield (most important) A page carrying a sword stands on the main figure’s right (medium important) Two musicians stand on either side of the central figure (medium important) Two Portuguese men in profile float in both upper corners (least important) The importance of each figure is indicated by the level of relief. and yellow triangles border the flag The British Union Jack flies in the top left Red cloth with a fleur-de-lis pattern makes up the background A black crocodile fills the left half In the right. four green fish swim around a gold fish Asafo company culture: flag asserts power and identity of the Asafo company Akan traditional proverbs: each of the things on the flag is a symbol with multiple possible interpretations British ownership of the Gold Coast: presence of the British Union Jack Asafo Flag (1935) by Kweku Kakanu .Art Power Guide | 248 Selected Artworks Artwork Vital Stats Visual analysis Influences & Style Sapi traditional motifs: presence of dogs and snakes Ivory 11 3 4 in 29.2 x 8. finial.17 century) Edo peoples th th 47 x 34.4 cm Created for an Asafo company of the Fante peoples in Ghana White. and shield Copper alloy 18 1 2 x 13 7 16 x 3 1 in 4 A high ranking warrior or the Oba stands in the center.

copper wire 126 in x 21 ft 320 x 640 cm Guro peoples Fading Cloth (2005) by El Anatsui Hard paste porcelain Diam. an elephant. represents beauty and moral strength Superstructure: A calm and pleasant Mami Wata with a red dress. production of adire cloth. metal cans.9 cm Produced by Chinese artists for Leake and Mary Okeover. an Islamic mosque. the motifs of the birds. playing the flute to four snakes Flattened bottle caps and metal cans woven together with copper wire Dimensions and lighting change depending on installation which is up to the curators Asante and Ewe kente cloth: bright colors and rhythms of Fading Cloth Trade and imperialism: use of bottle tops from African distilleries Guro ideals of beauty: depiction of the main mask German chromolithograph based off East Indian calendar: image of Mami Wata Face Mask (mid-20th century) in 54 x 28. elephant. lipstick. and many flowers Text at the bottom reads ‘‘Ise kosehin oluwa’’ meaning ‘‘Everything is known to God’’ Islam: Mohammed’s winged horse and the mosque Yoruba tradition: frontal stiff poses of the king and queen. painted toenails. and two snakes A snake charmer sits on the right. a lion.Art Power Guide | 249 Selected Artworks Artwork Vital Stats Visual analysis Influences & Style British imperialism: central medallion depicting a British king and queen Cotton with indigo dye Central medallion depicting Queen Mary and King George V Various motifs surrounding the medallion include Mohammed’s winged horse. and the man with a gun Trade with Europe: use of imported cotton Wrapper (mid20 century) Yoruba peoples th 77 x 34 516 in 195. lion. in Yoruba tradition. a man with a gun.6 x 17 cm Created for the Guro masquerade tradition Bottle caps. aristocrats in England Chinese artists: production of hard paste porcelain which the Chinese monopolized for centuries English patrons: English design and motifs . birds. 9 in Gold enamel decorates the rim The combined coat of arms of Leak and Mary Okeover rises out of a blue pool of water. calm face displaying Guro ideals of beauty Scarification marks on the face and the hairstyle accentuate the symmetry of the face which.2 cm Commemorative adire cloth made possibly for display Wood and paint 21 1 4 x 11 1 4 x 6 11 16 Mask: stylized. surrounded by two horses carrying banners The initials of Leake and Mary Okeover decorate the edge Flowers fill any open space Plate (1739 1743) China 22.6 x 87.

well-lit.Art Power Guide | 250 Selected Artworks Artwork Vital Stats Watercolor on paper 8 5 8 x 11 18 in 21. and steel Long central space with two crosswise shorter spaces (cruciform) Open. and expensive portrait Paul Revere (1768) by John Singleton Copley 35 18 x 28 1 2 in 89. brown. polychromatic stone.3 cm Created by the Lucknow School in the Company School style for French collector. Italianate Gothic pointed arches. decorated tile. black. at the viewer This is a highly detailed. and gray bird stands in profile in the center Very small trees and shrubs dot the background The sky and ground are plain and neutral-colored Visual analysis Influences & Style Traditional Indian miniature painting: The small scale of the background and the great detail of the painting European patron: depiction of a common Indian bird. slate. the teapot. an open waistcoat with gold buttons. Claude Martin Oil on canvas A detailed.22 x 72.6 cm 3 16 5 16 Sprawling railroad station Towers and turrets emphasize verticality Pointed arch in windows and doors Allegorical statue representing Progress tops the building Statues of a lion and a tiger surround the door Royal Exhibition Building (1880) by Joseph Reed Exterior of brick.3 x 23. roof of timber. meticulous. and no jacket or wig He considers a tea pot in his hand and looks up.39 cm Portrait of the famous Patriot and silversmith. Pancras Railway Station in London: completed a decade before Stevens created this design British imperialism: allegorical statue representing progress Gothic and Classical influences Church architecture: cruciform design Victoria Terminus Building (1887) by Frederick William Stevens Albumen silver print from a glass negative Red sandstone. the painting serves as a form of documentation Company School painting: paintings created by Indian artists for European patrons A Common Indian Nightjar (Caprimulgus asiaticus) (18th century) Lucknow School India Paul Revere sits casually behind a highly polished table containing engraving tools He wears an open white linen work shirt. marble. Paul Revere Paul Revere’s trade as a silversmith: the engraving tools. presence of the lion and the tiger St. interior of timber. as though surprised. his dress Paul Revere’s trade as a goldsmith: the gold buttons on his waistcoat Political conflict over British trade policies with the colonies: the inclusion of the teapot Combination of Europe and India: construction using local red sandstone.9 x 28. stained glass 7 x 9 in 18. filled with galleries Large dome on an octagonal drum Large entryway Situated in Carleton Gardens Florentine Cathedral: large dome Romanesque style: Large entryway resembles a Romanesque portal Intended for the Melbourne International Exhibition: plentiful well-lit galleries Cost and speed concern: use of local timber for the interior .

West painted what he thought the scene would have looked like Romantic idea of the noble savage: the stately Native Americans are brightly and scantily clad and live in tents This contrasts with the conservative dress of the Europeans and the construction in the background Christianity: the mother and her child resemble the Virgin Mary and the Christ child .7 cm Commissioned by Thomas Penn to shed a positive light on his family name Benjamin West’s imagination: with a lack of any documentation. two European men kneel and offer a bolt of cloth to the Lenape chief. George’s Cathedral (1894) by Arthur Blomfield The third in a line of Anglican churches constructed in Georgetown. surrounded by elders and male warriors Oil on canvas Women. children. Guyana Cruciform design with a central tower Pointed arches in widows and doorways Flying buttresses Numerous large windows.8 x 273. some with stained glass Painted white Gothic influences: pointed arches. equitable. gesturing toward the bolt of cloth and other pieces of cloth nearby Two young European men sit on boxes in the corner Lenape tents are quickly being replaced by European buildings Men are unloading supplies from ships in the harbor Penn’s Treaty with the Indians (1771 1772) by Benjamin West 75 1 2 x 107 3 4 in 191. flying buttresses Bible: the stained glass windows depict Biblical scenes Caribbean location: use of wood instead of stone and painting the building white to match the surrounding architecture William Penn’s reputation: Penn is depicted as fair. and generous In the center.Art Power Guide | 251 Selected Artworks Artwork Vital Stats Visual analysis Influences & Style Latin cross: cruciform design wood St. and European men look on A mother nurses her child in the right foreground Another child points both the woman and the viewer toward the exchange in the center Penn stands.

Art Power Guide | 252 Selected Artworks Artwork Vital Stats Visual analysis Secluded and peaceful bay in Tahiti Volcanic mountains in the background including Mount Orofena Influences & Style Christianity: the woman and child resemble the Virgin Mary and the Christ child Romantic idea of the noble savage: the native Tahitians stand in contrapposto poses and wear only Classical drapery Imperialism: the Tahitians are portrayed as being pleasantly welcoming toward the Europeans Documentation is the first step of imperialism Thomas Clarkson’s The History of the Abolition of the Slave Trade: Turner depicts the Zong Affair which Clarkson narrated in detail in his book Anti-slavery: Dramatic lighting. accents on how horrible the slave trade is Turner’s own opinion: the inclusion of a typhoon and implied death for the captain of the slave ship The British obsession with Chinese porcelain: the numerous porcelain objects present. likely all from Whistler’s own collection The British obsession with every else Chinese: the woman’s hairstyle and robe. Typhoon Coming On) (1840) by Joseph Mallord William Turner Oil on canvas 35 3 4 x 48 1 4 in 90. imitating Chinese court fashion She is surrounded by a blue and white porcelain tea cup and ginger jar.3 cm framed: 46 9 16 x 34 3 8 x 2 3 4 in 118. two men paddle a canoe Tahitian boats sit in the right foreground with casual Tahitian figures doing daily activities A white tent stands in the left background on Point Venus The horizon line and the setting sun divide the painting into four quarters Slave Ship (Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying.6 cm Created in support of the abolitionist movement In the center left. slaves thrown overboard struggle in the water In the right foreground.3 x 7 cm . a tray. and Chinese brushes in 93. graphic detail.3 x 87.1 in 137. a fan painted with a crane. and the other objects in the room Conflict between Great Britain and Holland over access to Chinese tea exports: the inclusion of the Lange Leizen design Whistler’s expertise with porcelain: the inclusion of the six marks. a symbol of authenticity HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’ with Fishing Craft in Matavi Bay (1776) by William Hodges Oil on canvas 54 x 76.2 x 193. a slave ship is tossed by a turbulent sea In the foreground. the brushes.2 cm Inspired by William Hodges’ journey with Commander James Cook to the Pacific Two European boats float slightly left of center Europeans work on the ship and sit in small boats nearby Tahitian figures stand and sit in the left foreground A mother and child sit near a chicken In the center. ocean creatures attack the slaves The sharp contrasts between colors evoke emotions and accentuate the horrors of the slave trade Oil on canvas Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks (1864) by James Abbott McNeill Whistler image: 36 3 4 x 24 1 8 A woman wearing a Chinese brocade robe and holding a brush and a porcelain object lounges in the center Her robe is decorated with peach and rose flowers and a dark purple underlayer and trim Her hair is pulled up into a bun.3 x 61.8 x 122.

5 in One of a set of five photographs A bald African man sits at a desk.5 x 58 x 2. decorative glass windows.5 x 76. asleep The desk reads ‘‘The sleep of reason produces monsters in Asia?’’ Owls and bats surround the man while a lynx lies by his feet and a black cat creeps toward him The figure wears clothing made of Dutch wax cloth .2 cm Inspired by Lewis’ decadelong stay in Cairo The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (Asia) (2008) by Yinka Shonibare.5 in framed: 81. MBE C-print mounted on aluminum image: 72 x 49. and a sunken pool in the foreground add to the beauty of the room Another servant crouches near a gazelle by the pool All look expectantly at the lady as though seeing how she would react to the arrival of visitors The painting is extremely detailed and mostly historically accurate Francisco Goya’s print: Shonibare copied the print almost exactly in photograph form British imperialism: the different ethnicities and continents on the desk imply the broad and mixed impact of imperialism African culture: the clothing of Dutch wax cloth and the African man Lewis’ ten years living in Cairo: accurate depiction of the interior of a Muslim home Political statement: the woman is seated in the mandarah. a location normally reserved for men This is a possible political statement on the Muslim treatment of women Influences & Style A Lady Receiving Visitors (The Reception) (1873) by John Frederick Lewis Oil on panel 25 x 30 in 63.Art Power Guide | 253 Selected Artworks Artwork Vital Stats Visual analysis A lady lounges on a divan in the main chamber of a room with two side chambers A servant fans the lady Several servants are lined up on the left side of the composition Wood screens.

15. 30.632 618 -.361 -.C. c.C. 4th millennium B.C. creation of the first Neolithic megaliths in Western Europe Extent of known Chinese pottery Origin of Ancient Egyptian civilization and the predynastic period Origin of Cycladic civilization Creation of the Palette of King Narmer Invention of glass in the Middle East Sargon of Akkad subjugated Sumerian cities.C.334 B. c. c.C.600 B.1.000 B. 332 B.E. 210 B.Art Power Guide | 254 Chronology of Ancient and Nonwestern Art Time c.E.E. 1.907 C. c. c. c. 7.E.E.C.E.E. 3. beginning of Akkadian dominance in Mesopotamia Guti barbarians invaded the Near East.E. c. c.000 B.E. c.C. end of Guti dominance in Mesopotamia.E. 7th century B.150 B.C.E. 28.25. 570 -.C.E.C. 500 B. 3.000 B.000 B.C. end of Akkadian dominance in Mesopotamia Construction of Stonehenge. c.000 B. 3.E.C.C. China experienced a golden age .C. c.E.E.E.E.C.10. c. 2. 2.E.792 B.000 B.E. c.500 B. c.000 -.C. 2.E.200 B. end of Ancient Egyptian civilization The Emperor of Qin became the first ruler to unite China Lifespan of the prophet Muhammad Under the Tang Dynasty.E. origin of NeoSumerian civilization Decline of Cycladic civilization and origin of Minoan civilization Peak of Minoan civilization Hammurabi united Mesopotamia under the city-state of Babylonia Lifespan of King Tutankhamen Origin of the Etruscan civilization in Italy Assyrian civilization ruled the Near East Decline of Assyria in the Near East Neo-Babylonian civilization thrived in Mesopotamia The Persian Empire ruled from present-day Iran Origin of the Nok civilization in Nigeria in West Africa Alexander the Great vanquished Egypt.C. c.C. 900 -.E.C. - Event Creation of the Chauvet Cave paintings Creation of Venus of Willendorf Creation of cave paintings in Namibia in Africa Creation of cave paintings in Lascaux and Altamira Creation of rock shelter paintings in eastern Spain Origin of Sumerian civilization.E. c. c. 2.C.C.C.100 B. 1.4. 538 -.C.000 -.E. 2nd millennium B.000 B.E. 23. c.C. 612 -.C. 1st millennium B.330 B.C.E.538 B.352 B.000 -.000 B. 4. c. 3rd millennium B.E.

c.E.323 B. 800 -810 c. 400 -.1500 c. 447 B. 900 -. 660 -.E.125 C.400 B.E.E. 1070 -.537 C.C. time period of the church-building craze Construction of the Romanesque church of Saint-Sernin in Toulouse. 800 and c.C. respectively Later medieval era. Viking.E.E.475 B.E.C. c. 70 -.C.323 B.E. 23 -.E. 448 -. France Origin of Gothic art Construction of France’s Gothic Chartres Cathedral began Architects rebuilt Chartres Cathedral . 375 -. 331 -.C.C.E. c.79 C.E.E. c.1120 Early 12th century 1134 After 1194 nd Event Archaic Period in Greece Persians obliterated the Greek Parthenon Classical Period in Greece Early Classical Period in Greece Middle Classical Period in Greece Reconstruction of the Greek Parthenon Late Classical Period in Greece Hellenistic Period Roman art emulated Greek art by this century Lifespan of Ancient Roman art historian Pliny the Elder Construction of the Roman Colosseum Construction of the Roman Pantheon Earlier medieval era. c. 475 -. 2 century B. c.C.C. 118 -. c. and Hiberno-Saxon art Construction of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Creation of the Book of Kells and the Coronation Gospels. c. 475 -. time period of Nomadic Germanic.E.448 B. c.23 B.80 C.Art Power Guide | 255 Chronology of Ancient and Nonwestern Art Time 13th century 18th century 1897 1922 1949 Late 1970s 1994 Event Rise of the Benin Kingdom in Nigeria Decline of the Benin Kingdom in Nigeria British troops raid the royal palace of the Benin Kingdom and wreck or confiscate treasures Excavation of King Tutankhamen’s tomb A communist uprising founded the People’s Republic of China Chinese art began to move away from politics Discovery of the Chauvet Cave paintings Chronology of Western Art Time c.C.1025 532 -. 480 B.

1513 -. Leonardo painted the sfumato-laden Mona Lisa Michelangelo sculpted his marble David. a symbol of the Florentine republic Pope Julius II hired Michelangelo to create his tomb Giorgione painted The Tempest.1515 1511 -. the Renaissance spread to northern Europe.1512 1509 -. 1513 -. 1430 -.1514 c. Lorenzo Ghiberti won a baptistery door design competition with a classical Greek-inspired image of the sacrifice of Isaac Donatello sculpted his bronze David. propagating Renaissance ideas Botticelli painted a lasting image of female beauty in The Birth of Venus Leonardo painted The Last Supper. the first known freestanding nude since the classical period Pietro Perugino painted a fresco containing linear perspective in the Sistine Chapel. the Protestant Reformation and Counter Reformation shaped European art. 1495 -.19th centuries 1400 c.1498 c. 1510 -. 1503 -. a pivotal image of the Virgin Mary Michelangelo sculpted Moses for the tomb of Pope Julius II Michelangelo sculpted The Dying Slave and The Bound Slave for the tomb of Pope Julius II Advent of Mannerism and the Baroque Vasari painted a self-portrait Mannerist artist El Greco (Dominikos Theotokopoulos) traveled from Venice to Toledo. 1498 Early 16 century 16 century c.1515 1513 -.1516 Late 16th century c. 1508 1508 -. Sir Isaac Newton formulated the concepts behind the color wheel Baroque artist Rembrandt van Rijn painted Night Watch . which established the genre of landscape painting Michelangelo painted the 700 square-yard Sistine Chapel ceiling Raphael painted the fresco School of Athens in the official chambers of Pope Julius II Matthias Grünewald painted the Isenheim Altarpiece Lifespan of Italian Renaissance art historian Giorgio Vasari Raphael painted Sistine Madonna.1482 c.1574 c.1505 1504 1505 c. Spain The ruling classes began to dominate European based on self-professed divine right. 1482 c.Art Power Guide | 256 Chronology of Western Art Time 15th century Event Invention of the printing press. 1567 1576 17th century 1642 th th Artists emulated Greek sculpture In Florence.1511 c.1432 1481 -. origin of printmaking Northern European artists painted smaller and more naturalistic pieces relative to Italian artists Southern Germany thrived artistically 15th -. now a popular culture icon Albrecht Dürer engraved The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Extent of increased art production in southern Germany Extent of Gothic art’s popularity.

1912 1912 c. 1913 Photography gained acceptance as an art form Peak of Art Nouveau’s popularity in Europe and the United States Pablo Picasso painted Les Demoiselles d’ Avignon. London hosted a World’s Fair Édouard Manet painted Luncheon on the Grass and exhibited it at the Salon de Refusés Claude Monet painted Impression Sunrise.1652 1669 18th century 1717 -. 1900 1907 c.Art Power Guide | 257 Chronology of Western Art Time 1647 -.21 century c. and atomic power impacted art Arbitrary color became more common 20 century -. invention of the color wheel Lifespan of German Enlightenment art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann Art history becomes an academic discipline Neoclassical artist Jacques Louis-David painted Oath of the Horatii Extent of Hans Holbein the Younger’s (1497 -. later a piece in the Armory Show Kandinsky introduced abstract paintings . 1908 c.1768 Mid-18th century 1784 19th century Event Gianlorenzo Bernini sculpted the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa at the Cornaro Chapel Louis XIV centralized France and initiated construction of the Palace of Versailles Enlightenment philosophy shaped art history. electronics.early 20th centuries Early 20th century 20th century th st Art historians increasingly emphasized historical context in relation to a work’s formal qualities Multiple revolutions originated in Europe.1850 By the late 19th century 1851 1863 1873 1888 Late 19th -. extent of the power of the Baroque ruling class. the inspiration for the term Impressionism Post-Impressionist artist Vincent van Gogh painted Night Café Antonio Gaudi designed organic-styled buildings in Spain Art Nouveau enjoyed popularity Advent of modernism Immigration to the United States from Europe and Asia surged Accelerating technological advances.1593) influence over English painting Extent of the French Salon’s power over art Scientists formulated color relativity 19th -.20th centuries 1848 1849 -. later a piece in the Armory Show Picasso and Georges Braque invented Cubism in Paris Picasso and Braque established the colleague as an art form Marcel Duchamp painted Nude Descending a Staircase. giving The Stonebreakers political implications Realist artist Gustave Courbet painted The Stonebreakers Residential lampshades and windows used stained glass Construction of the Crystal Palace.

and various other found objects to create Monogram Origin of Earthworks and Pop Art. police barrier. paint. the flower children created artworks inspired by the floral swirls and Asian styles of Art Nouveau Postmodernist architect Philip Johnson postulated that architecture required decoration Earthworks gained popularity Philip Johnson built the ornamental AT&T Building Founding of the Guerilla Girls in New York History of Portuguese imperialism Time 1434 1455 -. a mustachioed Mona Lisa with an offensive title Beginning of the Harlem Renaissance and the peak of jazz culture Nazis closed the Bauhaus architecture school in Germany Bauhaus professors moved to the United States 1940s 1943 1950s 1955 1959 1960s 1970 1970s 1984 1985 Abstract Expressionism grew out of Kandinsky’s early explorations of abstract subjects Picasso fashioned the ready-made Bull’s Head out of a bicycle seat and bicycle handlebars Harold Rosenberg. and other critics controlled the art world in New York Robert Rauschenberg painted Bed. 1913 1917 1919 1920s 1933 Event The Barnes Foundation’s Armory Show brought modern art to America Duchamp displayed Fountain. in which he used his bedclothes as a canvas Rauschenberg cobbled together a stuffed goat.1456 1484 Mid 15 century th Event Portuguese explorers traveled south of Cape Bojador Explorers reached the Gulf of Guinea Reached the Kingdom of Benin Europeans began to develop a passion for African goods especially ivory and bronze . tire.Art Power Guide | 258 Chronology of Western Art Time February 17. tennis ball. Clement Greenberg. an ordinary porcelain urinal. shoe heel. 1913 -March 15. as an artwork Duchamp painted LHOOQ.

this country was the first sub-Saharan country to gain independence Nigeria and Côte d’Ivoire gained independence Sierra Leone gained independence History of the Sapi Time 15th -. major European powers met to determine the fate of Africa Europe ruled almost all of Africa except Ethiopia and Liberia Ill treatment during World War II increased the push for independence Imperial control of Africa began to diminish Ghana gained independence from Great Britain.Art Power Guide | 259 Colonization and Decolonization Time 1822 1880s 1884 -. ruled by Ogiso Kingdom became a thriving political state Prince Oranmiyan came from the Yoruba kingdom and founded the second dynasty and tradition of rule by Obas Kingdom had become much larger through warfare The Portuguese arrived on the west coast of Africa and encountered the ‘‘Beny Kingdom’’ A Portuguese explorer writes an enlightening account of the Beny Kingdom Oba Ewuare expanded the Oba’s palace compound . produced Lidded Saltcellar West African ivory carvings began to arrive in Europe German artist Albrecht Dürer purchased two saltcellars Mande-speaking groups arrived in the area and started political conflict.E. Late 13th -.16th centuries Early 16th century 1520 .1521 1550 1959 Event Traded ivory carvings with the Portuguese. beginning of the systematic control of the interior regions of Africa The Berlin Conference.early 14th century Late 14th century 15th century 1484 1490s Late 15th century Event Benin Kingdom founded in Nigeria.1885 End of 19th century Late 1940s 1950s 1957 1960 1961 Event American Colonization Society founded Liberia as a refuge for African-American settlers The abolition of the slave trade began the scramble for Africa. and the Portuguese began to look elsewhere for ivory Art expert William Fagg identified these ivory objects as ‘‘Afro-Portuguese ivories’’ History of the Edo peoples and the Benin Kingdom Time 900 C.

17th century 19th century 1897 Event Height of the Benin Kingdom and start of decline Created Plaque Brief restoration of Benin power due to control of the palm oil trade Benin Punitive Expedition History of the Fante peoples and Kweku Kakanu Time 17th century 1910 1930s -.Art Power Guide | 260 History of the Edo peoples and the Benin Kingdom Time 16th century 16th -. advocate of traditional African textile techniques.C.1940s 1935 1957 Event European accounts from this time talk about highly organized military groups in the region Kweku Kakanu was born in Mankassim. Ghana Kweku Kakanu was his most active Kweku Kakanu created Asafo Flag Flags produced after this date usually include the Ghanaian flag History of the Yoruba peoples Time 350 B.15th century 18th century 19 century Early 20th century 1935 Mid 20th century 1951 th Event Earliest known time of Ile-Ife’s population Ile-Ife became a flourishing city-state Creation of terracotta and cast metal heads Due to the slave trade and wars with other tribes. the Yoruba kingdom declined The abolition of the slave trade allowed the Yoruba to recover briefly before the British arrived Adire reached the height of its popularity. was born .E. multi-colored factory-produced cloth Nike Davies-Okundaya. commonly women used imported cotton to make the cloth Popular image of Queen Mary and King George V produced to commemorate their silver jubilee Created Wrapper. 11th century 12th -. adire fell out of favor and was replaced by imported.

Face Mask was created Life of El Anatsui (1944 -) Time 1944 1957 Late 1960s 1975 1970s 1990 2004 .2007 Event Born in Anyako.Art Power Guide | 261 History of the Guro peoples Time 15th century Late 19th century 1897 Mid 20th century Event Europeans. specifically the Portuguese. to teach sculpture at the University of Nigeria and became associated with the Nsukka Group El Anatsui gained local and international recognition Work included in the international exhibition Venice Biennale Work included in the international exhibition Africa Remix which traveled through major cities such as London and Tokyo History of porcelain and specifically Plate production Time 600 C. first arrived in Guinea German chromolithograph of Mami Wata created Côte d’Ivoire became a French colony Enamel pigments were popular.E.1743 18th century 1765 Event First porcelain developed in northern China Southern China began to make porcelain The first porcelain arrived in Europe by way of the Silk Road Chinese artists began to create porcelain goods specifically for trade Leake Okeover.1743 1740 -. gained independence from Great Britain. becoming the first sub-Saharan African country to do so El Anatsui attended the College of Art at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and received a heavily European-focused education Moved to Nsukka. a town in Ghana’s Volta Region Ghana. commissioner of Plate. 10th century Early 14th century 16th century 1702 Early 18th century 1739 -. was born Knowledge of porcelain production became available in Europe Plate produced in southern China Plate and the set arrived in England Wealthy European patrons ordered specific designs and shapes from Chinese potters Leake Okeover died . Nigeria. previously the Gold Coast.

Art Power Guide | 262 History of porcelain and specifically Plate production Time 18th -.19th century - Event Great Britain sought for a position of power in China. served as Chief Justice of the High Court Company School painting patron.early 19th century 18th century 1735 1770s 1777 -. Lord Impey.1815) Time 1738 1748 1751 1750s 1760s 1763 1765 1766 1768 Early 1770s Event Born in Boston His mother married Peter Pelham. Boy with a Squirrel Exhibited Boy with a Squirrel in London Painted Paul Revere Painted portraits in New York and Philadelphia . the Company School paintings began to fade The East India Company took control over the Awadh Region Life of John Singleton Copley (1738 -.1805 Late 18 century 1800 1840s 1856 th Event Company school paintings refer to paintings produced by Indian artists for European patrons during this time period Strong European presence in India Claude Martin was born Claude Martin settled in Lucknow. he commissioned A Common Indian Nightjar sometime between this date and 1800 Company School painting patron. wanting a market for British goods and access to valuable Chinese exports History of Company School painting and A Common Indian Nightjar Time 18th -. the East India Company wanted control of the agriculturally-rich Awadh region in northern India Claude Martin died Photography was introduced to India. served as governor-general During this time.1785 1798 -. the painter and engraver Peter Pelham died Began to establish as a name as a portrait painter Gained recognition in Europe Had met Paul Revere by this date and ordered a gold bracelet Painted a portrait of his half-brother. Marquess Wellesley.

34 years old Boston Tea Party Midnight ride from Boston to Lexington Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote a poem about Revere’s midnight ride Portrait displayed publically for the first time.1900) and History of Mumbai Time 1847 or 1848 1867 1877 1878 1887 Event Born in Bath. later he traveled to Paris. and Florence and eventually London again Died in England Life of Paul Revere (1734 -.Art Power Guide | 263 Life of John Singleton Copley (1738 -. Rome. given to the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston shortly afterward Life of Frederick William Stevens (1847/1848 -. England Appointed assistant engineer in the Public Works Department of India. Paul Revere.1818) Time Early 18th century 1734 1760s 1763 March 1765 August 1765 1765 November 1765 1766 1768 1773 April 1775 1861 1928 Event 40% of shipping out of the colonies passed through Boston Born Began to produce engravings for magazines. bookplates. Pancras Railway Station completed in London Began design of Victoria Terminus Building Construction of Terminus began and the building was named to commemorate Queen Victoria’s jubilee Construction of Terminus ended . response to the Stamp Act Parliament enforced the Stamp Act Parliament repealed the Stamp Act Sat for his portrait.1815) Time 1774 1815 Event Traveled to London. and trading cards Had met John Singleton Copley by this date British Parliament passed the Stamp Act Samuel Adams formed the Sons of Liberty in Boston Joined the Sons of Liberty and produced his first political print. St.

he designed the Bank of New South Wales. Mumbadevi The Victoria Terminus Building became the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus. Bombay became Mumbai.1884) and formed the firm. and Wesley Church Began to work with Frederick Barnes (1824 -.Art Power Guide | 264 Life of Frederick William Stevens (1847/1848 -. the structure became the largest building in Australia and the tallest building in Melbourne The Melbourne International Exhibition received 1. and became a renowned architect Won a competition to design the State Library of Victoria. named after the Hindu goddess.1900) and History of Mumbai Time 1893 1900 1947 1995 1996 2010 Event Steven’s Municipal Corporation Building was completed. England Settled in Melbourne. Geelong Town Hall. Australia.5 million visitors from around the world The Melbourne Centennial Exhibition celebrated 100 years of Europeans in Australia . soon afterwards. Stevens had already retired from public service Died India gained independence A new political party came into power and promoted name changes.1890) Time 1823 1853 1854 1862 1880 1883 1884 1890 Event Born in Cornwall. Australia Time 1835 1847 1851 1880 October 1880 -.May 1881 1888 Event First settled by Europeans which arrived by way of Tasmania Queen Victoria recognized the city Gold was discovered in Victoria and Melbourne prospered. named after a 17th century Hindu king that represented independence Raj Thackery mentioned VT rather than CST in a public address Life of Joseph Reed (1823 -. Great Exhibition in London and the unveiling of the Crystal Palace Royal Exhibition Building completed. forcing Reed to find other partners Married Died History of Melbourne. Reed and Barnes - Royal Exhibition Building completed Frederick Barnes retired.

Australia Time 1901 Mid to late 20th century Event Australia became a commonwealth and first opened the Australian Parliament Royal Exhibition Building used for Olympic competitions. England Designed the College of Music in London Designed St. George’s Cathedral Received the Royal Gold Medal of the Royal institute of British Architects Died History of Georgetown. 1894 1966 Event The Dutch established colonies in the northern coast of South America. driving out the native Arawak and Carib. Andrew’s Church in Surbiton. and graduation ceremonies Life of Arthur Blomfield (1829 -. car shows. George’s Cathedral was consecrated The colony gained independence and changed name to Guyana . George Construction of St. within a few months. George’s Cathedral was determined unsuitable for use due to an unsteady foundation Arthur Blomfield designed the third church dedicated to St. George’s Cathedral began St. George in Georgetown was completed The British named the city Georgetown after King George III The British named the colony British Guiana The abolition of slavery forced the region to find a new source of cheap labor in immigrants to the area The second church in Georgetown was completed. Georgetown became the seat of the Diocese of Guiana and the church became a cathedral St.1899) Time 1829 1872 1882 1888 1891 1899 Event Born Designed St. school examinations. Georgetown became a European colony in the 18th century The French briefly occupied Georgetown and called it Longchamps The first chapel dedicated to St.Art Power Guide | 265 History of Melbourne. Guyana Time 17th and 18th century 1782 1810 1812 1814 1834 1842 1877 1888 1889 November 8.

Penn met with leaders of the Lenape tribe and presented them gifts in exchange for land rights and peace under a large elm tree in Shackamaxon. Pennsylvania Work noticed by William Smith. and Florence. Venice.1775) Time 1702 1737 Event Born Walking Purchase .1683 - Event Born to a wealthy family in London Father.1820 1820 Event Born in Springfield. would soon become court painter and work in this capacity for the next thirty years Royal Academy was founded by King George III with West as one of the founding members Painted The Death of General Wolfe Exhibited The Death of General Wolfe at the Royal Academy Painted Penn’s Treaty with the Indians Served as president of the Royal Academy Served as president of the Royal Academy Died Life of William Penn (1644 -.1718) Time 1644 1670 1677 1681 1682 -. after this event. he returned to England and there faced financial difficulties and prison Died 1718 Life of Thomas Penn (1702 -.1805 1806 .000 square mile proprietary grant in payment to a debt to his father. provost at the College of Pennsylvania Traveled to Rome. General James Wolfe died in the Battle of Quebec Settled in London Exhibited his work at the Society of Artists in London which brought him to the attention of British art critics Received a commission from King George II. Admiral Sir William Penn. became Pennsylvania According to the story.Art Power Guide | 266 Life of Benjamin West (1738 -.1820) Time 1738 Late 1750s 1759 1763 1764 1769 1768 1770 1771 1771 -. died Joined a group of Quakers who purchased a section of land in North America The King of England presented him a 45.1772 1792 -.

the Native Americans led raids on the settlers in Pennsylvania because of the Walking Purchase Benjamin West created Penn’s Treaty with the Indians because Thomas Penn commissioned the painting Died Life of William Hodges (1744 -. painted HMS ‘Resolution’ and ‘Adventure’ Traveled to India with the support of Governor-General Warren Hastings and the East India Company.1763 1771 .1775) Time 1756 -. reached Matavi Bay in Tahiti Returned to London and exhibited his paintings inspired by the voyage at the Royal Academy. a landscape painter in the Royal Academy Commander James Cook of the British Royal Navy traveled to Cape Horn.1851) Time 1775 1789 (age 14) 1790 (age 15) 1799 Event Born in London Enrolled in classes at the Royal Academy in London Exhibited first watercolor at Royal Academy Created self portrait . forced to close the exhibition. Australia. Easter Island. Tahiti.1772 1775 Event French and Indian War.1797) Time 1744 1758 1768 -.1794 1793 1794 -. and Tahiti Traveled with James Cook to the Antarctic Circle. criticized by the Duke of York. he established a studio and displayed his paintings of India Became an associate member of the Royal Academy Became a full member of the Royal Academy Exhibited at the Royal Academy Published a book of his drawings from India Exhibited The Effects of War and the Consequences of Peace on Bond Street.1795 1797 Event Born in London Worked as an apprentice to Richard Wilson.Art Power Guide | 267 Life of Thomas Penn (1702 -.1784 1786 1787 1787 -. and New Caledonia Along with James Cook. possibly committed suicide Life of Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775 -. New Zealand. upon his return. abandoned painting Died embroiled in scandal about his investments.1771 1772 .1775 August 1773 1776 1780 -.

Congratulations.Hannibal Crossing the Alps. or slaves Demand for slaves grew in North America and African slaves were the main source. Hannibal Painted Dido Building Carthage.  . ‘‘An essay on the slavery and commerce of the human species. Dutch.Art Power Guide | 268 Life of Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775 -. his ship reached Jamaica safely Insurers entered a court case challenging Luke Collingwood’s claims for lost slaves.E. translated from a Latin dissertation’’ The Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade was established in London with Thomas Clarkson and many Quakers as founding members The British Parliament abolished the slave trade and took on the responsibility of enforcing this ban militarily Thomas Clarkson expanded his treatise to write The History of the Abolition of the Slave Trade The British Parliament abolished slavery throughout the British Empire The British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society was formed The British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society held a convention in London attended by 500 delegates from around the world. particularly the African. Have some chocolate. a Butterfinger. as a result. and Portuguese traders grew wealthy The Zong Affair. decathlete. for reading so far. Thomas Clarkson addressed the convention and republished some of his anti-slavery works 115 These timelines must be mentally exhausting.1851) Time 1802 (age 27) 1812 1815 1840 1851 Event Became a full member of the Royal Academy Painted Snow Storm -. the Captain had already died Thomas Clarkson wrote the treatise. showing support for the abolitionist cause Died History of Slavery115 Time Early 1440s 17th century Late 17th and 18th century 1781 1783 1786 1787 1807 1808 1833 1839 1840 Event Portuguese led the first slave-raiding exhibition in Mauritania Rise of large-scale sugar production in the Caribbean and Brazil caused a rise in demand for cheap labor. Spanish. depicted snow storm of 218 B. and the ancient Roman military leader. and a bowl of Oreos and pudding to get through all of this. I’ve had to eat two Reese’s peanut butter cups. Captain Luke Collingwood threw 100 slaves overboard to collect insurance benefits. depicted ancient Roman history in a large landscape Exhibited Slave Ship at the Royal Academy. British.C.

1834 1841 Event Napoleon invaded North Africa and was driven out by the allied Ottoman Empire and Great Britain Born in London to an engraver and landscape painter. Painted Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks.19th century First half of the 19th century 1834 1845 -.2: The Little White Girl. adopted the lifestyle of a typical bohemian artist in Paris. exhibited in Tate Gallery in London 1860s 1862 1864 1864 -. criticized by John Ruskin Died Life of John Frederick Lewis (1805 -. exhibited in National Gallery of Art in Washington D.1865 - Life of James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834 -.1903) Time Late 18th -. studied with Charles Gleyre Had Joanna Hiffernan as a mistress Painted Symphony in White. exhibited at the Royal Academy Painted Symphony in White.1903) Time 1870s 1871 1872 1874 1903 Event French Impressionist artists became fascinated with Japanese art.C. especially imported woodblock prints Painted Arrangement in Grey and Black: The Artist’s Mother. No.1848 1847 -.1848 1855 Event Tea became Great Britain’s national beverage Rise in the demand for Chinese tea produced a rise in the demand for Chinese porcelain Born in Massachusetts Enrolled in art classes in St. later journeyed to Greece and Turkey Settled in Cairo for one decade and created over 600 watercolor paintings there . Petersburg Traveled in London with his mother Worked briefly as a cartographer then left the United States for Europe where he would live the rest of his life. No. Frederick Christian Lewis. exhibited in Musée d’Orsay in Paris Created self-portrait called Arrangement in Gray: Portrait of the Painter Painted Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket. Muhammed Ali took control of the Ottoman Empire and drove out Great Britain Traveled to Spain.1: The White Girl.1876) Time Late 18th century 1805 1832 .Art Power Guide | 269 Life of James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834 -. exhibited in the Detroit Institute of Arts.

the capital city of Nigeria Attended boarding school in England and Wimbledon College in London Suffered paralysis from transverse myelitis Attended Brym Shaw School of Art in London The Young British Artists exhibited their work in the show ‘‘Sensation’’ organized by Charles Saatchi Prominence in the art world increased Created The Swing (after Fragonard) Nominated for the exclusive Turner Prize Received the title of MBE or Member of the Order of the British Empire Solo exhibition at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Sydney. created The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters Solo exhibition at the Brooklyn Museum Solo exhibition at the National Museum for African Art .1989 1997 Late 1990s and early 21st century 2001 2004 2005 2008 2009 2009 -.) Time 19th century 1962 Age 3 Late teens Age 19 1984 -.1876) Time 1846 1851 1860s 1869 1870s 1873 1876 1882 Event William Makepeace Thackery documented Lewis’ lifestyle in his book Notes of a Journey from Cornhill to Grand Cairo Returned to England The American Civil War increased Great Britain’s interest in Egypt as a possible source of cotton The French built the Suez Canal Great Britain became the largest shareholder in the Suez Canal Lewis painted and exhibited A Lady Receiving Visitors (The Reception) Died The Ottoman Empire handed control of Egypt over to Great Britain Life of Yinka Shonibare (1962 -.2010 - Event The Dutch first created Dutch wax cloth for sale in Indonesia Born in London to Nigerian parents Father finished study of law and the family moved to Lagos.Art Power Guide | 270 Life of John Frederick Lewis (1805 -.

1828) Time 1746 1796 -.Art Power Guide | 271 Life of Francisco Goya (1746 -.1798 1828 Event Born Produced the set of 80 etchings called Los Caprichos which included The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters The Spanish painter and printmaker died .

she is experiencing a bit of separation anxiety. Fortunately.  Joined DemiDec in May 2011 .Art Power Guide | 272 ABOUT THE AUTHOR Anna Hainsworth is enormously relieved not to have to say goodbye to her dear friend. can quote the entirety of the BBC version of Pride and Prejudice. or any other random thoughts. want to obsess about NOVA.com. After four years of competing as an Honors with Canyon del Oro High School. Next year she will make the big leap into the frozen world of Northern Arizona University. she has her wonderful stuffed moose and a plethora of chocolate to keep her company. Academic Decathlon. If you have any words of comfort. 2010. criticism. She watches NOVA every Tuesday night. quite yet. You’re running out of them. Vital Stats  Competed with Canyon Del Oro High School at the Regional competitions of 2009. loves spending time with her copious amount of super cute nieces. She has bought her first actual jacket and is slightly terrified. and sews incredibly elaborate costumes (Zelda dress. Arizona State competitions of 2010 and 2011.828  Decathlon philosophy in a phrase: Use every second. has read far too many Terry Pratchett books. The only sport she has ever been good at is foosball. and National competition of 2011  Team placed 1st in State and 5th in Nationals in 2011  Individual top score of 8. anyone?). feel free to e-mail her at hundredacrehug@gmail. and 2011.

041.Art Power Guide | 268 ABOUT THE EDITOR If you go to the Château de Versailles on a Saturday evening. played to the accompaniment of classical music and dancing fountains. individual scores of 7. as Sophy Lee is doing here. competed at Region.542  Team placed 1st at State and 3rd at Nationals in 2008. Because… If you’re super patient. And if you want. If you’re really hungry and thirsty. If you’re really careful. If you’re super short. Vital Stats  Attends Harvard University  Competed with Pearland High School at Texas Region V and Texas State competitions in 2007. and Nationals in 2008  Team placed 13th at State in 2007.wordpress. email her at sophy@demidec. 9. you can make it all the way to the front of the crowd.com. you can pop one of the millions of bubbles pumped into the air. If you’re super sneaky.304  Decathlon philosophy in a phrase: “No regrets”  Joined DemiDec in June 2007 .007. If you wait a little bit longer. State. you’ll see the most beautiful fireworks display of your life. you can stare at the explosions of fire shooting into the air to the sound of classical music. If you’re feeling like pyromaniac. you should stay at the front of the crowd. Keep up with her ballin’ adventures at thefullmontee. you can buy too-expensive gelato at one of the corner stands in the maze of trees and shrubs and bushes and flowers and statues.com. individual scores of 9. and 9. you can sneak past the security guards into the area by the fireworks. like Sophy.741 and 7. you can walk down through the garden and listen to classical music.

play video games (mostly shooters) and laze his days away on the couch. and language & literature categories while competing.Art Power Guide | 274 ABOUT THE BETA TESTERS Jasmin Rahesh is and forever will be H3 at Mansfield Summit High School. In his spare time. Three years of beta testing have cultivated his love for alpaca-related camaraderie and Harry Potter jokes in footnotes. the movie theater. her spirit remains with TyTy. or Graphic Design. and Game Design & Development.. Tony enjoys spending his time with his friends. Yetman.. Art History. and is considering Architecture. he plans to make the vast open skies his cubicle and grow a beard that challenges that of Mr. Currently.. Eric especially enjoyed the mathematics. and even while scuba diving. Though she must part from AcaDec. He studies a mix of Computer Science. Starbucks is her best friend during Acadec season. Ronnie Chandra also beta tested this Power Guide." He is returning to South Mountain High School to compete as part of the "Three Musketeers" Honors. Anto George is affectionately known by his teammates by "freshy" and "Tech support.. Katharine will attend the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. Madison Brown is a Harry Potter-loving. When he is not studying. but will always remain true to his favorite pastime. She is going into her third season of AcaDec as an Honors (an upsetting change from her normal Scholastic position) for Chaffey High School and hopes to prove to her teammates once again that height is insignificant. and eating out. Interior Design. Writing Studies. After high school. In the fall. economics. Katharine "Special K" Tyndall spent two years as a scholastic on Waukesha West's AcaDec team. AP. Eric Schumann is a former Honors competitor from New Berlin Eisenhower's team. he is studying Actuarial Science at UW-Madison where he spends much of his time explaining what actuarial science is to those who don't know. literature obsessing nerd who unfortunately received the nickname of Madi-5 her sophomore year for only getting five questions right in the Super Quiz Oral Relay.. She likes to study EVERYWHERE. . Fersch. Robb Dooling enters his third year at Rochester Institute of Technology in upstate New York without any clue about the future. In that time she gained (and gave) many nicknames and many more friends. And if you even dream of beating her you better wake up and apologize. and all of the other Westies. Someday. working for DemiDec.. he likes to sleep. Tony Truong (AKA Tommy) is a senior at Sachse High School in Texas. nicknamed or not. and was honored to have a chance and place first in the Medium Schools Online National Competition his first year on the team. tumblr-ing. he plans to travel the world with a few of his closest friends and possibly take on a career in design. In the shower.with some Alpaca related items..

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