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# SPIE Conference (San Diego): 8:50(am), August 23, 2011 What is a Photon?

The Nature of Light
Riccardo C. Storti www.deltagroupengineering.com

What are we going to cover?
1.  The Casimir Force 2.  The Zero-Point-Field (ZPF) 3.  The Polarizable Vacuum (PV) 4.  The PV Model of Gravity 5.  Electro-Gravi-Magnetics (EGM) 6.  The ZPF Frequency Distribution 7.  The ZPF cannot contain “infinite energy in flat space-time” 8.  ZPF Frequency Bandwidths 9.  The Extraterrestrial Casimir Effect 10.  Extraterrestrial Predictions
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What is the Casimir Force (CF)?

What is the Casimir Force (CF)?
F PP
1.  2.  3.

π .h .c .A

PP

4 480.Δr

FPP = Casimir Force (N) h = Planck’s Constant c = Speed of light in a vacuum APP = Parallel-Plate Area (m2) Δr = Parallel-Plate Separation (m)

It is an attractive force between two parallel, neutrally charged, reflective metal plates. It is a force produced by a pressure imbalance originating from the Zero-Point-Field (ZPF). It was derived based upon an infinitely large plate area at a temperature of “0K” (i.e. approximately the ambient Cosmological temperature); therefore, the CF as derived represents an average Cosmological quantity.

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What is the Zero-Point-Field (ZPF)?

What is the Zero-Point-Field (ZPF)?

rmali zation

Reno

Problem!
Infinite energy in a vanishing volume Next Step E0 = Joule, h = Plank’s Constant, ωn = Hz

What is the Polarizable Vacuum (PV)?

What is The Polarizable Vacuum (PV)?
ZPF Matter PV

+

=

ZPF + Matter = A Polarized ZPF
A Polarizable ZPF …. is …. The Polarizable Vacuum
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What is PV Model of Gravity?

What is The PV Model of Gravity?
1.  2.  The PV Model of Gravity is an optical analogue to General Relativity (GR). It regards gravitational micro-lensing to be the consequence of changes in energy density in the gravitational acceleration field surrounding matter. It explains “why” gravitational acceleration works the way it does; GR only describes “how” the “why” is executed.

3.

•  The “grid” of GR (above) is replaced by a “lens” in the PV Model of Gravity (right).

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What is Electro-Gravi-Magnetics (EGM)?

What is Electro-Gravi-Magnetics (EGM)?
1.  2.  3.

It is a natural progression from the PV Model of Gravity. It pertains to the equilibration between matter & the space-time surrounding it. It functions as a methodology bridging the ElectroMagnetic & Gravitational gap.
Alfonso Rueda, Bernard Haisch; Gravity & the quantum vacuum inertia hypothesis, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 14, No. 8, 479–498 (2005), DOI 10.1002/andp.200510147
Describing the frequency distribution utilising Fourier series yields the ZPF equilibrium radius

Polarized ZPF

2 m.c

V( r )

ρ 0( ω ) d ω

2.h . c
3

ω dω

3

“m” = mass, “c” = speed of light in a vacuum, “h” = Planck’s Constant

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What is the ZPF Frequency Distribution?

What is the ZPF Frequency Distribution?
The ZPF Freq. Dist. 1.  Starts at “0”. 2.  Is never “∞”. 3.  Is limited to the Planck frequency.
2 m.c

Increasing Mass-Energy Density

V( r )

ρ 0( ω ) d ω

2.h . c
3

ω dω

3

m = (kg), V = (m3), r = (m), ω = (Hz) c = Speed of light in a vacuum ρ0 = Spectral Energy Density

EGM
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The ZPF cannot contain “infinite energy in flat space-time”

The ZPF cannot contain “infinite energy in flat space-time”




Let’s look at an example of what happens to the spectral limits of the gravitational acceleration field, in terms of Quantum Mechanics (QM) & ZPF theory; in the case of a solitary neutrally charged, nonrotating “point mass” at rest, occupying an otherwise empty & flat Universe, as the distance from the “point mass” increases, the value of the Refractive Index approaches unity “KPV(r,M)  1” (i.e. by definition, see “Puthoff et. al.”) Thus, “ωPV(1,r,M)  0” as “r  ∞”, according to:
lim ω ( 1, r , M ) - PV r ∞
3 1 . 2 .c .G.M . lim lim K PV - K + r .r π r ∞ PV 1

simplifies to

ω PV( 1 , ∞ , M ) 0 .( Hz)

  

Consequently, as “ωPV(1,r,M)  0”, “ωΩ(r,M)  0” according to:

ω Ω ( ∞ , M) n Ω ( ∞ , M) .ω PV 1, ∞ , M) 0.( Hz) (

Therefore, the Spectral Energy Density “ρ0(ω)” of flat space-time (i.e. when “r  ∞”) approaches zero, & the Cosmological problem of “infinite energy” is avoided; hence, a vanishing volume at “r = ∞” contains no ZPF energy! Next Step

ZPF Frequency Bandwidths

ZPF Frequency Bandwidths
Lower ZPF Upper ZPF Available ZPF Limit (mHz) Limit (YHz) Pressure to Act on Location m = x10-3 Y = x1024 PP's (MPa) Moon 46.8107 402.5187 259.1181 Mars 39.4629 449.0776 155.3683 Venus 35.8948 511.1096 116.8157 Earth 35.8224 519.4364 116.1648 LEO 34.5175 511.4669 103.9217 SSO 31.1491 490.0461 76.3989 MEO 24.9010 446.4006 38.9948 GPSO 5.3421 235.0617 0.3856 HEO 2.3929 168.2100 0.0345 Legend LEO = Low Earth Orbit SSO = Sun Synchronous Orbit MEO = Mid Earth Orbit GPSO = GPS Orbit HEO = High Earth Orbit = 108(km) = 705(km) = 2,000(km) = 20,200(km) = 42,164(km)

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The Extraterrestrial Casimir Effect

The Extraterrestrial Casimir Effect

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Extraterrestrial Predictions

Extraterrestrial Predictions
Environment Lunar Surface Martian Surface Venusian Surface Low Earth Orbit Sun-Synchronous Orbit Mid Earth Orbit GPS Orbit High Earth Orbit
CP PV r , Δ r , Δ r X , M

ΔCPPV (%) +37 +12 -0 -5 -15 -35 -88 -95

Location Mean Equatorial Radius (RM,R♂,R♀) 180(km) 705(km) 2,000(km) 20,200(km) 42,164(km)
N C r, Δ r N X r, Δ r Δ r X, M Δ r X, M
2

•  ΔCPPV = Change in Casimir Pressure for a Parallel-Plate experiment, relative to the surface of the Earth. •  RM = Planetary Radius (Moon). •  R♂ = Planetary Radius (Mars). •  R♀ = Planetary Radius (Venus). •  ΔUPV = Change in energy density of the gravitational acceleration field. •  NC = Critical Mode. •  NX = Harmonic Inflection Mode. •  r = Location (Radial Displacement). •  Δr = Parallel-Plate Separation. •  ΔrX = Asymptotic Correction Factor. •  M = Planetary Mass.

Altitude

Δ U PV( r , Δ r , M ) .

.ln

N C r, Δ r N X r, Δ r

Δ r X, M Δ r X, M

4

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So What?

Extraterrestrial Predictions
Environment Lunar Surface Martian Surface Venusian Surface Low Earth Orbit Sun-Synchronous Orbit Mid Earth Orbit GPS Orbit High Earth Orbit
CP PV r , Δ r , Δ r X , M

ΔCPPV (%) +37 +12 -0 -5 -15 -35 -88 -95

Location Mean Equatorial Radius (RM,R♂,R♀) 180(km) 705(km) 2,000(km) 20,200(km) 42,164(km)
N C r, Δ r N X r, Δ r Δ r X, M Δ r X, M
2

•  ΔCPPV = Change in Casimir Pressure for a Parallel-Plate experiment, relative to the surface of the Earth. •  RM = Planetary Radius (Moon). •  R♂ = Planetary Radius (Mars). •  R♀ = Planetary Radius (Venus). •  ΔUPV = Change in energy density of the gravitational acceleration field. •  NC = Critical Mode. •  NX = Harmonic Inflection Mode. •  r = Location (Radial Displacement). •  Δr = Parallel-Plate Separation. •  ΔrX = Asymptotic Correction Factor. •  M = Planetary Mass.

Altitude

Δ U PV( r , Δ r , M ) .

.ln

N C r, Δ r N X r, Δ r

Δ r X, M Δ r X, M

4

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So What?

Governs hierarchy | Governs ΔCPPV (%)

So What?
Application of the Electro-Gravi-Magnetic (EGM) Photon radiation method to the Casimir Effect (CE), suggests that the experimentally verified (terrestrially) neutrally charged Parallel-Plate configuration force, may differ within extraterrestrial gravitational environments from the gravitationally independent formulation by Casimir. Consequently, the derivation presented herein implies that a gravitationally dependent CE may become an important design factor in nanotechnology for extraterrestrial applications (ignoring finite conductivity + temperature effects and evading the requirement for Casimir Force corrections due to surface roughness).
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