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Political Issues In Britain Today Being in the EU means policy-making is difficult “The implications for Britain of EU membership

are thus profound” - Due to EU involvement in British policy making. - page 381 POLITICAL ISSUES IN BRITAIN TODAY “Concern that membership threatens and undermines national sovereignty has consistently figured prominently in the continuing debate”- Despite understanding that total sovereignty is difficult, many still belief that EC membership undermines British national identity. Page 382 POLITICAL ISSUES IN BRITAIN TODAY “The belief persists that the EC has, and is always attempting to have, more powers in more policy areas than is either desirable or necessary”- People believe the EC is attempting to extend its reach of power into as many areas as possible. Page 382 POLITICAL ISSUES IN BRITAIN TODAY “The most obvious distinctive features of EU decision-making processes as compared with British decision-making processes are their international character and the unique institutional system via which they are based” Page 388 POLITICAL ISSUES IN BRITAIN TODAY “Two other characteristics, however, should also be noted. First, EC processes can be less efficient, in the sense that because they inevitably involve a multiplicity of participants they are often protracted, cumbersome and very susceptible to the necessity of compromise. Second, they are less democratic, in the sense that the real decision-makers, in the European Council and the Council of Ministers, are only indirectly elected (via national elections) whilst those who are directly elected (MEP's) do not have full decision-making powers” POLITICAL ISSUES IN BRITAIN TODAY PAGE 388. “The UK and the EU are interlocked systems of government” page 801 POLITICS UK.

Being in the EU undermines national and parliamentary sovereignty “Membership of the EU, however, is seen to have undermined sovereignty in unique and dramatic ways. Most obviously, EU membership requires that certain decision-making responsibilities be transferred from national to Union institutions: transfers that in recent years have appeared to become almost uncontrollable as the EU has broadened the range of its policy interests” - page 134. - People see EU membership as undermining British sovereignty both national and parliamentary, due to how responsibilities are now often dealt with by the EU institutions. POLITICAL ISSUES IN BRIAIN TODAY PAGE 391

Being in the EU means that Britain must appear to be getting along with the EU, give them another thing to think about.

“The troubled and difficult relations between Britain and the EC/EU have reflected domestic suspicions and uncertainties about the benefits of membership”- Troubled relationship and initial reluctance to join creates modern day suspicions and uncertainties. POLITICAL ISSUES IN BRITAIN TODAY Page 382 “It is common in Britain for politicians and the media to make assertations along the lines of 'Brussels has decided that'. The use of this sort of shorthand to refer to EC decision-making rather suggests that Community decisions are made by people who cannot quite be identified, who are not accountable, and who are certainly not British. As such it seems probable that the use of such phrases contributes to the suspicion of the EC that public opinion polls show exists in many quarters of Britain” page 386 “The procedure is remote by virtue of being centred on Brussels.” Page 801 POLITICS UK “European political institutions must now be considered an integral part of the decision-making in Britain- they are not just important 'external' institutions.” POLITICS UK- page 83 “It is easy to present the EU as 'interfering' with accepted British practice, even though this interference will probably have been sanctioned by a British minster” Page 801, POLITICS UK. “UK public opinion on European issues has to be taken account of. The difficulty is that many members of the public regards he EU as remote until some threat to the British way of life is perceived, such as the abolition of the pound if the government were to join EMU. UK public opinion is among the least positive about the European integration process” POLITICS UK page 803 “Supranational integration has provoked opposition or division in the UK ever since the 1950 Schuman plan” page 807 POLITICS UK.

Being a member affects Britain financially