Unit 1


Toni Amengual, Scott Wilde, Ricard Sánchez, el nostre alumnat, els IES Binissalem i Damià Huguet i les seves directives pel seu suport, les persones que han prestat la seva imatge per les fotos i els nostres fills i parelles.

caib.es Aquest manual.Si teniu alguna observació per ajudar-nos a millorar aquest manual podeu contactar amb nosaltres en el número de telèfon 971 886 612 o a l’e-mail iesbinissalem@educacio. el teniu a la vostra disposició al weib de la Conselleria d’Educació Dipòsit legal: PM 2238-2009 .

Textures: how music is made. Expression terms Musical instruments Orchestral instruments project Dynamics. expression terms and form in music Music in films Singing activities 9 Unit 1 Unit 2 Project 1 Unit 3 11 25 37 41 49 71 75 89 99 Unit 4 Project 2 Unit 5 Unit 6 Project 3 Language Appendix 109 .Index_ Presentation activities Elements of music Rhyhm and beat. Tempo terms Inventing a Christmas song Melody and harmony.


primavera del 2009 7 . de Campos. i després a través d’un grup de treball creat expressament al CEP de Manacor. És el fruit del treball realitzat durant els cursos 2007-2008 i 2008-2009 pels professors de música i llengua anglesa. i a partir de la nostra experiència. en aquest cas l’anglès. primer. tal com es fa referència a la metodologia CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning). Per tot això. .La celebració de tres trobades que tengueren lloc a l’ermita de Sant Blai i a can Gelabert durant els esmentats cursos. Bauzà (professors de música) Antònia Motos Moens i Maria Vicens Nadal (professores d’anglès) Joana Cabot ( professora de plàstica) Mallorca. Al Regne Unit els manuals de música de secundària preparen l’alumnat per a la Standard Grade Music d’una manera molt específica amb tota una sèrie de proves que ja en el seu plantejament no són aplicables a la nostra realitat. que pot servir d’ajuda al professorat implicat dins el Programa de Seccions Europees. Vaquer Adrover i Miquel À. Això ha comportat una gran feina d’equip entre els departaments d’anglès i de música per tal d’adaptar els continguts de les dues àrees i elaborar activitats encaminades a millorar les destreses orals i escrites dels alumnes en llengua anglesa. Aquesta col·laboració ha portat a: .Les competències musicals del nostre alumnat necessiten ser desenvolupades en un anglès més senzill que el que es troba en manuals i webs anglesos del mateix nivell educatiu. L’objectiu al qual es pretén arribar és doble i se centra en l’aprenentatge dels continguts de música i en l’aprenentatge simultani d’una llengua estrangera. Antònia M.Hi ha una gran mancança de manuals adaptats al nostre currículum. hem decidit elaborar un manual de música en llengua anglesa per a primer d’ESO.Un intercanvi constant de material. a títol personal.Intro_ El present manual sorgeix de la tasca realitzada pels departaments de música de l’IES Damià Huguet. . i l’IES Binissalem. Els motius que ens han empès a començar aquesta intensa tasca són principalment els següents: .


Budge Five in a group. or Anyone who wears. but you cannot return to a chair you have just vacated. A variation: after playing this way for a while you could change the meaning of the orders so for example RED could equal go.. ..go YELLOW – sit down Other orders could be BRIDGE. If you call FIRE – everyone has to change places. Point players can change places – but they must send a visual or aural message to one of the others before they move – otherwise everyone just runs to the same place making it easy for the guy in the middle! Try to do it fast! It’s quite exhausting so don’t let it go on too long! Traffic ligths A control game. The group moves around the room and responds to orders – if anyone gets it wrong they are out.Presentation activities_ Before we start learning music... Sit on chairs in a circle one standing in the middle...lie down with only your hands and feet touching the floor. and LEVEL-CROSSING – lie on floor. The person in the center calls out Anyone who likes. let’s get to know each other! Choose from the following activities and have fun with your classmates! 9 Anyone who has... The orders we used were: RED .four stand on the points of a square and one in the middle – object of game is the middle person to get onto one of the points. Example given: Anyone who likes chocolate? People who like chocolate change seats.stop GREEN .

Lula Lula. It’s off to work we go. touching the knees of the persons on either side of you! . lula ley lula lula lula lula lula ley Lula. pass” sequence – or make up one of your own. false pass.10 Snow white and the seven darwfs Hi ho. lula. Pass a shoe and place it in front of the person on your right and on the beat. lula lula ley. then the shoe patterns. hi ho. lula ley Lula.g. Then teach the “pass. With a shovel and a pick and a walking stick. pass. lula. hi ho. This is the “passing the shoe game”: learn it in sections – first the words. lula. lula. Hey! For this song we worked out a series of actions e. hi ho.

. For example. . . . . . you feel an emotion. But do you know what music is? What are its elements? Many people have said things about music: “Without3 music life would be4 a mistake5” . . . . . .1 What is Music? Music is always present in our lives1. . . . what does the musician use? Paper? Pencil? No. . . . novelists. dancers and actors. . . . effort13 and talent it is impossible to create a piece of art. . All of them8 need9 to use some material (medium) to create a final product. . . . . . . . . . . the musician plays it on an instrument. . . Then. . . . . Let’s talk a bit more about Music… Music as an art Music is one of the arts and all musicians are artists. . Henry Wadsworth Longfellow “When words leave off7. like painters. . . . . poets. . lives: vides 2 lullabies: cançons de bressol 3 without: sense 4 would be: seria 5 mistake: error mankind: humanitat 7 leave off: t’abandonen 8 all of them: tots ells 9 need: necessiten 10 word: fusta 11 stone: pedra 12 skills: destresa 13 effort: esforç 14 tools: eines 1 6 . . music begins”  Heinrich Heine me 1 Can you write your own definition? Music is . . .Unit 1 11 Elements of music 1. sculptors. What about music? A composer uses sounds and silences to create music in a score. . . . . . . So. When you hear music. . . . and the art of combining sounds in space is music. from lullabies2 to the songs we listen to on the radio. . . . . Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche “Music is the universal language of mankind”6. The musician’s medium is the sound. . . . . . . . a painter can use paint to make a painting and a sculptor can use wood10 or stone11 to make a sculpture. . . . . . . . . . . . . because these are just tools14. . . . . Without extraordinary skills12. . . . .

.. ... ... ..... ...... agut: .. I think dancing is a form of art.... . 2 ... .. slow................... Ascending ==> ascendent.... suau: . ....... . .......... .. .... . ....... ... .... . high or low. .. . . . 2 ... . 4 ..... we can distinguish different elements: • Melody: ascending or descending. Composer.. ... ........ 4 Are these activities/subjects forms of art? Discuss in groups of 3-4 people. Score.. .. contrasts....... ........ . .. .... Sound... ...... ...... getting16 gradually louder or softer...... ................. I agree/I disagree Dancing Biology Poetry Tennis Writing Swimming Mathematics 15 slow down: reduir velocitat 16 getting: tornant-se ... ...... ...g. ....... solos... .... ...... ....... repetitions. • Tempo: fast.. High. Musician........ .... . .. Try to guess their meaning before looking them up in a dictionary......................... 3 .......... Catalan alt lent greu ee 2 Many words are similar to Catalan...12 In music. ... . B........ . . ....... ... 3 ... Rest. ràpid: ... ee ee 3 Go to the Language Appendix and write all the new words which are specific to music in your MD (=Music Dictionary) with their translations......... e.... 2 .. • Dynamics: very soft. 4 ... e... • Timbre/colour: instruments you can hear. Now find their opposites: English 1 ... Try to find 5 more examples... 2.... ........... 5 ............ getting faster or slowing down15. . .g.... Audible..... . A....... .. 5 . ..... . ........ Low.... ..... .... loud.. . . • Form/structure: chorus and verses.......... . 3.. English 1 ....... ......... Catalan 1 ... 3 ..... ....... .... . ... Play an instrument... ee 1 Find these words in English: 1..

they are the same. Conduct: conductor ee 6 Who is who? Match these artists to the form of art: Gauguin Ramon Llull Shakespeare Rodin Goya Pau Casals Michelangelo Joan Miró Painter Musician Sculptor Writer Music as a universal language Music is considered a universal language. Secondly. Magic: magician eg. It is not important if the notes have different names. we can use the following noun suffixes: -er. Teach: teacher eg. For the musician. -or. 17 kinds: tipus . music is always composed with these 12 notes everywhere. can express all kinds17 of emotions to people all over the world. Do you know why? Firstly. -ian eg. with any instrument.ee ARTS MUSIC 5 Complete the chart: 13 What’s the name of the artist? What’s the artist’s medium? What’s the final product? PAINTING DANCING POETRY ACTING WRITING SCULPTURE LANGUAGE CORNER To refer to the people who do a certain activity. like any other language. music.

The people who listen to the performer are called the audience. All of them together form the rhythm. the semibreve would be too big to fit32 in it. He/she has to27 express what the composer wants to express.14 Music as a way of expression of different cultures All cultures in the world have their own18 music.. representar. For this reason.3 The Sound Qualities We can distinguish four qualities in musical sounds: duration. we need someone to perform26 it. and others in between. in spite of28 having the same music score. It transmits knowledge21. he/she does it on paper. trying to write down all the ideas he/ she has in his/her mind. Do they play it in the same way? Probably not. actuar/performer: person who performs 27 has to: ha de 28 in spite of: malgrat que 29 a way: una manera 30 hold a note: mantenir una nota 31 fill: omplir 32 fit: cabre 18 22 . Nowadays. They create different types of music for different purposes19. 19 purposes: finalitats 20 entertainment: divertiment 21 knowledge: coneixement feeling: sentiment 23 drums: percusió 24 bells: campanes 25 score: partitura 26 perform: tocar. We need notes of shorter duration. This is why each note looks a little different. 1. It is showing that the semibreve value fills31 the entire line. Musical notes do not have the same duration. That’s because they play his/her own interpretation. If we divide the line into two equal parts.2 Elements taking part in the musical communication When the composer creates music. pitch. There are long notes and short ones. People use it in many different ways. Music is a way of communication. sitting on a line: This diagram helps you visualise its length. called minims or half notes: their own: la seva pròpia. we say that the role of the performer is very important in the communication process. This is a semibreve or a whole note.. Some examples are the drums23 rhythmic language or the sound of bells24 ringing. for example religious or ceremonial purposes or entertainment20. a) DURATION : It is the length of a sound. dynamics and timbre. But when this score25 has to be listened to. there are hundreds of interpretations of any piece of music. Musicians need a way 29of indicating how long to hold30 each note. Here you have all the elements put together: COMPOSER PERFORMER AUDIENCE 1. More than one performer can play the same piece of music. ideas and feelings22.

two minims. Take 2 sheets of paper and cut each one in 12 squares. we are going to play MEMORY. The next smaller note value is called a crotchet or a quarter note: 15 You need four crotchets to make a semibreve or two crotchets to make a minim. and so on35. On one square. On another square. They look like34 crotchets or quarter notes with flags: So. there are groups of three notes played in one beat. This triplet has 1 beat me (Write the name of the notes in English (American and British English). You can see the relationships between note lengths very clearly. 33 tell: veure 34 look like: semblar 35 and so on: etcètera 36 above: a dalt 37 below: a baix 38 clef: clau . This is a mathematical exercise! There are notes of shorter value. When you have finished. First. called quavers or eighth notes. eight eighth notes or quavers have the same value as one semibreve. write its translation in Catalan. four crotchets. ee 7 Let’s play a couple of games to learn the names of the notes! 1. Let’s look at all the diagrams placed together. Do the same for British English..You can tell33 with this diagram that you need two minims to make a semibreve. you are ready to play a game of memory in pairs. making pairs of cards. Furthermore. write down the name of a note in American English. They are called triplets (=tresets) and they are marked with a ´3´ above36 or below37 the middle of the three notes. You have to do this for each (=cada) note..

c) DYNAMICS: It indicates an increase or decrease41 in the volume of a sound. the sound will be soft. On the other hand. Each group needs to know the names of the notes in English if they want to win. you lose your turn! ee 8 Before reading the following paragraphs. the sound will be loud.16 2. d) TIMBRE or TONE COLOUR: It is the quality that distinguishes43 which instrument a musician is playing. the tone colour of a flute is perfect for a calm melody. Volume gets42 gradually louder or softer. p. the pitch is low. On the other hand. remember the meanings of these adjectives: High: Fast: Long: Loud: Low: Slow: Short: Soft: b) PITCH: The highness or lowness of a sound. pp. In fact. Composers have traditionally used Italian words and their abbreviations to indicate dynamics. you can use contrast in timbre to highlight45 a new melody. fff. For instance. dark (=obscur). f. The most common terms are: pppp. If you do it smoothly (= softly). You can describe timbre using words like bright (=brillant). Also. timbre also gives a sense of continuity. a violin produces high pitches because it has short strings. the highness or lowness depends on how long or short the string is. mp. A sound can be high or low and we use different clefs38 for high or low pitches. It is easier to recognize the chorus of a melody when the same instruments play it again. changes in tone colour create variety and contrast. If you pluck39 a short string40. The musical instruments that belong to44 the same family have a similar timbre. When you play the same melody with different instruments. because if you don’t know a translation. ppp. rich (=ric en) … Like changes in dynamics. A double bass produces lower pitches because it has longer strings. The brilliant sound of a trumpet is good for heroic or military tunes. Now you are ready to test your knowledge with a game of KNOTS & CROSSES. mf. the sound will be higher than if you pluck a long one. clef: clau 39 pluck: puntejar 40 string: corda 41 increase/decrease: augmentar/disminuir guish: distingir 44 belong to: pertànyer a 45 highlight: emfasitzar 46 in mind: en ment 38 42 get: es torna 43 distin- . When the vibrations are fast. ffff and so on. Terms such as crescendo or decrescendo mean that there is a gradual increase or decrease in volume. Also. composers often create a melody with a particular instrument tone colour in mind46. the colour changes because each instrument has a different timbre. Divide the class in two groups. ff. the pitch is high and when the vibrations are slow. The pitch of a sound is determined by the frequency of its vibrations. If you pluck the string of a guitar hard.

g.ee 9 Write the definitions of these concepts in English and add them to our MD.sfskids. like in the example: e. Do this exercise to help you remember. In this table you can find the most common rests in music: Note Rest Name Semibreve rest or whole note rest Minim rest or half note rest Crotchet rest or quarter note rest Quaver rest or eighth note rest Semiquaver rest or sixteenth note rest LANGUAGE CORNER You have to use the word “rest” after the name of the note. Crotchet rest You need to learn their symbols. Do you remember them? You measure48 sounds in decibels and an excess of dB can provoke damage49 to our hearing.asp?pageid=4 http://www.4 Sound. Each note value has its own rest. silence and noise 47 The sound is the most important material in music and it has four qualities. Duration: Pitch: Dynamics: Timbre/tone colour: and REMEMBER to write any other new word specific to music in your MD! HAVE A LOOK AT THE FOLLOWING WEB PAGES! http://www. In music. 47 noise: renou 48 measure: mesurar 49 damage to your hearing: mal a l’oïda . as you can see on the table.org/templates/musiclab. Silence is also a very important element in music. We can define silence as the absence of sound.classicsforkids. it is represented by a symbol called rest.com/music/ 17 1.

usually air..... Pay attention and explain what happens........ What happens to the sound? The ear is very important in this process............. The speed54 of a sound depends on the type of medium.......... beat/s ...... beat/s ....... Then................................................. The ear has 3 parts: ..... These cells transmit signals to the brain61 and the brain selects........ the vibrations are transmitted through55 the auditory canal56 and our eardrums57 start vibrating........... such as a knock53 on a door... beat/s ............ organizes and interprets the nerve impulses62.................... noisy jobs or things that produce noises? Is this noise pollution52? 1. the vibration is transmitted through the ear bones58 to the cochlea59............middle ear ............ 50 disturbs us: ens molesta 51 unpleasant: desagradable 52 noise pollution: contaminació acústica 53 knock: cop......... It is different if the medium is air................... Crotchet rest has ............. beat/s ..external ear ................. a solid object or water............................................ write John Cage 4´33´´ and listen to it.... Semiquaver rest has ....... Go to www................... The cochlea has liquid and this liquid has sensory cells60..........5 How is the sound transmitted? Sound begins with the vibration of an object. Can you name a few examples of noisy activities...... beat/s ...es ..18 me Fill the gaps and draw the symbols below: Semibreve rest has ......inner ear First........... It can be too loud or have an unpleasant51 timbre for a certain activity..... truc 54 speed: velocitat 55 through: a través de 56 auditory canal: canal auditiu 57 eardrums: timpans 58 ear bones: ossos de les orelles 59 cochlea: coclea 60 sensory cells: cèl·lules sensorials 61 brain: cervell 62 nerve impulses: impulsos nerviosos .............youtube. The noise is a sound that disturbs50 us........... The vibrations are transmitted to our ears by a medium... HAVE A LOOK! John Cage (1912-1992) composed a musical piece titled 4´33´´............. Minim rest has ....... Quaver rest ha .....

Careful! They are different in English! You can name the notes as DO RE MI FA SOL LA SI DO´like in the Latin countries. you have to memorize the names of the notes. They follow a different pattern.1. When you reach Si or B. patró 69 Sadder. The musician needs 5 horizontal lines and 4 spaces to write music on. They are the different distances between65 the sounds. Major scales sound bright66 and cheery67 and they follow the same pattern68: Tone-tone-semitone-tone-tone tone-semitone Minor scales sound a bit sadder69 because they have a different pattern: Tone-semitone-tone-tone-semitone-tone-tone There are also other types of scales. starting and ending with the note of the same name. We use these symbols to write and read a score. like in the Anglo-Saxon culture. like the pentatonic or chromatic scales. There are two main types of scales: major and minor scales. Ordinary scales have 8 notes. or C D E F G AB C´. This is called64 a staff (=pentagrama) 19 Then. you start again. The scale is divided into tones and semitones. It is like cooking.6 What is music made up of? Music is made up of63 different symbols.sad: trist 65 between: entre 66 bright: animat 67 cheery: alegre . Have a look! 63 68 made up of: feta de 64 is called: s’anomena pattern: model. See their symbols below and write their name: If you want to read music. the musician needs a clef: a treble clef (=clau de sol) for high pitches and a bass clef (=clau de fa) for low pitches. the cook needs different ingredients to cook a meal.

when you see a sharp or a flat in front of a note in a bar.… Short adjectives: -ER THAN Long adjectives: MORE…THAN Look it up in your English grammar appendix! 70 step: pas. Can you draw it? LANGUAGE CORNER Do you remember how to make the comparative? Higher than. you play a note half a step higher than a natural note. passa . A natural (=becaire) restores the original pitch of the note. When you see a sharp. lower.20 Pentatonic scale: me Could you improvise a melody using this scale with the recorder or the xylophone? Chromatic scale: me me me What is the distance between each note? Type www. Print them and do the exercises. If you move one step70 lower. It is a secret message that you have to decipher.exploratorymusic. You will find some worksheets. you play a flat.html – 14k on your computer. Go to the 9th worksheet.net/TeacherResources. Also. Are you He said to my _ _ _ _! _ _ _ _? _ _ _ _ There are a lot more signs in music you have to know. Read these scores and find out (=averigua) the missing words. writing the letter names of the notes. Hey. The symbol # represents a sharp (= sostingut) and the symbol b represents a flat (=bemoll). all the same notes in that bar are also sharp or flat.

Quant de temps/ quina duració? The staff is divided into measures or bars (= compassos). You will find some worksheets. 21 Can you tell what the key signature is? And the time signature? LANGUAGE CORNER Remember! How many? . Look at the example: ee 10 There are a lot of specific music words in the last paragraph. It indicates how many sharps and flats there are. translate them and add them to your MD. The bar line situated at the end of the melody is called a double bar. Let’s make a list.Quants/quantes? How long? . there is the time signature (= compàs): the top number tells you how many beats are in each measure and the bottom number tells you how long each beat lasts.html – 14k on your computer.exploratorymusic. is called bar line. You have to play or sing them like one note. Staff Clef Scale Sharp Tie natural key signature time signature flat triplet bar/measure tone/semitone beat bar line break 70 joins: uneix . one last symbol for now: a tie(=lligadura) is a curved line that joins71 two notes of the same pitch together. not like two. Finally. The vertical line located between bars or measures. the musician needs a key signature (=armadura) after the clef. me Could you write down the bar lines? me Type www.net/TeacherResources. Print the 15th worksheet and follow the instructions.Sometimes. After the key signature.

It is a curved line that joins two notes of the same pitch together. You use it for high pitches. It lasts 4 crotchet beats. 16. Play it softly. 8. 2. The third note of C major scale (in English). It is a universal language. When you see it. 14. 5. It is the speed of the music. A sign placed on the staff after the clef and the key signature. A measure. 17. Person who plays music. 6. A gradual increase in volume. 12. 9.22 CROSSWORD Complete the crossword puzzle below: 14 17 7 6 18 13 3 8 4 2 10 1 5 9 15 12 16 11 Across: 1. 10. . 18. 3. 11. 15. It is the most important material in music and it has four qualities. The bar line situated at the end of a score. Person who creates music. It is the sound quality that distinguishes which instrument is playing. It is a group of five lines and four spaces where we write the music on. It is the highness or lowness of a sound. 10. 4. you play the note a semitone higher. 7. It is the vertical line placed between two bars. It is the notation of a musical work. 13. Down: 2.

e. …the regular pulse in a piece of music. Dynamics indicates… 4. Match these qualities with the different elements of music. Fill in the following chart with the missing information:[12 points] Notation name Whole note Symbol Value Rest 23 1 beat II. High/Low 2. b. Slow/Fast a. d. Dynamics d. A triplet is … 6. Bright/dark 3. Loud/Soft 4. [12 points] 1.CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE I. Duration e. Match these terms with the definitions. [5 points] 1. … the length of each sound. Beat is … 2. Long/Short 5. Pitch c. Time signature is … 5. [9 points] silenci de blanca: clau de Sol: compàs: clau de Fa: escala: pentagrama: altura: partitura: músic: bemoll: becaire: treset: sostingut: públic: pulsació: timbre: compositor: renou: IV. Tempo III. Duration means… 3. Timbre b. . How many words can you translate in one minute? Time yourself! Correct with a classmate. …a group of 3 notes played in 1 beat.Timbre is … a. f. c. …the organisation of rhythm in bars indicated by two numbers. …the quality that distinguishes which instrument a musician is playing. … an increase or decrease in volume of a sound.

e. b. Vibrations are transmitted by the auditory canal. Our eardrums start vibrating. The vibrations go from the ear bones to the cochlea. The sensory cells in the cochlea send signals to the brain.24 V. How is the sound transmitted? Put the sentences in the right order. . The brain interprets the nerve impulses. d. a. The cochlea has liquid with sensory cells. c.[12 points] Sounds begins with the vibration of an object. f.

1st bar 1st & 2nd beat: clap your hands5 3rd & 4th beat: tap with your fingers on the top of the cup. It is what people tap2 when they listen to music or the pulse of their heart. Your heartbeat will not always have the same rhythm or tempo. Students have to play this rhythm with different beats. Now take a minute to feel your heartbeat. alternating hands 3rd bar 1st beat: clap your hands 2nd beat: take the cup with your right hand from left to right 3rd beat: tap your left palm with the cup in your right hand 4th beat: tap the desk with the cup turned up 4th bar 1st beat: pass the cup to your left hand 2nd beat: tap the desk with your free right hand 3rd beat: pass the cup to the neighbour on your right with your left hand turning it upside down. . alternating hands 2nd bar 1st & 2nd beat: clap your hands 3rd beat: tap with your fingers on the top of the cup. which is the regular pulse in a piece of music.1 Rhythm and beat CUPS ACTIVITY Class organisation: Everybody in circle having a turned-down4 cup in front of him/her. 1 the same: el mateix 2 tap: colpejar fluix 3 level: nivell 4 turn down: girar cap abaix 5see language appendix to learn expressions used in body percussion.Unit 2 25 Rhythm and beat. but are rhythm and beat the same1? The rhythm has a beat(=pulsació). TEMPO TERMS We can find rhythm everywhere. 1. It’s what makes music move. It can change depending on your level3 of activity or other factors. Tempo terms UNIT 2: RHYTHM AND BEAT.

stems and flags.. Duration!. This is called8 a rhythmic obstinato. that is to say the length of a sound..26 Rhythm is made up with6 sounds and rests which are put together in a pattern7 you can repeat. Play this song with the famous Queen obstinato: Tap your legs (two quavers) and clap your hands (1 crotchet). In a Persian market Do you know which sound quality the rhythm is related to?. 1. 6 made up with: compost per 7pattern: pauta 8 is called: es diu .2 The notation of rhythm The notation system consists of various combinations of note heads.

e. a dotted crotchet 9 add: afegir 10 so: així doncs . The first 3 are irregular (1: first. can you hear which one it is? LANGUAGE CORNER In English. you have to add 1 beat more (half of 2) to its value. fourth. 3: third) 2. Look at the example: A minim has 2 beats. so10 its value is 3 beats. add “th”. e. etc. me Here you have a famous Catalan Christmas song which has a lot of dotted notes. when a note has a dot. 2: second.g. we call it a dotted note. Do you know what it means? The dot adds9 half of the note value to the previous note. The word “dotted” goes before the noun. fifth. If the note has a dot.g. From 4 on. You can also find notes with a dot located on its right.me Semibreve Minim Crotchet Quaver Let´s remember the values of the notes: Name in American English Whole note Half note Quarter note Eighth note Sixteenth note Duration 4 beats 2 beats 1 beat ½ beat ¼ beat Note symbol Rest symbol 27 Name in British English Semiquaver LANGUAGE CORNER HOW TO SAY FRACTIONS IN ENGLISH? ¼ : One Fourth (the second is an ordinal number!) Do you remember ordinal numbers? 1. sixth.

Each student picks a card and asks his/her neighbour the question written on it. .the top number tells you how many beats there are in each bar. a question about duration or the names of the notes.co.exploratorymusic. 1. it tells us they are crotchets or quarter notes.bbc.net/TeacherResources. rhythm is organized in bars. Take turns to ask. They give us information about the beat: .shtml me Could you write these equivalences? me ee 1 Type www. like the first one of each time signature.the bottom number tells you how long each beat lasts11. This symbol > is used to mark the accent.Go to the 14th worksheet and do it. As you know. 2. For instance. Place the cards in the middle of the table.html – 14k on your computer. FLASH CARD ACTIVITY Form groups of 4 or 6 people. Print them and do the following exercises: 1.3 Time signature Some beats are stronger than others. After the treble clef. what kind of notes do you think they are? 11 last: durar . Pass the card to the neighbour on your left. Discard the cards which you have already used.Go to the 13th worksheet and do the musical maths additions. you will find two numbers that we call time signature . so that you can read it. You will find some worksheets.28 me Can you write the values of these dotted notes? Note Dotted semibreve Dotted minim Dotted crotchet Dotted quaver Value INTERESTING WEB PAGES http://www.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/music/musicalelements/rhythmandmetrerev1. if the bottom number is a 4. If it is an 8. It can be a translation of a musical concept into English or Catalan.

time signature. bar. Simple Times Crotchet beats Two beats in a bar Double Time1 2 4 Two beats in a bar Double Time 6 8 Three beats in a bar Triple Time2 3 4 Three beats in a bar Triple Time 9 8 Four beats in a bar Quadruple time 4 4 Four beats in a bar Quadruple time3 12 8 29 Compound Times Dotted Crotchet beats ee me 2 Add these musical terms to your music dictionary: Beat. This time signature is sometimes written as C. double time. quadruple time.. 3/4 means that there are 3 beats in each bar. pulse. triple time. Add the missing bar lines: In a 3/4 In a 4/4 . accent. 2/4 means that there are 2 beats in each bar. rhythm. ..Look at the example: 4/4 means that there are 4 beats in each bar. What is the time signature of this popular song? For he is a jolly good fellow (x3) Which nobody can deny(x2) me In a 2/4 Test yourself. 6/8 means that there are 6 beats in each bar.

Lento . called tempo terms14 What happens when a musician wants to practise a piece of music at a specific tempo? They use a metronome.Fast Vivace .5.4 Tempo The speed12 of beats is called tempo..30 1.A bit slower than Allegro Allegro . Ritardando .Very Slow Largo . 1.Moderately5 Slow Moderato . a device15 that indicates the beat with audible ticks16. They have to guess.Lively6 Presto . Tempo terms The following are the most common terms for tempo: Grave .A bit4 faster than Largo Adagio .Very Fast Prestissimo – Very. aparell 16 . Extra points will be given to the students who can provide the English translation as well. Accelerando .by a metronome. Very Fast Terms indicating changes of tempo: Accel. It has a stick17 with a piece of metal that you can move up and down to increase18 or decrease19 tempo.. marking13 for example = 77 . Tempo can be slow or fast and it can change during a piece of music.A bit faster than Andante Allegretto . 12 speed: velocitat 13 marking: assenyalant 14 tempo terms: indicacions de moviment ticks: fer tic-tac 17 stick: pal 18 increase: augmentar 19 decrease: disminuir 15 device: instrument.Gradually becoming slower Rubato – Flexible tempo ee 3 Your teacher will give you a tempo term and you have to represent it without words for your classmates.Slow Larghetto .Gradually becoming7 faster Rit.by Italian words.Moderate Andante .“Walking” Tempo Andantino . The person who guesses will have to represent another one. Composers can indicate tempo in two ways: .

Can you guess25 the time signature? 2) Tap the rhythm of the theme on your legs and write it down in the box : 3) Choose the suitable26 tempo term at the beginning: a. All the beats are the same. graduate – graduated . sad.g. Moderato c.Regular verbs form the past simple adding –ed to the base form: e. Adagio d. The music starts slowly and it gets faster. He became a great pianist and he gave concerts all over Europe. The beats are regular during the whole piece of music T/F 27 e. The term legato means the opposite. brilliant 7) How many times is the theme repeated? Notice that the length of the notes is short. depending on the type of verb: . a play written by the famous playwright24 Henry Ibsen. T/F c.LISTENING EXERCISE Listen to the music In the Cave20 of the King of the Mountain composed by Edward Grieg. repetitive. His first teacher was his mother. This piece of music belongs to it. agitated. All the instruments of the orchestra play together at the beginning. Allegro 4) True or False? a. T / F 5) Which musical term in this musical piece is suitable to express changes in… dynamics? tempo? 6) Underline28 the adjectives that describe this piece of music: Firm29.g. answer the following questions: 1) Tap the beat on the table. an Italian word that means detached or separated notes. calm. 20 25 cave: cova 21was born: va néixer 22belongs: pertany a 23graduated: es va llicenciar 24playwright: dramaturg guess: endevinar 26suitable: apropiat 27none of them: cap d’ells 28underline: subratlla 29 firm: ferm . LANGUAGE CORNER In English there are two ways to form the Simple Past tense. Do you know him? He was born21 in Norway in 1847 and he belongs to22 the Romantic period. It refers to connected or joined notes. Grave b. The music starts softly and it gets louder. idyllic.Irregular verbs use a different word for the past. become – became 31 me After listening to this piece. send-sent. This is called staccato. T/F b. T / F d. She sent him to study in Germany where he graduated23. He composed the music for Peer Gynt. none of them are stronger than the others. You have to memorize them: e.

1. we call it body percussion. It’s a simultaneous and independent rhythm. 2.g.32 LANGUAGE CORNER Some adjectives are formed adding the suffix e. 3. Stomp (stamp your feet against the floor). Slap your cheeks with the mouth open 8. We can produce a lot of sounds. 4. Click with the tongue against the roof of your mouth 9. adjectives don’t change and they always go before the noun: e. Tap your thighs31 with your hands. we are making polyrhythm.g. Snap your fingers.6. Clap your hands together. 5. Grunt 10. Hit your chest 6.You can: 1. but how? There are different ways of creating sounds. LANGUAGE CORNER In English. Body percussion* When we use our body to make sounds. 30 on its own: tot sol 31 thighs: cuixes * Go to the language appendix . Hit your bottom What is polyrhythm? When we play different rhythmic patterns together with one or more instruments. Whistle 7. different rhythmic patterns. connect (v) – connected (adj) –ed to the base form of a verb: 8) Let’s play a fragment of In the Cave of the King of the Mountain with the recorder or Orff instruments and body percussion. Body percussion can be performed on its own30 or as an accompaniment to a song.

Play Everybody dance now 33 Play Tarragona m’esborrona .

34 1. INTERESTING WEB PAGE: http://www.7 The drum set8 The drum set is a percussion instrument. You need coordination.musictechteacher.com/musicquizzes. because you have to play different patterns with hands and feet. One person alone32 can use it to make different rhythms at the same time.htm 32 alone: tota sola .

horizontally.WORDSEARCH Find the words below. Words can be found vertically. L J Y U F V B I T E I V C M J I X J G V F M D I N A O Y U V M N U Z O L Q D D L R M Q A I P X C V O N E P R X Q G V R N B N B T O X E Q B S E C V T C L S S V N E H I Y B G E N K Z A U Z H S T T N S O U E O P U J M M V K B N P G P I W G H H H O V Q I Y F W U A A H V O C C J I J L Y E B N Z X H Q N C S K B H X W W G E C O R Y O W S Q I H D W A G J F R N K U P N Q X G E N X A T T U I T A Q D E H C M O F Q Q W M J O S D Y Y B R I H P T V U J X E T Q L R E S L U P B X A A O H H E R R B O Y A A M R Z A T I I G Z F R F W R B N I J V V C Y P I O D L Z F F U L B Y J J E Q C K M I M P E R O D U D U S I B U S A F O G P O P P R Y W V N Z M X N T A T P N D R D N O V S A Z D A P Y Q K W L C N R D L L G F C A V P J W M S L L B U D O W N Y M N I Q J R X K Y S K H T W T H A T I B F C J Q S A M F F I A B E Y E Y H T R T A E B S A U T T N G S Q A G W L Y H M H H A G U G X J V S G N P P R M U O D M Z D B V Y L C D F S E P V G D O T S E R P I Z J E O N B O J W N Q D G S B 35 pulse legato presto rhythm metronome stomp polyrhythm staccato allegro dot clap vivace snap tempo beat andante . forwards or backwards.

Two numbers situated after the treble clef which give you information about the beat A device to indicate the beat with audible ticks. 3. Are they fast or slow? [1. Classify the tempo terms in the box. Accelerando is a term which indicates that the tempo gradually becomes slower. Tempo terms.5 points] DEFINITIONS Playing different rhythmic patterns together with one or more instruments The regular pulse in a piece of music. 4. 2. Can you write the values of these dotted notes? [2 points] NOTE Dotted semibreve Dotted minim Dotted crotchet Dotted quaver VALUE II.5 points] Adagio Fast Presto Largo Slow Grave Vivace Allegro III. Ritardando is a term which indicates that the tempo gradually becomes faster. Larghetto is a bit slower than largo.36 CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE I. IV. Is it True or False? Correct the mistakes: [4 points] 1. Using our body to make sounds T/F T/F T/F T/F CONCEPTS . Rubato is a term which indicates flexible tempo. Write the concept next to its definition:[2.

PROCESS Let’s start with. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Hi ho. hi ho. Writer: in charge of writing the lyrics and handing them to the English teacher. If there are more than 4 members in a group. .Project 1 37 Inventing a christmas song INTRODUCTION Have you ever wanted to write your own lyrics for a piece of music. Finally.. hi ho. Manager: in charge of communication. Hand them to your English teacher. With a shovel and a pick and a walking stick. You have to work in groups of four. Fashion designer: in charge of the group’s look and of finding a unique style for each group member (clothes and hair during the performances). 4. 3. now it is your chance! Let’s invent a Christmas song together! You will think of new lyrics for any pop or rock song you like. give a name to your group. Change the lyrics. Your favourite pop star lends you the music. The lyrics you invent have to be about Christmas. YOU write the lyrics. contact person with the English and the Music teachers. each member has to choose one of the following jobs: 1. First. TASK Your task is to create the lyrics for a song and play it at the Christmas concert. Activity 1 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Start singing the song. Play it with the recorder or the xylophone. Conductor: responsible for the accuracy during the performances.. hi ho. the additional members will assist the others in any way necessary. even if it is only to criticize society’s hypocrisy. It’s off to work we go. perform the new version of the song with your group in the Music class. 2. then. but you didn’t know how to? Have you ever realized that pop songs lyrics are sometimes very bad? Have you ever thought of your Music teacher as old-fashioned? If you have answered “yes”.

lyrics-p.chordie. lula. lula ley lula lula lula lula lula ley Lula.38 Activity 2 ■ ■ ■ ■ Start singing and playing the song with the recorder or the xylophone. 2nd step Surf the Net looking for the chords (it is in C major).http://www.metrolyrics.... lula lula ley.. lula. These two websites can help you: .? Oh can’t you see You belong to me How my poor heart aches with every step you take.http://www.com/ 3rd step Make your own lyrics and hand them to the English teacher. Hey! Activity 3 Don’t you know.http://www. Change the lyrics.http://www. sometimes by the singer.azlyrics. . perform the new version with your group in Music class. Hand them to your English teacher Finally. sometimes it is better to search by the title.com/ .com/ . 4th step Rehearse your version and perform it with your group in Music class.com/ but surely you know more! 2nd step Write down the chorus (NOT THE VERSES!) 3rd step Invent a new chorus for the song and: ■ hand it to the English teacher ■ sing it to the Music teacher. 1st step Surf the Net searching for the lyrics of the most famous Rock and Pop music hits. lula.com/ .azchords. lula ley Lula.http://www. . Activity 4 Try now with one of Bonnie Tyler’s best known singles: It’s a Heartache 1st step Surf the Net looking for the lyrics. Be careful. Lula. lula.

At the end of the project you will have two different grades: one Music mark and one English mark. Handing the new lyrics to the English teacher on time. The performance is tuned.. Writing the new lyrics without grammar and spelling errors. Group dynamicas The students hand in the tasks at the required dates... And now. The new lyrics go well together with the music. Handing the new lyrics to the English teacher on time. ..ASSESSMENT This project will be evaluated based on the following rubric. sability Having an accurate pronunciation. The students hand in the tasks at the required dates.. you will do fine. accurate and original. Activity 1 Writing the new lyrics without spelling errors. 39 Assignment Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Points out of 10 out of 10 out of 10 out of 50 out of 10 out of 10 out of 100 Points out of 10 out of 10 out of 10 The new lyrics go well together with the chorus music. Activity 2 Writing the new lyrics without grammar and spelling errors. Total ENGLISH MARK Assignment Criteria Handing the new lyrics to the English teacher on time. Having original and coherent lyrics. MUSIC MARK Criteria They sing in tune. Group dynamicas Everybody starts and finishes at once. you are ready to perform your own work! So. Canon can be noticed clearly. It is a tuned and accurate performance in Music class.. Handing the new lyrics to the English teacher on time. Individual res.. Activity 3 Writing the new lyrics without grammar and spelling errors. The group is well organized. finally..Developing your own role. accurate and original. Activity 4 Differentiating chorus and verse. Individual responsability Individual responDeveloping your own role. Activity 4 The performance is tuned. Total out of 50 out of 10 out of 10 out of 100 CONCLUSION By doing this project. ponsability Playing and singing well during the performances. Differentiating chorus and verse. The group rehearses properly.. you will learn how to play in group for an audience and how to surf the web and work in collaboration with your classmates... relax and enjoy yourself!!!!!!!!! If you do the activities step by step. after two weeks.

40 .

It appears1 when you play or sing a group of different notes.Unit 3 41 Melody and harmony. Melody is the horizontal structure of music and it is also the easiest part to remember. Low_ the lowest . If the lowest note is a C and the highest one is an A. the range is of 6th (=sixth): C-D-E-F-G-A. MUSICAL NOTE Do you remember the meaning of pitch and length? Pitch refers to the highness or lowness of a sound. see below . When we talk about melody we can distinguish: ■ Range: the distance between the lowest and the highest note. Length refers to how short or long a sound is. A lot of popular melodies survive4 from the past to nowadays because they are transmitted across generations5.Short adjectives: the + adj-est eg.Long adjectives: the+ most +adj. medium or wide7. ■ Melodic motion: notes can move by short intervals (Conjunct motion) or by large (= big) intervals9 (Disjunct motion). descending (=going down) or it can remain8 static (= the same). one after another2. eg.1 Melody Melody is a very important element of music. LANGUAGE CORNER Do you remember how to make the superlative? . All these notes can have different pitches and lengths and they are usually repeated and contrasted3 at the same time in a musical piece. We can define it as a group of notes with some character. ■ Form: the structure of the melody. intelligent _ the most intelligent 1 appears: apareix 2 one after the other: un darrere l’altre 3 contrasted: contrastats 4 survive: sobreviure 5 across generations: de generació en generació 6 narrow: estreta 7 wide: ampla 8 remain: mantenir 9 for the definition of interval. Textures: how music is made 3. The range of a melody can be narrow6. ■ Direction: it can be ascending (= going up).

Also. go to COMPOSE YOUR OWN MELODY and follow the instructions: http://www. then.co.musicatschool. LANGUAGE CORNER To talk about intervals we use ordinal numbers. the range. intervals can be melodic (as a part of the melody) or harmonic (as a part of the harmony). the distance between the E and the B? Intervals can be descending (if they go down) or ascending (if they go up).g. So.uk/year_7/melodicphrase_worksheets. Go to PRINT IT! and click PRINT IT! Index. For instance. e.42 Let’s clarify what an interval is: an interval is the distance between two notes. Don’t forget to write the treble clef! me me Activity 3 Click the following webpage. D.net/ 1. G and A.htm . What is. Click FREE INTERVAL WORKSHEETS. Try to do the four exercises! Activity 2 COMPOSING YOUR OWN MELODY Compose a melody of 8 measures using the notes C. E. 3. it is an interval of third. the distance between a D and a F is three notes: D-E-F. Write the time signature. Go down and you willl find FREE PRINTABLE MUSIC THEORY SHEETMUSIC. 2. an interval of third a) Melodic What kind of intervals are they? b) Harmonic me Activity 1 Click the following webpage http://makingmusicfun.

unaccompanied. sentiment 12 build: construir. unison.. Look at the example: C major chord 43 LANGUAGE CORNER Be careful: Chord is pronounced /ko:d/ If these notes sound one after another. It’s the vertical structure of the music and it gives mood11 to it. estat d’ànim.3. muntar 13 woven-weave: . You can use chords and arpeggios to make an accompaniment for a song. It is a combination of 3 notes and we can build12 them on every note of the scale. 10 support: donar suport teixir 11 mood: ambient. ee 1 Look for the names of these concepts in Catalan and add them to your music vocabulary: Range: Direction: Melodic motion: Interval: Chord: Form: Conjunct motion: Disjunct motion: Scale: Harmony: Accompaniment: Triad Chord: Arpeggio: 3. If the harmony changes. The most common chord in Western music is the triad chord. What is a chord? It is a group of notes written one above the other which sounds at the same time.2 Harmony Harmony is a group of notes that supports10 the melody.Monophony: a single line of melody. It is usually a solo. the melody will sound very different.3 Textures: How music is made The texture describes how the tune and supporting harmony are woven13 into a piece of music: . The chords and arpeggios form the harmony. we call it arpeggio..

me Activity 4 Can you write down the name of these popular melodies? 1) 2) 3) 4) .44 . .Polyphony: melodies weaving together.Homophony: melody with harmonic accompaniment. It is usually a strong lyrical melody with chordal accompaniment (like in the pop songs). It is usually a canon or different rhythmically independent melodies .

5) 45 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) .

It is the distance between the highest and the lowest note.46 CROSSWORD Complete the crossword below: 4 8 7 9 3 5 1 6 2 10 Across: 1. Down: 2.. When in a chord the notes sound one after the other we call it. 5. It is the horizontal structure of music. 9. 7. 10. 4.. 8. It is a group of independent melodies weaving together.. . It is the distance between two notes. It is a group of notes that supports the melody. It is a single line of melody. It is a group of notes that sounds at the same time. It can be ascending or descending. 6.. When an interval goes up is. 3.

Define melody [2 points] 47 II. Melodic or harmonic? 3. You have 15 minutes to answer these questions about the unit. Correct your classmates’ answers. A canon. Name the types of melodic motion.5 point] VI.CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE Let’s do a little quiz! Form groups of three people.5 point] Now. What gives support to the melody in a piece of music? [0. [1 point] III. [3 points] Give information about: 1. Ascending or descending? 123123123123123123- V. You MUST NOT look at your photocopies! I. exchange your answer sheet with another group. Write what you can about these intervals. What is the difference between chord and arpeggio? When do we use them? [1 point] VII. What is the difference between range and interval? [2 points] IV. The group with the highest score gets a prize!!! Good luck! . The distance (Remember to use ordinal numbers!) 2. is it a polyphony or a homophony? [0.


e. 5. Produce a sound Chordophones/aerophones/ … Vibrate/vibration Amplify Resonator … B. brass and percussion. 1 according to: segons 2 is made: es produeix. The xylophone is a good example of an idiophone. There are different ways of classifying musical instruments: A. Membranophones: The sound begins with the vibration of a streched3 membrane or skin4. We can group them according to1 how their sounds are produced. just as people in human families can look and sound similar.g. 3. which is the most accurate way: 1. The family members have things in common. is the one that divides the instruments in four families: strings. Musical instruments Musical instruments are divided into families. Some examples are the violin and the guitar. 2. the flabiol. ee 1 There are a lot of new words in this unit. Idiophones: The vibration of the instrument itself is the main source5 of the musical sound. however. Electrophones:They rely on6 electronics instead of7 a resonator to produce and amplify the sound.Unit 4: 49 Musical instruments 1. es fa 3 streched: tensada 4 skin: pell 5 source: font 6 rely on: depenen de 7 instead of: en lloc de . 4. Don’t forget to write them down in your MD and translate them. Chordophones: The sound is made2 by vibrating the strings. like the keyboard. woodwinds. The most common classification. like the timpani. Aerophones: The sound is produced by vibrating air.

50 STRING8 INSTRUMENTS Four stringed instruments are commonly used in the modern orchestra: violin. All are made of wood9 and have four strings.In an orchestra there are more string instruments than any other type of instrument. viola. violin viola violoncel double bass 8 string: corda 9 wood: fusta . cello and double bass.

It is different from other stringed instruments.blues.Another stringed instrument which can be part of an orchestra is the harp. Look for a photo of a harp and draw it: 51 The guitar is also a stringed instrument. Do you know how many strings it has? It has about 47 strings running perpendicular to the soundboard and it has a triangular shape with seven footpedals at the bottom.. It has 6 strings.We can find acoustic and electric guitars and they are commonly used in flamenco. but guitars with a different number of strings are also common. guitar . country.. rock and pop music.

BOWING: You draw a bow10 across the strings. The bow is made of horsehair. . Do you know what a luthier is? 10 draw a bow/bowing: passar l’arc 11 pluck: puntejar 12 pick: pua . half-size or quarter-size. cello and double bass can also be plucked. Do you know any other instrument with a keyboard? piano The violin The violin is the smallest member of the string family. If the string is short and thin. A lot of families became famous making violins. cello and double bass.52 String instruments are usually played by: . the sound will be higher and if the string is long and thick. Italy was an important country of violin makers. It has 4 strings and its tone is sweet and clear . It is a very popular instrument and it has a very wide range (=tesitura ampla). like the guitar is sometimes played. Amati and the Guarnieri were luthiers from Italy. viola.The Stradivarius.It is commonly used in orchestras as a solo instrument. The sound is produced by small hammers striking the strings and it is controlled by the pressure of the pianist’s hands on the keyboard. using the best materials to produce beautiful sounds.viola. for younger students. The body of the violin is made of wood. the hapsichord and the clavichord. And how can we classify the piano? Is it a string instrument or a percussion instrument? Discuss it with the classmates and your teacher. It was invented around 1700 as an evolution of its predecessors. the sound will be lower. They exist in different sizes (=talles): full-size. The violin. The piano is an instrument with strings inside and it is played using a keyboard. as you do in the violin.PLUCKING : You pluck11 the strings with your fingers like with the harp or with a little triangular piece of plastic called pick12.

the clarinet. His violins are considered the best ever made13 and they are still the most prestigious of all. If the tube is longer. not a mouthpiece.. The clarinet is a single reed instrument that belongs to the woodwind family too.Did you know.. oboe 13 bassoon 15 best ever made: el millor que s’han fet mai 14 woodwinds: instruments de vent fusta reed: canyeta 18 while: mentre que 19 blow: bufar 20 hole: forat shape: forma 16 key:clau 17 .. The saxophone is the only woodwind instrument made of brass and it belongs to this family because it has a single reed like the clarinet. Their different shapes15 and materials give them a variety of sounds. saxophone clarinet The oboe is quite similar to the clarinet. called Adolph Sax.5 million euros! 53 WOODWIND INSTRUMENTS Woodwinds14 were all originally made of wood... but it has a double reed. while18 oboes and bassoons have a double reed. It belongs to the same family and it has metal keys like the clarinet. A reed is a small piece of cane that is located at the bottom of the mouthpiece. Now. We can find it occasionally in an orchestra.? Mr Antonio Stradivari was an Italian violinmaker who lived between 1644 and 1737. Some instruments have reeds17 to produce their sound. The sound is produced by BLOWING19 through a hole20 (flute. They have the form of a tube with keys16 you can press with your fingers. The bassoon and the contrabassoon are the largest instruments in the woodwind family. a Stradivarius violin could cost about 1.. They have a double reed and they make the lowest sound in this family of instruments. Some of the woodwind family instruments that we can find in an orchestra are the flute. Let’s find out something about each instrument.). they are made of metal or wood. the oboe and the bassoon. recorder) or a reed (clarinet. the sound will be lower and if the tube is shorter. They use vibrating air to produce sounds. oboe. Clarinets and saxophones have a single reed. Its name comes from the man who invented it. The musician presses the metal keys with the fingers of both hands to produce sounds while blowing. the sound will be higher. Nowadays.

trumpet 21 tuba 22 tromboe buzz: brunzir french horn brass instruments: instruments de vent-metall . Piccolos. the blowpipe. The orchestral brass instruments are: the trumpet. Parts 1 2 3 4 5 English name Bufador Sarró o sac Grall Bruma Fiols Catalan name BRASS21 These instruments are made of metal. the bass drone. the French horn. the trombone and the tuba. Do you know its name in Catalan? The parts of the bagpipe are: the chanter. It is a double reed instrument and it has been played in Majorca for centuries.54 The flute doesn’t have a reed. flute The bagpipe This is a traditional woodwind instrument throghout Europe. the tenor drones. Can you guess what these parts are called in Catalan? Fill in the gaps. Their sound is louder than the woodwinds and they are commonly used in military bands playing outdoors. recorders. It belongs to a large family of instruments. but a mouthpiece. the bag. Their sound is produced by BLOWING and BUZZING22 the lips against the mouthpiece. ocarinas and other unusual instruments are also part of this family.

There are two types of percussion instruments. they play harmonies and also great solos. The trombone sounds wonderful. SHAKING24 or SCRAPING. There are the ones you can play tune with. They hold (=agafen) it with their left hand while moving the slide back and forth (= cap envant i enrera) with their right hand.The trombone Trombonists use the slide (=vara) and the shape of the lips to change the pitch. There are also percussion instruments which produce an indefinite pitch and that is the reason why they are called: untuned. because they can produce specific pitches or notes . In orchestras. The sound is produced by HITTING23 . 55 PERCUSSION The percussion family is very big and includes a variety of different instruments. xylophones triangle wood block guiro 23 maracas or shakers sleigh bells darbouka hit: colpejar 24 shake: agitar . which are called tuned percussion.

56 tambourine claves cimbals drum castanets bass drum timpani .

me 1. The quickest wins. They are two pieces of wood and when we strike them we produce an untuned sound. b. It is a circular-shaped drum covered on one side with plastic or animal skin. Go! You can group instruments in four families: strings. membranophones or idiophones. It is made of metal and it has a triangular shape.We play it with a pair of wooden sticks. 3. d. Find the missing information in the text. h. They are often associated with Spanish dances. 2.g. Be careful! The same instrument can be written in two columns. Let’s see how much you remember. Cello is a ……………………………………. g. They are a pair of little brass plates and they are crashed together to produce the sound. of the resonating body. j.. brass and percussion. The viola is the smallest stringed instrument.. It has an irregular surface and it is played by scraping the surface with a stick. e. called jingles. E. ……………………. It is a big percussion instrument that is used in the orchestra.………………… Membraphones are classified according to …………………………. You have 5 minutes. i. Which instruments produce sound by vibrating strings? ……………………. It has bars of different lengths made of wood following one after another and you play it with two drumsticks. instrument. It is the biggest drum used in orchestras or music bands. the bass drum is untuned and a membranophone: Tuned Untuned X Membranophones X Idiophones 57 PERCUSSION Bass Drum me which is which? Try to find the percussion instrument that corresponds to the following definitions: a. c. It has two membranes streched over a circular frame.me Classify the instruments below in tuned/untuned. 4. 5. It has small discs. It is often made of wood. Its sound is very low and deep. f. Work in groups of 4 students. We play it with a metal stick. located in its circular frame and it sounds when we shake it or we strike it with our hands. It is a type of drum that is commonly played in the North of Africa and in the Middle East. It produces a specific pitch that changes depening on the drum size. TRUE / FALSE .

IV. play a guessing game. 8. It is divided into different sections. you are a musical detective and you need to know where the following instruments sit in an orchestra..…………………………………… 9. In pairs. but with instruments. It is very well organized! me Now... 10.g..58 6.. it is /No. you Do you use your fingers/ a bow to play it? Is it big/small/long/short/round…? Is it bigger/smaller than…? Does it have a low/high sound. it hasn’t) don’t 1. What is the difference between brass and woodwinds? …………………………………………. Keep score! DRAWING A BOW SLIDING BUZZING HITTING PLUCKING SHAKING PRESSING KEYS BLOWING BOWING STRIKING III.………………………………………… ee 2 When talking about the different instruments. ……………. The answers can only be Yes or No! Have a look at the type of questions you can ask: e. What type of instrument is a triangle? …………………. In aerophones the sound is produced by ……………………. . you do/ No. One student mimics the meaning of these verbs and the other tries to guess the verb in English. Add these verbs to your MD with their translations. Let’s play charades. it has/ No. it is important to know how their sound is produced.. For extra points. clarinet and ……………….? (Yes. How do you play a woodwind instrument? ………………………………………………………… 7. Is it a strings/brass/woodwinds/percussion… instrument? Yes. One student gets the name of an instrument and his/her classmates have to guess which one it is by asking questions. The woodwind members of the orchestra are the flute.. name instruments that are produced in this way.2 What is an orchestra? The orchestra is a group of musicians with their instruments playing together. it isn’t Is it an idiophone/membranophone…? Is it made of wood/metal/plastic…? Do you play it by blowing/ striking/…? Yes.

..... where the string section finishes.Percussion instruments sit at the very back of the orchestra.......... 59 me Can you write where the different families are located? Fill the gaps The string family is located25 ........................ of the wind family.The violas are directly in front of you................The harp occupies the smallest space on the left and the 1st violins sit at the front.......... two........................ next to the harp......................... ...The trombones and tubas sit in a place behind the bassoons.. three and…go! ....... .......... .......................Read the following instructions and you will find out the right answer. .... on the left............ The brass family is located ......... the conductor.................................Double basses are behind the cellos..The flutes are behind the violas.. of the orchestra......... LANGUAGE CORNER Before doing this exercise remember the prepositions of place in English: Behind Next to In front of On the left/right At the front/back Between 25 is located: està situat ............The clarinets sit next to the bassoons and in front of the horns..................... .... The woodwind family is located ..............The 2nd violins sit next to the 1st violins.... ................... the strings....... One...... The percussion is located .........................The oboes sit next to the flutes and are directly in front of the bassoons................................... ............................ The harp and the piano are located ............................................... ....................... ... on the right and the trumpets sit next to them........................

just like teachers do with their students! me SECTIONS As we said before. slower. Trumpet.3 The conductor A conductor is the person who leads26 the musicians. tuba and French horn. Add these terms to your music dictionary. faster. except the flute. Percussion ee 5 There is a lot of new vocabulary to learn. A conductor uses his or her whole body. striking them together. He corrects the musicians if they play a part of the piece incorrectly. the orchestra is organised in four sections or families of instruments and their sound is produced in different ways. with the excitement of the music. The expression of the conductor´s face is very important. hitting them with your hands or shaking. conductors wave28 their hands with a thin stick29 that is called the baton30. trombone. the conductor loses31 the baton and it goes flying away! The conductor also chooses the pieces the orchestra has to play and he attends the rehearsals32..60 1. Occasionally.. Bow Reed Valves Sticks tuned / pitched instruments untuned / unpitched instruments slide conductor lead orchestra rehearsal conduct 26 lead: dirigeix 27 useful: útil 28 wave: moure 29 stick: vareta 30 baton: batuta 31 lose: perdre 32 rehearsal: assaig . Sometimes. Eyes are especially useful27 to communicate with the musicians. Fill in the gaps: INSTRUMENTS HOW THE SOUND IS PRODUCED Plucking and bowing with a bow sliding across the strings. not only his hands. Blowing on a single or double reed. softer. He guides them and makes them play louder. Striking1 with different kinds of sticks.

1.4 Chamber music


Chamber music33 is composed for a small group of people and it was originally performed34 at rich people’s homes as entertainment. Rich people used to pay musicians to come and play in their “chambers” and for this reason, the music composed for these private performances is called chamber music. The name of the main chamber groups are the following: Duet, Trio, Quartet, Quintet, Sextet, Septet and Octet. They don´t need a conductor, because they are so few. Instead35, one of the players leads the group. Composers always compose chamber music thinking of specific music instruments.The most popular types are: String trio: violin,viola,cello. String quartet: violin 1, violin 2, viola, cello. Piano trio: piano,violin, cello. Brass Quintet: 2 trumpets, French horn, trombone, tuba.


Click the following web page:

http://www.artsalive.ca/en/mus/instrumentlab/, and go to Instrument lab.

A- Draw the string instruments, write their characteristics and listen to them. B- Draw the wind instruments, write their characteristics and listen to them. C- Draw the percussion instruments write their characteristics and listen to them.

33 35

chamber music: música de Cambra Instead: en lloc d’això


perform(v)/performance(n): representar/representació






1st. 2nd. 3rd. 4th. 5th. 6th. 7th. 8th.

Listen to the following instruments. Guess the instrument playing and complete the chart: Instruments Instrumental family



LET´S MAKE COMPARISONS... Write comparisons between instruments within each instrumental family using the comparative and the superlative. You can compare the size, the pitch, the length of the strings, how they sound... Go over your grammar first.

you don´t need a case to put it in. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ WIND FAMILY __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ PERCUSSION FAMILY __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ 1. It doesn´t cost money and like other instruments. How can we produce the voice? We produce it with our two vocal chords36. but it needs care. you don´t have to polish it. The violin is the smallest instrument in the string family. as well. like a wind player.com/watch?v=iYpDwhpILkQ 36 vocal chords: cordes vocals 37 fold: plecs 38 take a breath: aspirar .youtube. You take a big breath38 to produce a long note. HAVE A LOOK! If you are really interested in watching real vocal chords in action.5 Human voice Is our voice a musical instrument? Of course! Our voice is the most natural instrument in the world and the oldest one. two pairs of mucous membrane folds37 located across the larynx that start vibrating when the air goes through them.64 STRING FAMILY Ex. you can watch the following video: http://es.

Alto: The lowest female voice 65 Male voices Tenor: One of the highest male voices. The choir is a group of voices. for instance. like in an orchestra.Men and women have different vocal chord sizes. Mezzosoprano: The pitch of this voice is between the soprano and the contralto. Adult males. Types of voices We can find different types of voices depending on their pitch: Female voices Soprano: The highest voice. Baritone: The pitch of this voice is between the tenor and the bass. have larger vocal chords and they are usually lower pitched. Many people can sing quite well and singing together with others can be a satisfying experience. A conductor leads them. Bass: The lowest male voice. .

It can also sing together with an orchestra. Do you know it? HAVE A LOOK! Here you have an interesting website where you can have fun with a lot of music games and quizzes. it is called a cappella. Then.nyphilkids. like in Beethoven´s 9th Symphony.66 A choir can sing without instrumental accompaniment. where we can find the famous Ode to Joy. You will also find some ideas to make your own instrument! http://www.phtml? Enjoy! .org/games/main.

6. The sound can be produced by hitting or shaking. 8. 5. 11. 12. It belongs to the brass family and it has a slide.CROSSWORD Complete the crossword below: 67 13 6 8 9 5 2 11 3 1 12 7 4 10 Across: 1. It is one of the highest male voice. It belongs to the woodwind family. It is one of the main chamber groups.. These instruments are made of metal. 9. The sound is made by vibrating the strings. 4. playing together. 3. It is a group of musicians and their instruments. He was an Italian violin maker. 13. The person who leads the orchestra is the. It is the smallest member of the string family. 10. It is made of horsehair. 5. Down: 2.. It is a traditional woodwind instrument and it has been played in Majorca for centuries. It is the most natural instrument in the world and the oldest one. 7. .

forwards or backwards. Words can be found vertically. horizontally.68 WORDSEARCH Find the name of the musical instruments below. W A A A I G W X W B D P J I P B Z P R L H S P U O Y Q U R K Z D W N W S W B C Z H G P K S S P O P V N Q W C N K J O I X Z O I L S E O B X T G N P X Q A L O Z X R O L L Y L R V L O A S U Q I K M I N N M P I N C N H M K N V O B M A R I E Q V D I A O U K P L G I I Q E O F K P B F C F H A H P Z O G H X X K P X S U T X H N I Z G S O B F J D R S S Q V S D L F X C M S M V O K W S P Z G J G D Y E K E I N A P M I T R O B O N E E T M Y G O O E P A F C U T B U E U R C O T U B I X A K E Y B O A R D R L O H S C S X Z N F T R I A N G L E R O P K A B T R Z W O A K K B Y L K N I U I K I Q S O C D O S B L M O K Z O K R D V A X B U C E E X S Q C W K F L U T E C F X A K K R N V E Y Z I H D I M V K A I X B Q S X S H A C K E R S D N Z J Y O G L O I V X Z F R P O S D A N Y H V E I D L D T B O S R O W A X N E Y F W R A W V W H H M R B I E A S S A P X T Z L T E C M I C K U A T J L I I F T I G Y A U L J Q I H Q M W M W X W H W N M D M N H M N G M W M O W G N P O M A W N trombone clarinet triangle flute bagpipe piano viola shackers recorder keyboard violin trumpet timpani bassoon darbouka .

A percussion instrument consisting of a metal bar in the shape of a triangle. A brass instrument consisting of a long tube with slides. It has the lowest pitch of the string instruments.CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE I. 9. This instrument has the lowest pitch of the brass instruments. Gong E. A large stringed instrument. 3. WHICH IS WHICH? [22 points] Label the following instruments and write the instrumental family they belong to: 69 II. 5. 7. 8. A woodwind instrument with single-reed.Trombone I. 2.Trumpet H.Violoncel .It is used in popular music. A percussion instrument made of wood consisting of a pair of shells held in your hand. 6.The musician holds it upright while playing.Saxophone D. Tuba B. 4. Match the instrument with its definition [18 points]. Double bass G. A. 1. Castanets F. Triangle C. A brass wind instrument with a brilliant tone. A percussion instrument consisting of a metal plate that you strike with a drumstick.

70 III. [10 points] By striking: By blowing and buzzing: By blowing through a hole or a reed: By plucking: By drawing a bow/bowing: . Which family or families of instruments are played by…? Give examples.

a time-watcher (who controls the time and prevents his/her teammates from losing time) and a spokesperson (a student who asks the teacher any doubts and transfers the information back to his/her classmates). . ■ The layout of the orchestra. and a questionnaire for your classmates. WHAT? At the end of this project you have to: 1. with special emphasis on how the sound is produced. 3. highlighting where the family of instruments is located. 2. ■ Present the poster with the information to your class. HOW? ■ You will work in groups of 3 or 4 people. Remember that your active participation in the task is required. 1. a secretary (who records everything his/her group has decided in writing). ■ Within the group there should be a leader (who organises the work). Choose a piece of music that illustrates best your presentation. ■ Divide the workload evenly among the members of the group. 4. ■ Names and drawings of the most important instruments representing the chosen family. ■ Understand and actively listen to you classmates´presentations. Hand in the poster. Present the contents of the poster to your classmates. ■ Definition of each instrument. Requirements on the poster: On the poster there should be information about: ■ Name of the family of instruments and main description. WHAT FOR? Objectives: At the end of this project you will be able to: ■ Explain the most important characteristics of one family of orchestral instruments and describe the different instruments within that family. Test your classmates with 5 made-up questions about your presentation. ■ Show in a test your acquired knowledge of orchestral instruments. ■ Make up a visually-attractive poster which summarises the information you have collected.Project 2 71 Orchestral instruments project PROJECT DESCRIPTION Poster presentation about one family of orchestral instruments.

Practise presentation at home. 3. individual grade). Based on accuracy. One grade for Music class: ■ 50% Poster presentation (group grade) ■ 50% Test on instruments (individual grade).20 minutes long ■ During the presentation all members of the group are required to talk the same amount of time. · Divide the tasks Each group reads and summarises the information What to do at home? Look for information and suitable pieces of music Look for information and suitable pieces of music Finished? Week … Week … Start on the poster: form. ■ No reading will be allowed. Don´t make them too difficult! WHEN? Date Week… What to do in class? Project presentation · Choose your group and the roles. accuracy and pronunciation. Hand in poster and questionnaire. Based on fluency. which will be the average of the following parts: ■ Poster (40%. How did the groupwork go ? 2. Grade based on accuracy. Requirements on the presentation: ■ 15 . group grade). Present your poster to the class. clarity and creativity. . Make up questionnaire and make copies. Test on orchestral instruments. Requirements on the questionnaire: ■ 5 made-up questions about your presentation to test if your classmates were listening carefully. ■ Provide difficult vocabulary to your classmates or repeat if necessary. content. ■ Poster presentation and questionnaire (20% group grade).72 2. Present your poster to the class. ■ Individual presentation (20%. structure and clarity. ■ Group work ( 10% group grade). A final grade for English class. Study for test Week … Week … Week … WHAT DO I GET FROM IT (apart from learning English and Music)? Evaluation: 1. Practise presentation at home.… Finish draft poster Hand in a draft of the poster to the teacher Prepare presentation in English class.

he/ she will be penalised with a deduction of points. MEMBERS OF THE GROUP AND ROLES Name Role Phone number E-mail DIVISION OF TASKS Name Task related to poster Part of presentation Answer these questions: 1. . Give a mark to your groupwork: . What would you improve (=millorar) next time? 3. ] We hope you enjoy this project! Your teachers 73 YOUR GROUP Fill in this form and give it to your teacher when asked.Remember!! ■ Delays won´t be allowed and will be penalised with a deduction of points. ■ All group members have to participate equally. could you solve them without the help of the teacher? Did you need the teacher´s help? 2. Did you have any problems working together? If so. If a student doesn´t carry out his/her task.


unlike4 earlier popular keyboard5 instruments like the harpsichord6. meaning “moderately loud”. Traditionally.louder . there are also •ff. marques 4 unlike: a diferència de keyboard: instrument de tecla 6 harpsichord: clavecí 7 meaning: que significa 8 more subtle degrees: indicacions més subtils 9 standing for: que significa 10 beyond: més enllà 1 5 . the piano (instrument) was called the “pianoforte” because it could play dynamics. More subtle degrees8 of loudness or softness are indicated by: •mp. expression terms and form in music 1. and meaning “very soft”. standing for mezzo-forte. but there is nothing wrong with writing things like “quietly” or “loudly” in music. “pianissimo” or “fortissimo”. and meaning “very loud” and •pp. standing for “fortissimo”. DYNAMICS In music.” •f or forte. meaning “loud” or “strong”. dynamic markings3 are in Italian. standing for9 mezzo-piano. LANGUAGE CORNER Be careful! Don’t mix these words: ■ softness (noun) ■ softest (superltive) ■ softer (comparative) ■ soft (adjective) .Unit 5: 75 Dynamics. dynamics normally refers to the softness1 or loudness2 of a sound or note. standing for “pianissimo”. softness: qualitat de so fluix 2 loudness: qualitat de so alt 3 markings:senyals. Beyond10 f and p. In the past. e.loudness . meaning7 “soft. meaning “moderately soft” and •mf. “Forte” means loud and “piano” means soft.loud The two basic dynamic indications in music are: •p or piano.loudest .g.

there are words which indicate gradual changes in volume.1. sudden14 accent and is abbreviated as sfz . Abbreviation pp p mp mf f ff cresc dim Italian word pianissimo piano mezzopiano mezzo forte forte fortissimo crescendo diminuendo English meaning very quiet quiet medium quiet medium loud loud very loud getting louder getting quieter 1. and dim. 1. Accents are markings which indicate that these notes sound especially loud. mp does not indicate an exact level of volume. or wants the very beginning of a note to be the loudest. instantani .3. not absolute12. and decrescendo or diminuendo.76 Dynamic indications are relative11.2. respectively. For example.. 11 relative: relatiu 12 absolute: absolut 13 dying away: fer-se inaudible 14 sudden: sobtat. The two most common are crescendo. pronounced sotto voce: soft. sometimes abbreviated to cresc. sometimes abbreviated to decresc. meaning “get gradually louder”. meaning “get gradually softer”. Sudden changes Sforzando indicates a strong. Accents Sometimes a composer wants a particular note to be louder than all the rest. Fortepiano indicates a forte followed immediately by piano and is abbreviated as fp. Gradual changes In addition. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ crescendo: becoming louder decrescendo or diminuendo: becoming softer morendo: dying away13 marcato: stressed. subtle 1. it only indicates that music in a passage so marked is a little louder than p and a little quieter than mf. Interpretations of dynamic levels depend on the performer.

tenderly agitated and fast animated in a singing style sweetly expressively humorously grazioso legato maestoso rubato scherzando staccato tranquillo gracefully. a lot of musical terms are in Italian. Do you know why? Because a lot of composers of the Renaissance Period were Italian and they used many indications for the first time. Dynamics : Loud: Quiet: Strong: Interpretation: Gradual change: Stressed/pronounced: Get louder: Accent: Soft: Marking: Indication/indicate: Level of volume: Music passage: Sudden change: Subtle: Become softer: 77 ee 2 Let’s play Hangman with these new words. Make sure you add these new words to your MD. EXPRESSION TERMS As you know. grazioso legato maestoso rubato scherzando staccato tranquillo affecttuoso animato cantabile dolce espressivo giocoso . peacefully ee agitato 3 Translate all these expressions terms into Catalan and add them to your MD.ee 1 There is a lot of new specific vocabulary. 2. Here you have some of them: affecttuoso agitato animato cantabile dolce espressivo giocoso with feeling.with charm smoothly and connected majestic taken out of tempo playfully short and detached calmly.

.. themes. You win when you’ve crossed out all the terms in a row or on your card. cross out the square and write its translation. but this helps to understand and perform a piece of music. 3. and a new theme appears.. Variation : the melody varies during the composition. A4. You can enjoy music without analyzing its form..1... phrases. 3. Repetition: you can repeat any element you want (notes. dynamics. The first theme is usually a simple one and after this. The most common forms Binary form Ternary form Rondo Strophic form Theme and variations Canon A A B A A1 A B or A A B A A A A2 B B C A A3 A A. What does a composer need in order to create a composition? A composer needs 3 important elements: 1. 3. You can analyze every piece of music like you can analyze every word you write. phrases. It can be written like this: A A1 A2 A3 A4. of course.). A----------------------------------------A---------------------------------A--------------------------A-------------------- .. This form is called theme and variation form.. FORM Every piece of music has a structure or form. When you hear the teacher say the equivalent Italian term.. the composer writes the variations he/she wants. 2.78 ee 4 Let’s play Bingo. Contrast : you can mark a difference between two notes. We can say that form is the basic structure of a piece of music. themes. A A.. Most popular songs use this element.2. dynamics.. Draw a table of 6 squares and write an expression term in English.. 3.

BINARY FORM A piece of music with two different sections. Section A Section B 79 This is a traditional dance from the Basque country. Section B is a contrasting idea and the last section A can be the same as the first or can vary a bit. is a binary form. Section B contrasts with section A and the two themes sound different. Section A contains the first composer´s musical idea. Section A Section B Section A . It is a musical sandwich. Can you underline section A? Can you draw a circle on section B? TERNARY FORM The ternary form has three sections. We can repeat both sections. The A section returns after a contrasting B section. an A section and a B section.

Twinkle. twinkle. the main theme. How I wonder what you are! Then the traveler in the dark Thanks you for your tiny spark. twinkle. little star. He could not see which way to go. twinkle. little star. A. While you thro’ my window peep. Till the sun is in the sky. Twinkle.80 Copy section A: Section B Twinkle. How I wonder what you are.. Like a diamond in the sky. Up above the world so high. When he nothing shines upon. How I wonder what you are! In the dark blue sky you keep. How I wonder what you are! When the blazing sun is gone. Twinkle. And you never shut your eye.. twinkle. little star. Section A Section A Section B Section D Section A Section A Section C Section E . 15 keeps: continua 16 coming around: tornant . twinkle. Twinkle. keeps15 coming around16 or repeating after contrasting sections. Section A is always alternated with a new one. How I wonder what you are! RONDO FORM In this form. little star. twinkle. Then you show your little light. If you did not twinkle so. little star. Twinkle. all the night.

Look at the music score Te deum composed by Charpentier and answer the questions: 81 How many sections does this piece have? Could you fill the gaps with the letters of the form? Copy section A: Section B: Section C: .

No en sou marinera. no. l’altra de seda. blanca o vermella? que és millor seda. . people in Majorca used to17 sing ancient18 stories about love or traditions. Quan ella s’ha despertat.Pujau. .Mariner. tornau-me a terra. i jo pobreta de mi. .Això sí que no ho faré. . . when televisions did not exist.Mariner. la nau pren vela. I amb els aires de la mar. hi ha una donzella. Section A Section A1 Section A2 Section A3. THEME AND VARIATIONS As in the strophic form. 17 used to: solia 18 ancient: antigues 19 main: principal . but it varies a bit each time.De quin color la voleu. pujau dalt la nau. marinereta. Centuries ago. cançons novelles. The composer of the song was anonymous and the most important thing about the songs were the lyrics. Mentre va mercadejar. the one theme is repeated indefinitely.. set anys fa que vaig pel món. ella es desperta. que jo en som el fill del rei.De tres germanes que tenc. una porta vestit d’or. que heu de ser meva. de l’Anglaterra. som la més bella. so the musical form of the romanç was strophic. que és per la reina. Quan el té a mig brodar.Vermelleta la vull jo. que portau seda. triareu d’ella. bon mariner. me donen pena. . s’és dormideta. li mancà seda. bon mariner. que brodava un mocador. . Mariner es posar a cantar. que jo en som el fill del rei. l’altra és princesa. i amb el cant del mariner. Nou Romancer: La donzella i el mariner A la vorera del mar. l’una és casada amb un duc. . que a mi els aires de la mar. fou lluny de terra.. called romanços. de l’Anglaterra.82 STROPHIC FORM Strophic form in a song is when we use the same music for every verse. que en sereu reina. per vós donzella. Each variation is a recognizable version of the main19 theme but with some differences.

3 How can we vary a theme? We can change a piece of music in different ways. there are 4 more variations. a) Change the tune into a minor tune. Let’s try with Frêre Jaques. After this. . A----------------------------------------A---------------------------------A--------------------------A-------------------The popular song Frêre Jaques is a good example of a canon: 3.Haydn: Emperor Quartet. 83 Which instruments are there in a string quartet? Who plays the melody in each variation? Theme 1st variation 2nd variation 3rd variation 4th variation What is the tempo of the piece? CANON It is a musical form in which a melody is repeated again and again at different times. 2nd movement This is the theme of the string quartet.


b) Add notes to the theme like a melodic decoration.

c) Change the time signature or the rhythm. d)....


Read the following instructions and compose a ternary form in C major. Instructions: a. Each section must be 204 measures long. b. Start and end section A on C, and section B on G. c. Label21 A, B, and A sections.

ee ee


What are the names of the different forms in Catalan? Add the English names to your MD. Make groups of 3 people. You have 2 minutes to learn as many words as you can from this unit. Close your books and write down all the words you remember on a piece of paper . The group with the highest number of words wins.


20 must be: ha de ser


label: posa nom

Listen to the following music pieces and write their forms: Musical example Nº 1 Nº 2 Nº 3 Nº 4 Nº 5 Answer the following questions about the composers listed above1. Complete the chart. COMPOSER When was he born? When did he die? He was born on .... He died on .... What instrument/s did he study? He studied ..... He composed ... His most well- known2 musical pieces Composer Title Musical Form


Write the letter of the correct match next to each word: 1. _crescendo 2. _sotto voce 3. _diminuendo 4. _sforzando 5. _legato 6. _staccatto 7. _binary form 8. _rondo 9. _strophic form 10. _ternary form 11. _cantabile 12. _dolce 13. _ff 14. _pp a. AB or AABB b. short and detached c in a singing style d. soft e. ABACA... f. AAAAA g. very soft h. ABA i. sweetly j. a strong and sudden accent k becoming softer l. smooth and connected m. becoming louder n. very loud


CLOZE TEXT Use the words in the list below to complete the sentence: 1 In music, dynamics normally refers to the ......... or ............ of a sound or note, e.g. “pianissimo” or “.............................”. There are words to indicate gradual changes in volume. The two most common are crescendo, sometimes abbreviated to cresc., meaning «get gradually louder»; and .................... or diminuendo, sometimes abbreviated to decresc. And .................. respectively, meaning «get gradually softer».

decrescendo notes. dim. composer music



Sometimes a ..................... wants a particular note to be louder than all the rest, or wants the very beginning of a note to be the loudest. ............................... are markings used to indicate these especially-strong-sounding ...............

loudness Accents softness structure


Every piece of ................... has a ................. or form. You can ................. every piece of music like you can analyze every word you write. In the form called ................., the main theme, A, keeps coming around or repeating after contrasting sections.

rondo “fortissimo”.



… is the basic structure of a piece of music.tell us about the mood in a piece of music c. …is a gradual change in volume meaning “dying away” b. Write the name of 4 different types of forms and their structure.[6 points] “In a singing style”: “Taken out of tempo”: “Short and detached”: “Grazioso”: “Scherzando”: “Legato”: . …is an element of music which refers to the loudness or loudness of a sound.[10 points] ■ Form ■ Accent ■ Dynamics ■ Morendo ■ Expression terms a. Match these definitions with the concepts. Give the Catalan or the English term for these expression terms. Complete this table [10 points] Indicator ff mp sfz dim fp II. …. Italian term English term/explanation 87 III. …is a marking used to indicate a strong -sounding note.CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE I. What does a composer need to make a composition? [6 points] IV. d. e. [8 points] V.


such as CD. you hear the whole4 song or part of it in the background5 of non-musicals. (Examples: “Mamma Mia”. Albums of pop songs. Film scores which concentrate on the background music. 1. The abbreviation OST is often used to describe the musical soundtrack on a recorded medium. (Examples: “Love Actually”. The voices of the actors and the background music could be recorded. that stands for “Banda Sonora Original”). Even in the early days. Then in the late 1920’s1. silent films were accompanied by ‘live’ music. the soundtrack was invented. Can you transform them into active voice? “The abbreviation is often used …” ==> People … “Silent films were accompanied by ‘live’ music” ==> Live music … “The soundtrack was invented” ==> Somebody … Spot the grammar! What’s the structure of passive voice? In the soundtrack genre3 there are three types of recordings: 1. “When Harry Met Sally”) 1 in the late 1920’s: a final dels anys 20 2track: pista 3genre: gènere 4whole: tota/completa 5background: de fons . sound effect or piece of music in a film has its own separate track2 (dialogue track. which is the music of the film. and these are mixed together.Unit 6 89 Music in films Music plays a very important part in filmmaking. “”Braveheart”) 3. and it stands for Original Soundtrack (BSO in Catalan. OST Each dialogue. LANGUAGE CORNER Do you know what Passive Voice is? In this chapter there are a lot of examples. usually a piano or a chamber ensemble. and music track). Musical film soundtracks which concentrate on the songs themselves. Sometimes. sound effects track. “Moulin Rouge”) 2. (Examples: “Star Wars”. OST means Original Sound Track.

me Do you know the film? Who is the composer? The word is usually used when talking about dramatic works. or the alternating “E” and “F” key sequence from the “Jaws” film series. LEITMOTIF A leitmotif is a recurring9 musical theme. especially operas. cinema. 3. FILM SCORES A film score is the music written specifically to accompany a film by the film’s composer. a leitmotif of a main character is the same as the theme music of the movie or TV show. both composed by John Williams. previously released7 music by other artists. a growing8 number of scores are electronic or a mixture of orchestral and electronic instruments. 2.90 The term “soundtrack” usually refers to the music used in a film and/or to an album containing that music. Sometimes. a few notes or even a simple rhythm. and video games music. associated with a particular person. A well-known example is the Star Wars Imperial March: and the Superman theme. but it can also be a chord progression10. or idea. Leitmotives are very common in film scores. Since the 1950s. can include songs featured6 in the film and also. although11 leitmotives are also used in other musical genres. Soundtrack may also refer to music used in video games. place. on the other hand. It is usually a short melody. 6 featured: que surten 7release: publicar 8growing: cada vegada més nombrós 9recurring: often repeated 10chord progression: progressió d’acords 11 although: tot i que 12such as: com per exemple . such as12 instrumental pieces. The soundtrack.

... 4... 2.... SOME IMPORTANT COMPOSERS OF FILM MUSIC HENRY MANCINI Henry Mancini (1924 –1994) was an Academy Award winning American composer... 1924: nineteen twenty-four...... Listen to this piece of music.................. Music can prepare us for something about to18 happen.............................................................. It can create a mood13 or an atmosphere14.......... 3............................... .. Music can be often more effective than words or pictures............................ the other one. Finally..................... conductor and arranger22............................................. like his state of mind17................. perhaps not hinted at19 by the pictures we see........................... writes it down.............. fear20.................... it can emphasize an emotion. LANGUAGE CORNER Years are said in two parts (in tens)........................................4........................ ...... ....................... It has different functions: 1...... FUNCTIONS OF FILM MUSIC There are many ways in which good film music can make you enjoy yourself or understand a film better................ .. Have a look! Sad ==> sadness Laugh ==> laughter Happy ==> happiness Can you guess their meaning? Add all emotion terms to your MD.... LANGUAGE CORNER Some emotions terms are made by adding suffixes to verbs or adjectives.. practise with a partner........... Music can make us feel sadness....... It can give us information about a place or a character15 in the film..... Music can set16 the atmosphere of a certain country or a period of time. 91 5... For instance........... it can also tell us something about a character................... ee 1 Write down these years in words: 1994 1965 Now......... One says an arbitrary year.............................................................. People remember him mainly23 as a composer of film and television scores............... pity21 or laughter more strongly..... Do you recognize the film? 13 18 mood: estat d’ànim 14 atmosphere: ambient 15 character: personatge 16 set: determinar 17 state of mind: estat anímic about to: a punt de 19 hinted at: suggerit 20 fear: por 21 pity: pena 22 arranger: arranjador 23 mainly: principalment ... Moreover.......................................... It can build up suspense.............................................

Do you recognize the film? HOWARD SHORE Howard Shore (1946) is a Canadian composer. Do you recognize the film? What is the leitmotiv? . He composed the scores for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy and King Kong.92 JOHN WILLIAMS John Towner Williams (born in 1932) is an American composer. conductor and music producer. Superman. Play the following score. for instance Star Wars. He has composed many famous film scores in Hollywood. Harry Potter. orchestrator. Schindler’s List and Jaws. Williams has been awarded five times by the Academy. most of the Indiana Jones series. His music is strongly influenced by Wagner. conductor. Listen to this piece of music. and a pianist.

The mask of Zorro. Listen and guess what film it is: me Play these scores and write down the name of the film and the composer: 24 minimalist: minimalista (=very simple. accordion or violin together with instruments like the melodica. There is often a touch of European classical music and he uses primarily the piano. He is internationally famous for composing the score for the film Amélie. He is famous because he integrates choral and electronic elements in many of his film scores and he often uses Celtic musical elements. All the King’s Men. He uses a large variety of instruments but his compositions are minimalist24. The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas and Avatar.JAMES HORNER James Horner (1953) is an American composer and conductor of orchestral and film music. ondes martenot. harpsichord and a typewriter. He has also composed: Willow. xylophone. Horner won two Academy Awards for his score and song compositions for the film Titanic in 1997. Do you know the film? 93 YANN TIERSEN Yann Tiersen (1970) is a Breton musician and composer. few things) . Listen to this. toy piano.

94 1 Film: Composer: 2 Film: Composer: 3 Film: Composer: 4 Film: Composer: .

5 Film: Composer: 95 6 Film: Composer: 7 Film: Composer: .

L A M M M A Q Y W R R L I Z M V V L K I T I T L G X Z C Y R G K E P J C D H F J S I D U G V O N I N F N V P I N W U M X L D Y D O R G A N S D F W R N V I E D M N R I N D L V M J N T Y J S A Z R Q H O R N E R Y A H P W B W E E F X W F A T J S N D A R Y S Q P C Z G R T P I Y I Q O K O O C V E P U M Q J P V V F G C G A E O M W M C O Y V N N D T N A W E O Q W C E B A Q P N H H C R E Y P A Q R L G O A I X W P M V J C I Q J D N B P I K M soundtrack film nomination composer Mancini Horner academy award Williams arranger .96 WORDSEARCH Find the words below. horizontally. forwards or backwards. Words can be found vertically.

[8 points] 1. an emotion. It can be a .. . It can emphasize 6.. g.. . feel sadness. quicker than words or pictures.. the atmosphere of a country.Film music has different functions. Is a soundtrack the same as a film score? If not. why? [5 points] II. Match the beginnings and the endings to make up correct sentences. What’s a soundtrack? [5 points] 97 b.. It can build up 3. . It can give us 4. e. something about a character. happiness. It can make us 8.. d. It can set 5.. It can tell us 7. information about a place. It can create 2. etc. .. suspense. f. h . c... . a mood...CHECK YOUR KNOWLEDGE I. . Can you explain the differences among the soundtracks of these films? [12 points] Love Actually Braveheart Mamma Mia III. a.. b.

Complete the chart with the names of important composers of soundtracks and 2 famous films they composed for.98 IV. [20 points] COMPOSER FAMOUS FILM SOUNDTRACK …./50 points ..

nothing ever happens and I wonder Isolation is not __________for me Isolation I don’t want to sit on the lemon-tree I’m steppin’ around in the desert of joy Baby anyhow I’ll get another toy And everything will happen and you wonder Chorus x2 .Project 3 99 Singing activities INTRODUCTION In this project you will find the instrumental accompaniment of several pop songs. After this. you can try some instrumental accompaniments. Then. Have fun!!! LEMON TREE – Fools Garden I’m sitting here in the __________room It’s just another __________ Sunday afternoon I’m wasting my time I got nothing to do I’m hanging around I’m waiting for you But nothing ever happens and I wonder I’m driving around in my car I’m driving too __________ I’m driving too __________ I’d like to change my point of view I feel so __________ I’m waiting for you But nothing ever happens and I wonder I wonder how I wonder why Yesterday you told me ‘bout the _______ _______sky And all that I can see is just a __________lemon-tree I’m turning my head up and down I’m turning turning turning turning turning around And all that I can see is just another lemon-tree I’m sitting here I miss the power I’d like to go out taking a shower But there’s a __________cloud inside my head I feel so __________Put myself into bed Well. The first thing you must do is listen to the song and fill the gaps. sing them.

try to add this one with your feet: Try this rhythm. I won’t __________. I won’t __________. If the sea that we __________upon Should tumble and __________ Or the mountain should crumble in the sea. darling. stand. Be careful it’s a bit faster! BEN E KING – Stand by me A F#m D E When the night has __________ And the land __________dark And the moon is the only light we’ll __________No. stand by me. stand by me. Oh. No. I won’t shed a tear Just as long as you stand. Oh. I won’t _______ _______ Just as long as you stand. I won’t _______ _______ No. darling. stand by me. Chorus . stand by me. Stand by me.100 You could try this accompaniment with the body percussion: And now. stand by me. Chorus: So.

This melody above is probably one of the best known bass lines of all the times. Can you play it with the recorder? 101 Let’s add some percussion: Guiro Triangle Now you can add the rumba pattern with the darbouka: And clap hands with this rhtyhm: .

you can see that she’s been there Probably they moved on from everyplace. aha. you and me in paradise Just think about it. just think twice. it’s just another _____ for you and me in paradise Oh yes. think twice. she can’t walk. think twice. just think about it It’s just another day for you and me in paradise Try the funky pattern with the body percussion: Why don’t you try now to improve the body percussion accompaniment stomping your feet on the floor? . you and me in paradise Just think about it She calls out to the man on the street. think twice. think twice. but she’s trying Oh. just think about it Oh Lord.102 ANOTHER DAY IN PARADISE . can you help me? It’s _____ and I’ve nowhere to sleep. he pretends he can’t hear her He starts to whistle as he crosses the _____. think twice. you and me in paradise Just think about it. sir. doesn’t look back. seems embarrassed to be there Oh. is there nothing more anybody can do Oh Lord. ‘cos she didn’t fit in there Oh yes. is there somewhere you can tell me He walks on. it’s just another day for you. aha. there must be something you can say You can tell by the lines on her face.Phil Collins She calls out to the _____ on the street. he can see she’s been crying She’s got blisters on the soles of her _____. it’s just another day for you and me in _________ Oh. it’s just another day for you. it’s just another day for you. it’s just another day for you and me in paradise Oh yes.

try to play slowly and secondly try to play quicker. you can try this poly rhythm with these two instruments: Caixó Darbouka .You could do the funky pattern as well. tapping with a percussion instrument like this one below. Firstly. at a double tempo: 103 But if not.

A A.D.Bob Marley Don’t worry about a __________ Cause every little thing gonna be all right Sayin’ don’t worry about a __________ Cause every little thing gonna be all right Rise up this __________ Smile with rising __________.D.A A.104 Intro A Chorus A A.E E. Three little __________ It’s by my doorstep.A Chorus Verse Chorus x 3 THREE LITTLE BIRDS .E. Sayin’ sweet __________ of melodies pure and true Sayin’ this is a __________to you uh uh .D.D Verse A A.D A A.

BIG BIG GIRL .. It’s all _______ and _______ Am G F C/G It’s so very ______ outside Like the way I’m feeling ________ Repeat chorus Outside it’s now ________ And tears are falling from my _______ Why did it have to happen? Why did it all have to ________? Repeat chorus F G Am F I have your ____ around me ooh like _____ FGC But when I open my ______ You’re gone Repeat chorus: D A G D/A D A G D/A Repeat chorus 105 . in a big big ______ It’s not a big big _____ if you leave me But I do do feel that I do do will Miss you much. miss you much. C G F C/G I can see the first leaf falling.Emilia C G F C/G I’m a big big girl..

106 .

The bass drum can play: 107 And the darbouka or another percussion instrument could play as well: Meanwhile you could try this poly rhythm: Caixa Darbouka .


STARMAN – David Bowie
Bb F Bb F Gm F Didn’t know what ________ is was, and the lights were low - ow -ow C I leaned back1 on my ________ - o oC7 F G Bb G Some cat was laying down some rock’n’roll, “lotta soul”, he said. Gm F Then the loud sound did seem to fade, C Came back like a slow voice on a wave of phase, C7 A G That weren’t no _______, that was hazy2 cosmic jive. F Dm Am C There’s a starman waiting in the _____, he’d like to come and meet us, C7 F Dm but he thinks he’d blow our minds, There’s a starman waiting in the _____, Am C C7 he’s told us not to blow it, ‘cause he knows it’s all worth-while, Bb Bbm F D7 he told me, let the _________ lose it, let the _________ use it, Gm C7 let all the _________ boogie3. Bb F C F Bb F C

I had to ________ someone, so I picked on you - ou - ou Hey, that’s far out, so you heard tim too - oo - oo Switch on the ________, we may pick him on channel ______. Look out your window, I can see his ligh - igh - ight, if we can sparkle4 he may land tonigh - igh - ight, Don’t tell your _______ or he’ll get us locked up5 in fright. Why don’t you try the rumba pattern?

1 5

Lean back: tirar-se cap enrere, tombar-se un poc 2Hazy: boirosa, confusa 3Boogie: ballar el boogie 4Sparkle: brillar Lock up: tancar amb clau

Language appendix
1. Make groups of 3 people. 2. Write in Catalan on a piece of paper 10-15 expressions/words you normally use in the classroom in the following situations: a) Asking/Saying things to the teacher (e.g. Can you repeat that, please?) b) Asking/ Saying things to a classmate (e.g. Can I borrow your pen, please?) c) Asking/saying things to teacher/classmate in group work? (Did you print the paper?) d) Asking things to the music teacher (e.g. Do we have to play it on the recorder?) e) Things your music teacher might say to you (e.g. “Too fast”, “Finger the notes without blowing”) 3. Each group writes about 1 situation (3 minutes). Then you have to hang your paper on the wall with a bit of cello tape. 4. Walk around the classroom to see what your classmates have written. Add 1 or 2 more expressions/ words to their lists. 5. Go back to your seats. Each group tries to translate the expressions of one of the lists in English. The teacher will help you. 6. Each group takes to class 10 sheets of colour paper and cuts each in 6 square pieces. Each square piece will be a flashcard. Write on one side the Catalan word or expression and on the other side, the English translation. 7. Use the flashcards to ask each other the vocabulary. 8. Homework: Think of 10 classroom objects and look for their translation in a dictionary. Then, write all the words and phrases in the section Classroom Language and hand it in to your English teacher.









These exercises will help you understand the different instructions. I.116 2. Fingers chest chest belly knees hand head buttock cheek legs back waist tongue thighs arms foot(feet) mouth . match these words with the different body parts. First. BODY PERCUSSION LANGUAGE In unit 2 you start doing body percussion.

Then copy them in the section Classroom Language in Music Class and learn them. 117 STOMP TAP YOUR THIGHS CLAP YOUR HANDS SNAP YOUR FINGERS . Then. look at the following photographs and make sure you understand the meaning of the words.II.


Stomp / Stamp 3. Match the English terms with their translations: COLUMN I 1.Hit COLUMN II ___ A.Snap 5.119 HIT YOUR CHEST III. Revise the language corner first.... TIMES 3 vegades: THREE TIMES .. stamp your feet on the ground twice. Listen to the teacher’s instructions and do what “Simon Says”... trepitjar fort ___ F. donar copets ___ D. esclafir els dits ___ C. aplaudir IV.. colpejar ___ B. Eg.Clap 4. Let’s play the game “Simon Says”.. xiular ___ E.X.Tap 6. LANGUAGE CORNER Per dir quantes vegades fas qualque cosa: 1 vegada: ONCE 4 vegades: FOUR TIMES 2 vegades: TWICE X vegades: .Whistle 2. Simon says..

You also have to use the imperative.120 V. In pairs follow the rhythmical pattern below and invent different body percussion movements. then. Affirmative: Stop! Negative: Don’t stop! . Your classmates have to follow your instructions. in groups of eight people. Remember to use linkers such as “First. Then. explain WITH WORDS! to your classmates how to play it (Hands on your back!!!). finally”. Check the language corner. LANGUAGE CORNER Imperatives Les formes de l’imperative es fan servir per donar instruccions i ordres.

Mirant cap a… Dirigir la parella Ma dreta a la seva esquena Agafar la dona Passa/fer una passa Parella de ball En la direcció de les manetes del rellotge Donar una volta sense mans En la mateixa direcció Canviar/intercanviar posicions En direccions oposades Cap a la dreta/esquerra Línia recta 121 . Work in groups of 3 people. Remember to revise the vocabulary on body parts before you start doing them. Help each other! You only have 5 minutes. You’ll need them to do these exercises. I. On the wall there are different texts with dancing instructions (see Llibre del professor).3. Find the translations to these words or phrases. DANCING VOCABULARY In this section you will find some exercises on dancing vocabulary. A. Each student can do a different exercise. Scan the text to search for the vocabulary you need.

You have 10 minutes. open f. Then. around. step g. move j. kick b. these exercises can serve as homework. Match the words with their translations. III. explain it to another group without moving. Let’s play a game! Simon says…. Show it to your teacher. outside. TURN! IV. accross. Can you hear how they say these expressions in English? Caminar cap enrera: Caminar cap endavant: Caminar en cercle: Passa: Posició de ball: 1 Note for the teacher: If you have access to a computer room you may want to use the videos in You Tube to do some extra exercises. follow the beat d. etc). passa a. caminar 2. Correct the exercises with a classmate and ask your teacher for help. forwards i.learning2dance. Find them in the text and locate them with the help of these forms. II. cap endavant 9. cap al costat 8. potada 7. cap enrere 4. walk h.122 B. obrir 10.backwards e. Revise the prepositions of place (in/inside. moviment 3.com/ and watch the video “Anyone can Dance”. segueix el compas 5. Your classmates follow your instructions. 1. EXTRA EXERCISES1: I. turn C. In groups of 3 invent an easy choreography with 5 instructions. Go to http://www. gir/girar 6. Copy all the specific vocabulary in the section Classroom language in Music Class. V. sideways/to the side c. If your students have computers at home. .

Turn: Underarm turn: Turn on the inside: Back: Forward: Side: Toe: Heel: Together: Replace: One more time: 123 .. Then. go to You Tube. hip hop. type: “Anyone can dance” and watch the videos of these series (waltz. hustle.). Use the free lessons to revise your dancing vocabulary.II.. translate these words and phrases into Catalan. Then.

a sentence. an explanation in English. In order to remember what they mean.124 4. It is important that you start building your own Music Dictionary (MD) from the very first day. A sound can be high or low and we use different clefs for high or low pitches. Don’t forget to build up your MD every time you study or do your tasks.” How do we do it? In this section you will write all the important new words that are specific to music in the corresponding unit. . anything that will help you understand the word. specially before an exam. a drawing. you can write their translation in Catalan. You could add the underlined words to your MD. Use: When you write you use a pen. What is it? It is a list of words which are specific to Music: words used in class or difficult words from your photocopies. You can use it when you study the theory for an exam or when you do the tasks set by your teacher. YOUR MUSIC DICTIONARY During this year you will learn a lot of new English vocabulary. “PITCH: The highness or lowness of a sound. Revise and study the words and their meaning. Low: the opposite of high 4. Pitch: altura 2. Look at these examples: 1. Look at this sentence from the first unit. etc. Highness – high: î 3.













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