FM 3-20.

15

TANK PLATOON

FEBRUARY 2007
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Distribution authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors only. This publication contains technical or opera­ tional information that is for official Government use. This deter­ mination was made on 31 October 2006. Other requests for this document must be referred to Director, Directorate of Training, Doctrine, and Combat Development, ATTN: ATZK-TDD-G, 204 1st Cavalry Regiment Rd Ste 207, US Army Armor Center, Fort Knox, KY 40121-5123. Destruction Notice: Destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the document.

HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

This publication is available at
Army Knowledge Online (www.us.army.mil) and
General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine
Digital Library at (www.train.army.mil).

*FM 3-20.15
Field Manual No. 3-20.15 Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, DC, 22 February 2007

Tank Platoon
Contents
Page

PREFACE ...........................................................................................................xiii

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1-1

Section I - Organizations ................................................................................. 1-1

Tank Platoon ...................................................................................................... 1-1

Tank Company ................................................................................................... 1-5

Armored Cavalry Troop ...................................................................................... 1-5

Section II - Capabilities and Limitations ........................................................ 1-6

Capabilities ......................................................................................................... 1-6

Limitations .......................................................................................................... 1-6

Section III - Responsibilities............................................................................ 1-7

Platoon Leader ................................................................................................... 1-7

Platoon Sergeant................................................................................................ 1-7

Tank Commander............................................................................................... 1-7

Gunner................................................................................................................ 1-8

Driver .................................................................................................................. 1-8

Loader ................................................................................................................ 1-8

Chapter 2 COMMAND AND CONTROL............................................................................. 2-1

Section I - Command........................................................................................ 2-1

Decision-Making ................................................................................................. 2-1

Leadership........................................................................................................ 2-11

Section II – Control......................................................................................... 2-12

Situational Understanding ................................................................................ 2-12

Fire Distribution and Control............................................................................. 2-26

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Distribution authorized to U.S. government agencies and their contractors only
to protect technical or operational information that is for official government use. This determination was made on
31 October 2006. Other requests for this document must be referred to Director, Directorate of Training,
Doctrine, and Combat Development, ATTN: ATZK-TDD-G, USAARMC, 204 1st Cavalry Regiment Road Ste 207,
Fort Knox, Kentucky 40121-5123.
DESTRUCTION NOTICE: Destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the document. *This publication supersedes FM 3-20.15 dated 1 November 2001.

22 February 2007

i

Contents

Chapter 3

OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS...............................................................................3-1

Section I - Fundamentals of the Offense ........................................................3-1

Purposes of the Offense .....................................................................................3-1

Characteristics of the Offense ............................................................................3-1

Forms of Offense ................................................................................................3-2

Role of the Tank Platoon ....................................................................................3-2

War-Fighting Functions.......................................................................................3-2

Section II - Planning..........................................................................................3-3

Movement and Maneuver ...................................................................................3-3

Fire Support ........................................................................................................3-4

Intelligence ..........................................................................................................3-4

Protection ............................................................................................................3-4

Sustainment ........................................................................................................3-5

Command and Control........................................................................................3-5

The Human Aspect .............................................................................................3-5

Section III - Preparation....................................................................................3-5

Movement and Maneuver ...................................................................................3-5

Fire Support ........................................................................................................3-6

Intelligence ..........................................................................................................3-6

Protection ............................................................................................................3-6

Sustainment ........................................................................................................3-6

Command and Control........................................................................................3-6

The Human Aspect .............................................................................................3-7

Section IV - Execution—Tactical Movement ..................................................3-7

Fire Distribution and Control in the Offense........................................................3-7

Use of Terrain for Cover and Concealment ........................................................3-9

Techniques of Movement....................................................................................3-9

Formations ........................................................................................................3-11

Overwatch .........................................................................................................3-16

Section V - Execution—Actions on Contact ................................................3-18

The Four Steps of Actions on Contact..............................................................3-18

Examples of Actions on Contact .......................................................................3-21

Battle Drills ........................................................................................................3-25

Section VI - Execution—Platoon Tactical Tasks .........................................3-36

Destroy an Inferior Force ..................................................................................3-36

Attack by Fire ....................................................................................................3-38

Overwatch/Support by Fire ...............................................................................3-39

Assault ..............................................................................................................3-40

Bypass ..............................................................................................................3-42

Reconnaissance by Fire ...................................................................................3-44

Hasty Occupation of a Platoon Battle Position (Hasty Defense) ......................3-45

Breaching Operations .......................................................................................3-45

Section VII - Execution—Consolidation and Reorganization.....................3-46

Consolidation ....................................................................................................3-46

Reorganization ..................................................................................................3-46

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FM 3-20.15

22 February 2007

Contents

Section VIII – Limited Visibility Operations ................................................. 3-46

Equipment ........................................................................................................ 3-47

Navigation......................................................................................................... 3-47

Vehicle Identification......................................................................................... 3-47

Tactical Movement and Attacks ....................................................................... 3-47

Chapter 4 DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS .............................................................................. 4-1

Section I - Fundamentals of the Defense....................................................... 4-1

Characteristics of the Defense ........................................................................... 4-1

Defensive Patterns, Missions, and Tasks .......................................................... 4-2

Role of the Tank Platoon .................................................................................... 4-2

Warfighting Functions......................................................................................... 4-2

Section II - Planning ......................................................................................... 4-3

Reconnaissance and Time Management........................................................... 4-3

War-Fighting Function Considerations............................................................... 4-3

Section III – Preparation................................................................................... 4-7

Phase of Preparation.......................................................................................... 4-7

Preparation Tasks .............................................................................................. 4-8

War-Fighting Function Considerations............................................................. 4-21

Section IV - Execution.................................................................................... 4-23

Hide Position .................................................................................................... 4-23

Occupation of Firing Positions.......................................................................... 4-23

Indirect Fires..................................................................................................... 4-23

Direct Fires ....................................................................................................... 4-24

Displacement.................................................................................................... 4-25

Counterattacks ................................................................................................. 4-26

Limited Visibility Defense ................................................................................. 4-29

Chapter 5 OTHER TACTICAL OPERATIONS ................................................................... 5-1

Section I - Tactical Road March ...................................................................... 5-1

Preparation and SOPs ....................................................................................... 5-1

Composition........................................................................................................ 5-1

March Columns .................................................................................................. 5-2

Control Measures ............................................................................................... 5-2

Actions During the March ................................................................................... 5-3

Section II - Assembly Areas ............................................................................ 5-5

Quartering Party Actions .................................................................................... 5-5

Occupation Procedures...................................................................................... 5-6

Occupation by Force .......................................................................................... 5-7

Section III - Actions at a Contact Point .......................................................... 5-8

Section IV - Convoy Escort.............................................................................. 5-8

Command and Control ....................................................................................... 5-8

Tactical Disposition............................................................................................. 5-9

Actions on Contact ........................................................................................... 5-12

Actions During Halts ......................................................................................... 5-17

Section V - Passage of Lines ........................................................................ 5-19

Operational Considerations.............................................................................. 5-19

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iii

Contents

Conducting a Passage of Lines ........................................................................5-19

Assisting a Passage of Lines ............................................................................5-20

Section VI - Breaching Operations................................................................5-20

Types of Obstacles ...........................................................................................5-20

Breaching Procedures ......................................................................................5-26

Section VII - Perimeter Defense.....................................................................5-30

Section VIII – Screen.......................................................................................5-30

Section IX – Delay ...........................................................................................5-31

Section X - Relief in Place ..............................................................................5-31

Coordination and Reconnaissance...................................................................5-31

Relief Procedures .............................................................................................5-32

Security and Communications ..........................................................................5-32

Section XI - Withdrawal ..................................................................................5-33

Chapter 6 COMBINED ARMS OPERATIONS....................................................................6-1

Section I - Fire Support ....................................................................................6-1

Mortar Support ....................................................................................................6-1

Field Artillery Support..........................................................................................6-2

Fire Support Team ..............................................................................................6-3

Fire Request Channels .......................................................................................6-4

Fire Direction and Control Procedures ...............................................................6-5

Tank Platoon Fire Support Planning...................................................................6-8

Section II - Army Aviation.................................................................................6-9

Air Cavalry...........................................................................................................6-9

Attack Helicopters ...............................................................................................6-9

Section III - Combat Engineers ......................................................................6-10

Capabilities........................................................................................................6-10

Engineer Support to the Tank Platoon..............................................................6-11

Section IV - Air and Missile Defense.............................................................6-11

Air and Missile Defense Warnings....................................................................6-12

Passive Air and Missile Defense ......................................................................6-12

Active Air and Missile Defense .........................................................................6-12

Section V - Air Support...................................................................................6-13

Close Air Support..............................................................................................6-13

Marking Friendly Positions................................................................................6-14

Section VI - Military Police .............................................................................6-15

Maneuver and Mobility Support ........................................................................6-15

Area Security.....................................................................................................6-15

Detainee Operations .........................................................................................6-15

Law and Order ..................................................................................................6-16

Chapter 7 SUSTAINMENT ..................................................................................................7-1

Section I - Organization....................................................................................7-1

Section II - Supply Operations.........................................................................7-1

Basic and Combat Loads....................................................................................7-1

Classes of Supply ...............................................................................................7-2

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22 February 2007

Contents

Methods of Resupply.......................................................................................... 7-3

Techniques of Resupply..................................................................................... 7-6

Section III - Maintenance Operations ............................................................. 7-9

Leader Responsibilities .................................................................................... 7-10

Levels of Maintenance ..................................................................................... 7-11

Related Operational Considerations ................................................................ 7-12

Section IV - Personnel Operations ............................................................... 7-13

Personnel Services........................................................................................... 7-13

Personnel Management ................................................................................... 7-13

Section V - Medical Treatment and Evacuation .......................................... 7-13

Health and Hygiene .......................................................................................... 7-13

Soldiers Wounded in Action ............................................................................. 7-14

Soldiers Killed in Action .................................................................................... 7-15

Section VI - Detainees .................................................................................... 7-16

Handling Detainees .......................................................................................... 7-16

Captured Enemy Documents and Equipment.................................................. 7-18

Civilians ............................................................................................................ 7-19

Civil Affairs Units and Psychological Operations ............................................. 7-19

Chapter 8 URBAN OPERATIONS...................................................................................... 8-1

Section I - Urban Operations Planning Considerations ............................... 8-1

Categories of Urban Areas................................................................................. 8-2

Vehicles, Weapons, and Munitions .................................................................... 8-3

Command and Control ....................................................................................... 8-6

Maneuver............................................................................................................ 8-7

Armored Vehicle Positions ................................................................................. 8-8

Intelligence ....................................................................................................... 8-10

Fire Support...................................................................................................... 8-12

Sustainment...................................................................................................... 8-13

Section II - Offensive Urban Operations ...................................................... 8-13

Hasty and Deliberate Attacks in an Urban Environment.................................. 8-13

Phases of Offensive Urban Operations............................................................ 8-14

Task Organization ............................................................................................ 8-15

Offensive Techniques in Urban Operations ..................................................... 8-15

Section III - Defensive Urban Operations..................................................... 8-17

Enemy Forces Outside the Urban Area ........................................................... 8-17

Enemy Forces Within the Urban Area.............................................................. 8-17

Defensive Techniques in Urban Operations .................................................... 8-17

Section IV – Employment of Attack and Assault/Cargo Helicopters ........ 8-18

Support for Ground Maneuver Units ................................................................ 8-18

Role during Urban Operations.......................................................................... 8-18

Command and Control ..................................................................................... 8-19

Maneuver Graphic Aids.................................................................................... 8-19

Identifying Friendly Positions, Marking Locations, and Acquiring Targets....... 8-19

Attack Helicopter Target Engagement ............................................................. 8-24

Air/Ground Integration in the Hasty Attack/Close Fight ................................... 8-25

22 February 2007

FM 3-20.15

v

............................................................9-11 Types of Civil Support Operations ...... BIOLOGICAL.................................................................... NUCLEAR (CBRN)............................................................................................................................................................................................................... A-1 ORDERS AND REPORTS ................ H-1 BATTLE DAMAGED TANK .........................................9-15 Conduct Cordon and Search Operations .......9-6 Section III – Civil Support Operations...............................................................................................................................................................9-14 Overwatch a Blockade/Roadblock..9-11 Purposes of Civil Operations .............................................................15 22 February 2007 ................F-1 RISK MANAGEMENT .9-4 Role of the Tank Platoon ......................................1-3 vi FM 3-20...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9-1 Balanced Mindset .................................................................................................................................................................................................9-3 Considerations for Stability Operations .....9-14 Conduct Convoy Escort .........9-12 Considerations for Civil Support Operations ........................................... The wingman concept ........................................................................................ C-1 OPERATIONAL SECURITY.................................... G-1 FRATRICIDE PREVENTION..............9-12 Establish a Battle Position .................. D-1 CHEMICAL.... Tank platoon................ References-1 INDEX .........9-13 Overwatch a Traffic Control Point......................9-15 Conduct Proofing/Breaching Operations .......................................................... Tank and Bradley main gun and coax dead space above street level ................................................9-2 Section II – Stability Operations ........................9-17 Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H Appendix I DIGITIZATION ...........................................................9-1 Section I – General Considerations ........................................................................................9-2 Types of Stability Operations ............. RADIOLOGICAL.......................................Contents Chapter 9 STABILITY OPERATIONS AND CIVIL SUPPORT OPERATIONS .9-2 Purposes of Stability Operations ........................... B-1 INFANTRY/ARMOR OPERATIONS ..................................................................................................................................................................... Index-1 Figures Figure 1-1...........9-12 Section IV – Examples of Stability Operations ................................................................................................................................................................1-2 Figure 1-3.............................................................................................................................................9-13 Conduct Reserve Operations ......................................................................................................................................................... AND SMOKE OPERATIONS ..... E-1 COMBAT IDENTIFICATION ................................................................. Glossary-1 REFERENCES..................................9-1 Combat Skills Training .................1-2 Figure 1-2........9-14 Defend a Choke Point...........................................................................................................I-1 GLOSSARY ........................................................................................................................................9-5 Planning and Operational Considerations .........

........ 2-18 Figure 2-6.......... Checkpoint (graphic control measure)...... Use of cross fire pattern and simultaneous fire technique to engage enemy PCs (with platoon leader’s fire command) ........................................... 2-33 Figure 2-27................................ Objective (graphic control measure)......................... Phase line (graphic control measure) ......... Frontal fire pattern.................................................................................... 2-20 Figure 2-16............ 2-32 Figure 2-26..... Attack position (graphic control measure) ........................ Use of depth fire pattern and simultaneous fire technique (with section fire command) ........................................ 1-6 Figure 2-1.......................... 2-20 Figure 2-14......................... 2-17 Figure 2-4. Use of frontal fire pattern and simultaneous fire technique to engage multiple enemy tanks (with platoon leader’s fire command)..................................................................... 2-17 Figure 2-5.............. 2-18 Figure 2-7.....................Contents Figure 1-4............................. Assault position (graphic control measure) ................................................................................. Battle position (graphic control measure) ....................... 2-42 Figure 3-1............................................... Attack-by-fire position (graphic control measure) ......... 2-19 Figure 2-10.... Contact point (graphic control measure) .................. Boundary (graphic control measure) .. 2-21 Figure 2-18......................... 2-23 Figure 2-22........................ Cross fire pattern ......... Passage lane (graphic control measure)........ 2-19 Figure 2-13.................................. Passage point (graphic control measure)............................................... Assembly area (graphic control measure)............................................................................................................................................................................................................... Example of TIRS. Axis of advance (graphic control measure) .................... 1-5 Figure 1-5............. 2-18 Figure 2-8....... 2-21 Figure 2-17........................................ 2-31 Figure 2-25........................... 2-37 Figure 2-31.................. Direction of attack (graphic control measure)............................................... Example platoon fire command . Tank company ................................................... 2-30 Figure 2-24. Depth fire pattern ..... 3-10 22 February 2007 FM 3-20....... Use of different fire patterns in each section (with simultaneous fire technique) to engage enemy targets (with platoon leader’s fire command) ................ 2-34 Figure 2-28.......... Support-by-fire position (graphic control measure) ...................................................................................... 2-20 Figure 2-15............................... 2-35 Figure 2-29...... 2-18 Figure 2-9............................................................................................... 2-19 Figure 2-12.. 2-29 Figure 2-23...... 2-16 Figure 2-2.......................... Sample FBCB2 with overlay ............................ 2-36 Figure 2-30............................. Use of observed fire technique (with section fire command)...... 2-19 Figure 2-11.......................................... 3-8 Figure 3-2....................................... Keyhole firing positions ...................... Route (graphic control measure) ....................................... 2-40 Figure 2-33................................ 2-21 Figure 2-20.................... Use of cross fire pattern and alternating fire technique (with section fire command) .........15 vii ................................................................ Armored cavalry troop......................... Example sectors of fire in a moving engagement (platoon moving in wedge formation) ................................................ Platoon reports own position using TIRS (checkpoint)............................ Traditional overlay..................................... Target reference point (graphic control measure) ........................................................................ 2-21 Figure 2-19............................................................... Movement by alternate bounds ................................ 2-23 Figure 2-21. 2-16 Figure 2-3........................................

............3-29 Figure 3-18B.......3-24 Figure 3-15..............................................................................3-11 Figure 3-4......... Platoon uses attack by fire against an enemy reconnaissance platoon as part of a hasty defense ............... Herringbone formation....................................................... Coil formation ..................................................15 22 February 2007 .................3-17 Figure 3-13A............ Bypass (continued) .......................................... Scenarios for destruction of an inferior enemy force (cont.................................................................................................................................... Platoon makes initial contact....................... Evading enemy aircraft............... deploys........3-37 Figure 3-22B.......................................................................... and reports ....................................3-35 Figure 3-22A....... Action drill without enemy contact (continued) ....................................3-28 Figure 3-18A...........................3-31 Figure 3-18D........3-44 viii FM 3-20.3-22 Figure 3-14A...............................3-32 Figure 3-19......3-23 Figure 3-14C..........3-37 Figure 3-23A............................................3-14 Figure 3-8..........3-43 Figure 3-26B.. Action drill without enemy contact............................ deploys using an action drill........3-22 Figure 3-13B...........3-23 Figure 3-14B............................................................................. Line formation.............3-28 Figure 3-17C....................................................... Contact drill............3-16 Figure 3-12.............. Platoon employs attack by fire against a convoy..3-13 Figure 3-7........................................................................................3-39 Figure 3-24.......................................................................3-33 Figure 3-20....................3-30 Figure 3-18C.... Movement by successive bounds ......... Platoon leader chooses and recommends an alternate COA............................................................................3-41 Figure 3-25B.........................3-12 Figure 3-5......................................3-26 Figure 3-16.... Platoon executes an assault as two other platoons support by fire .................................................3-14 Figure 3-9.................... platoon leader evaluates the situation as the drill is executed ......................................3-38 Figure 3-23B............................ Machine gun aim points .....................................3-42 Figure 3-26A......... Action drill with enemy contact........Contents Figure 3-3.............................3-40 Figure 3-25A...................................... Action drill with enemy contact (continued) . Bypass ................................3-13 Figure 3-6....... Platoon executes a battle drill............................... Echelon formation.............. Platoon develops the situation and identifies a superior enemy force ......3-24 Figure 3-14D.......................... platoon executes the new COA........3-26 Figure 3-17A................................................. Platoon makes initial contact.......................................................................................................). Tank section assaults an inferior force as another section supports by fire. Overwatch locations and techniques ...................................... Change of formation drill .................................................................................................................................................... Column formation ....................................................3-27 Figure 3-17B.3-15 Figure 3-10.................. Vee formation .....................3-15 Figure 3-11............. React to indirect fire drill............................................... Staggered column formation ................................................................... Action drill with enemy contact (continued) .................. Platoon develops the situation ................................................ Wedge formation ...................... Scenarios for destruction of an inferior enemy force ............... Platoon supports by fire to suppress an enemy element during a company assault.... and reports ..........................................3-34 Figure 3-21.................... Action drill with enemy contact (continued) .................. Action drill without enemy contact (continued) ......................

........................................................................................................15 ix .............................. 5-17 Figure 5-11A................. 5-24 22 February 2007 FM 3-20................................................................................. Platoon performing rear security for a convoy ...... Displacement with cover from another element (entire platoon moves at once) ...................................... 5-12 Figure 5-7..... Hull-down positions ........ Convoy escort actions toward ambush .......................................... 5-18 Figure 5-11C.................. Convoy escort vehicles rejoin column........ Using background to prevent skylining .............................................. Sectors of fire ...................... Considerations for obstacle employment ...................... company team adjacent to other company teams ........................................................................ Traditional sector sketch card.................................................................................................................... 4-17 Figure 4-10.................................................... Convoy escort overwatches an obstacle .............................................. Battle positions................................................ Escort suppresses the ambush to facilitate attack by the reaction force 5-14 Figure 5-9B......... Abatis ...... Antitank ditch ............ Convoy assumes herringbone formation ................................................................ 5-18 Figure 5-12.. Fighting positions . 4-11 Figure 4-7......................................... Turret-down positions ..... 5-24 Figure 5-14............... Platoon performing convoy escort independently............ 5-15 Figure 5-10.. 5-23 Figure 5-13......Contents Figure 4-1................... Examples of constructed TRP markers .............................................. 4-4 Figure 4-3....... Counterattack by fire and movement. Platoon performing forward security for a convoy......... Sample platoon time line................................................................... Convoy moves back into column formation ...................................... 4-22 Figure 4-11.......................................... 5-15 Figure 5-9C.......................................................................................... 5-4 Figure 5-3A............... Example strip map .................. Counterattack by fire......................... 5-7 Figure 5-4............................ Road craters ........... 4-7 Figure 4-5............. Convoy continues to move ..................................................................................... 5-10 Figure 5-5A............................................................... 5-3 Figure 5-2......................... 4-14 Figure 4-8.................... 4-27 Figure 4-14................. 4-16 Figure 4-9............................... 4-6 Figure 4-4........................ 4-26 Figure 4-13.................................................................................... 4-9 Figure 4-6A.................................... 5-22 Figure 5-12........................ 5-11 Figure 5-5C............................ Displacement without cover from another element (sections move using bounding overwatch).......... 5-11 Figure 5-6................ Battalion assembly area................................................................................... Platoon escort using modified traveling overwatch ........................................ 4-28 Figure 5-1.................... 4-4 Figure 4-2........................................ Traditionally prepared fire plan (handwritten) .................. 4-25 Figure 4-12..................................................................................................................................... 5-11 Figure 5-5B.... Potential minefield locations (continued) .................................................. 5-13 Figure 5-8B.. Company team assembly area independent of the battalion............................. Escort assaults the ambush force ....... 5-24 Figure 5-15.............................. Dug-in firing positions .................................... 5-7 Figure 5-3B........................................................... Tank platoon as part of a larger escort force........... 4-11 Figure 4-6B................ Potential minefield locations ... 5-18 Figure 5-11B............ 5-14 Figure 5-9A................ Platoon performing flank security for a convoy ............. Escort breaks contact.................................. 5-12 Figure 5-8A.....................

..................................................................................... Hide position................... Simplified area sketch .....................................7-5 Figure 7-2............................................................ Service-station resupply technique ............................5-28 Figure 5-20. Casualty Feeder Card (front side) ...............8-26 Figure 8-15....................8-26 Figure 8-16.......................................6-10 Figure 6-10........................ Plow tanks create multiple lanes while the section leaders’ tanks provide overwatch ................................................................................................ Objective area reference grid technique ................... FBCB2 SPOTREP (immediate suppression request) ......................................................................................7-8 Figure 7-4...........................................................................................................7-15 Figure 7-6................ Target description.. Favored threat weapons......7-7 Figure 7-3................................8-26 x FM 3-20........................... Battalion close fight SITREP ..................................... OH-58D armed helicopter ........................................................................................................................................... Sample technique for obstacle lane marking ........7-15 Figure 7-5B.. Belly shot created by a tank berm ....................................................... with tank platoons in the support and assault forces ......................... Example task force attack in an urban environment............................................................... Sample tag for captured documents and equipment ...7-19 Figure 8-1.....8-23 Figure 8-12....................................6-11 Figure 7-1..............5-25 Figure 5-18.................................... Building hide position.............................8-12 Figure 8-8..............6-6 Figure 6-4.......8-24 Figure 8-13......... Wire obstacle in depth.....................................6-7 Figure 6-6............................. DA Form 1156................................ Example radio conversation .......................... M9 armored combat earthmover ........................................................8-9 Figure 8-5................................................................................................ Urban hull-down position ..8-24 Figure 8-14..........................6-10 Figure 6-9.. Fire support team vehicle ..................... Lateral and range shifts from a known point .................... Attack team/maneuver company communications check ....................... Combat engineer platoon organization .................................. Polar plot method of target location.......................................8-4 Figure 8-4A......................................................... Combination of resupply techniques .....6-4 Figure 6-3.......................8-9 Figure 8-6................ TRP technique.......... Example company or troop LOGPAC ..........................................................................6-9 Figure 6-8....................8-16 Figure 8-9.... DD Form 2745........................................................................................7-18 Figure 7-7................8-4 Figure 8-3..............................8-2 Figure 8-2..........................8-10 Figure 8-7........... Tank weapon dead space at street level......5-25 Figure 5-17.....................................6-8 Figure 6-7..........................................................................7-9 Figure 7-5A.................................................................................... Urban hull-down position ....... Tailgate resupply technique ....... Casualty Feeder Card (back side) .......8-20 Figure 8-10...............................15 22 February 2007 ..... Underground systems .................................... Enemy Prisoner of War (EPW) Capture Tag........................8-9 Figure 8-4B..........5-29 Figure 6-1..6-6 Figure 6-5........... Log crib.. Checkpoint technique............. Urban grid technique ................... Tank main gun and coax dead space above street level...................................5-25 Figure 5-19......Contents Figure 5-16......................8-23 Figure 8-11.. Shift from a known point method using direction (in mils).. Army attack helicopters ................... DA Form 1156...........................................................6-4 Figure 6-2.............................

........................... Example graduated response card..................................C-10 Figure E-1.................................................................................. Tanks move forward to link up with infantry ...................... Sample FM SALTT report..................................... B-9 Figure B-6......... CBRN marking devices ............ Infantry leads while tank platoon remains stationary ............... E-8 Figure E-3............... B-10 Figure B-7............... Tank platoon roadblock ....................... A-3 Figure A-4A..........................Contents Figure 8-17..... Tank section manning a light traffic checkpoint........ Tank platoon FBCB2 TI architecture diagram.......................C-7 Figure C-3.. Using screening smoke to conceal displacement ............ Tank platoon manning a heavy traffic checkpoint . Traffic control point......................... Tank platoon occupying an alternate battle position that is not obscured by enemy smoke....... Sample platoon FRAGO................................... Sample FM SITREP ................................. Hand-and-arm signal for CBRN hazard ................... Cordon and search operations ............ Example request for immediate ACF............................................ E-10 Figure E-5................................ 9-17 Figure A-1.......... Using smoke to confuse the enemy and silhouette his vehicles..... FBCB2 tactical display........ MEDEVAC request format..........................15 xi ....................... A-4 Figure B-1......... 9-15 Figure 9-6................. A-2 Figure A-2............. Tank sections maneuvering separately on actual terrain outside of their direct line of sight of each other.......................................... Sample positions for infantry riding on a tank .................... B-8 Figure B-4......................... Tanks destroy enemy targets...... E-19 Figure E-8.............................................................................................. FBCB2 display of the tank sections maneuvering separately .......................................... F-2 Figure F-2.... Nerve agent autoinjector kit (NAAK) ........................ Equipment list for roadblocks and checkpoints ......................................................................................................... E-12 Figure E-6.......... B-7 Figure B-3.............. E-24 Figure F-1.................C-6 Figure C-2.............................................................................................. Sample platoon OPORD format ................................ blockade.................................................. F-3 22 February 2007 FM 3-20........................... choke point........... E-20 Figure E-9. and route proofing missions .............................................................C-9 Figure C-5...................................................................................... 8-28 Figure 9-1................ Battle position and reserve/reaction force missions .......................... 9-17 Figure 9-8......... FBCB2 computer system.................................... B-10 Figure C-1.................................. Combat identification system................................................... Example rules of engagement ........ Using screening smoke to conceal a breaching operation .....................C-8 Figure C-4.............................. E-18 Figure E-7................... E-4 Figure E-2.................................................................................................................................. 9-14 Figure 9-5....................... convoy escort................. B-2 Figure B-2................................................................ 9-13 Figure 9-4............................................... Using screening smoke to conceal a bypass ..... Convulsive antidote nerve agent (CANA) injector... A-2 Figure A-3............................................................. Sample platoon WARNO......... B-8 Figure B-5............................................................................ Joint CID marking system (JCIMS) .. Infantry guides tanks to the firing position.............. 9-16 Figure 9-7B.................. E-21 Figure E-10................................................................................................... E-10 Figure E-4.......... Sample FM contact report .................. 9-16 Figure 9-7A....................... 9-8 Figure 9-2...... A-4 Figure A-4B.. MOPP levels . 9-9 Figure 9-3..

.................. Risk assessment matrix.....................I-1 xii FM 3-20..............................62-mm round (NATO ball) against typical urban targets (range 25 meters) ............ A-5 Table G-1......................................... G-3 Table G-2..15 22 February 2007 ...... Number of rounds needed to penetrate a reinforced concrete wall at a 25 degree obliquity ..................... G-6 Table I-1........... Structure penetrating capabilities of caliber ................................................................................................................................................................................ Characteristics and capabilities of fixed-wing aircraft ................................ page 2 of 2 pages .............Contents Figure G-1.................. DA Form 7566.................. G-4 Figure G-2B................................... Penetration capabilities of a single 7.................................. Structure penetrating capabilities of 7........................... Instructions for completing DA Form 7566...... DA Form 7566............ Capabilities and limitations of the digitized tank platoon ...........................8-6 Table 8-5........................ Composite Risk Management Worksheet ............ Composite Risk Management Worksheet.............. page 1 of 2 pages .. Risk levels and impact on mission execution ......8-5 Table 8-2............................. G-3 Figure G-2A................................................................................................................. Abandon tank procedures ..........6-14 Table 8-1.....62-mm (ball) round ....50 ball against typical urban targets (range 35 meters)................ G-5 Tables Table 6-1.................................... Composite Risk Management Worksheet.........................................................8-6 Table 8-4...................8-5 Table 8-3...........8-21 Table A-1........... Marking methods ..............

Where capabilities of the various systems differ significantly. The proponent of this publication is the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command. masculine nouns or pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. FM 3-20. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. call (502) 624-3294/1779 or DSN 464-3294/1779. U.153. Directorate of Training. two publications are critical reference sources for the tank platoon. This publication applies to the Active Army. contains a detailed example of tactical standing operating procedures (TACSOP). Doctrine.15 is for leaders and crew members of all M1. ATTN: ATZK-TDD-G. Unless otherwise stated. Because weapons and equipment vary among units. For additional information. Users and readers of this manual are invited to submit recommendations that will improve its effectiveness. Army Armor Center.S. In addition to FM 3-20. this manual examines alternative considerations and techniques for their use. and Combat Development. ST 3-20. and M1A2 SEP (system enhancement package) tank platoons. Send comments and recommendations to Director. contains collective platoon tasks and outlines training procedures and exercises. the Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States. and the preparing agency is the United States Army Armor Center. M1A2. KY 40121-5123. It focuses on the principles of platoon operations and the tactics. and procedures (TTP) the platoon uses to exploit its combat power and minimize its vulnerabilities while conducting combat operations. users should adapt information to fit their specific situations.15 xiii . and the United States Army Reserve unless otherwise stated. techniques. Each tank platoon can modify the TACSOP to meet its unique mission requirements. 204 1st Cavalry Regiment Road Suite 207. Fort Knox. The other resource. the mission training plan for the tank platoon. M1A1. ARTEP 17-23710-MTP.Preface This manual describes how the tank platoon fights.15.

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and communicate—and do so with armored protection—is a decisive factor on the modern battlefield. Section leaders are the platoon leader. attacks. SECTION I . effectively led. and their tactics must reflect the tempo and intensity of maneuver warfare. and shock effect. A tank platoon consists of four main battle tanks organized into two sections. By itself. Crews must be aggressive. The platoon’s ability to move. Platoon training must prepare them to operate effectively in hostile territory with the enemy to their front. Tank 2 is the wingman in the platoon leader’s section. these vulnerabilities are significantly reduced when tanks are employed as units. The tank platoon can survive and win in battle only if it is well trained.15 1-1 . and rear.ORGANIZATIONS TANK PLATOON 1-1. flanks. shoot. and Tank 3 is the wingman in the PSG’s section (see Figure 1-1). maneuver. who is the TC of Tank 4. In accomplishing its assigned missions. any tank can be vulnerable in the face of diverse battlefield hazards (such as enemy forces or unfavorable terrain) and situations. synchronizing its capabilities with those of other maneuver elements and warfighting functions. When properly supported. It moves. defends.Chapter 1 Introduction The fundamental mission of the tank platoon is to close with and destroy the enemy. 1-2. who is the tank commander (TC) of the vehicle designated as Tank 1 and the platoon sergeant (PSG). with two tanks in each section. the platoon is capable of conducting sustained operations against any sophisticated threat. and highly motivated. and performs other essential tasks to support the company or troop mission. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. the tank platoon employs firepower.

stop. armored cavalry troops.1 (FM 71-1). refer to the discussion in Appendix C of this manual and to FM 7-20. Under battlefield conditions. In the absence of specific instructions. It may also be placed under the operational control (OPCON) of light infantry organizations. Tank platoon 1-3. wingmen move. and shoot when their leaders do. 1-4. Additional information concerning task organized company teams is found in Appendix C of this manual and in FM 3-90. The wingman concept 1-2 FM 3-20. The tank platoon is organic to tank companies.15 22 February 2007 . to create company teams. commonly a mechanized infantry company. the wingman concept facilitates control of the platoon when it operates in sections. while Tank 3 orients on the PSG’s tank. The concept requires that one tank orient on another tank on either its left or right side. In the tank platoon. and combined arms battalions.Chapter 1 Figure 1-1. Note. The PSG orients on the platoon leader’s tank (see Figure 1-2). The platoon may be attached to a number of organizations. For information on light infantry organizations and their relationship with the tank platoon. Tank 2 orients on the platoon leader’s tank. Figure 1-2.

troops. The tank section’s 120-mm main gun can depress only to -10 degrees and elevate only to +20 degrees. and civilian considerations (METT-TC) will cause the company commander to find it necessary to split the platoon and attach the sections to a dismounted infantry squad or mechanized infantry section. including the infantry squad. however.15 1-3 . The BFV. fix. The tank platoon is considered the smallest maneuver element in the company. optically tracked. If the crew is operating with closed hatches. This poses the biggest 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. can depress to -10 degrees and elevate to +60 degrees. and destroy enemy tanks with the use of tube-launched. A clear communications plan between the dismounted infantry and the armor vehicles is essential to this success. The platoon leader and platoon sergeant must understand the factors involved with operating in concert with light and mechanized infantry forces.500 meters. Leaders must understand the principles of employing infantry and armored forces to maximize their capabilities and ensure mutual support. The leaders must have a solid communication plan and conduct rehearsals. The armor section provides the infantry with support by moving with it along an axis of advance and providing protection. or disrupt enemy vehicles and antiarmor systems out to 2. suppress. Tank and Bradley main gun and coax dead space above street level 1-7. then the infantry/mechanized infantry leaders must understand the supply and maintenance needs of heavy armor forces. Figure 1-3. and a dismounted infantry squad can easily compensate for this deadspace. the team gains the ability to conduct mounted and dismounted patrols. It normally fights as a unified element. Armored vehicles are presented with several disadvantages in an urban environment. and tanks by fire and maneuver. Gaining dismounted infantry significantly changes the need to understand the differences in movement rates and communication challenges.Introduction SPLIT SECTION CONCEPT 1-5. the dead space immediately around the vehicle is increased. The mechanized infantry and tank section’s weapons systems used together compliment one another by compensating for the other system’s limitations. Tanks also provide transport when the situation allows acceptable risk to exposed Soldiers. which creates considerable dead space for the tank crews in an urban environment. wire-guided (TOW) missile fires. time available. When attached to a mechanized infantry section with Bradley fighting vehicles (BFV). terrain (weather). The tank section suppresses and destroys bunkers. when mission. however. with its sections fighting in concert with one another. 1-6. compensating for the tank’s dead space (see Figure 1-3). This concept most likely occurs when the unit encounters restricted terrain or during urban operations. enemy weapons. If the armor section is attached to the infantry or mechanized infantry section. The attachment of sections presents a variety of command and control issues. There may be times. The infantry can also clear intervisibility lines and breach obstacles. enemy.

„ Maps. „ Maps. „ Any general issues. „ Any general issues. Section leader confirms linkup with parent unit. „ Orders/overlays. Section leader receives: „ Mission.Chapter 1 challenge for the dismounted infantry. „ Digital SOP. Section (Gaining) z z z z z z z Receiving unit issues coordination data to losing unit: linkup time. Receiving unit receives status report from attaching unit. location. frequencies. The following checklist is not limited to. Receiving unit conducts digital communications check with attaching unit. „ CS report. „ Sensitive items report. location. gaining unit designation. frequencies. Receiving unit receives: „ Battle roster. Section moves to the linkup point. 1-4 FM 3-20. „ Direct fire and control SOP. Also. Section is refueled and rearmed. „ CS report. Section leader enters the gaining unit’s radio net. the platoon leader’s responsibilities when gaining an infantry section or losing a tank section.15 22 February 2007 . but should include. and point of contact from the platoon leader. „ Casualty evacuation plan. „ TACSOP. „ Unit SOP. Section leader reports to the gaining unit’s point of contact and provides a status report. „ Orders/overlays. Section leader submits: „ Battle roster. the armor section’s ammunition requirements will pose issues in acquisition and distribution. because their need for fuel is far less than that of an armor section. „ Casualty evacuation SOP. Receiving unit conducts battle drill rehearsals for all five forms of contact. „ Digital SOP. „ Direct fire and control SOP. „ TACSOP and communications security (COMSEC) information. Receiving unit issues: „ Mission. „ Sensitive items report. Section conducts digital communications check. Receiving unit conducts linkup with attaching unit. Section (Losing) z z z z z z z z z Section leader receives coordination data: linkup time.

travels in a medic APC. one command post (CP) carrier. As part of continued modernization of equipment. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. A maintenance section from the forward support company (FSC) is normally attached to the tank company. one APC. The maintenance section includes one APC. The headquarters section is equipped with one main battle tank. first sergeant (1SG). one cargo truck with trailer carrying spare parts based on the prescribed load list (PLL). two M1025 or M998 high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicles (HMMWV). and one cargo truck with a 400-gallon water trailer (see Figure 1-4). units are receiving the forward repair system (FRS) as a replacement for the maintenance M113.Introduction TANK COMPANY 1-8. the cavalry troop may be called upon to execute attack. The armored cavalry troop is organized. one heavy recovery vehicle. equipped. normally attached from the battalion medical platoon. and delay missions as part of squadron and regimental missions. one M3 cavalry fighting vehicle (CFV). and supply section. two tank platoons. a mortar section. The company headquarters consists of the commanding officer (CO). and trained to conduct reconnaissance and security operations. Equipment in the mortar section includes two 120-mm mortars mounted in self-propelled carriers. Tank company Note. and one cargo truck with trailer as a tool truck. one cargo truck with a 400-gallon water trailer. and a maintenance section. Note. The maintenance section consists of one APC. and two cargo trucks with cargo trailers (see Figure 1-5). Each scout platoon consists of six M3 CFVs. The tank company consists of a headquarters and three tank platoons. As part of continued modernization of equipment.15 1-5 . and trained to fight pure or as a task organized company team. one M113A2/A3 armored personnel carrier (APC). The tank company is organized. ARMORED CAVALRY TROOP 1-9. The armored cavalry troop consists of a headquarters. executive officer (XO). units are receiving the FRS as a replacement for the maintenance M113. 1-10. A medic team. defend. one heavy recovery vehicle. Figure 1-4. and two utility trucks. two scout platoons. While its primary missions are reconnaissance and security. The company headquarters is equipped with two tanks. equipped.

lethal firepower. antitank guided missiles (ATGM). Today’s tanks can move rapidly under a variety of terrain conditions. and lubricants (POL) products. sustainability. and skilled mechanics. CAPABILITIES 1-12. negotiating soft ground. They enable him to gain and maintain the initiative on the battlefield by synchronizing his elements with other units through the use of faster. most artillery. oils. antitank guns. command. and limited obstacles. To win in battle. personnel. or other restricted terrain. sophisticated communications. leaders must have a clear understanding of the capabilities and limitations of their equipment.CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS 1-11. Additional details on the capabilities and operational considerations of FBCB2 are provided in Appendix A and in discussions throughout this manual. trenches. as well as daily resupply of large quantities of petroleum.15 22 February 2007 . In combination. small trees. Some tank crews now employ the Force XXI battle command brigade and below (FBCB2) system. 1-14. They are vulnerable to the weapons effects of other tanks. mines. attack helicopters. This knowledge assists the tank platoon leader in evaluating transportability. more accurate tactical information. 1-13. to improve situational understanding. Tanks require extensive maintenance. and lightly armored targets. and some antiarmor systems. global positioning systems (GPS) and inertial position navigation (POSNAV) systems allow tanks to move to virtually any designated location with greater speed and accuracy than ever before. enhanced target acquisition. The enhanced capabilities provided by these digitized systems represent a distinct advantage for the platoon leader. 1-15. Tanks offer an impressive array of capabilities on the modern battlefield: excellent cross-country mobility. LIMITATIONS 1-16.Chapter 1 Figure 1-5. Use of visual signals and the single channel ground/airborne radio system (SINCGARS) facilitates rapid and secure communication of orders and instructions. proficient operators. When tanks operate in built-up areas. 1-6 FM 3-20. and close attack aircraft. and navigation. dense woods. these factors produce the shock effect that allows armor units to close with and destroy the enemy in most weather and light conditions. The tank’s armor protects crew members from smallarms fire. Armored cavalry troop SECTION II . armored vehicles. and effective armor protection. On-board optics and sighting systems enable tank crews to acquire and destroy enemy tanks. and fortifications using the main gun or to use machine guns to suppress enemy positions. and mobility considerations for their own vehicles and for those with which the platoon may operate as part of a company team or troop. In addition. control. This capability allows tank crews to quickly mass the effects of their weapon systems while remaining dispersed to limit the effects of the enemy’s weapons. Perhaps the most important technological advance available to the tank platoon is the digital information capability of its vehicles.

He does this by using all available optics for observation. directs the movement of the tank. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. He must have a solid understanding of troop-leading procedures and develop his ability to apply them quickly and efficiently on the battlefield. He must serve as an effective TC. They must be prepared to assume the duties of the company commander in accordance with the succession of command. He must be a subject matter expert in the tactical employment of his section and the platoon.Introduction reduced visibility leaves them vulnerable to dismounted infantry attacks. Crews must cross-train so each member can function at any of the other crew positions. TANK COMMANDER 1-22. the TC may operate as a section and must be able to execute independently. and monitoring the FBCB2 display. His tactical and technical knowledge allow him to serve as mentor to crewmen. He briefs his crew. The PSG is second in command of the platoon and is accountable to the platoon leader for the training. The PSG is the most experienced TC in the platoon. The platoon leader is responsible to the commander for the discipline and training of his platoon. Most importantly. 1-23. 1-20. During decentralized operations. the platoon leader must be flexible and capable of using sound judgment to make correct decisions quickly and at the right times based on his commander’s intent and the tactical situation. PLATOON LEADER 1-18. Platoon leaders must know and understand the task force mission and the task force commander’s intent. His actions on the battlefield must complement those of the platoon leader. requesting indirect fires. and equipment. and the tactical employment of his tank. the maintenance of assigned equipment. and supervises initial first-aid treatment and evacuation of wounded crewmen. Though all members have primary duties. Again with decentralized operations. The tank crew is a tightly integrated team. PLATOON SERGEANT 1-21. eavesdropping on radio transmissions. the maintenance of its equipment. and executing land navigation using both digital systems and more traditional methods such as terrain association. 1-19. the reporting of CS needs. He must be able to fight his section effectively. other noncommissioned officers (NCO). roads. success depends on their effectiveness as a crew. at the same time. either in concert with the platoon leader’s section or by itself. doctrine. He must be prepared to assume the duties and responsibilities of the platoon leader or PSG in accordance with the succession of command. the platoon leader cannot rely on the company commander for guidance and instructions. The TC is responsible to the platoon leader and PSG for the discipline and training of his crew. they may be restricted to trails. and its success in combat. The platoon leader must know the capabilities and limitations of the platoon’s personnel and equipment. He must be capable of making decisions based on his unit’s task and purpose and the commander’s intent. thorough situational understanding. They must work together to maintain and service their tank and equipment and function as one in combat.RESPONSIBILITIES 1-17. He is an expert in using the tank’s weapon systems. both by itself and in concert with a company team or troop. Existing or reinforcing obstacles can also restrict or stop tank movement. and welfare of the Soldiers in the platoon. He coordinates the platoon’s maintenance and CS requirements and handles the personal needs of individual Soldiers. SECTION III . In such situations. discipline. These requirements demand that the TC maintain constant. and the platoon leader. severely limiting maneuverability and observation. he must be well versed in enemy organizations. or streets. The TC must know and understand the company mission and company commander’s intent. submits all reports.15 1-7 .

He assists other crew members as necessary. He is also responsible to the TC for the maintenance of communications equipment. Several of his duties involve the tank’s communications and internal control systems: logging onto and monitoring communications nets. The driver is responsible to the TC for the automotive maintenance. he assists the gunner and TC by scanning for targets and sensing fired rounds. maintains rear security. The driver moves. Because the loader is ideally positioned both to observe around the tank and to monitor the tank’s digital displays. he constantly searches for covered and concealed routes and for covered positions to which he can move if the tank is engaged. and stops the tank. Before engagement actions are initiated. He also assists the TC as needed in directing the driver so the tank maintains its position in formation.Chapter 1 GUNNER 1-24. He is responsible to the TC for the maintenance of the tank’s armament and fire control equipment. inputting graphic control measures on digital overlays. He also assists other crew members as needed. and aims and fires the loader’s machine gun. maintaining digital links if the tank is equipped with FBCB2. positions. During engagements. The loader stows and cares for ammunition. and monitoring digital displays during the planning and preparation phases of an operation. platoon leaders and TCs should give strong consideration to assigning their second most experienced crewman as the loader. and acts as air guard or ATGM guard.15 22 February 2007 . DRIVER 1-25. If the tank is equipped with a steer-to indicator. the driver monitors the device and selects the best tactical route. LOADER 1-26. the loader searches for targets. The gunner searches for targets and aims and fires both the main gun and the coaxial machine gun. loads the main gun and the coaxial machine gun ready box. He maintains his tank’s position in formation and watches for visual signals. He assists other crew members as needed. The gunner serves as the assistant TC and assumes the responsibilities of the TC as required. 1-8 FM 3-20. While driving.

Refer to ST 3-20. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. the platoon leader may operate in a decentralized fashion requiring him to make rapid decisions with minimal guidance. it is absolutely necessary that everyone in the platoon thoroughly understand all applicable SOPs.153. they allow the platoon to operate quickly and efficiently without constant guidance from the platoon leader. Thinking and acting are simultaneous activities for leaders in battle. control entails the measures taken to make sure these directions are carried out. Because of this. the tank platoon leader. assess the situation. realistic training. assisted by the PSG. Tank Platoon SOP. rearming and resupply procedures. employ the platoon.15 2-1 . SOPs and drills cover an array of routine and emergency actions. DECISION-MAKING 2-2. SOPs and checklists are especially critical in maintaining combat preparedness when leaders are tired or under stress as a result of continuous operations. CS. Command involves directing various combat. and sustainment elements. For maximum efficiency. The platoon leader must understand that the enemy is always adapting his tactics to best defeat our forces. many decisions are based on SOPs and standard unit drills. issue orders. and direct military action required to achieve victory. The success of this process rests mainly on decisive leadership. such as evacuation of wounded Soldiers. At platoon level. The process known as command and control (C2) is the biggest challenge faced by combat leaders on the modern battlefield. Even the most knowledgeable tactician will be ineffective if he cannot properly use the techniques available to direct and control his combat elements. Additionally.COMMAND 2-1. Command has two vital components: decision-making and leadership. thoroughly understood SOPs. In exercising C2. and the effective use of communications equipment. the platoon leader may conduct missions that will transition from combat operations to stability operations.Chapter 2 Command and Control Battle command is the process of assimilating information and then using the data to visualize the battlefield. This section examines in detail how the platoon leader and his subordinate leaders use these elements to develop the flexible. Decision-making is a conscious process for selecting a course of action (COA) from two or more alternatives. and individual crew responsibilities. The enemy will not conform or act in a manner that will fit into the doctrinal named operations. employs a variety of techniques to prepare for operations. SECTION I . productive command structure that is the catalyst for success on the battlefield. the platoon leader must keep command and control as simple as possible while ensuring that he provides the platoon with all required information and instructions. and communicate. for a sample SOP that can be adapted for use in various tank platoon organizations. In the modern operational environment.

z Issue the order. the platoon leader executes troop-leading procedures to organize his time during planning and preparation and to develop his platoon’s scheme of maneuver. The platoon leader maximizes available planning time by starting as soon as he receives the first bit of information about the upcoming operation. z Complete the plan. One platoon will be designated as the company/troop main effort. and the steps are not necessarily sequential. who then announces them in the form of orders that include his intent and concept of the operation. Most tactical decisions are made by the company or troop commander. Troop-leading is a dynamic process that begins when the platoon receives a new mission or is notified by a warning order (WARNO) that a new mission is imminent. his TCs then have the remaining two-thirds of the time available to prepare their tanks and crews for the operation. The key to understanding the platoon mission as part of the company team or troop mission lies in two elements of the plan: the commander’s intent and the concept of operations. prepare. is not rigid. Upon receipt of the WARNO. The following discussion focuses on the eight steps of troop-leading procedures: z Receive and analyze the mission. the eight steps of troop-leading procedures are integrated and accomplished concurrently rather than sequentially. is applicable in planning and preparation at all levels and for virtually all tactical situations and must be enforced. issue the WARNO. Step 1—Receive and Analyze the Mission 2-7. Initial coordination with other platoon leaders and the company or troop fire support team (FIST) are accomplished upon receipt of the mission. their task and purpose ensures the success of the main effort platoon. 2-5. The tasks involved in some steps (such as initiate movement. known as the “one-third/two-thirds” rule. and conduct reconnaissance) may recur several times during the process. The platoon leader receives his orders as an oral operation order (OPORD) or as a fragmentary order (FRAGO) updating a previously issued OPORD. exploit battlefield 2-2 FM 3-20. He normally uses one-third of the available time to plan. Based on these orders. the platoon leader may receive a series of WARNOs from the company commander providing advance notice of an impending operation. This time allocation. z Initiate movement. and issue the order.15 22 February 2007 . z Supervise and refine. Note. The other platoons are supporting efforts. Time management is the key. the platoon leader’s first task is to extract his mission from the commander’s overall plan. This platoon’s task and purpose accomplishes the company’s stated mission. or OPORD. z Make a tentative plan. Before the OPORD or FRAGO arrives. activities associated with supervising and refining the plan and other preparations occur throughout the troop-leading process. although discussed here with the eight steps in traditional order. FRAGO. The troop-leading process. The platoon leader’s understanding of the commander’s intent and his task and purpose allows him to use his initiative. The platoon leader should disseminate all pertinent information contained in the WARNOs as quickly as possible after they are received. Whenever possible. z Issue the WARNO. Graphics are copied from the commander’s overlay or sent by digital transmission (see the discussion). 2-4. Initial Actions 2-8. z Conduct reconnaissance and coordination. 2-6.Chapter 2 TROOP-LEADING PROCEDURES 2-3. Effective use of troop-leading procedures allows the platoon leader to lead his platoon more effectively in the execution of the mission. Although listed as the last step.

The technique of using multiple WARNOs is a valuable tool for the platoon leader during the troop-leading process. Careful analysis of the company OPORD allows the platoon leader to identify the platoon’s purpose. At a minimum. and to put out tactical information incrementally as it is received (ultimately reducing the length of the OPORD). These include an analysis covering the terrain and enemy and friendly situations.Command and Control opportunities. develop a security plan. If he does not understand the intent or purpose. and the time line by which the platoon will accomplish those tasks. Refer to FM 3-90. he must ask the commander for clarification. but that must be done to complete the mission. implied. terrain (and weather). after the WARNO is issued. the platoon WARNO should cover the enemy and friendly situations. the platoon leader’s actions are normally based only on the WARNO from higher. the specified. the platoon leader should confirm implied tasks with the commander. Although mission analysis is continuously refined throughout the troop-leading process. time available. and 5. as outlined in the following discussion. He then conducts a more detailed METT-TC analysis. They do not include tasks that are covered in the unit SOP.15 2-3 . he will probably determine that the platoon must also destroy or neutralize the enemy OP (the implied task) because it can affect the platoon and/or company mission. z What other tasks must be accomplished to ensure mission success (implied tasks)? Implied tasks are those that are not specified in the OPORD.1 (FM 71-1) for a discussion of how WARNOs are employed at various stages of the troop-leading procedures. The following outline of METT-TC factors will assist the platoon leader in analyzing the mission and creating a time line. and the operational graphics. troops. The analysis of the enemy situation includes these considerations: z What have been the enemy’s recent activities? z What is the composition of the enemy’s forces? z What are the capabilities of his weapons? z What is the location of current and probable enemy positions? z What is the enemy’s most probable COA? The platoon leader must apply knowledge of the enemy’s doctrine and his most recent activities and locations to answer these questions: „ Will the enemy attack or defend? 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. friendly troops available. 2-12. He can issue WARNOs for several purposes: to alert subordinates of the upcoming mission. to initiate the parallel planning process. and civilian considerations. The platoon leader may also conduct his time analysis. The platoon leader identifies implied tasks by analyzing the enemy.) Note. Enemy. (Note. 2-11. 4. 2-9. the commander may direct the platoon to occupy a support-by-fire position near a known enemy observation post (OP). As an example. The platoon leader will immediately recognize that he must occupy the designated position (the specified task). and issue his own WARNO to provide guidance and planning focus for his subordinates. specified tasks are contained in paragraphs 3. and accomplish the commander’s plan. The platoon leader’s analysis includes the following points: z What is the battalion commander’s intent? z What are the company or troop commander’s intent and purpose? z What tasks did the commander say must be accomplished (specified tasks)? In the OPORD. and coordinating instructions such as a time line and security plan. the terrain. METT-TC Analysis 2-10. and essential tasks it must perform. Through his analysis. movement instructions. The platoon leader analyzes the mission using the factors of METT-TC: mission. Mission. If time is available. The analysis is normally conducted as quickly as possible to allow the platoon leader to issue the WARNO in a timely manner. enemy.

including locations for battle positions (BP). Elements of the OAKOC and weather analysis include the following: z Observation and fields of fire. support-by-fire and attack-by-fire positions. if the company commander only identifies platoon-size center-of-mass locations for a defending enemy. moonrise. For example. an environment can easily evolve where leaders find themselves reacting to these ever-changing tactics and surrendering the initiative to the enemy. dismounted. or destabilizing elements). Where are the most favorable avenues of approach (mounted. and what will favor the enemy forces.15 22 February 2007 . Enemy information is included in paragraph 1 of the OPORD. sunset. sunrise. Terrain (and weather). The platoon leader must ensure he sets the conditions for mission success. and air) for enemy and friendly forces? Key terrain. Platoon leaders need to ensure that they use this evaluation of the enemy. and moonset? How will this effect friendly and enemy use of night vision equipment? What conditions will favor friendly forces. The platoon leader analyzes the terrain using the factors of OAKOC (observation and fields of fire.Chapter 2 „ „ „ „ „ What is the enemy’s task and purpose? What formations will the enemy use? How will the enemy defend? Where are the enemy’s kill zones? Where and when will the enemy execute his operations? 2-13. These factors may apply: „ „ „ Where are natural and existing obstacles located. These factors may apply: „ What routes within the area of operations offer cover and concealment for the platoon or for enemy elements? „ Do the natural firing positions in the area of operations offer cover and concealment for the platoon or enemy? z Weather. and overwatch positions? z z Avenues of approach. It is important that the platoon leader analyze this information in terms of the platoon’s role in the operation. 2-15. The following factors may apply: „ „ Where can the enemy observe and engage the platoon (danger areas)? Where are the natural firing positions the platoon can use to observe and engage the enemy. With changing enemy tactics based on their success. ensuring the platoon retains the initiative. the platoon leader should identify probable enemy locations based on the terrain and the enemy’s doctrine. whether it is on the high intensity battlefield (enemy tanks and infantry fighting vehicles [IFV]) or low intensity operations (guerillas. the seizure or retention of which affords a marked advantage to either combatant. and how can they affect maneuver? Are there bypasses. 2-14. These are influenced by key terrain that dominates avenues of approach. and cover and concealment). These factors may apply: Where is the key terrain? (Any locality or area. 2-4 FM 3-20. avenues of approach. These skills will allow the platoon to disrupt the enemy operations and force the enemy to react to the platoon’s actions. key terrain. The platoon leader can use these questions as he analyzes the impact of weather and other environmental factors on the mission: „ What are the light conditions (including percentage of night illumination) and visibility? What are the times for beginning of morning nautical twilight (BMNT). retaining the initiative at all times.) „ How can key terrain be used to support the mission? „ z Obstacles. or must obstacles be breached? z Cover and concealment. obstacles. end of evening nautical twilight (EENT). and how can they affect maneuver? Where are likely areas for enemy-emplaced obstacles.

radiological. This process also helps the platoon in making efficient use of planning and preparation time. prisoners. The analysis of friendly forces and other personnel-related issues includes these considerations: z What is the supply status of ammunition. He develops a reverse planning schedule (time line) beginning with actions on the objective and working backward through each step of the operation and preparation to the present time. or the media? z Will the platoon be tasked to conduct stability operations (such as peace operations or noncombatant evacuation) or support operations (such as humanitarian or environmental assistance)? The platoon must be prepared for the operation to change based on the situation. dust. private groups. 2-16. Civilian considerations. and logistics package (LOGPAC) operations? z What priorities of work can the platoon accomplish (examples include security. the platoon leader conducts reverse planning to ensure that all specified. biological. as well as of vehicles and equipment? z What is the training status of the platoon? z What is the state of morale? z How much sleep have the Soldiers had? z How much sleep will they be able to get before the operation begins? z Does the platoon need any additional assets to support or accomplish its mission? z What attachments are available to help the platoon accomplish its mission? 2-17.15 2-5 . and other necessary items? z What is the current physical condition of the Soldiers. fuel. As part of this analysis. rain. snow. heat. such as governmental agencies. This analysis should also cover the effects of weather on smoke and chemical. The platoon leader uses this analysis to identify how the platoon will handle situations involving civilians and/or nonmilitary agencies or organizations. inspections. Leaders need to be prepared for this and make sure the platoon understands how the plan may change. A stability operation could very quickly escalate into a combat mission. or blowing sand affect the crew and equipment during the mission? „ „ Note. z What procedures and guidelines will the platoon use in dealing with refugees. implied. resupply. reconnaissance. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. The platoon leader’s analysis includes the following factors: z What times were specified by the commander in the OPORD for such activities as movement. Time available. 2-19. Considerations that may affect the platoon mission include the following: z What are the applicable rules of engagement (ROE) and/or rules of interaction (ROI)? Soldiers must understand when to fire as much as when not to. and other civilians? z Will the platoon be working with civilian organizations. coordination. Troops. and nuclear (CBRN) weapons. rehearsals.Command and Control How has recent weather affected trafficability in the area of operations? Will weather become better or worse during the mission? „ How will fog. as much as a combat mission can change to a stability operation. rehearsals. and essential tasks can be accomplished in the time available. maintenance. and sleep) in the time available? z How much time is available to the enemy for the activities listed in the previous items? z How does the potential enemy time line for planning and preparation compare with that developed for friendly forces? 2-18. wind.

For example. z A tentative time line. The PSG and TCs are excellent 2-6 FM 3-20. the platoon leader develops a tentative plan that addresses all specified. “SUPPRESS THE ENEMY. Based on the commander’s plan and the results of his mission analysis. a tank platoon equipped with a plow tank may practice the crew task of dropping the plow. The amount of detail included in a WARNO depends on the available time.” or “SEIZE AN OBJECTIVE”). Simultaneous planning and preparation are key factors in effective time management during the troop-leading procedures. Warning orders maximize subordinates’ planning and preparation time by providing essential details of the impending operation and detailing major time line events that will support mission execution. z Enemy situation. friendly forces. and the information subordinates need to initiate proper planning and preparation. The essential tasks (the WHAT) should be stated in terms that relate to enemy forces. the platoon’s communications capability. and WHY. The purpose (the WHY) explains how the platoon mission supports the commander’s intent. WHERE. z Service support instructions (if not included in the time line). as well as platoon-level actions at an obstacle. to include the following: „ Earliest time of movement.Chapter 2 Mission Statement 2-20. make a tentative plan.” “OVERWATCH 2D PLATOON. Step 2—Issue the Warning Order 2-21. WHERE. the final troop-leading step. z Commander’s intent (if available). The tentative plan also covers reconnaissance and coordination requirements between the platoon and adjacent and supporting units. As noted. initiate movement. WHEN. supervise and refine. and complete the plan) may occur simultaneously and/or in a different order. C CO ATTACKS TO SEIZE OBJ RAIDERS NLT 152200OCT2006. The WARNO may include the following information: z Changes to task organization. Step 3—Make a Tentative Plan 2-22. WHAT.) „ Time and location at which the platoon OPORD will be issued. The platoon leader alerts his platoon to the upcoming operation by issuing a WARNO that follows the five-paragraph OPORD format (see Appendix B). „ Time of precombat check (PCC)/precombat inspection (PCI). including the task and purpose of the mission and answering the questions of WHO. „ Reconnaissance. „ Training/rehearsal schedule. „ Readiness condition (REDCON) and vehicle preparation schedule. z Platoon mission. is on-going throughout the process.15 22 February 2007 . the platoon leader can then write the platoon mission statement. concise statement of the purpose of the operation and the essential task(s) that will be crucial to its success. The elements of WHO. TO ALLOW THE COMPANY TO COMPLETE DESTRUCTION OF ENEMY FORCES. This is a clear. The next five steps (issue a WARNO. “3D PLT. Once his METT-TC analysis is complete. this technique maximizes preparation time and allows the platoon to focus on tasks that will support the anticipated operations. implied. The platoon leader begins developing his maneuver plan as he listens to the commander issue the company OPORD. z Company or troop mission. and essential tasks using the OPORD format (see Appendix B of this manual). (Note. Note. The platoon leader may initiate some individual and collective training before he issues the OPORD.”). and WHEN add clarity to the mission statement (for example. and/or the terrain (for example. conduct reconnaissance and coordination. z Updated graphics (platoons equipped with FBCB2 send new overlays).

To ensure complete understanding of the operation. Once the operation has begun. He can also build a model of the area of operations using a briefing kit that contains such items as engineer tape. Step 8—Supervise and Refine 2-31. As a minimum. the platoon leader conducts a detailed map reconnaissance. For defensive operations. 3-by-5-inch index cards. The platoon leader addresses movement in his time line. 2-26. Flexibility is the key to effective operations. 2-25. Activities may include sending platoon representatives to an assembly area with the company quartering party or beginning priorities of work. the platoon leader must be able to direct his platoon in response to new situations and new orders. and “micro” armor vehicle models. The platoon leader refines the plan based on the results of the reconnaissance and coordination. the platoon leader issues the order from a vantage point overlooking the terrain on which the platoon will maneuver. movement speed. the platoon leader should attempt to find a vantage point that will allow him to see as much of the objective as possible. an on-site ground reconnaissance is the best way to survey the area of operations. sand table. During the reconnaissance (or during company-level rehearsals). Step 6—Complete the Plan 2-27. He briefs the platoon using the fiveparagraph OPORD format (see Appendix B). The TCs brief the platoon leader to confirm their understanding of his intent. The following discussion examines these procedures in detail. The platoon leader should take as many TCs as possible on his reconnaissance. He should keep the plan as simple as possible. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. rehearsals. he uses a terrain model. 2-29. He then completes the plan using these results and any new information from his commander. 2-30. and the axis just beyond the LD. the platoon leader should lead the TCs in a walk-through using a sand table. all platoon BPs. Ground reconnaissance for offensive operations usually is limited to checking routes to the start point (SP). and the relationship between their tasks and those of other units in the operation. Refer to Chapters 3 and 4 of this manual for more detailed discussions of planning considerations in offensive and defensive operations. the specific tasks their crews must perform. The platoon leader must be able to refine his plan whenever new information becomes available. As time and security permit.15 2-7 . the platoon leader should conduct a reconnaissance of the engagement area. Step 4—Initiate Movement 2-23. If he adjusts the plan. colored yarn. the platoon leader issues the order to as many members of the platoon as possible. and the routes to be used. 2-32. he assembles the TCs and his gunner. Many company-level operations require movement to forward assembly areas and BPs during the planning phase of an operation. Step 7—Issue the Order 2-28. he must inform the platoon and supervise implementation of the changes. or his map to orient the platoon. If possible. the line of departure (LD). As a minimum.Command and Control sources of ideas concerning the platoon plan and war-gaming COAs. Crew orders. and sectors of observation and fires with other platoon leaders and with adjacent and supporting units. and members of his platoon. If time permits. If time and security considerations permit and authorization is obtained from higher headquarters. Effective reconnaissance takes into account the factors of METT-TC and OAKOC from both friendly and enemy perspectives. If not. at the same time ensuring that the platoon scheme of maneuver supports the commander’s intent. other platoon leaders. he orders the platoon to begin moving in accordance with the company plan. the platoon leader and TCs conduct confirmation briefings immediately after the OPORD is issued. sketches. and inspections are essential elements of the supervision process as the platoon prepares for the mission. For offensive operations. Step 5—Conduct Reconnaissance and Coordination 2-24. the platoon leader or his representative should coordinate routes.

Rehearsal purposes. z Battle drill or SOP rehearsal. TCs should actually send spot reports (SPOTREP) when reporting enemy contact. The platoon leader should never underestimate the value of rehearsals. This rehearsal. He will usually designate someone to role-play the enemy elements he expects to face during the operation. This rehearsal is critical when working with new units/forces (such as light units). in effect. but before other phases of the platoon rehearsal begin. z Improve each Soldier’s understanding of the concept of the operation. ideally under conditions that are as close as possible to those expected for the actual operation. Note. z Backbrief. in a rehearsal. It does not necessarily cover a published drill or SOP. The platoon leader should conduct confirmation briefs after his TCs have received the OPORD. z Confirm coordination requirements between the platoon and adjacent units. 2-37. the platoon leader selects the tasks to be practiced and controls execution of the rehearsal. Participants maneuver their actual vehicles or use vehicle models or simulations while interactively verbalizing their elements’ actions. it allows all elements to understand what each will be doing during a specific action and allows heavy and light forces to better mesh their drills together. For example. efficiently run rehearsals to accomplish the following purposes: z Reinforce training and increase proficiency in critical tasks. techniques. The backbrief allows the platoon leader to identify problems in his own concept of the operation and his subordinates’ understanding of the concept. 2-8 FM 3-20. The platoon leader can choose among several types of rehearsals. A rehearsal is different from the process of talking through what is supposed to happen.” 2-36. The platoon leader uses well-planned. the platoon leader could rehearse procedures for marking obstacle lanes or establishing local security. 2-35. a reverse briefing process routinely performed by subordinate leaders immediately after receiving any instructions. each designed to achieve a specific result and with a specific role in the planning and preparation time line. rather than simply saying.Chapter 2 Crew Orders 2-33. For example. giving the commander or leader flexibility in designing the rehearsal. In a platoon-level rehearsal. the direct and indirect fire plan. conducted throughout the planning and preparation time line. They confirm their understanding by repeating and explaining details of the operation for their leader.15 22 February 2007 . A rehearsal is a practice session conducted to prepare units for an upcoming operation or event. Rehearsals 2-34. and procedures. and possible actions and reactions for various situations that may arise during the operation. is used to ensure that all participants understand a technique or a specific set of procedures. anticipated contingencies. The platoon leader and PSG make sure all crew members have been briefed by their TCs and understand the platoon mission and concept of the operation through the use of backbriefs. Rehearsal types. The primary types of rehearsals available to the tank platoon are the following: z Confirmation brief. such as an OPORD or FRAGO. z Synchronize the actions of subordinate elements. Effective rehearsals require crewmen to perform required tasks. “I would send a SPOTREP now. They are his most valuable tools in preparing the platoon for the upcoming operation. z Reveal weaknesses or problems in the plan. he also uses the backbrief to learn how subordinates intend to accomplish their missions. Refer to FM 5-0 for a detailed discussion of rehearsal types. The confirmation brief is.

He then may review this information by FM radio. What are the applicable terrain considerations? z Training. The commander decides the level of leader involvement. Platoon elements can use symbols or “micro” armor to represent their locations and maneuver on the sketch. which should follow the crawl-walk-run training methodology to prepare the platoon for increasingly difficult conditions. Is this a new skill or something they have never done before. the platoon leader places the terrain model where it overlooks the actual terrain of the area of operations or is within walking distance of such a vantage point. It involves every Soldier and system participating in the operation. Subordinate elements check their communications systems and rehearse events that are critical to the platoon plan. The platoon leader can choose among several techniques in conducting rehearsals. Will the rehearsal allow the enemy to gain intelligence about upcoming operations? z Terrain. and use of live ammunition) that they will encounter during the actual operation. terrain. As noted in FM 5-0. The radio rehearsal may be especially useful when the situation does not allow the platoon to gather at one location. The sketch must be large enough to allow all participants to see as each subordinate “walks” through an interactive oral presentation of his actions. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Participants walk or move “micro” armor around the table or model to practice the actions of their own vehicles in relation to other members of the platoon. Procedures are similar to those for the terrain model rehearsal. z Map rehearsal. Listed in descending order in terms of the preparation time and resources required to conduct them. Considerations in selecting a rehearsal technique include the following: z Time. preparation. This is the most popular rehearsal technique. these techniques are the following: z Full dress rehearsal. How many echelons will be involved? z Operations security (OPSEC). z Terrain model rehearsal. When possible. z Radio/digital rehearsal. but is the most difficult to conduct in terms of preparation and resources. This rehearsal produces the most detailed understanding of the mission. Rehearsal techniques. If possible. z Reduced force rehearsal. but it should be large enough to depict graphic control measures and important terrain features for reference and orientation. units should conduct the full dress rehearsal under the same conditions (such as weather. Units can use the sketch map technique almost anywhere. This rehearsal normally involves only key leaders of the unit and is thus less extensive than the full dress rehearsal in terms of preparation time and resources. either individually or as a platoon? 2-39. The selected leaders then rehearse the plan. This technique is useful in conjunction with a confirmation brief or backbrief involving subordinate leaders and vehicle commanders. The leader conducts this rehearsal by sending the OPORD and overlay digitally (if equipped). The reduced force rehearsal is often conducted to prepare leaders for the full dress rehearsal. employing an accurately constructed model to help subordinates visualize the battle in accordance with the commander’s or leader’s intent.Command and Control 2-38. How much will be needed for planning. and execution? z Multi-echelon. day or night. the radio rehearsal requires all participants to have working communications equipment. techniques for conducting rehearsals are limited only by the resourcefulness of the commander or leader. The platoon generally will take part in full dress rehearsals as part of a larger unit. Procedures are similar to those for the sketch map rehearsal except that the commander or leader uses a map and operation overlay of the same scale as he used to plan and control the operation.15 2-9 . if possible on the actual terrain to be used for the actual operation. Size of the model can vary. that manual outlines six basic techniques. The platoon leader uses the map and overlay to guide participants as they brief their role in the operation. To be effective. time of day. z Sketch map rehearsal.

z Account for Soldiers’ uniforms and equipment necessary to accomplish the tasks. z Perform communications checks of voice and digital systems.15 22 February 2007 . fuel. Weapons are boresighted. Ammunition is checked and stored properly. Leaders must use contingency planning to ensure that the platoon knows what actions to do in the absence of the leadership. They are designed to be quick and concise in verification that the crew. z Upload vehicles in accordance with the platoon SOP. Failure at the TC level to check all systems.Chapter 2 Inspections 2-40. PCCs do not require formal notification or conduct. water. and platoon have all necessary equipment to accomplish the mission. all types of ammunition. Examples for PCCs include the following: z Perform prepare-to-fire checks for all weapons. if possible. The basic six-point contingency plan is used whenever the key leadership is going to be gone from the platoon. This tendency could place them in danger as the enemy is developing tactics of rapid hit and run operations which will capitalize on platoons that are not proactive and relay on the platoon leader or platoon sergeant to tell them what to do. and all sights are referred. section. pyrotechnics. 2-10 FM 3-20. 2-42. and report or repair deficiencies. Precombat inspections allow the platoon leader to check the platoon’s operational readiness. this can be an important advantage if the platoon leader is forced to switch to a different vehicle during an operation. Direct resupply operations as necessary. Some examples of when this is to be used: leader’s reconnaissance. and CBRN alarms). PCCs differ from PCIs in that they are quick combat checks performed at crew level and designed to account for individuals and equipment. or coordinating with other units or local government agencies. 2-41. unexpected circumstances will tend to carry out only their last orders. Examples of an inspection include the following: z Perform before-operation maintenance checks. CONTINGENCY PLANS 2-44. but the TCs need to check all items based on the platoon SOP. if necessary. It is essential that the entire platoon chain of command know how to conduct PCCs and PCIs in accordance with applicable SOPs (ST 3-20. z Ensure that crews understand the plan and are in the correct uniform and mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) level. z Inspect and verify maps and graphics.153 or the platoon’s own SOP) or based on the procedures outlined in ARTEP 17-237-10-MTP. The key goal is to ensure that Soldiers and vehicles are fully prepared to execute the upcoming mission. and report or repair deficiencies. and not just the ones the platoon leader is going to check could lead to a critical element or piece of equipment to fail during operations. They should conduct the inspection once the TCs report that their crews and vehicles are prepared. The standardization of load plans allows the platoon leader and PSG to quickly check accountability of equipment. if necessary. dismounted patrols. and batteries (for such items as flashlights. oil. It also ensures standard locations of equipment in each vehicle. night-vision devices. The platoon leader and/or PSG should observe each crew during preparation for combat. z Review the supply status of rations. Machine guns are test fired. firstaid kits. 2-43. or crews faced with unusual. Less experienced crews. Inspections also contribute to improved morale. It should be understood that the platoon leader will check items he deems critical for the upcoming operations.

They accomplish this by monitoring the company or troop net and issuing frequent updates to the other crews using the radio and digital information systems. He makes sure the TCs post the minimum required control measures on their maps and issues a FRAGO covering the key elements of the enemy and friendly situations. 2-46. the platoon leader must understand how to trim the procedures to save time. 2-48. analyzes the mission using the factors of METT-TC. LEADERSHIP 2-50. What to do if the platoon leader makes contact. even if time is limited. 2-47. the platoon leader conducts a quick map reconnaissance. 2-49. thorough rehearsals conducted prior to an operation. ABBREVIATED TROOP-LEADING PROCEDURES 2-45. the platoon mission. confident leadership inspires Soldiers. and motivation in combat. SPECIAL NOTE Whenever time is available. They allow the platoon leader to designate waypoints to assist in navigation and target reference points (TRP) to assist in weapons orientation. Other keys to success when abbreviated procedures are in effect include a well-trained platoon. Competent. Successful platoon leaders make the most of every available minute. The platoon leader and TCs may also conduct a quick walk-through rehearsal of critical elements of the maneuver plan using a hastily prepared terrain model or sand table. How long will the platoon leader be gone? 4. and sends for the TCs. What to do if the platoon leader fails to return. What to do if the platoon makes contact or if other elements in the area make contact. but the platoon leader skips none of the steps. Digital systems. thoroughly understood SOPs. The service support and command and signal paragraphs can be deleted if they are unchanged or covered by SOP. Once the order is received. such as when a change of mission occurs after an operation is in progress. Leadership involves numerous important personal principles and traits: z Taking responsibility for decisions. 6. What route is the platoon leader taking? 3. The platoon leader and PSG must keep the platoon informed of the ever-changing enemy and friendly situations. direction. there is no substitute for effective. The platoon may have to move out and receive FRAGOs by radio or at the next scheduled halt. When there is not enough time to conduct all eight troop-leading steps in detail. clearly developed. Most steps of these abbreviated troop-leading procedures are done mentally. instilling in them the will to win and providing them with purpose. Which personnel will be going with the platoon leader? 2. FRAGOs are discussed in Appendix B.Command and Control Six-Point Contingency Plan 1. and the concept of the operation. such as FBCB2 and GPS devices.15 2-11 . In some cases. there may not be enough time even for these shortened procedures. are valuable tools when the platoon is forced to use abbreviated troop-leading procedures and FRAGOs. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. z Exemplifying and demanding loyalty. It then becomes critical for the platoon leader to send FRAGOs of his own to the TCs explaining the platoon’s purpose within the overall company maneuver plan. and an understanding by all members of the platoon of the current tactical situation (situational understanding). 5.

rest. For platoon leaders and PSGs. The platoon leader sees the mission through and never gives up.15 22 February 2007 . match tactics and weaponry with the terrain at hand. as described in the 1984 study titled Leadership in Combat: An Historical Appraisal conducted by the History Department at the United States Military Academy: z Terrain sense. situational understanding is the key to making sound. (Note. enabling him to separate critical tasks from the non-critical and preventing him from being overwhelmed by the demands of the information-rich battlefield. Situational understanding also gives leaders the ability to compress the time necessary to conduct troop-leading procedures. This picture includes an understanding of relevant terrain and the relationship between friendly and enemy forces. 2-54. During the planning and preparation phases of an operation. this FM. 2-51. quick tactical decisions. OPSEC is discussed in Appendix D. Calculated risk-taking is a must if the platoon is to exploit enemy weaknesses as they present themselves. the commander dictates priorities of work. z Practical. as well as an awareness of the culture with which you are interacting. to a dispersed and decentralized structure with few secure areas and unit boundaries and no definable front and/or rear boundary. and security. The following are the five characteristics of successful combat leaders. The commander structures the battlefield based on his intent and the conditions of METT-TC. z Single-minded tenacity. this is especially critical when there is limited time to plan and prepare for an operation. It also includes the ability to correlate battlefield events as they develop. with obvious front and rear boundaries and closely tied adjacent units. Between these extremes are an unlimited number of possible variations.Chapter 2 z z z Inspiring and directing the platoon toward mission accomplishment. Leaders can maintain their ability to meet the demanding requirements of leadership only if they are in top physical condition. SECTION II – CONTROL SITUATIONAL UNDERSTANDING 2-52.) In conjunction with REDCON levels. This is the quality that compels the successful platoon leader to harness the combat power necessary to overwhelm the enemy. 2-12 FM 3-20. 2-53. TIME MANAGEMENT (READINESS CONDITIONS) 2-55. A critical benefit of situational understanding on the part of TCs is a reduction in fratricide incidents (see Appendix F. Situational understanding is the product of applying analysis and judgment to the common operational picture to determine the relationship among the factors of METT-TC (FM 3-0). For the platoon leader. Fostering a climate of teamwork that will engender success. z Ferocious audacity. FM 6-22 and FM 3-0 further describe the qualities of effective leadership. Time management is the key to success in continuous operations. The framework of the battlefield can vary from a highly rigid extreme. practiced judgment. highly mobile operations involving small forces lend themselves to a less rigid framework that challenges the platoon leader’s ability to maintain an accurate picture of the battlefield. Demonstrating moral and physical courage in the face of adversity and danger. It allows them to form logical conclusions and to make decisions that anticipate future events and information. clear mental “picture” of the tactical situation. Understand terrain. Maintaining situational understanding becomes more difficult as the battlefield becomes less structured. z Physical confidence. this is the ability to maintain a constant. How he does this affects the tank platoon leader’s mission planning and his ability to maintain situational understanding. Modern. these priorities enable the platoon leader to develop his internal platoon timeline. for information about fratricide prevention). Common sense and constant practice allow the platoon leader to prioritize effectively. He then uses troop-leading procedures (discussed in Chapter 2) to outline time requirements and disseminate them to the platoon.

The commander uses the REDCON status as a standardized way to adjust the unit’s readiness to move and fight. Activities designated in the timeline include. Note. REDCON-2. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. some personnel executing the security plan may execute portions of the work plan. • Remainder of the platoon executes security plan. Note.and platoon-level training and rehearsals. the unit is ready to move and fight. Full alert. • The platoon is ready to move within 15 minutes of notification. weapons are manned. Full alert. z Crew. • The platoon is ready to move within one hour of notification. Reduced alert. • Status reports are submitted in accordance with company SOP. the unit is ready to fight. boresighting. • Precombat checks are complete. REDCON-4. communications checks). • All personnel are alert and mounted in vehicles. • CBRN alarms and hot loop equipment are stowed. • The platoon is ready to move within 30 minutes of notification. A variant of REDCON-1 is REDCON-1(-). weapons are manned. • Digital and FM links with company and other platoons are maintained. Based on the commander’s guidance and the enemy situation.Command and Control REDCON LEVELS 2-56. Minimum alert. and themselves for operations. the same conditions apply except that the vehicles are not started in REDCON-1(-). • All personnel are alert and mounted on vehicles. REDCON-3. as required and within capabilities. equipment. stowage. The work plan enables TCs and crewmen to focus their efforts in preparing vehicles. WORK PLAN 2-57. REDCON-1. one man per tank is designated to monitor the radio and man the turret weapons. dismounted OPs may remain in place. z Orders at crew and platoon level. • Equipment is stowed (except hot loop and CBRN alarms). z Vehicle preparation (camouflage. the following: z Reconnaissance. • The platoon is ready to move immediately. • Fifty percent of the platoon executes work and rest plans. • Engines are started. OPs are pulled in. but are not limited to. REDCON levels allow quick responses to changing situations and ensure completion of necessary work and rest plans. Depending on the tactical situation and orders from the commander. • OPs are manned.15 2-13 . z Vehicle maintenance. • All (100 percent) digital and FM communications links are operational.

infrastructure. This may require the platoon leader. Care must be taken in that inexperienced leaders do not become dependent on digitalization for their situational understanding. rehearsals). social. To be effective in sustained combat. Crew.Chapter 2 z z z z z Individual soldier preparation (training. The platoon SOP must provide for an adequate division of duties to allow leaders to get some sleep. He then can track enemy and friendly elements and plot all movement on his map and/or his digital display (FBCB2). informational. Preparation of fighting positions. the platoon leader must monitor them by eavesdropping. The requirement to maintain a real-time awareness of the battlefield one level higher does not relieve the platoon leader of his responsibility to understand the situation and commander’s intent two levels higher than his own. Obstacle emplacement. To “see” the battlefield accurately. land. 2-60. even for the simplest task.15 22 February 2007 . The rest plan allows some soldiers to sleep while other crewmen conduct priorities of work and maintain security. PSG. Less than 4 hours of sleep can significantly degrade combat performance. the tank platoon leader should coordinate with the commander to use infantrymen to assist with security. and associated adversary. maritime. No matter what his experience level. economic. confirmation briefings and backbriefs become critical whenever orders are issued. political. Although few voice and digital reports are specifically addressed to him. particularly on the company team or troop net.and platoon-level PCCs and PCIs. the platoon leader must have virtually perfect knowledge of the friendly situation one level higher than his own (the company team or troop situation). on experience. and neutral systems (that is. a soldier should get a minimum of 4 to 6 hours of uninterrupted sleep every 24 hours. military. Whenever possible. which are identified during the map/ground reconnaissance step of the troop-leading procedures. The difference is that his understanding of the situation two levels higher does not have to be as specific or as timely. It is also important that he update the TCs periodically regarding the higher situation. legal. The enemy may employ tactics to jam digital systems or overload the leader and cause indecision. the platoon leader is responsible for learning techniques that allow him to relate the information he receives to his map or display and thereby track the tactical situation and increase situational understanding. friendly. 2-62. and others) that are relevant to a specific Joint operation (JP 1-02). and V). Joint doctrine describes the operational environment as the air. Resupply (Classes I. The platoon leader must also have a relatively complete knowledge of the terrain and the enemy situation. This allows him to adjust his own movement so the platoon makes contact with the enemy from positions of advantage. Understanding 2-14 FM 3-20. Note. REST PLAN 2-58. 2-59. to some degree. space. When soldiers are tired. orders. and one or both of the other TCs to share duties. BATTLEFIELD VISUALIZATION 2-61. He must be able to visualize enemy and friendly elements through time and to picture how the terrain will affect their actions. This coordination may enable the platoon leader to rest more soldiers for longer periods of time as the infantry mans OPs and conducts dismounted patrols to augment the security of the platoon. Most of the information the platoon leader requires comes from what he can observe from his tank and from reports he receives through his communications systems. The Operational Environment 2-64. 2-63. Planning and decision-making are among the skills that suffer most dramatically when soldiers cannot get enough sleep. How effectively the platoon leader can keep track of events on the battlefield depends. III.

OVERLAYS. Maps also provide TCs with a visual reference they can consult as needed. they must realize how US culture can affect other cultures. MAPS. This includes indigenous populations as well as multinational partners. Cultural Awareness 2-67. AND NAVIGATION Maps and Overlays 2-68. Military personnel must not only know what cultural awareness is. They are the primary tools the platoon leader uses to organize information concerning the battlefield and to synchronize his assets once the battle begins. and that these effects influence other cultures’ perceptions of the US and its people. „ How to communicate effectively with multinational partners and indigenous persons. They must understand the key elements of the specific cultures within the COE with which they expect to interact during operations. „ Differences in what indigenous populations and multinational partners value. Successful accomplishment of military missions requires that Soldiers and leaders possess an awareness of the cultures with which they interact. the better they can employ and integrate the platoon’s actions to create conditions that lead to mission accomplishment. The structure for visualizing and analyzing the operational environment is METT-TC. 2-65. and subsequently apply this knowledge. The platoon leader must ensure that each TC has an updated map with the latest graphic control measures posted on the overlays and verify their accuracy. behaviors. The key to understanding is determining what information is relevant to the mission and making informed decisions based on relevant information. Information that may have a direct impact on military operations includes— „ The influences of religion(s) on how a population behaves. which can vary in complexity from a quick map reconnaissance to a fully mounted ground reconnaissance of the area of operations. and the environment.15 2-15 . z Impact of culture on military operations. „ The impact of geography on a population. Purposes. To develop this cultural awareness. but must also factor specific cultural information into the decisions and actions they take to accomplish their missions. Leaders must consider more than the enemy’s military forces and other combat capabilities. and relationships. 2-69. Soldiers and leaders must first understand the key elements of a culture. „ Historical events and how they impact behaviors. The better leaders understand their own forces and capabilities. „ The impact of cultural awareness on battle command. values. Soldiers and leaders must then take into account these considerations: z US culture. whether friendly or enemy. „ The influences of social structure and relationships. The map and overlays also assist the platoon leader in performing a variety of other functions. They must understand the key elements of the US culture. and how these elements influence their own perceptions of other cultures. „ The dangers of stereotyping and other biases. These key elements are the beliefs. local or foreign. The most important role of maps and the accompanying overlays is to allow the platoon to understand and visualize the scheme of maneuver. The six factors of METT-TC make up the major subject categories into which relevant information is grouped for tactical operations. and norms that compose (or are important to) any culture. In addition. GRAPHIC CONTROL MEASURES. z COE culture. beliefs. He consults them constantly during reconnaissance operations. threats. The map and overlays help him to communicate the company or troop commander’s concept while he is issuing the 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.Command and Control this environment has always required a broad perspective. 2-66. „ Actions or speech that might insult or offend the members of certain cultures.

During mission execution. the platoon leader has a nearly perfect situational understanding “link. and sustainment. fire support. Figure 2-2. and unclutter the overlays as needed. These positions and locations are displayed on a menu of overlays using the most recent graphics. Traditional overlays.” His display shows the positions of his platoon and adjacent units. combined overlay. When these systems are integrated with automatic position/location updates. the map and overlays play an invaluable role in helping leaders to maintain situational understanding. 2-71. Traditional overlay 2-72. Digital overlays. the key for the platoon leader is to combine. augment.15 22 February 2007 . obstacles. 2-70. and unclutter the overlays so the information needed for a specific situation is readily available to the platoon on one simple. he can choose not to display any of them on his digital screen. The platoon leader can combine. when appropriate. enemy forces. traditional overlays display graphic control measures as illustrated in Figure 2-1.Chapter 2 OPORD or briefing the TCs on the plan. Figure 2-1. Figure 2-2 illustrates a sample FBCB2-generated overlay. Copied on acetate. Types of overlays. They are prepared even if a platoon is equipped with FBCB2 digital systems in the event the platoon loses digital data or has its digital link broken. All of the information is important. FBCB2 allows the platoon leader to receive and transmit graphics virtually on a real-time basis within the platoon and to and from higher headquarters. augment. Overlays allow the TCs to use the graphic during rehearsals and dismounted operations when they will not have access to digital systems. The platoon leader may receive one or more types of overlays from the commander covering such areas as maneuver. Sample FBCB2 with overlay 2-16 FM 3-20. Overlays can be prepared either in traditional fashion (written out by hand) or digitally.

Control measures assist the platoon leader in identifying the necessary coordination that must be accomplished with adjacent platoons.15 2-17 . The platoon leader fights the battle and terrain not the graphic. In addition. in most situations. he can. Graphic control measures are considered rigid and unchangeable. but normally do not halt unless directed to do so. 2-76.) Figure 2-3. adjacent companies within the battalion. Exact definitions are found in FM 1-02. the platoon leader’s map with traditional overlays. The platoon leader must be aware of adjacent platoons within his company. Phase line. Graphic Control Measures 2-74. Phase lines are used to control and coordinate movement and synchronize tactical actions. Although fairly accurate. and adjacent units along the task force boundary. placement of platoon battle positions should be dictated by the terrain and commander’s intent as opposed to battle positions drawn on the map. inform the commander and adjust the position as needed to accomplish the platoon mission. however. digital systems suffer from minor flaws that detract from their effectiveness as a stand-alone battle command tool. they provide clarity when an order is issued and assist in the battle command process once the tank platoon begins executing the operation. The following paragraphs and the accompanying illustrations (Figures 2-3 through 2-19) explain and illustrate graphic control measures commonly used at the company and platoon level. Phase line (graphic control measure) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.” (See Figure 2-4. (See Figure 2-3. They serve as an enhancement to. They are entered on overlays to illustrate the commander’s intent and scheme of maneuver. For example. Platoons report crossing phase lines. Coordination with adjacent units along boundaries is the key to enhancing synchronization and decreasing the risk of fratricide.Command and Control 2-73.) Figure 2-4. 2-75. Boundary (graphic control measure) 2-77. Boundary. if the map location of a support-by-fire position does not allow the platoon leader to mass direct fires on the enemy. Boundaries delineate areas of tactical responsibility between units. not a substitute for. The abbreviation on overlays is “PL.

Checkpoint (graphic control measure) 2-81.) Figure 2-6. (See Figure 2-9. this is a location at which the platoon gathers (usually as part of the company or troop) to conduct maintenance and resupply activities and to make other preparations for future operations. The platoon assumes the proper formation and performs last-minute checks of its weapons systems. The abbreviation on overlays is “RTE. (See Figure 2-7. road intersections. The platoon leader may be tasked to man or move to a contact point for coordination.” (See Figure 2-6. or towers.” (See Figure 2-8.) Figure 2-8. (See Figure 2-5. and checkpoints should be designated at key locations. Abbreviated “AA” on overlays. Checkpoint. such as hilltops. Route (graphic control measure) 2-80.) 2-18 FM 3-20. The platoon must be able to defend from the assembly area. Assembly area (graphic control measure) 2-79. They are usually placed on identifiable terrain features. Checkpoints are used to control and direct the maneuver of the tank platoon and tank section. The route should be named. usually an easily identifiable terrain feature. Attack position (graphic control measure) 2-82. Attack position. This is the last position the platoon occupies or passes through before crossing the line of departure (LD). This is the prescribed course of travel from a specific point of origin (the start point [SP]) to a specific destination. Route.15 22 February 2007 . Assembly area.Chapter 2 2-78. A contact point is a designated location. The headquarters assigning the contact point must specify what sort of activity is required when the units meet.) Figure 2-5. where two or more units are required to physically meet. Contact point. The abbreviation on overlays is “ATK POS. usually the release point (RP).) Figure 2-7.

such as envelopment of the enemy. Tank platoons may move on a lane or serve as the overwatch for a passing unit moving through a lane. It graphically portrays the commander’s intent. (See Figure 2-13. Axis of advance.) Figure 2-12. a man-made object. platoons may maneuver on or to the side of the axis assigned to their company as long as deviations do not interfere with the maneuver of adjacent units.15 2-19 . The abbreviation on overlays is “OBJ. Passage point.) Figure 2-10. For example. Objective (graphic control measure) 2-86. Objective. (See Figure 2-10. Tank platoons usually occupy some portion of the company objective. Passage lane (graphic control measure) 2-84.Command and Control Figure 2-9. The objective is the physical object or area (such as enemy personnel. The abbreviation for a passage point is “PP. An objective is a location on the ground used to orient operations. This is the area or route through which a passing unit moves to avoid stationary units and obstacles. or a terrain feature) to be seized or held.” (See Figure 2-11. phase operations. Contact point (graphic control measure) 2-83. Tank platoons may move through a passage point or overwatch other units moving through a passage point.) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. and provide for unity of effort (FM 1-02). This is the place where a unit physically passes through another unit.) Figure 2-11. facilitate changes of direction. The unit may maneuver and shoot supporting fires to either side of the axis provided it remains oriented on the axis and the objective.” (See Figure 2-12. Passage lane. This is the general route and direction of advance extending toward the enemy. Passage point (graphic control measure) 2-85.

Assault position (graphic control measure) 2-89. Assault position. In addition.15 22 February 2007 .” (See Figure 2-15. Tank platoons may occupy an assault position or serve as overwatch for occupation of the position by the assault force. This is the location from which a unit employs direct fire to destroy the enemy from a distance.” (See Figure 2-16. The overlay abbreviation is “ABF. Axis of advance (graphic control measure) 2-87. this type of position can serve as a counterattack option for a reserve force. the position can also be used in an attack on a moving enemy force. Direction of attack. Tank platoons occupy an attack-by-fire position alone or as part of the company or troop. The overlay abbreviation is “DOA. it is the last covered and concealed position before the objective. This is the location from which a unit assaults the objective.” (See Figure 2-14. Direction of attack (graphic control measure) 2-88. This is the specific direction and route that the main attack or center of mass of the unit will follow. From this position.) Figure 2-15. Ideally.Chapter 2 Figure 2-13. Attack-by-fire position. the platoon can attack the enemy on the objective when occupation of the objective is not advisable.) Figure 2-14.) 2-20 FM 3-20. The abbreviation on overlays is “ASLT POS. Tank platoons move along directions of attack specified by the commander to take advantage of terrain or to ensure maximum control of the moving unit.

oriented on the most likely enemy avenue of approach. Attack-by-fire position (graphic control measure) 2-90. This is an easily recognizable point on the ground (either natural or man made) used to locate enemy forces or control fires.) Figure 2-19.) Figure 2-18. This is another type of position from which a maneuver element can engage the enemy by direct fire. (See Figure 2-18. Tank platoon BPs and direct-fire orientations are designated in the OPORD. Support-by-fire position (graphic control measure) 2-91. Target reference point.Command and Control Figure 2-16. The overlay abbreviation is “SBF. TRPs can designate either the center of an area on which the platoon can mass its fires or the left or right limit of such an area. (See Figure 2-19.” (See Figure 2-17. The tank platoon leader controls platoon fires by designating platoon TRPs as necessary to supplement company or troop TRPs issued by the commander.15 2-21 . Battle position. This is a defensive location.) Figure 2-17. The tank platoon usually occupies a support-by-fire position when providing supporting fires for an assault or breach force or when serving as the overwatch for a moving force. Battle position (graphic control measure) 2-92. Target reference point (graphic control measure) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. from which a unit defends. Support-by-fire position. with the fires providing support for operations by other units.

Shifts to the east or west are given first. Once waypoints are entered in the GPS. Terrain features that do not show up on the digital display (such as hills. Leaders must still know how to employ terrain association while navigating in case satellite or land signals are inoperative or unavailable. To protect his platoon. Based on an initial calculation of the vehicle’s location from a known point. using a GPS or a known point. GPS devices receive signals from satellites or land-based transmitters. formations. and man-made structures along his axis of advance. inertial navigation systems use the rotation of the track to determine the location of the vehicle.” and 3. The M1A2’s POSNAV system is an example. the platoon leader must remember that waypoints are only one of several navigational tools he can use. contour changes. In using the GPS or POSNAV. The platoon leader identifies points along the route or at the destination and designates them as waypoints. See Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 for a discussion of limited visibility operations. 2-95. the known positions entered into the system’s memory. In addition. and routes and to maintain cross talk with overwatch elements to make sure the enemy does not surprise the platoon. For example.” Figure 2-20 illustrates this example. 500 meters is given as “POINT FIVE. 2-98. the platoon leader must learn to use terrain to his advantage. They calculate and display the position of the user in military grid coordinates as well as in degrees of latitude and longitude.700 meters north from checkpoint 7. 2-22 FM 3-20.” This means. Using field artillery (FA) or mortars to fire smoke (during the day) or ground-burst illumination (day or night) can provide a useful check on estimated locations or preplanned targets.” Cardinal directions are used.Chapter 2 Navigation 2-93. Tank drivers can then use the steer-to function on their driver’s integrated display (DID) as they move toward the designated waypoints. POSNAV allows the TC to determine his exact location and gives him the ability to plot up to 99 waypoints. 2-99. Known points are usually previously distributed graphic control measures. followed by shifts to the north or south. 2-94. The platoon leader must constantly be aware of key terrain and enemy fields of observation and fire that may create danger areas as the platoon advances. 2-96. Consider the following transmission: “RED SET FROM CHECKPOINT SEVEN—EAST ONE POINT EIGHT—NORTH ONE POINT SEVEN. he uses these features to orient the platoon and to associate ground positions with map locations. These are summarized in the following discussion. the platoon leader must not disregard the effects of terrain on the direction of movement. the device can display information such as distance and direction from point to point. This allows him to modify movement techniques. Terrain/Grid Index Reference System (TIRS/GIRS). but leaders nonetheless can easily confuse terrain features and become disoriented.000 meters as “ONE. As the platoon advances.” 1. He must still be prepared to use terrain association and map-reading skills in case of digital system failures. The platoon leader analyzes the terrain using the factors of OAKOC and identifies major terrain features. To compensate for track slippage that could affect the accuracy of the inertial system.15 22 February 2007 . The intellectual concept of the area of operations (AO) is vital to the platoon’s survival during navigation and movement. TIRS/GIRS are convenient tools for the platoon leader to use as he maneuvers the platoon and disseminates control measures. Inertial navigation systems. Global positioning systems. and cliffs) may cause deviations in the route the platoon must take to reach the next waypoint. Fires. This entails the ability to identify terrain features on the ground by the contour intervals depicted on the map. Land navigation of armored vehicles requires him to master the technique of terrain association. Vehicle thermal sights and night-vision devices provide assistance. 2-100. Most GPS navigation readings are based on waypoints. 2-97. Referencing a location from a known point is done in kilometers. The platoon can employ a variety of techniques and equipment to assist in navigation. TCs should reinitialize their systems often. Navigation under limited visibility conditions is especially challenging.500 meters as “THREE POINT FIVE.800 meters east and 1. valleys. “We (the Red element) are set at a position 1. Note.

He is also responsible for maintaining communications within the company or troop communications system. TIRS/GIRS are used routinely to control combat operations. and employment of the platoon’s communications systems. The platoon leader should avoid using the same point more than twice. Means of Tactical Communications 2-103. however. concise radio transmissions that help to reduce transmission 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. and procedures for constructing and sending effective. will quickly figure out the known points if they are continually used in the clear on a nonsecure net. radio. the proper application of operational terms. 2-104. wire. The platoon leader is responsible for planning. concise messages using each type of system. Figure 2-21. he should use a different known point to reference the same location. they make reporting of current platoon and enemy positions easier. or a grid location. such as a checkpoint as shown in Figure 2-21. The tank platoon has several available means of communications. dispersion forces the tank platoon to rely on effective communications by means of wire. or digital communications. Example of TIRS 2-101. The enemy. They prescribe hand-and-arm and flag signals that can aid in platoon movement and clear. training. and digital systems. the platoon must remain flexible enough to react quickly to new situations. SOPs play a critical role in ensuring that platoon communications enhance situational understanding and contribute to mission accomplishment. The platoon leader could report his location by referencing a graphic control measure. visual signals.15 2-23 . visual. ensuring there is redundancy in the platoon’s communications systems while avoiding dependence on any single means.Command and Control Figure 2-20. sound. Instead. During combat operations. Platoon reports own position using TIRS (checkpoint) COMMUNICATIONS 2-102. The platoon must understand the proper procedures for using the available systems. radio. The platoon leader must carefully plan the use of these resources. Whether using messenger.

The main disadvantages are the enemy’s ability to detect and imitate them and to use them to identify friendly positions.153 provides an example SOP for use of digital systems. TCs must clearly understand visual signals as they operate across the battlefield. The meaning of these signals is identified in paragraph 5 of the OPORD and in the signal operation instructions (SOI). every Soldier must be trained to provide the platoon leader with essential information efficiently and without redundancy. Radio. Unit SOPs. Linkup refers to the ability of the tank’s radio to transmit and receive digital information. Using the digital link with other platoon vehicles and the company/troop commander. in such a situation. most frequently used. including brevity and proper use of approved operational terms. it is critical that all platoon vehicles adhere to communications SOPs and observe strict radio discipline. but they must exercise extreme care to avoid alerting the enemy to friendly intentions. allowing the enemy to locate and destroy the transmitter and its operator. All tanks within the platoon must monitor and transmit on this net at all times. this significantly reduces the need to send voice updates of friendly vehicle positions. Pyrotechnics. Crews can use thermal paper. as well as for those of the company or troop commander and executive officer (XO) and of adjacent platoons. including proper RTP and techniques for effective communications. Wire. Use of a messenger is the most secure means of communications available to the tank platoon. When properly linked. the platoon leader can also send and receive preformatted reports and overlays with graphic control measures. these techniques are covered later in this section. Visual. 2-106. however. TCs. Messenger. 2-24 FM 3-20. Pyrotechnic ammunition can be used for visual signaling. Every crewman in the platoon should understand net control guidelines. and jamming capabilities. 2-109. can trace almost any radio signal. FBCB2 enables the platoon leader to transmit digitally encoded information over the SINCGARS radio to other similarly equipped vehicles. Tank Platoon Radio Nets 2-111. each TC must be ready to pass on visual signals from the platoon leader to other vehicles in the platoon. and least secure means of communications. or other devices during periods of limited visibility. and assembly areas. chemical lights. Digital.15 22 February 2007 . This method of communications is especially effective in static positions. 2-110. Some units do not use platoon radio nets. The radio is the platoon’s most flexible. tailored to counter the enemy’s electronic warfare capability. On digitally linked vehicles. The platoon leader. Sophisticated direction-finding equipment. ST 3-20. it is the preferred means. When security conditions and time permit. Survival of the tank platoon depends on good communications habits. A messenger can be used to deliver platoon fire plans. discussed later in this section. lengthy messages sent by messenger should be written to prevent mistakes and confusion. with its standardized graphics. In addition. prescribe conditions and situations in which the platoon will employ wire. Tank crews can communicate directly with dismounted infantry by routing wire from the vehicle internal communications (VIC)-3 system through the loader’s hatch or vision block to a field phone attached to the outside of the tank. It is generally very flexible and reliable. the platoon leader receives continuously updated position location information for the platoon’s vehicles. 2-108. 2-105. Visual communications are used to identify friendly forces or to transmit prearranged messages quickly over short distances. and crewmen employ and/or monitor the following radio nets. See STP 17-19K1-SM (the skill level 1 Soldier’s manual for MOS 19K) and FM 21-60 for a description of hand-and-arm signals. status reports. The most effective way to use the radio is to follow standard radiotelephone procedures (RTP). Platoon.Chapter 2 times. or lengthy messages. The platoon will frequently employ a hot loop in initial defensive positions. crews can monitor the commander’s integrated display (CID). When possible. Secure equipment and the ability of the SINCGARS to frequency-hop provide the platoon with communications security against most enemy direction-finding. Standard hand-and-arm or flag signals work well during periods of good visibility. OPs. The main advantage of pyrotechnics is the speed with which signals can be transmitted. 2-112. The tank platoon net is the key to command and control of the platoon and is the primary net in the conduct of all platoon operations. flashlights. 2-107. the platoon leader must strictly enforce radio discipline. PSG. interception. It can quickly transmit information over long distances with great accuracy. especially when it is using the radio.

Every platoon member must be an expert in communications procedures. ALWAYS REPORT ACCURATE INFORMATION AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE! 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. The platoon leader and PSG must ensure that every member of the platoon understands and adheres to the following techniques and guidelines. Use an effective format. Depending on the enemy’s electronic warfare capability. In particular. 2-117. All messages sent within or from the tank platoon must be short and informative. Company/troop command. To reduce the size of the signature. Net Control 2-114. Both the platoon leader and PSG must have the ability to monitor and transmit on this net. The commander uses this net to maneuver the company or troop as well as to process routine administrative/logistical (A/L) reports. how to place it into operation. 2-120. 2-115. Know the system. z Use brevity codes that reduce the need to explain the tactical picture in detail. He should set the transmitter to the lowest possible power that will provide sufficient range. 2-118. All TCs must be able to switch to this net to send reports and receive guidance if they are unable to contact their platoon leader or PSG. 2-116. every tanker must be conscious of the size and nature of the electronic signature that he is emitting. These call signs allow all users of a net to instantly recognize the calling station. A thorough knowledge of report formats is critical in ensuring timely reporting of enemy information. and how to troubleshoot it whenever he suspects it is not functioning properly. and other platoon leaders. and 3d platoons. z Break long messages into several parts and send each part separately. Examples would be the use of RED. Techniques of effective communications. The longer the message. In particular. Proper RTP is the cornerstone of effective command and control in the tank platoon. It becomes especially important when contact is made and the volume of traffic on the platoon and company/troop nets increases drastically. Minimize signature. This information flow is critical in maintaining the platoon leader’s situational understanding. the company commander may elect to use standardized call signs to simplify RTP. They transmit on the company net to keep the commander informed and to cross talk with other platoon leaders coordinating the tactical actions of their platoons. 2-121. 2d. Each crewman must be an expert in the technical aspects of his voice and digital communications systems. At the same time. Minimize duration. 2-119. which can contribute to more effective. The smooth functioning of the platoon net allows accurate information to be passed quickly to and from the platoon leader. When sending a message. use the following techniques. more secure tactical communications. they must never delay reports only to assure the correct format. respectively. z Read the message as written when sending it. especially in fast-moving tactical situations. and the use of bumper numbers to identity tanks within a platoon. he can use terrain to mask his transmissions from known or suspected enemy positions. XO. he must understand how to maintain each system. he must understand how to maintain each system. and how to troubleshoot it whenever he suspects it is not functioning properly. the greater the opportunity for enemy elements to use electronic detection to pinpoint the platoon’s location. Every crewman should be familiar with the report formats that are outlined in Appendix B and know how to use them effectively. however. This ensures efficient communications within the platoon and allows members of the platoon to communicate effectively with outside elements such as other platoons or the company or troop headquarters. Message length can be controlled in several ways: z Write down the message and then eliminate all unnecessary words from the written message before sending it. Each crewman must be an expert in the technical aspects of his voice and digital communications systems.15 2-25 . how to place it into operation. To ensure that information flowing over the net is organized and controlled in a manner that permits the platoon leader to understand it and to issue orders. and BLUE to designate 1st. Platoon leaders and PSGs monitor this net to keep abreast of the current tactical situation from the reports of the commander. WHITE. Radiotelephone procedures.Command and Control 2-113.

Digital traffic may precede. To maximize the effects of its fires. signs. The section leader in contact (platoon leader or PSG) deploys and fights his section according to the platoon leader’s intent. This covers any indications useful in unit identification. it may be necessary to verify the receipt of critical digital traffic. The PSG pays close attention to the company or troop net while the platoon net is active. the section. fire distribution and control may begin with the PSG or a wingman. or follow voice transmissions. or other equipment. z Equipment. Although the discussion focuses on actions at the platoon and section level. FIRE DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL 2-127. 2-129. or by the platoon as a whole. As a basic guideline. Refer to FM 3-20. reports of enemy activity should follow the SALUTE format. 2-123. the platoon leader will be in a position to direct the fires of the entire platoon. z Time. fire distribution and control may be accomplished by individual tanks. This includes description or identification of all equipment associated with the enemy activity. Because digital systems are not totally reliable. to the reporting of the effects of those fires to the company/troop commander. z Activity. This discussion provides standardized methods for directing and controlling fires applicable to the individual tank. Once the platoon leader begins to develop the situation. the platoon leader fights the platoon while the PSG reports the contact to the commander. such as patches. see FM 3-90. The section leader not in contact forwards the report to higher headquarters. Routine traffic. 2-125. in many cases. Reporting. It covers the procedures used from the time targets are acquired. z Location. The following discussion focuses on platoon-level operations only. The PSG normally receives and consolidates A/L reports and other routine communications from the TCs and passes the reports to the platoon leader or higher headquarters using the procedures prescribed in unit SOPs. Any vehicle can alert the platoon to an enemy. including a complete explanation of target acquisition and destruction procedures during direct-fire engagements. At other times. and the entire platoon. it will reduce the need for and redundancy of voice traffic. This includes the number of sighted personnel. replace. the platoon must know how to effectively focus. Depending on the situation. he then relays critical information to the platoon. Initial contact. If the entire platoon is in contact. and become part of.12. For more information on company-level operations. This covers what the enemy is doing. and control them. by section (each section leader’s tank and his wingman). the platoon leader then takes control of the platoon fires and distributes them effectively.Chapter 2 2-122. vehicles. On many occasions. Tank Gunnery (Abrams) for further information on controlling direct fires. Digital traffic. he is responsible for reporting the platoon’s tactical situation to the commander using SPOTREPs and situation reports (SITREP). which covers these factors: z Size. Also included are considerations for fire distribution and control during offensive and defensive operations. TCs must avoid redundant voice and digital reports. In keeping the platoon leader informed. through the placement of fires on those targets. the company or troop plan.1 (FM 71-1). especially during offensive operations. particularly in defensive operations. Refer to Appendix B for information on report formats. 2-126. and vehicle markings. Do not duplicate digital traffic with voice messages if digital transmissions precede or can replace voice traffic in a timely manner. This item details when enemy activity was observed. 2-26 FM 3-20. distribute. They monitor the platoon net so they can avoid reporting information the platoon leader has already received from other TCs. z Unit. This is usually reported as the grid coordinates of enemy elements. these actions are always integrated into. This technique allows the platoon leader to concentrate on fighting the platoon. 2-124. Note.15 22 February 2007 . as the situation develops. 2-128.

he should designate a TRP near the center of the sector. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. During an engagement. Each section should have the ability to engage targets in the other section’s sector of fire from its primary. The center TRP roughly divides the left and right sectors in which each section will scan and engage targets. the platoon leader is still responsible for controlling all four tanks in his platoon. the platoon leader identifies and references each TRP using a terrain feature or by means of a digital overlay. predictable actions by all tank crews. which consist of a section leader (platoon leader or PSG) and a wingman. report criteria.153 provides standardized methods for operations within the tank platoon. At that point. The gunner must be able to understand the fire plan or operation so he can actively participate in the engagement process without the TC’s direct supervision. Even though platoons may separate into sections as the situation requires (for example.Command and Control FUNDAMENTALS OF DIRECTING AND CONTROLLING DIRECT FIRES 2-130. Role of Platoon SOPs 2-135. 2-132. 2-134. violent execution of battle drills (refer to the discussion in Chapter 3) will initially orient the platoon toward the enemy. the tank platoon is the smallest maneuver element that conducts operations. The SOP must be drilled repetitively so each tank within the platoon will react automatically to any tactical situation.15 2-27 . One section will then scan for and engage targets to the left of the center TRP while the other section does the same to the right of the TRP. z Knowledge of the wingman concept in controlling platoon and section fires. The platoon’s ability to focus fires on the enemy is critical to combat survival. each TC can lase in the vicinity of the TRP and orient his main gun on the TRP using the commander’s digital display. Proper scanning techniques and the immediate. ST 3-20. When specific orders are too time-consuming or not possible. The platoon leader/PSG should have experienced gunners on his vehicle. and instructions) to his crews and higher headquarters using the appropriate communications techniques and nets. a well-rehearsed platoon SOP ensures fast. As described in Chapter 1 of this manual. the platoon leader must supplement the drills using the techniques and considerations covered in the following discussion. He then must pass critical combat information (such as calls for fire. Once he has oriented the platoon. z Use of platoon SOPs to aid in controlling fires. alternate. It should precisely cover guidelines and procedures in such areas as target acquisition responsibilities. During combat operations. Platoon/Section Fires and the Wingman Concept 2-133. the platoon leader must first ensure that the platoon is firing in concert. Use of Target Reference Points 2-131. This allows the platoon leader to distribute fires in response to changes in the enemy situation. These factors include the following: z Employment of TRPs to mass the platoon’s fires at one location. drills. When TRPs are used to delineate the left and right planning limits for platoon fires. If he has M1A2 target designation capability. survival of the platoon depends on his ability to command and control the entire platoon. (Note. Crewmen must then learn these SOP items by memory to provide direction in the absence of orders. It includes guidance on the following: z Command and control. the platoon leader/PSG must not become absorbed in firing his own tank.) The outer limits of the sector of fire can be supplemented with TRPs identified by the section leader or can be left to the discretion of individual TCs based on the tactical situation. or supplementary position. during execution of traveling overwatch or bounding overwatch). do not normally conduct missions or operations separate from those of the platoon. reaction procedures. Sections. 2-136. and use of engagement areas and TRPs.

and depth. z Engagement bands (based on ammunition capabilities and expected enemy forces). z Procedures for coordination with adjacent units. These additional SOP items include the following: z Vehicle positions (for example. The frontal fire engagement rule is near to far. cross. by SOP. z Guidelines for identifying and covering dead space. The platoon sector is defined by TRPs. Visual control measures (and the accompanying SOP actions) may be used to start and stop engagements. The entire platoon must thoroughly understand the three basic fire patterns: frontal. and then shift fires to far targets. Tanks should engage targets near to far and most dangerous to least dangerous in their sector. In addition. In addition to guidance in these general categories. z Sectors of fire for each tank. 2-137. As directed or when he determines it is necessary. ST 3-20. 2-141.15 22 February 2007 . A most dangerous enemy is any enemy antitank system preparing to engage the platoon. On the other hand.153 covers specific operational factors that the platoon leader must take into account in fire distribution and control. This initial planning may be refined and improved as time permits. Regardless of the fire pattern used. Tank 2 will always be the left flank tank). Frontal fire pattern. an important consideration for the platoon leader in developing the unit SOP is that the dynamics of battle will normally require that fires be controlled using the radio. They may be used at both platoon and section level. flank to center. The basic fire patterns cover most situations and promote rapid. Note. The frontal pattern is used when all tanks within the platoon can fire to their front (see Figure 2-22). Personnel. and signal prearranged actions. each tank crew must understand its responsibilities. These procedures should be detailed enough to allow rapid fire planning after the terrain has been analyzed. which are used to mass platoon fires at specific locations and to mark the left and right planning limits for platoon fires.Chapter 2 z z z z z OPSEC. The radio instructions used to initiate SOPs (as well as issue fire commands) must be brief and precise. in using the fire patterns for target engagement. z TRP marking procedures and materials. The platoon leader employs two primary methods to ensure effective distribution of direct fires: fire patterns and firing techniques. Fire Patterns 2-140. left tank shoots left target) and shift fires toward the center as targets are destroyed. 2-142. The platoon leader should supplement his SOP by developing standardized procedures for offensive and defensive fire planning. the section or platoon leader may make exceptions to the most dangerous to least dangerous guideline. an example would be engagement of designated priority targets (such as command and control vehicles). CS. Tactical operations. shift fires. They are normally used in the defense. Organizing for combat. Flank tanks engage targets to their front (right tank shoots right target. effective platoon fire distribution. the goal is to engage near targets first. and center to flank. 2-28 FM 3-20. but may be modified for employment with techniques of movement. Distribution 2-139. 2-138. Leader tanks engage targets to their front and shift fire to the outside as targets are destroyed.

The right flank tank engages the left portion of the target area while the left flank tank engages the right portion. An example of the cross pattern is shown in Figure 2-23.15 2-29 . The leader tanks engage the center targets and shift fire to the outside as targets are destroyed. near to far. Cross fire pattern. As targets are destroyed. tanks shift fires inward. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. In this pattern.Command and Control Figure 2-22. each tank engages targets on the flank of its position. Frontal fire pattern 2-143. The cross fire pattern is used when obstructions prevent some or all tanks within the platoon from firing to the front or when the enemy’s frontal armor protection requires use of flank shots to achieve penetration. The cross fire engagement rule is outside in.

For example. Depth fire pattern. Cross fire pattern 2-144.15 22 February 2007 . it may be possible for each tank to fire in depth on a portion of the enemy formation (see Figure 2-24). Employment of depth fire is dependent on the position and formation of both the engaging platoon and the target. The far left tank engages the far target and shifts fire toward the center of the formation as targets are destroyed. individual tanks engaging in their sector may have to fire in depth. The depth fire pattern is used when targets are exposed in depth. the left center tank engages the center target and shifts fire toward the rear as targets are destroyed. in other cases. The right center tank engages the closest (front) target and shifts fire to the rear as targets are destroyed. the entire platoon may be required to fire on a column formation in depth. the far right tank engages the center target and shifts fire to the front as targets are destroyed. If the whole platoon is firing. 2-30 FM 3-20.Chapter 2 Figure 2-23.

Command and Control Figure 2-24. The second tank prepares to engage targets in the event the first tank misses consistently. This is the primary firing technique used by the platoon. (Note. It is employed during most offensive engagements when the unit encounters surprise targets. Figures 2-25 through 2-28 illustrate various simultaneous fire situations. In that case. Figures 2-25 through 2-30 illustrate a variety of situations in which the firing techniques are employed. Each tank alternates firing and observing in conjunction with the other tank in the section until both are satisfied that they are hitting the target consistently. or runs low on ammunition.15 2-31 . 2-147. and observed.500 meters. Tanks 2 and 3 (the wingmen in each section) are normally the first to fire at their outside targets. Refer to Figure 2-29 for an illustration of how alternating fire is employed. experiences a malfunction. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. The process continues until all targets are destroyed or the leader switches to simultaneous fire.) 2-146. Observed fire is normally used when the platoon is in protected defensive positions and engagement ranges are in excess of 2. Depth fire pattern Firing Techniques 2-145. alternating. The first tank to fire in each section engages designated targets while the second tank observes. The section leaders (the platoon leader and PSG) provide observation before firing at their targets. is then simultaneous. 2-148. all tanks engage simultaneously in their assigned sectors. This technique maximizes observation and assistance capabilities for the observing tank while protecting its location. the illustrations include the applicable fire commands. Alternating fire is normally used when the platoon is in a defensive position or is undetected. During alternating fire. In addition to employing fire patterns. Observed fire. It is also used in most defensive engagements when the enemy array is numerous enough to require multiple engagements by each tank in the unit. Subsequent fire. Refer to the discussion of fire commands later in this section. See Figure 2-30 for an example of observed fire. the platoon leader may choose one of three firing techniques to distribute and control the direct fires of the platoon: simultaneous. Alternating fire. by command. Simultaneous fire.

Use of cross fire pattern and simultaneous fire technique to engage enemy PCs (with platoon leader’s fire command) 2-32 FM 3-20.Chapter 2 Figure 2-25.15 22 February 2007 .

15 2-33 .Command and Control Figure 2-26. Use of frontal fire pattern and simultaneous fire technique to engage multiple enemy tanks (with platoon leader’s fire command) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.

Chapter 2 Figure 2-27.15 22 February 2007 . Use of different fire patterns in each section (with simultaneous fire technique) to engage enemy targets (with platoon leader’s fire command) 2-34 FM 3-20.

15 2-35 . Use of depth fire pattern and simultaneous fire technique (with section fire command) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.Command and Control Figure 2-28.

15 22 February 2007 .Chapter 2 Figure 2-29. Use of cross fire pattern and alternating fire technique (with section fire command) 2-36 FM 3-20.

The more thoroughly the platoon leader can plan an operation. A well-planned defense requires minimum radio traffic over the platoon net during execution. trigger points. especially during offensive operations (such as a meeting engagement or in a movement to contact). The platoon leader uses two processes to control fires: fire planning and fire commands. and targets are established in advance. Further fire commands may be required. 2-152. the platoon will have only limited time to plan and prepare. The amount of time available for fire planning. track. There are also important considerations based on whether the operation is offensive or defensive in nature. and report enemy elements as they move toward the platoon. however.Command and Control Figure 2-30. In other situations. Use of observed fire technique (with section fire command) Control 2-149. Intelligence assets may be able to acquire. The platoon leader can then initiate fires with a platoon fire command or a predetermined event (such as the enemy crossing a trigger line). the more effective the platoon’s fires are likely to be.15 2-37 . the platoon leader may have time to issue a full platoon fire command. He can also rely on detailed planning and preparation to assist him in distributing fires effectively during the fight. priority of engagements. At best. For example. a member of the platoon may 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Fire Planning 2-150. 2-151. He decides how to control fires based on the factors of METT-TC. depends almost entirely on the collective factors of METT-TC. on the other hand. some defensive operations may allow the platoon leader hours or days to conduct fire planning. especially the specific tactical situation and the time available to plan and prepare. but the object of the planning phase is to anticipate events and coordinate fires before the fight starts.

Entire platoon prepare to fire. 2-159. Fire Commands 2-154. Note. It enables the unit to react instantly and effectively. z Control (optional). Platoon leader and his wingman prepare to fire. z Execution. PSG and his wingman prepare to fire. Weapon or ammunition (optional). Standardized platoon and section fire command formats must be established by unit SOP and then practiced by platoon leaders and PSGs (the section leaders) for optimum proficiency. No matter what kind of situation it expects to face. 2-156. as in the following example: z RED. z Target description. and the supply status of ammunition (how much of each type is on hand). transmitted in the following order: z Alert. it does not require the individual initiating the fire command to identify himself. In all cases. z ALPHA. z Weapon or ammunition (optional). Alert. Using a standard format for a platoon or section fire command ensures that all essential information and control measures are given in a minimum amount of time. When one tank sends a contact or spot report and it is reasonable to believe all other tanks in the section or platoon have received it. 2-153. shifting. The platoon or company/troop SOP may specify code words to be used to standardize the alert element. the section or platoon leader issues only the elements needed to complete the fire command. predictable engagement by all tanks. 2-38 FM 3-20. 2-157. The TC selects ammunition based on the platoon SOP. well-rehearsed SOPs to distribute and control fires and ensure fast. Fire planning for offensive and defensive situations is covered in detail in a discussion later in this section and in Chapters 3 and 4 of this manual. the platoon leader must initially rely on preestablished. z Orientation. and stopping fires. these methods must be familiar and understandable. Brevity and clarity are essential. The effective use of fire commands is a function of the leader’s knowledge of the enemy and the fire control process and of the time available to plan. and procedures for initiating. even under the most adverse conditions. The standard platoon fire command includes up to six elements. the platoon must learn and rehearse target acquisition responsibilities. In the absence of adequate planning time. The alert element addresses the tanks that are being directed to fire. prepare. z BRAVO. The platoon leader may provide coordinating instructions or additional information to individual TCs. Its survival depends on it.15 22 February 2007 .) 2-158. however. and rehearse. 2-155. this information is not part of the platoon fire command. The weapon is not announced unless specific control measures are required. use of TRPs and fire patterns. Wingman tanks or sections not designated to engage should sense the target effects and be prepared to engage targets as necessary.Chapter 2 acquire and engage a “most dangerous” target before the platoon leader has an opportunity to initiate his fire command. the number and type of enemy targets. Abbreviated methods for identifying target locations are encouraged. a TC has the freedom to engage a target without a section or platoon fire command if he is under immediate enemy contact. (Note. Ammunition is not announced unless a specific type is dictated by the situation. The battlefield situation and/or platoon SOP dictate the number of elements used in a fire command.

” 2-162. alternating. If the target is stationary. The execution element indicates when firing will begin. Control (optional). The clock option indicates direction starting with the LOM or COS at 12 o’clock (for example: “TWO O’CLOCK. This information may also be provided in the weapon or ammunition element of the fire command. 2-164. because it is conducting ammunition transfer or has experienced an equipment malfunction). the platoon leader must remember that tanks have to occupy hull-down positions before firing. Direction is indicated from the projected line of movement (LOM) of the platoon in the offense or from the center of sector (COS) in the defense (for example.15 2-39 . this is simply the command “FIRE. “TOP HAT”) can be used in the execution element to signal this move. The TC estimates and reports the time required for the tank to become ready to fight. Refer to the discussion of fire patterns earlier in this section. the execution element “AT MY COMMAND” is given first. If the platoon leader wishes to designate a firing tank or section. Execution. he specifies which tanks will fire in the alert element of the fire command.Command and Control 2-160. Target description. he assigns responsibility and clarifies target location in the orientation element. If the platoon leader designates separate targets for each section. the platoon leader will announce a range to help his TCs locate the targets. As noted. This element briefly describes the target in terms of number. The platoon leader can use the control element to provide the platoon with critical firing information in several areas.” “NINE O’CLOCK”). issue their own fire commands. z Firing technique. and prepare to engage. The platoon leader may specify which pattern (frontal. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. z Ammunition or weapon. The cardinal direction may also be used (for example: “NORTHWEST” or “SOUTHWEST”). “LEFT FRONT” or “RIGHT FLANK”). This method is used most often in the offense when no TRP or definitive terrain feature is near the target. This method is used for most defensive engagements and can also be applied to offensive situations. A pro-word (for example. (Note. type. the platoon engages targets using frontal fire. The platoon leader may designate the amount or type of ammunition or weapons to be fired. Refer to the discussion of firing techniques earlier in this section. Orientation.) 2-163. if the control element is omitted. For example: “ALPHA—TWO TANKS—TRP 3126—BRAVO—BMPs AND TROOPS— ROAD JUNCTION. he might direct four bursts from the coax machine gun for every two main gun rounds fired.” z Direction of target.” If simultaneous fire is desired or if the platoon’s fire is to be coordinated with other direct or indirect fires. If no technique is specified. The platoon leader may designate which of the three firing techniques (simultaneous. all tanks engage simultaneously. For example. Normally. or observed) he wants to employ. cross. including the following: z Fire pattern. 2-161. As he prepares and issues the fire command. When using the direction method. the TC informs the platoon leader or PSG immediately. or depth) he has selected based on his plan for fire distribution. Refer to the discussion of that element. the activity may be omitted. If for any reason a tank is not prepared to fire (for example. Target location is described using one of two methods: z Reference point or terrain feature. Examples of this method: “RIGHT FRONT—ONE EIGHT HUNDRED” or “TEN O’CLOCK—TWO FOUR HUNDRED. The resulting delay allows the coordination of all fires to be completed while the individual crews select their targets. and activity (“THREE TANKS MOVING EAST TO WEST”).

Reconnaissance of the Engagement Area 2-169. Figure 2-31 illustrates an example of a platoon fire command. Refer to Figures 2-25 through 2-30 on pages 2-29 through 2-34 for examples of how fire commands are used to control and distribute fires in a number of tactical situations. FIRE DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL IN THE DEFENSE 2-167. a tank platoon conducts three types of missions: z Movement to contact. The tank platoon is the basic firing unit in defensive operations. Example platoon fire command FIRE DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL IN THE OFFENSE 2-165. the platoon must make every round count. and the logistical burdens of resupply. Establishing priorities of tasks and managing the available time are critical steps in the process. The engagement is terminated when all targets are destroyed or when the platoon leader announces “CEASE FIRE. Once engagement of the enemy begins.1 [FM 71-1]. Refer to Chapter 4 of this manual for a detailed discussion of defensive operations. and know how to effectively maintain control of its fires during the fight. effective control of the platoon’s fires is critical. a section. each tank’s limited on-board ammunition. have operational fire control systems that are ready for instant employment. they all require coordination of platoon fires (both direct and indirect) and movement. therefore. He begins a backward planning process based on the “defend not later than (NLT)” time specified in the company team OPORD.15 22 February 2007 . Defensive Fire Planning 2-168. While operating as part of a company team in the offense.) 2-166. This mission has been called “advance in contact” in some previous doctrinal and training publications. including FM 3-90. Based on his knowledge of enemy doctrine or suspected enemy’s goals and the terrain and weather. (Note. the platoon leader visualizes the enemy attacking through the engagement area. He then considers how the enemy is likely to be equipped and what capabilities his platoon has to defeat the enemy. note that the optional element specifying the weapon or ammunition has been omitted.Chapter 2 Note. Refer to Chapter 3 of this manual for a detailed discussion of offensive operations. It must be proficient in gunnery skills.” Alert Target description Orientation Control (optional) Execution “RED— THREE TANKS— VICINITY TRP ZERO ZERO SIX— CROSS— AT MY COMMAND—FIRE” Figure 2-31. Although each of these missions is distinct and serves individual purposes. failure in either of these areas is likely to result in an uncoordinated effort that is doomed to failure. this serves to focus and distribute the fires of individual tanks. he immediately analyzes it to determine how his platoon can best accomplish its assigned objectives. or the entire platoon. the platoon leader controls fires by issuing subsequent fire commands or individual elements of the fire command. When the platoon leader receives a defensive mission. 2-40 FM 3-20. The major difference among the types of missions is the amount of information about the enemy and preparation time available. Given the unknown number of enemy targets. z Attack (hasty or deliberate). z Fire and movement. which are the components of the tactical concept of maneuver.

but they should offer cover and concealment. physically inspects the ground where the company team commander has directed him to orient his platoon to engage the enemy. and thus limit vulnerability to only one segment of the platoon’s engagement. the platoon leader. The platoon leader must select each keyhole position carefully so the ability to interlock fires with other tanks in the platoon is not degraded.50 or 7. The hide position serves two purposes: A well-constructed. and caliber . He checks the positions for correct orientation toward the engagement area and determines whether suitable TRPs are available. If possible. Keyhole positions afford the firing tank a measure of protection from enemy overwatching fires (see Figure 2-33). The two main types of firing positions are defilade and keyhole. There are three types of defilade positions: z Turret-down. He either adjusts the firing positions or plans indirect fires to cover the dead space. alternate positions (50 to 100 meters from each tank’s primary position). 2-171. therefore. Keyhole positions (also called window positions) provide greater protection by taking advantage of terrain features that create a “keyhole” around the position. only those targets that can be seen (and engaged) by the tank can return fire on it. Materials that can be used in constructing TRPs include target panels.15 2-41 . dismounted infantry should be used to provide protection from infiltration. Defilade positions.) 2-175. he identifies dead space based on how the enemy is expected to move through the area. Targets cannot be engaged with the main gun from this position. a field-expedient TRP must be constructed. and supplementary positions (to orient platoon fires into another engagement area or TRP). As the platoon leader walks the engagement area. tanks are vulnerable from the flanks and to enemy overwatch fire. 2-173. effectively camouflaged hide position may delay enemy acquisition of the platoon. the platoon should employ a combination of defilade and keyhole positions whenever possible to take advantage of their respective advantages and negate their weaknesses. but can use the turret top mounted machine guns. (Locations of hide positions are terraindependent. TRPs must be visible through both daylight and thermal channels and should be visible to friendly elements only. A hull-down position exposes only as much of the tank as needed to engage targets with the main gun. Keyhole positions. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. They restrict observation. Ideally. The platoon leader then moves to the selected firing positions. along with his TCs. Firing Positions and Target Reference Points 2-172. Moving into or away from the opening to the position can vary the width of the field of fire. Note. with only the highest parts of the vehicle (such as the GPS and CITV) exposed to the enemy. Weaknesses of keyhole positions are limited sectors of fire and excessive dead space. a hide position located away from the prepared position may protect the platoon from the full effects of enemy artillery fires.Command and Control 2-170. the platoon leader selects the platoon’s primary firing positions. If existing terrain or man-made objects are inadequate. A turret-down position uses terrain to mask most of the tank. In defilade positions. heated with Class VIII heating pads. He verifies grids using the GPS. z Hull-down. 2-174. Looking back toward the BP. The platoon leader may assign a hide position to the rear of the BP for each tank to occupy after the initial preparation of its firing positions.62-mm ammunition cans filled with charcoal or a mixture of sand and diesel fuel. In built-up areas. z Hide.

15 22 February 2007 . Evaluating and determining the planning range. Lethality. While actual values of PH and PK are classified. With limited rounds available on board each vehicle. the planning range for a tank cannot be separated from the number of rounds the platoon leader is prepared to expend.500 meters only marginally effective. 2-177. even when a hit is made.000 meters. The weapon planning range for a tank is the distance at which the platoon leader intends to begin engaging enemy targets. As noted. Several factors combine to make frontal engagements of enemy tanks beyond 2. weather. A key factor in determining the weapon planning range is METT-TC. Further. it is obvious that PH decreases as range increases. If the tactical situation permits. penetration is largely dependent on velocity. the platoon leader must weigh the tactical alternatives and try to make every round count. The planning range can also be reduced based on terrain. and as a result the weapon planning range. as does PK for kinetic energy penetrators. Keyhole firing positions Weapon Planning Range 2-176.500 meters. is based on the two factors known as probability of hit (PH) and probability of kill (PK).500 meters. engagement of enemy fighting vehicles with lighter armor can begin at longer ranges based on 2-42 FM 3-20.Chapter 2 Figure 2-33. the platoon leader will usually direct his TCs to engage targets from closer ranges. This can be extended with recognition of degraded PH. This is because velocity decreases with range. he must know the lethality of the kinetic energy rounds his crews will be firing versus the specific vulnerabilities of the enemy armor he expects to face. The commander must consider the capabilities and limitations of friendly forces as well as those of enemy troops. In determining this range. the optimum weapon planning range against tanks in the frontal 60-degree arc is 1. and of reduced kills per on-tank load of ammunition. and obscuration. While it is possible to hit an enemy tank at 3. of degraded PK against turret frontal armor. Considering only PK. the probability of doing so on the first round is low. In addition. frontal tank engagements should begin at less than 2. PK will be very low against turret frontal armor. 2-178. especially in frontal engagements. Taking into account these factors.

An individual tank sector should be wide enough to allow some overlap with adjacent vehicles. the platoon leader also establishes the trigger line for initiation of the direct-fire fight and takes other actions that are time. 2-183. 2-184. Frontal engagements of enemy fighting vehicles with lighter armor can begin at longer ranges. he might decide on one of the following missions for his subordinates. The tank platoon is no longer in an environment where it can see or fire farther than the enemy: it may even be faced with an enemy with superior equipment. The platoon leader must know where friendly infantry and combat support elements (such as air defense artillery [ADA]). however. This reduces the scanning requirements for the gunner and the potential for overkill. he checks each firing position he has selected. and dead space. terrain features. based on the enemy and terrain: z All tanks orient on TRP 006. Now the platoon leader must not only understand how far his forces can see and shoot. obstacles. but how far the enemy can see and shot. and by planning for additional indirect fire support. prominent terrain features. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. as a result. the forward placement of a platoon may deceive the enemy as to the location of the main defensive position and cause the enemy to deploy sooner than he had planned. if possible) where they can view the area. Refer to FM 3-20. Based on the commander’s guidance. When the decision is made to engage the enemy at longer ranges. z Alpha section orients to the left of TRP 006 while Bravo section orients to the right. When the platoon leader decides how to use his tanks to best execute the company team commander’s intent. Platoons may be faced with a full spectrum of equipment from converted civilian trucks. For example. The platoon leader will decide whether to have all his tanks orient on the TRPs assigned by the company team commander or to have sections or individual tanks orient in slightly different areas (platoonlevel targets). Using TRPs. it also ensures that the entire engagement area or platoon sector is covered by main gun fire. He should task only his most proficient firing crews and most accurate tanks to execute the long-range gunnery mission. to high level state of the art equipment. 2-179. 2-182. or man-made obstacles. if any. identifying and confirming sectors of fire to ensure he has mutual support between tanks. will be positioned. the PH for these vehicles will normally be lower than that for tanks. the PK is higher due to the difference in protection levels. Long-range engagement considerations. At the same time.12 for an in-depth discussion of the training issues involved in preparing crews for long-range engagements. however. Note. As he conducts his troop-leading procedures.Command and Control the increased PK. the platoon leader should always attempt to conduct them from an elevated firing position.15 2-43 . the platoon leader is almost certain to compromise his positions and loses the element of surprise. Further consideration on engagement range will be based on enemy capabilities and type of equipment. He ensures that everyone can identify the assigned TRPs. avenues of approach. Note. he gathers all the TCs (and gunners. several additional planning factors must be considered. older equipment upgrade with new sensors and capabilities. if the platoon leader is tasked to orient on TRP 006. with the platoon using its coax machine guns to fire on dismounted enemy infantry.or space-dependent. Final Planning Considerations 2-181. the platoon leader mentally rehearses the battle. but narrow enough to prevent overkill of targets. He does this by assigning final protective fires (FPF). 2-180. After reconnaissance of the engagement area or sector. due to their smaller size. He must then plan machine gun fires for each tank to protect itself as well as other tanks in the platoon and adjacent friendly elements. the platoon leader ensures that each tank has a well-defined and well-understood sector of fire. Longrange engagements require the use of sensing tanks and observed fire techniques. In choosing long-range engagement.

When he completes his defensive fire planning. the platoon leader must prepare a field-expedient target for boresighting. the platoon leader’s next step is to conduct preparation activities. Initial Preparation Activities 2-186. A plan to recover or destroy the prestock is necessary to ensure it is not captured by the enemy. Rehearsals 2-191. and develops the platoon fire plan. When the tactical situation permits. the platoon leader or PSG determines a location that is accessible to all platoon tanks. Platoon Fire Plan Development 2-190. Refer to Chapter 4. and at dusk). the platoon may not be ready for combat. both organic and attached. Ammunition prestock.Chapter 2 Preparing the Defense 2-185. the platoon leader ensures the platoon practices the platoon fire plan.15 22 February 2007 . He then coordinates the fire plan with adjacent platoons and adjusts the individual tank positions as necessary. The sketch card aids the crew in target acquisition and enables the platoon leader to develop his platoon fire plan. The crew makes two copies. TRPs. When preparing for combat. as at all levels of fire planning. one to keep and one to send to the platoon leader. If Class V prestock is available. (Note. As detailed earlier. He must remember that if he fails to check an item. The gunners on the platoon leader’s and PSG’s tanks should be the most experienced at their positions within the platoon. or fails to have another leader check it when necessary.) 2-44 FM 3-20. Some examples would be resupply by section (alpha then bravo). it completes a sketch card. the platoon leader ensures that tanks are boresighted daily and after major temperature changes (typically. Boresighting is one of the most critical tasks in preparing the tank to kill the enemy. the platoon leader ensures that crews have completed their prepare-to-fire checks. and supplementary positions and has designated specific sectors of fire for each tank and each position. As each tank crew prepares its position. The platoon leader given the constraints of METT-TC will develop and modify the plan for how the platoon will conduct resupply. An effective platoon fire plan provides the entire platoon with the information necessary to distribute and control the fires of all available direct fire and indirect fire weapons. The platoon leader directs and oversees a variety of activities designed to ensure the most effective positioning and preparation of his tanks on the ground. or resupply one tank at a time. either by completely digging in the position and preparing overhead cover or by improving existing terrain. a rough topographical sketch of the tank’s assigned sector showing its deliberate or hasty defensive fighting position. in the morning. 2-187. resupply one tank per section (odd number tanks then even number tanks). is conducted from the top down. This frees the platoon leader and PSG to fight the battle rather than spend too much time controlling their individual tanks. The location should provide cover and concealment for the tanks while they are uploading the ammunition. It is absolutely critical that all crewmen understand the complete plan. consolidates them. The platoon leader compiles the individual tank sketch cards (by either traditional or digital means). Sketch cards are prepared either traditionally (handwritten) or using the tank’s digital equipment (FBCB2). pages 4-11 through 4-16 for additional information about sketch cards.) Sketch Cards 2-189. Prepare-to-fire checks. at midday. If a building or some other man-made object is not available in the engagement area or the platoon is not carrying its own boresight panel. Each TC must know what actions he is required to execute at each point in the mission. An important point is that development of the platoon fire plan within the platoon. If preparation time is limited. pages 4-15 and 4-16 for specific information about the platoon fire plan. he has already oriented his TCs on the engagement area. The prestock site should be protected from indirect fires. 2-188. (Note. the platoon leader may direct the PSG to check prepare-to-fire activities. Refer to Chapter 4. Each gunner must understand what his exact sector is and under what conditions engagement priorities will change. capable of executing the plan without further guidance from their TCs. During rehearsals for defensive operations.

the platoon leader directs execution of the defense. Initial Contact 2-196. If time does not permit all of these steps. Executing the Defense 2-194. the enemy will increase speed. Observation 2-195. and an observer will probably not be deployed. z Ensure that the gunner acquires and ranges to his first target. z Issue a fire command to the crew. The following discussion covers a number of key considerations in the distribution and control of fires during the execution phase. as a package. he must prioritize his preparation activities. is completely prepared to fight. Indirect Fire Support 2-197. change directions. if the SOP is not applicable. as indicated by the fire pattern given in the platoon fire command. optics-up positions before the observer remounts his tank. If the fire command does not include a fire pattern. or just after. The end product of the platoon leader’s fire planning and preparation is not merely a thorough. The platoon leader may move the platoon to hull-down positions by announcing “TOP HAT. On the command “FIRE.15 2-45 . Aggressive use of indirect fires slows and confuses the enemy. they use the frontal pattern). TOP HAT” before issuing the command to fire. Each 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. an observer may be dismounted to acquire targets while the tanks are in turret-down or hide positions. the platoon leader or PSG sends a contact or spot report (depending on the enemy situation and time available) to the company team commander. When occupying a prepared defensive position. although this is an indispensable component of the defense. using the ammunition element prescribed by SOP and target description indicated by the platoon fire command. (Note. tanks use the pattern specified in the platoon SOP. To be successful in battle. TCs take the following actions: z Observe the target array and select the target(s) each tank must engage. optics-up position. preparing. 2-199. When targets are identified. determine ranges. While the individual crews select targets. A platoon in a hasty defensive position will already be in a turret-down. (Note. When the platoon is alerted to targets in its sector.Command and Control Preparation Summary 2-192. The tank platoon leader has the responsibility to request indirect fire support using the FBCB2 system first.) If a crew receives the command to fire before it has completed all of its preparations. thorough planning and preparation helps the platoon to execute the defense with minimal instructions. or take other actions that may degrade the effects of the direct fires. it must complete the preparations and fire as soon as possible.” each tank in the platoon moves to a hull-down firing position and begins to engage. and conducting rehearsals for supplementary and successive BPs that he has been directed to prepare. At this time. He uses the time of flight to coordinate his fires so the indirect fire arrives at the same time. This includes planning. 2-193. Once the platoon has completed fire planning and preparation activities. The platoon leader must be resourceful and thorough in making sure all crews understand and can execute the plan under all conceivable conditions. The platoon leader issues a fire command with “AT MY COMMAND” as a control element. If the indirect fire arrives too soon. the direct fires of his platoon. As the engagement proceeds. and prepare to engage. he must complete these phases of the defensive operation with tank crews that understand in detail what they are supposed to do and a platoon that. the platoon leader calls for indirect fire (if this responsibility has been assigned to him) and asks for time of flight. the tanks move to turret-down. Engagement Procedures 2-198. accurate fire plan.

if the enemy is stationary and/or has tanks or ATGMs in overwatch. problems. Movement considerations. The platoon leader needs to ensure that if prestock is available. How long each tank can safely remain in a hull-down position will depend on the enemy situation. the platoon leader might have one section engaging to the left side of the sector and the other to the right after anticipating an enemy company deployed on line across the platoon’s sector. When the crew is not engaging enemy targets. When the situation requires the platoon to move. the platoon leader and his TCs must make sure the movement does not expose the flank or rear of their tanks to enemy fire. Taking the time to move between a turret-down position and a hull-down position.000 meters. z Priority 5. Based on the platoon leader’s guidance. Engineer assets. 2-200. In addition. the tank backs into its hide position and completes ammunition transfer when the situation allows. If the entire enemy force arrives along the right side. Similar considerations. z Priority 3. Dangerous targets. relatively numerous. On the other hand.Chapter 2 TC adjusts fire and switches targets in accordance with the platoon fire command or platoon SOP. use of a fire command gives the platoon leader the flexibility to adapt his distribution of fires rapidly and economically to the new situation. platoon fire commands will be used only to cover previously unanticipated contingencies. z Priority 4. 2-205. z Priority 6. No tank should totally deplete its ready ammunition before initiating the transfer of rounds from its semi-ready storage area. because all four tanks cannot transfer ammunition at the same time. and criteria also apply to movement between primary and alternate positions. Ammunition Transfer 2-202. z Priority 2. Least dangerous targets (supply vehicles). He issues the appropriate fire command to initiate the direct-fire fight. Most dangerous targets (tanks. each crew must be ready to transfer rounds. The loader must maintain a running count of ready ammunition available and keep the TC informed of the tank’s ammunition status. For example. As an example. In turn. 2-203. and the mission requires a defense (as opposed to delay). Contingencies 2-201. Important considerations as the engagement continues are each tank’s supply of ready ammunition and the related requirement for ammunition transfer. either to move to a successive position or to conduct another mission such as a delay. the platoon leader and PSG must monitor the status of their wingmen. As ready ammunition is depleted. closing rapidly. a defending tank will normally be more successful continuing to fire and not moving to his turret-down position. defensive engagement priorities might be the following: z Priority 1. increases the enemy’s probability of a hit because he will be closing on the tank’s position. Changes in the mission or battlefield situation may require the platoon to move out of a BP. Movement Out of a Defensive Position 2-204. the TC should mask the tank’s movement with terrain 2-46 FM 3-20.15 22 February 2007 . however. The commander and/or platoon leader will already have assigned engagement priorities according to the mission and other factors. Air defense assets. a tank should remain in position to kill enemy targets. Command and control assets (vehicles with the most antennas). After direct fire has been initiated. Whenever possible. the crew should fire no more than two rounds before returning to a turret-down position. If the enemy is within 2. ATGMs). Note. the tank should return to a turret-down position and provide observation or assistance to other tank crews. If a concealed route out of the position is not available. he takes advantage of it during low points in the battle to keep his tanks as close as possible to full load of main gun ammunition. the platoon leader must issue guidance on how and when each tank will conduct the transfer.

The TC may use grenade launchers during initial movement. Use of Covering Smoke 2-206. and then switch to the vehicle engine exhaust smoke system (VEESS) after the tank has built up speed and momentum.Command and Control before turning around. the TC should use a second salvo of grenade-launched smoke. engages. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.15 2-47 . The gunner uses battlesight gunnery while the tank is obscured. Note. CAUTION VEESS will be used only when the vehicle is burning diesel fuel. improper employment or careless movement techniques may cause the tank to become silhouetted against its own smoke. Use of VEESS when burning any other type of fuel will cause a fire hazard. He faces the rear and quickly guides the tank backward to a covered route by giving the driver short commands (for example. He must use exhaust smoke judiciously. he turns over control of the main gun and coax machine gun to the gunner. The tank smoke systems can be used to screen the move when the unit is in contact. The gunner acquires. “LEFT FAST” or “HARD RIGHT”). To accomplish this. and adjusts fire on targets while the TC maintains command of the vehicle’s movement. If exhaust smoke prevents the crew from seeing where the tank is going and the tank is no longer screened by the first salvo of smoke grenades. however.

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Platoons achieve surprise by following OPSEC procedures and making the best possible use of vehicle speed. and set the conditions for successful future operations. firepower. tempo. The main purpose of the offense is to defeat. While a fast tempo is preferred. If the platoon is forced to slow down because of terrain or enemy resistance. To ensure the success of the attack. fix the enemy in position. can range from fast to slow. In addition. TEMPO 3-5.FUNDAMENTALS OF THE OFFENSE PURPOSES OF THE OFFENSE 3-1. To maximize the value of these characteristics. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. the rate of military action. Additionally. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OFFENSE 3-2. Leaders must understand the different rates of speed when comparing dismounted forces to mounted forces. CONCENTRATION 3-4.Chapter 3 Offensive Operations Offense is the decisive form of war. vehicle optics. Modern navigation and position location/reporting systems allow the platoon leader to disperse his vehicles while retaining the ability to quickly mass the effects of the platoon’s weapon systems whenever necessary. gain information. concentration. and OPSEC at all times. the platoon leader reports this change so the commander can alter the tempo of company or troop movement to maintain synchronization. destroy. To support the commander’s intent. and audacity. defeat of the enemy requires a shift to offensive operations. The platoon leader must remember that it is more important to move using covered and concealed routes to positions from which the platoon can mass fires and engage the enemy than it is to maintain precise formations and predetermined speeds. deceive and divert the enemy. the platoon leader must remember that synchronization sets the stage for successful platoon operations. Tempo. offensive operations are undertaken to secure key terrain. and stand-off capabilities during tactical movement.15 3-1 . Platoons achieve concentration by massing the effects of their weapon systems without necessarily massing platoon vehicles at a single location. disrupt his attack. these advanced systems allow him to maintain command. tank platoons must apply the following considerations: SURPRISE 3-3. the tank platoon leader must understand the fundamentals of offense and apply troop-leading procedures during the planning and preparation phases of the operation. SECTION I . or neutralize an enemy force. control. FM 3-0 describes the common characteristics of all offensive operations: surprise. While tactical considerations may call for the platoon to execute defensive operations for a period of time. deprive the enemy of resources. he must ensure that his platoon’s movement is synchronized with the movement of other company or troop elements as well as with adjacent and supporting units. covered and concealed routes.

FORMS OF OFFENSE 3-7. and the rules of engagement. consolidation. the platoon leader pays close attention to the considerations applicable for the war-fighting functions.Chapter 3 AUDACITY 3-6. z Protection. At the platoon level. It can destroy. The four general forms of tactical offense described in FM 3-0 are movement to contact. are the following: z Movement and maneuver. z An attack is conducted to defeat. 3-8. fix. ROLE OF THE TANK PLATOON 3-9. Soldier-related factors. as well as seize and secure terrain. z Sustainment. The war-fighting functions. Knowledge of the commander’s intent two levels up allows the platoon leader to take advantage of battlefield opportunities whenever they present themselves. the nature of these operations depends largely on the amount of time and enemy information available during the planning and preparation phases. WAR-FIGHTING FUNCTIONS 3-10. respectively.15 22 February 2007 . Note. z Fire support. or bypass an enemy as required by the commander’s intent. which are outlined in the following discussion. the planning and preparation phases of the offense are organized using the war-fighting functions in the order listed above. and pursuit. The platoon conducts tactical movement. exploitation. destroy. focusing on intangible. Sections II and III of this chapter. The attack can be deliberate or hasty. and neutralize the enemy. z A pursuit is conducted against a retreating enemy force and follows a successful attack to complete the destruction of the enemy force. 3-2 FM 3-20. z Intelligence. and reorganization in support of higher operations. Characteristics include the following: z Movement to contact is conducted to develop the situation and to establish or regain contact with the enemy force. audacity is marked by violent execution of the mission and a willingness to seize the initiative. The company can execute movements to contact and either hasty or deliberate attacks on their own. In conducting his planning and preparation for offensive operations. The tank platoon is an integral part of company team or troop maneuver. z Command and control. enhancing the effectiveness of the platoon’s support for the entire offensive operation. Included in each section is a discussion of the human aspect of operations. the tactical situation. attack. which cover. z An exploitation extends the destruction of the enemy by maintaining offensive pressure. Companies execute an exploitation or pursuit as part of a larger force. which help the platoon leader to logically organize his thoughts to cover the mission. actions on contact. depending on the amount of planning time available.

rakes. log cribs. lakes. movement technique. grappling hooks. proofing. the company scheme of maneuver. Existing Obstacles 3-16. BREACH PLANNING 3-18. The platoon leader develops the platoon maneuver plan so that it matches the commander’s intent and specific instructions and supports the company main effort. He also addresses actions on the objective and consolidation and reorganization. During this phase. which are outlined in this section. turn. the breach force. or the assault force. These are obstacles that are placed on the battlefield through military effort to slow. Reinforcing Obstacles 3-17. battle drills. 3-12. These generic rehearsals allow the platoon to begin preparing for the mission. In developing his OPORD or FRAGO. or breaching actions. It then suppresses any enemy overwatching the obstacle. OBSTACLE TYPES 3-15. and be able to explain his capabilities to a light force commander. DIRECT FIRES 3-14.PLANNING 3-11. The platoon leader can expect the enemy to employ both types in executing his defensive plan.Offensive Operations SECTION II . the platoon leader must understand the abilities of the light forces. A tank platoon can conduct breach force operations only if it is equipped with the assets required to breach the type of obstacle encountered. The planning phase begins when the platoon receives the higher WARNO or OPORD and ends when the platoon leader issues his own OPORD or FRAGO. The breach force is responsible for creating. the platoon leader must take into account the considerations applicable for the operating systems. mine plows. road craters.15 3-3 . and formation based on his AO (including terrain factors). and mine rollers. such assets include demolitions. observation. the platoon leader may initiate rehearsals of tactical movement. MOVEMENT AND MANEUVER 3-13. Existing obstacles are those that are present on the battlefield but were not emplaced through military effort. The support force usually leads the company during movement and identifies the obstacle. and mountains) or cultural (towns or railroad embankments). the generic rehearsals are matched to the actual terrain and anticipated actions on enemy contact. Once the platoon leader completes his plan. thick forests. If working with light forces. and the likelihood of enemy contact. It then 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. The platoon leader war-games anticipated actions on contact and execution of essential tasks. Examples include minefields. He specifies platoon fire patterns (if different from those identified by SOP) and addresses restrictions on direct fire imposed by the ROE for the operation. these factors can help him to define potential enemy engagement areas. He designates TRPs and assigns sectors of fire. They may be natural (such as streams. or canalize the enemy. existing and reinforcing. He determines the platoon’s route. wire. The platoon will encounter two types of obstacles. The commander will designate each platoon to be part of the support force. He pays particular attention to fields of observation and fire. and marking a lane through the obstacle and for securing the far side. and tank ditches. the platoon leader conducts troop-leading procedures as outlined in Chapter 2. The platoon leader identifies multiple attack-by-fire and support-by-fire positions along the direction of attack from which the platoon can engage known or suspected enemy positions. stop. and weapons orientation. After he issues the WARNO.

however. TERRAIN 3-22. 3-4 FM 3-20. it is the platoon leader’s responsibility to understand how the enemy’s disposition and possible COAs may affect the platoon’s area of operations and the accomplishment of its mission. The platoon leader conducts a map reconnaissance and uses the factors of OAKOC. This analysis is followed by a ground reconnaissance. See the discussion of navigation in Chapter 2 of this manual. when and where contact is most likely to be made. Some of the tasks related to protection are: z Air and missile defense. the platoon leader must develop specific plans for the platoon’s actions against the enemy. Finally. The protection warfighting function is the related tasks and systems that preserve the force so the commander can apply maximum combat power. The ground reconnaissance covers the platoon’s movement routes to the LD. Most fire support planning is conducted at company level and higher. in addition. (See Chapter 5 of this manual for more information on breaching operations. routes to the objective. and what is then the enemy’s intent. The platoon leader identifies and plots on his overlay all known and suspected enemy positions that affect his area of operations and identifies indirect and direct fire range fans of enemy weapon systems. he evaluates the need for illumination or smoke rounds for marking and/or to assist in navigation. The platoon leader evaluates and recommends the use of smoke to help conceal or obscure movement and suppress likely enemy positions while the platoon is moving through danger areas. When working with light forces the platoon leader must ensure he has an understanding of the fire support capability inherent within the light force structure. The platoon leader should check and record the time-distance factors to any SPs or to the LD. Refer to the discussion of enemy analysis in the explanation of troop-leading procedures in Chapter 2 of this manual. lifting. As necessary. what type and size of enemy force the platoon will face.) z Countermobility/survivability. This process includes estimating whether the enemy will defend in place. PROTECTION 3-23. Most analysis of the enemy situation and probable enemy COAs is done at the battalion and company level. The platoon leader uses what is developed from higher. INTELLIGENCE ENEMY 3-20. Next. 3-21. He pays close attention to key terrain that could support positions offering unobstructed observation and fields of fire. (Refer to Chapter 6 of this manual for a discussion of planning considerations for air defense. The platoon leader reviews the plan to ensure that responsibilities for initiating.) FIRE SUPPORT 3-19. he identifies additional indirect fire targets on known or suspected enemy positions and submits recommendations to the company FIST. as discussed in Chapter 2. and shifting indirect fires are designated.15 22 February 2007 . delay. he identifies anticipated contact situations. The enemy overlay for FBCB2 should also be updated to include the latest enemy information. but must be able to conduct intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) refining information received from higher. These are danger areas that can be used by enemy or friendly forces when contact is made during the execution of the mission. conducted with the commander as far forward as possible and as extensively as time and security considerations permit. or counterattack upon contact.Chapter 3 suppresses remaining enemy forces as the assault force moves through the breach to continue the attack. The platoon leader then identifies terrain features or determines the standoff distance of friendly weapon systems that will negate the effects of enemy weapons if possible. and the objective itself. Using information from his own analysis and from higher headquarters. he determines the enemy’s most probable COAs. to systematically analyze the terrain in his AO.

Leaders in the tank platoon must strive at all times to ensure that their Soldiers are disciplined. The platoon leader ensures that Soldiers are familiar with procedures for maintenance and medical treatment and evacuation. Coordination will be critical when working with light forces. The guiding principle in handling the human aspect of operations is that leaders can tap their units’ full combat potential only when Soldiers are healthy physically. MOVEMENT AND MANEUVER 3-29. welfare. 3-27. and the company commander. morale. orientations. The coordination should specify routes. these as outlined in paragraph 4 of the platoon OPORD or in the unit SOP. It should cover the following subjects: z Movement from current positions. STANDARDIZED DRILLS 3-30. The platoon leader’s key function in this operating system is conducting troop-leading procedures. The platoon leader takes into account the following war-fighting functions. and confident. the platoon should conduct a final rehearsal of its own to incorporate any adjustments to the company scheme of maneuver.PREPARATION 3-28. mentally. competent. COMMAND AND CONTROL 3-25. or units that do not have a habitual working relationship. If possible the platoon should develop standardized drills for the following that will allow the platoon to operate in a near automatic mode. Soldiers are human. and signals between platoons. A leader who is 100-percent “mission first. he should coordinate unresolved issues with the other platoon leaders. Every leader must take all necessary actions to enhance his troops’ health. Soldiers are the key to combat power. See Chapter 7 of this manual for more details concerning sustainment operations. will see his command degrade quickly. fire control measures. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Success in combat often depends more on the human aspect than it does on numerical and technological superiority. They must also understand that Soldiers do not have an unlimited store of morale and endurance. and overall readiness to fight. SUSTAINMENT 3-24. SECTION III . with repetitive and predictable physical and emotional needs. intervals. Following the last company rehearsal. At the same time. THE HUMAN ASPECT 3-26. The “human aspect” is a crucial factor in the success of any mission. CBRN defensive operations are a critical consideration during offensive operations.15 3-5 . The preparation phase ends when the platoon crosses the LD and deploys for the attack. The platoon rehearsal should follow the procedures outlined in Chapter 2 of this manual. the XO. These are discussed in detail in Section V of this chapter (as part of the execution of battle drills) and in Appendix E of this manual. and spiritually. Note. the constant exposure to the dangers and hardships of combat can drain the fighting spirit.” with no considerations of this human dimension.Offensive Operations z z CBRN operations. They win battles. Force protection/physical security. movement speed. Immediately after the company order is issued or during the company rehearsal. systems are only their tools.

He should cover any scheduled indirect fires and the effects of smoke on the battlefield. known and suspected enemy locations. SUSTAINMENT 3-35. Triggers. and communicate. the platoon leader continues with his troop-leading procedures and conducts rehearsals and inspections to ensure the platoon is ready for the upcoming operation. Rehearsals should cover aspects of the logistical plan that will support the upcoming operation. the platoon leader should address responsibility for targets in the platoon AO. Breaching equipment should be checked durin PCCs and PCIs. he should discuss the direct-fire plan. for a detailed PCI checklist. FIRE SUPPORT 3-32. PROTECTION 3-34. Signals. In addition. Air defense preparations during this phase should include a rehearsal of the react to air attack drill. All Soldiers must understand the company and platoon schemes of maneuver. refer to ST 3-20. based on his terrain reconnaissance. shoot. Platoon and company formations and movement techniques. Rehearsals and inspections are discussed in detail in Chapter 2 of this manual. Vehicle positions within the platoon formation. It is critical that the platoon has a standard method of either the PSG or platoon leader relaying this information to the wing tanks to maintain situational understanding for all crews. Actions on contact. he adjusts the maneuver plan accordingly. 3-31. tank crews conduct resupply operations to replenish their combat loads. For more information on sustainment. including emergency resupply and personnel and vehicle evacuation procedures. The equipment inspection consists of checking each tank crew’s ability to move. 3-6 FM 3-20. During the preparation phase. which is outlined in Section V of this chapter. INTELLIGENCE 3-33. The Soldier inspection includes checking each crewman’s personal knowledge of the operation as well as the readiness of his equipment.153. Weapons orientation and fire control.) Reporting procedures. Near the end of the phase. Actions on the objective (consolidation and reorganization.Chapter 3 z z z z z z z z z z Routes. and applicable ROE. refer to Chapter 7 of this manual.15 22 February 2007 . Breaching drills. During the preparation phase. the platoon leader will receive updated SPOTREPs listing known and suspected enemy locations as well as the latest friendly actions. They also perform preventive maintenance checks and services (PMCS) on their vehicles and equipment. During the preparation phase. During the rehearsal. friendly unit locations. with emphasis on platoon responsibilities. the platoon leader conducts a PCI of his Soldiers and equipment. COMMAND AND CONTROL 3-37. He should plot the updated enemy and friendly locations on his overlay and on the enemy overlay (digital systems). 3-36. The inspection should be as thorough as time permits. Actions at obstacles should be rehearsed during the preparation phase.

The platoon leader must recommend a different formation or technique of movement if a change will allow the platoon to more effectively contribute to the accomplishment of the company mission and protection of the force. such as advance planning. He identifies and assigns sufficient TRPs and platoon targets to allow him to adjust fields of fire quickly. welfare. the platoon leader must take advantage of the available resources that make it easier for him to effectively distribute the platoon’s firepower. they all require coordination of platoon fires (both direct and indirect) and movement. a tank platoon conducts three types of missions: z Movement to contact.EXECUTION—TACTICAL MOVEMENT 3-39.1 (FM 71-1). however. Although each of these missions is distinct and serves individual purposes. FIRE DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL IN THE OFFENSE 3-40. including phase lines. including— z The mission to be accomplished. z Fire and movement. Note. z Attack (hasty or deliberate). In doing this. platoon targets. 3-43. It is critical to have a fire plan in the offense to reduce the chances of fratricide. Activities aimed at enhancing each Soldier’s health. the LOA. OFFENSIVE FIRE PLANNING 3-42. z The operational status of platoon equipment. The platoon leader will establish additional platoon targets as the platoon moves during the operation. Additional discussion of the human dimension of operations is in Section II of this chapter. and readiness to fight continue during the preparation phase.Offensive Operations THE HUMAN ASPECT 3-38. The major difference among the types of missions is the amount of information about the enemy and preparation time available. The fire and movement mission has been called advance in contact in some previous doctrinal and training publications. (Note. Before beginning movement. z Likely or known enemy locations. z Control measures. The company OPORD may specify company and platoon formations and techniques of movement. z Section and individual tank sectors of responsibility. z The route. z Enemy strengths and weaknesses. It is not possible. and platoon SOPs. including FM 3-90. 3-41. This allows the commander to position his elements where they will optimize the company’s AO and facilitate execution of his scheme of maneuver. and TRPs. As a result. TRPs. which are the components of the tactical concept of maneuver. If no formation or technique of movement is given in the order. the platoon leader plans how the platoon will engage known or suspected enemy locations. While operating as part of a company team in the offense. SECTION IV . 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.) z Indirect fire support and smoke employment (preplanned targets). z The movement technique. to develop fire plans in the offense in the same detail as in a defensive operation. he considers tactical aspects of the operation.15 3-7 . checkpoints. morale. reconnaissance (including leader’s and map reconnaissance). the platoon leader selects the one that will make the most efficient use of his AO and that will best support the company scheme of maneuver. z Friendly forces.

15 22 February 2007 . the platoon leader or PSG sends a contact or spot report (depending on the enemy situation and the amount of time available) to the company team commander. z The scheme of maneuver of adjacent units. The platoon leader uses these to adjust sectors of responsibility. Crews should stay aware of visible TRPs and control points as they come into view. Most moving engagements begin with one tank in the platoon acquiring surprise targets. but continue to maintain 360-degree security. 3-48. During the operation. the platoon leader then adjusts the sectors he assigned initially. The platoon leader and TCs must ensure that each crew conducts a 360-degree search for air and ground targets and maintains effective communications with the other tanks. The commander 3-8 FM 3-20. An important part of offensive fire planning is the assignment of overlapping sectors of fire for each element in the platoon (see Figure 3-1). he modifies assigned sectors of fire as necessary while the platoon is moving. As noted. Moving Engagements 3-47. The tanks do not change direction unless the platoon leader orders an action drill. He may also use the clock or cardinal direction method to designate sectors of responsibility. The other tanks may orient their gun tubes in the direction the tank in contact is firing. The TC who makes first contact gives a contact report after he has engaged a target. are covered in the platoon SOP and are based on the formation and movement technique the platoon will use. as the situation requires. some offensive situations may require the platoon to operate in an area where the line of sight between tanks in the sections is interrupted by terrain or vegetation. In addition. z Contact with previously unknown enemy positions. they scan and return fire on additional targets. Once movement begins but before contact is made. 3-46.Chapter 3 3-44. When targets are identified. whose capabilities are maximized in the offense. z Use of fires or smoke to conceal or cover the platoon’s movement. also called sectors of responsibility. Factors that may necessitate a change in sectors of fire include the following: z Changes in terrain or visibility. These sectors. These targets should be engaged immediately. Each TC identifies the tank’s sector of fire for his gunner and then monitors the gunner’s target search to make sure it covers the entire sector and does not stray beyond it. the platoon leader maneuvers the unit to take full advantage of his tanks. Example sectors of fire in a moving engagement (platoon moving in wedge formation) ENGAGING TARGETS 3-45. Figure 3-1.

z Always plan actions at danger areas. While moving. Command and control assets (vehicles with the most antennas). z Priority 4. such as deserts. the platoon uses terrain to provide cover and concealment. out-of-place features. z Priority 3. z Priority 2. z Priority 6. The platoon leader should adjust his tanks’ sectors based on the current or last known enemy positions. such as rolling hills or countryside. z Priority 5. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. These are indicators of an obstacle or minefield. z If the move is being overwatched. USE OF TERRAIN FOR COVER AND CONCEALMENT 3-51. z Scan the ground for disturbed earth. offensive engagement priorities might be the following: z Priority 1. He keeps the company team commander informed while developing the situation. TECHNIQUES OF MOVEMENT 3-52. the platoon must maintain a 360-degree watch for attacking aircraft and targets that may appear between its position and that of the overwatching element. the platoon leader controls the platoon fires by issuing fire commands and additional instructions as appropriate. z Stay on low ground as much as possible. 3-53. If necessary. Air defense assets. In open terrain. remember that the overwatch element cannot cover all of the platoon’s gaps and dead space. 3-49. or urban areas. One platoon will normally attack while one or more platoons provide overwatch. employing the following rules: z Do not move forward from an overwatch position or BP. forests. direct the TC or loader to dismount and either observe around blind spots or check the trafficability of a route or defile before the tank moves over or through these locations. The commander or platoon leader selects a technique of movement based on several battlefield factors: z The likelihood of enemy contact. If overwatching elements are not available. In restricted terrain. and surface-laid mines. Even while attacking. platoons will normally overwatch other platoons. also keep in mind that the distance of each move (or bound) must not exceed the direct-fire range of the overwatch element. z Select the formation and movement technique that will maximize the platoon’s AO while minimizing gaps and dead space. one company will normally overwatch the movement of another company. ATGMs). Developing the Situation 3-50. Least dangerous targets (supply vehicles). After initial contact. z The terrain over which the moving element will pass. Most dangerous targets (tanks. Back away from your position and go around on the low ground. the platoon may be directed to conduct bounding overwatch. Moving on top of ridgelines and over hilltops will silhouette (skyline) platoon vehicles. As an example. Engineer assets.Offensive Operations and/or platoon leader will already have assigned engagement priorities according to the mission and other factors. z If your move is being covered by an overwatch element. Dangerous targets.15 3-9 . z The availability of another element to provide overwatch for the moving element. a tank section will rely on another tank section or dismounted infantry to overwatch movement. In close terrain. such as mountains.

and so on. but it is slower. The intent is to maintain depth. Traveling overwatch is an extended form of traveling that provides additional security when contact is possible but speed is desirable. provide flexibility.) 3-10 FM 3-20. The initial lead element then advances past the initial rear element and takes up overwatch positions. advances and takes up an overwatch position. The tank platoon must be able to employ any of the following techniques of movement: z Traveling. In this method. (Refer to Figure 3-3. traveling is best suited to situations in which enemy contact is unlikely and speed is important. Only one element moves at a time. Bounding overwatch is used when contact is expected. This method is easier to control and more secure than the alternate bounding method. halts. and sustain movement in case the lead element is engaged.15 22 February 2007 . Covered by the rear element. It is the most secure. and the rear element avoids advancing beyond the lead element. The trail element maintains dispersion based on its ability to provide immediate suppressive fires in support of the lead element. Only one element moves at a time. covered by the rear element. This method is usually more rapid than successive bounds. but slowest. z Traveling overwatch. and assumes overwatch positions. This allows the overwatch section to have effective fires forward of the bounding section. the lead element moves forward.) Figure 3-2. The rear element advances to an overwatch position abreast of the lead element and halts. The trail element moves at various speeds and may halt periodically to overwatch the movement of the lead element. The lead element moves continuously. The rear element advances past the lead element and takes up overwatch positions. movement technique.Chapter 3 3-54. Bounding may be no greater than one-half the weapon’s planning range. z Bounding overwatch. The lead element then moves to the next position. There are two methods of bounding: „ Alternate bounds. Characterized by continuous movement of all elements. Movement by alternate bounds „ Successive bounds. (Refer to Figure 3-2. the lead element.

Formations are not intended to be rigid. Formations are used to establish tank positions and sectors of responsibility during tactical operations. speed. and/or when enemy contact is not likely. individual tanks should always occupy the same relative position within a formation. and increase protection. Weapons orientation for all tanks should be adjusted to ensure optimum security based on the position of the platoon in the company formation. and the effectiveness of fires. vehicle numbers are used to illustrate the wingman concept. alleviate confusion. Note. 3-57. understand when and where to move. The tactical situation will also influence vehicle location. At the same time. The following paragraphs and illustrations describe the six basic movement formations the platoon will use. The position of each tank in the formation depends on the terrain and the ability of the wingman driver to maintain situational understanding in relation to the lead tank. In these examples. the location and sequence of vehicles in the formation will be prescribed in the platoon SOP and/or the OPORD. 3-56. They facilitate control. but permits less fire to the front (see Figure 3-4). The column formation provides excellent control and fire to the flanks.15 3-11 . when the platoon is moving through restricted terrain on a specific route. and are aware of when and where they will be expected to observe and direct fires. In the field. This will ensure that the members of each crew know who is beside them. with vehicles remaining a specific distance apart at every moment. It is used when speed is critical.Offensive Operations Figure 3-3. Movement by successive bounds FORMATIONS 3-55. COLUMN 3-58. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.

The staggered column permits good fire to the front and flanks.Chapter 3 Figure 3-4. 3-12 FM 3-20. when there is a limited area for lateral dispersion. Column formation STAGGERED COLUMN 3-59.15 22 February 2007 . The staggered column formation is a modified column formation with one section leading and one section trailing to provide overwatch (see Figure 3-5). It is used when speed is critical. and/or when enemy contact is possible.

It is employed when the platoon is provided with overwatch by another element and is moving in open or rolling terrain.15 3-13 .Offensive Operations Figure 3-5. Staggered column formation WEDGE 3-60. the platoon leader and PSG (with wingmen) can switch sides of the formation. When the platoon leader’s tank is slightly forward. The wedge formation permits excellent firepower to the front and good firepower to the flanks (see Figure 3-6). Wedge formation 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Figure 3-6. Depending on the platoon location within the company formation. one flank has more firepower.

Vee formation 3-14 FM 3-20. The echelon formation permits excellent firepower to the front and to one flank (see Figure 3-7). Echelon formation VEE 3-62.15 22 February 2007 . The vee formation provides excellent protection and control. This formation is used when terrain restricts movement or when overwatch within the platoon is required. It is used to screen an exposed flank of the platoon or of a larger moving force.Chapter 3 ECHELON 3-61. Figure 3-8. but limits fires to the front (see Figure 3-8). Figure 3-7.

Coil 3-65. When it is operating independently.Offensive Operations LINE 3-63. It is used when the platoon crosses danger areas and is provided with overwatch by another element or when the platoon assaults enemy positions. Line formation COIL AND HERRINGBONE 3-64. Coil formation 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.15 3-15 . Figure 3-9. These formations are employed when the platoon is stationary and 360-degree security is essential. the platoon uses the coil formation to establish a perimeter defense during extended halts or lulls in combat (see Figure 3-10). Figure 3-10. The lead vehicle will halt his vehicle in the direction of travel (12 o’clock) while the other vehicles position themselves to form a circular formation covering all suspected enemy avenues of approach. The line formation provides maximum firepower forward (see Figure 3-9).

vehicles should move off the route and stop at a 45-degree angle. allowing passage of vehicles through the center of the formation. it must alert the moving element of the lapse in coverage. 3-16 FM 3-20. Herringbone formation OVERWATCH 3-67.15 22 February 2007 . Note. It also scans gaps and dead space within the moving element’s formations. If the overwatch is unable to scan dead space and engage the enemy. overwatch crews must also maintain 360-degree observation and security for themselves. The overwatch element can be either stationary or on the move.Chapter 3 Herringbone 3-66. 3-68. It is normally employed during scheduled or unscheduled halts in a road march. Situational understanding is a crucial factor in all overwatch missions. If terrain permits. whose objective is to prevent the enemy from surprising and engaging the moving unit. Figure 3-11. Overwatch is the tactical mission in which an element observes and provides direct fire support for a friendly moving element. The overwatch force must maintain communications with the moving force and provide early warning of enemy elements that could affect the moving force. While the main function of overwatch is to provide early warning and/or timely supporting fires for a moving element. The overwatch must also be able to support the moving force with immediate direct and indirect fires. The herringbone formation is used when the platoon must assume a hasty defense with 360-degree security while remaining postured to resume movement in the direction of travel (see Figure 3-11). Figure 3-12 suggests what to look for and where to look during an overwatch mission. 3-69.

15 3-17 . Overwatch locations and techniques 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.Offensive Operations Figure 3-12.

) 3-72. the overwatch element initiates a high volume of direct and indirect suppressive fires. Understanding the commander’s intent allows the platoon leader to execute without constant supervision and also in the event that the enemy situation changes during the mission. the platoon leader will be able to develop contact situations rapidly and determine the most effective COA. This includes reports of enemy contact through the chain of command or from an adjacent friendly element. paying close attention to gaps and dead space. The commander’s coordinating instructions should specify for the platoon leader the actions on contact that. including the thermal channel (using various polarities) and daylight channel of the gunner’s primary sight. binoculars. 3-75.Chapter 3 STATIONARY OVERWATCH 3-70. The platoon initiates actions on contact when it recognizes one of the defined contact situations or on order from higher headquarters. displacement criteria. (Note. If contact is made. The trail element maintains an interval dictated by the capabilities of its weapon systems and the effects of terrain. based on the size and activity of the anticipated enemy force. 3-18 FM 3-20.EXECUTION—ACTIONS ON CONTACT 3-74.) 3-71. it can execute a short halt on key terrain to provide more effective overwatch. closely monitoring gaps and dead space. By learning and planning for these details in advance. As needed. In both offensive and defensive operations. the platoon leader should use the planning process to anticipate the actions on contact that the platoon may be required to execute based on the enemy situation. observes or receives direct or indirect fire. The section or platoon occupies hull-down firing positions that provide effective cover and concealment. and CITV. As discussed in Section II of this chapter. The following four steps allow the platoon leader to execute actions on contact using a logical. The scheme of maneuver will define the platoon’s role in maneuver and direct fire as part of the company or task force plan. The commander’s OPORD will assist the platoon leader in two ways. and the COAs the commander expects to employ. are related to the maneuver plan. The trail section or platoon maintains a designated location in the formation. Individual crews aggressively scan their sectors using applicable search techniques to identify enemy positions. contact occurs when any member of the platoon observes enemy personnel or vehicles. It continuously scans the lead element’s area of operations. These specific instructions may include engagement criteria. or encounters any situation that requires an active or passive response to the enemy. unobstructed observation. it moves as necessary between primary and alternate positions to avoid being decisively engaged. Firing positions are discussed in Chapter 4 of this manual. The most important thing the platoon leader must understand is the commander’s intent. The commander’s scheme of maneuver will direct the platoon leader in planning how to kill the templated or anticipated enemy force. The section or platoon leader assigns sectors of fire. z Execute the selected COA.12 for a discussion of search techniques.15 22 February 2007 . OVERWATCH ON THE MOVE 3-73. z Evaluate and develop the situation. wellorganized decision-making process: z Deploy and report. (Note. SECTION V . The overwatch element scans the area of operations of the moving element. z Choose a COA. bypass criteria. The platoon can then rehearse these potential actions during the preparation phase of the operation. and clear fields of fire. See FM 3-20. THE FOUR STEPS OF ACTIONS ON CONTACT 3-77. They employ all available sights. PVS-7s. 3-76.

In simplest terms. The platoon leader uses SPOTREPs from the TCs. squad.) The platoon leader can also order his tanks to immediately seek the best available covered and concealed position. The platoon leader has several choices in deploying the platoon. 3-83. While the platoon deploys by executing a battle drill or occupying a covered and concealed position. z Situations involving CBRN conditions. composition (available weapon systems). and then apply sound decision-making and timely actions to complete the operation. 3-81. additional infantry. the platoon leader must establish SOPs and conduct comprehensive training and rehearsals covering each step. z Indirect fire contact. with the platoon attempting to acquire and engage the enemy. activity. The position should afford unobstructed observation and fields of fire and allow the platoon to maintain flank security. Tank crews also seek cover and concealment in the absence of a deployment order from the platoon leader. Most critically. 3-82.153 for report formats). or tank platoons will usually be available to assist the commander and platoon leader in developing and confirming the enemy situation. At times. the platoon leader. with equal dispatch. The four-step process is not a rigid. z Contact with obstacles of enemy or unknown origin. reacting correctly and yet instinctively. whether to execute a preplanned battle drill or COA or to recommend and execute an alternate drill or action. These situations may entail one or more of the following eight forms of contact: z Visual contact (friendly elements may or may not be observed by the enemy). When the platoon makes contact with the enemy. usually as a result of chance contact. z Situations involving nonhostile elements (such as civilians). interference. Refer to the discussion and illustrations of the battle drills in this section of this chapter. z Situations involving electronic warfare tactics (such as jamming. and orientation of the enemy force. Rather. or section of the platoon encounters any situation that requires an active or passive response to the threat. scout. the goal is to provide an orderly framework that enables the platoon to survive the initial contact. No matter how thoroughly the platoon leader prepares for an operation. DEPLOY AND REPORT 3-80. the platoon in contact returns fire immediately. His primary focus is on determining and/or confirming the size (inferior or superior). (Note. the company commander.) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. To ensure the platoon functions as a team. This covers a range of actions that correspond to the nature of the contact. lockstep response to the enemy contact. EVALUATE AND DEVELOP THE SITUATION 3-84. the platoon must react instinctively and instantly to the contact. z Physical contact (direct fire) with an enemy force. he will initiate one of the seven battle drills. This step concludes with the platoon leader or PSG sending a contact report to the commander. other platoon leaders. followed as soon as possible by a SPOTREP. and the XO to make his evaluation. will have to execute several of the steps simultaneously. direct contact with the enemy is still a possibility. In many cases. and the platoon.Offensive Operations 3-78. This makes thorough preparation an absolute requirement in contact situations. Because the tank platoon usually operates as part of a company team or cavalry troop. This is usually a contact or action drill. and the platoon leader must decide. and imitative deception). (Note.15 3-19 . z Contact with enemy or unknown aircraft. The platoon leader deploys the platoon when he recognizes one of the general categories of initial contact or receives a report of enemy contact. the platoon leader must begin to evaluate and develop the situation. it responds according to the circumstances of the situation. contact occurs when an individual soldier. In all types of operations. 3-79. He analyzes how obstacles and terrain in the area of operations will affect enemy and friendly capabilities and possible COAs. Tanks returning fire alert the rest of the platoon with a contact report (see ST 3-20. if the contact entails enemy antitank fire.

3-87. enemy activity can range from an entrenched force using prepared fighting positions to a unit conducting refueling operations with little security. Because he will have little time for analysis. the platoon leader develops a clear understanding of the available COAs during the planning phase. especially the number of lethal weapon systems the enemy force is known to have. One element moves to the position of advantage while another element overwatches and supports. After making contact and evaluating the situation. In most situations. If necessary. the platoon leader must exercise caution. An inferior force is defined as an enemy element that the platoon can destroy while remaining postured to conduct further operations. and on the enemy’s current activity. and dismounted surveillance. z Report the situation and recommend an alternative COA based on known information in response to an unforeseen enemy or battlefield situation. In most cases. the intent of maneuver is to gain positions of advantage over the enemy. If a predetermined COA is not the best option. slow-firing wire-guided systems. whether the enemy is a superior or inferior force). forcing him to fight in two directions. including maneuver (fire and movement). however. The platoon leader can then evaluate various responses to possible enemy actions during the planning phase. A superior force is one that can be destroyed only through a combined effort of company. he selects a COA that both meets the requirements of the commander’s intent and is within the platoon’s capabilities.15 22 February 2007 . 3-90.Chapter 3 3-85.or combined arms battalion-level combat and CS assets. Refinements to the original plan or development of a new COA may change the scheme of maneuver. fixing. Considerations in Choosing a COA 3-89. reconnaissance by direct and/or indirect fire. or dismounted Soldiers with automatic weapons. z Direct the platoon to execute tactical movement (employing bounding overwatch and support by fire within the platoon) and reconnaissance by fire to further develop the situation and gain the information the platoon leader needs to clarify a vague battlefield picture. 3-20 FM 3-20. CHOOSE A COURSE OF ACTION 3-88. and in information war gaming and rehearsals with the platoon. the platoon may develop a new COA. the enemy may employ rapid-fire antitank weaponry. ensuring that his actions support the commander’s intent. Based on the commander’s intent and these criteria. Mission accomplishment and the survivability of the platoon are crucial considerations. 3-86. The commander specifies criteria for destroying. the platoon leader sends an updated SPOTREP to the commander. the platoon leader may discover that he does not have enough information to determine the superiority or inferiority of the enemy force. he can further develop the situation using a combination of techniques. issue FRAGOs to refine the plan. and bypassing the enemy. Once the platoon leader develops the situation and determines that he has enough information to make a decision. 3-91. the platoon leader analyzes the commander’s intent. the result is dependent on the situation. There are no hard and fast rules for determining the superiority or inferiority of an enemy. Lethality varies. The platoon leader bases his evaluation on the enemy’s capabilities. the commander identifies the criteria for anticipated actions on contact in terms of the enemy’s capabilities (that is. z Based on the situation. in the company rehearsal. the platoon leader should issue a revised set of graphic control measures as part of the FRAGO. ensuring it supports the commander’s intent. 3-92. The platoon leader selects the COA specified by the company commander in the OPORD. Likewise. as well as the applicable disengagement criteria. He has several options in determining the COA: z Direct the platoon to execute the original plan. Examples include waypoints to assist in navigation along desired routes to a position of advantage and TRPs to help the platoon orient weapons and fires. In such a situation. Once he develops the situation sufficiently. To make this determination.

3-98. in this situation.15 3-21 . the platoon leader must recommend a new COA to the commander. The platoon leader and/or PSG keep the company commander abreast of the situation with SPOTREPs and SITREPs. The illustrations are organized to show the four-step process for executing actions on contact. he must inform the commander of any changes in the platoon’s combat power or logistical status. For example. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.Offensive Operations Use of Platoon Tasks as COAs 3-93. engaged. If the situation dictates adjustments to the plan. it discovers six more tanks in prepared fighting positions. z Overwatch/support by fire. If the situation dictates a change to the scheme of maneuver specified in the original plan. the platoon executes as directed in the OPORD. 3-96. or bypassed. (Figures 3-14A through 3-14D on pages 3-23 and 3-24 illustrate a similar situation in which changes to the COA become necessary. the platoon leader may have to alter his COA during execution. he can recommend an alternative COA to the commander. type. z Breach. z Reconnaissance by fire. ACTIONS ON CONTACT WITH AN ANTICIPATED INFERIOR FORCE 3-101. 3-97. the platoon leader directs the platoon to execute the specified task or COA. The platoon continues to execute the selected or refined COA until it accomplishes the original mission. If the commander concurs. 3-94.) 3-99. z Attack by fire. however. z Hasty defense. The following examples illustrate actions on contact for two potential situations. z Bypass. These include— z Destroy an inferior force. EXAMPLES OF ACTIONS ON CONTACT 3-100. The platoon leader cross-talks with other platoon leaders. the platoon leader must inform the commander of the platoon’s current location (or that he is moving to or set at a particular location). In this case. accuracy of these reports is critical because the task force commander and S2 use them to confirm or deny the situational template. Additionally. If contact is anticipated and falls within the commander’s original scheme of maneuver. the platoon collective tasks described in Section VI of this chapter are available as COAs. If the commander’s plan has already addressed the situation adequately. such as an attack by fire against the enemy tank company. Finally. to obtain support in accordance with the commander’s intent. or is ordered to execute consolidation and reorganization on the objective. he directs the platoon to execute the new COA. as necessary. Key information the commander needs includes the number. Based on details of the enemy situation. destroyed. the commander and platoon leader anticipated contact with such a force and planned for actions on contact by including possible COAs in their OPORDs and/or rehearsals. z Assault. During execution of actions on contact. More information will become available as the platoon executes the COA. as the platoon maneuvers to destroy what appears to be a lone enemy tank. receives a FRAGO from the commander changing the mission or COA. EXECUTE THE SELECTED COURSE OF ACTION 3-95. the platoon leader would inform the commander and recommend an alternate COA. Figures 3-13A and 3-13B illustrate actions on contact when the platoon encounters an inferior enemy force. and location of enemy elements the platoon has observed.

and reports Figure 3-13B. Platoon develops the situation 3-22 FM 3-20.Chapter 3 Figure 3-13A.15 22 February 2007 . deploys using an action drill. Platoon makes initial contact.

deploys.Offensive Operations ACTIONS ON CONTACT WITH AN UNANTICIPATED SUPERIOR FORCE 3-102. Platoon makes initial contact. platoon leader evaluates the situation as the drill is executed 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. and reports Figure 3-14B. Figure 3-14A. Platoon executes a battle drill. Figures 3-14A through 3-14D illustrate actions on contact when the platoon unexpectedly encounters a superior enemy force.15 3-23 .

Platoon leader chooses and recommends an alternate COA.15 22 February 2007 . Platoon develops the situation and identifies a superior enemy force Figure 3-14D.Chapter 3 Figure 3-14C. platoon executes the new COA 3-24 FM 3-20.

OPORD. Drills allow the platoon leader to protect the platoon from the effects of enemy fires. The platoon leader must ensure that each TC knows the new formation and the relative position of each tank in the new formation. or tactical situation. 3-104. z Contact drill. The platoon can expect to execute any of the following standard battle drills: z Change of formation drill. Note. This drill is executed to accomplish a rapid change of formation in response to a change in terrain or enemy situation. quickly mass the platoon’s combat power and fires. In addition. In the field. Commanders and leaders at all levels must be ready to augment or adjust these seven basic drills based on the enemy. and ROE. 3-105. they must ensure their platoons rehearse battle drills until they are able to execute the drills perfectly no matter what command and control problems arise. 3-107. terrain. He uses visual signals and/or the radio to initiate the drill. violent execution of an action is vital to the platoon’s safety or its success in combat. In the figures that accompany the following discussion of the seven battle drills. Drills can be initiated following reports or observation of enemy activity or ordered upon receipt of enemy fires. z React to air attack drill. executed by each tank crew with minimal instruction and without application of a deliberate thought process. When the tank platoon makes contact with the enemy. the location and sequence of vehicles during the drill will be prescribed in the platoon SOP. Drills are standardized collective actions. although execution can be affected by the factors of METT-TC. 3-106. Figure 3-15 illustrates the movement of individual tanks during a change of formation from column to wedge to line.Offensive Operations BATTLE DRILLS 3-103. z React to a chemical/biological attack drill. They can be carried out under almost any type of battlefield conditions and from any formation or technique of movement. or move the platoon to a position of advantage over the enemy.15 3-25 . Battle drills provide virtually automatic responses to situations in which the immediate. z React to indirect fire drill. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. z React to a nuclear attack drill. CHANGE OF FORMATION DRILL 3-108. vehicle numbers are used to illustrate the wingman concept. the platoon leader usually initiates a battle drill. z Action drill.

Chapter 3 Figure 3-15. Over the radio. Figure 3-16 illustrates a contact drill from a wedge formation. this helps to prevent fratricide. Change of formation drill CONTACT DRILL 3-109. Note the main gun orientation for wingman Tank 2. Contact drill 3-26 FM 3-20. If a tank’s weapon systems are masked by another tank. The platoon leader initiates the contact drill using visual signals and/or the radio. This drill is used when contact is made with small arms fire. Figure 3-16. he uses the contact report format and adds the execution element “FIRE” as a platoon fire command.15 22 February 2007 . or when the platoon sights the enemy without being engaged and does not want to stop or slow its movement. the masked tank maintains weapons orientation and flank security as prescribed in the OPORD. 3-110. The contact drill enables the platoon to orient weapon systems and engage an enemy without changing its direction or speed of movement along the axis of advance. non-armor-defeating weapons.

which can be initiated with or without enemy contact. obstacles. Figure 3-17A. tanks come on line and continue to move in the prescribed direction unless the platoon leader directs a change of formation.Offensive Operations ACTION DRILL 3-111. Action drill without enemy contact 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. FRAGOs from the commander. The platoon leader can execute an action drill to avoid a danger area or obstacle or to respond to FRAGOs from the commander. Figures 3-17A through 3-17C illustrate tanks’ relative positions during various action drills without contact. or enemy contact. Action Drill Without Enemy Contact 3-112. The platoon leader uses visual signals or the radio to order the action drill. The action drill permits the entire platoon to change direction rapidly in response to terrain conditions.15 3-27 . When the platoon leader initiates the action drill.

Chapter 3 Figure 3-17B. Following a contact report alerting the platoon that enemy contact involves antitank weapon systems. Action drill without enemy contact (continued) Action Drill With Enemy Contact 3-113. the platoon leader directs the platoon to assault the enemy. Action drill without enemy contact (continued) Figure 3-17C. Figures 318A through 3-18D illustrate examples of action drills in reaction to enemy contact. If the platoon cannot reach a covered and concealed position or achieve weapon standoff. the platoon leader can direct an action drill to orient his platoon’s frontal armor toward the antitank fire while moving to cover and concealment. 3-28 FM 3-20.15 22 February 2007 .

15 3-29 . Action drill with enemy contact 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.Offensive Operations Figure 3-18A.

Action drill with enemy contact (continued) 3-30 FM 3-20.15 22 February 2007 .Chapter 3 Figure 3-18B.

15 3-31 . Action drill with enemy contact (continued) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.Offensive Operations Figure 3-18C.

the platoon should attempt to clear the impact area. (Note. For example. Several factors. it moves out of the impact area. Crews also close ballistic doors. When the platoon receives unexpected indirect fire. the commander may require the platoon to occupy hide or turret-down positions while continuing the mission. TCs place their hatches in the open protected position. may prevent the platoon from moving during direct-fire engagements or defensive operations.15 22 February 2007 . unless it is also engaged in direct fire contact or is directed to remain stationary. other crewmen close their hatches. Action drill with enemy contact (continued) REACT TO INDIRECT FIRE DRILL 3-114. the platoon leader must request permission from the commander before clearing the impact area. such as the commander’s orders or the enemy situation. M1A2 and M1A2 SEP crews move the commander’s independent thermal viewer (CITV) to the shielded position (do not stow it as it will require time to cool down and function again when turned back on).) Once the platoon clears the 3-32 FM 3-20. If the platoon is moving when it receives suppressive artillery fire. Gunners will begin scanning with the gunner’s auxiliary sight (GAS). If it is stationary. In such a case. 3-115. The platoon leader sends a SPOTREP to the commander.Chapter 3 Figure 3-18D. it executes an action drill to avoid the impact area or increases speed to move to clear the impact area and continue the mission (see Figure 3-19). Crew members mask based on the automatic masking criteria established in the OPORD or if they suspect the use of chemical agents.

15 3-33 . When the platoon is operating as part of a company team or troop. open ballistic doors (M1A2 and M1A2 SEP crews scan with CITV). it reacts according to the commander’s guidance. The platoon also prepares for active air defense measures. Figure 3-19. Alert the platoon with a contact report. (Note. If the platoon is not in the direct path of an attacking aircraft. In a passive air defense. React to indirect fire drill 3-116. helicopters. it initially takes passive air defense measures unless the situation requires immediate active measures. Deploy or take the appropriate actions. individual crews place their hatches in the appropriate position. check antennas.) Passive air defense involves three steps: z Step 1. REACT TO AIR ATTACK DRILL 3-117. z Step 2. or unmanned aircraft system (UAS) that could influence its mission. and return to positions or continue the mission. If the platoon needs to execute a COA different from that directed by the commander. and address the differences. The commander should address the platoon’s reaction to anticipated indirect fires in the actions on contact subparagraph of the OPORD. It is important to note the different drills conducted by mounted forces and light forces. When the platoon observes high-performance aircraft. the platoon also may be ordered to continue moving as part of the company. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. When the platoon receives anticipated indirect fires.Offensive Operations artillery impact area. the platoon leader should request permission from the commander before executing the alternate action. the platoon disperses or stops. the platoon leader orders tanks to seek cover and concealment and halt with at least a 100-meter interval between vehicles. tank crews must be familiar with required actions in the company-level battle drill. to avoid detection altogether and/or to minimize the aircraft’s target acquisition capability.

The platoon maintains an interval of at least 100 meters between tanks. Step 3.Chapter 3 z Step 3. Volume is the key to effectiveness of these fires. TCs and loaders get ready to engage the aircraft with machine-gun and/or main-gun fire on order of the platoon leader. which entails these actions: z z z z Step 1. The primary intent is to force aircraft to take self-defense measures that alter their attack profile and reduce their effectiveness. forcing aircraft to make several passes to engage the entire platoon. The platoon leader sends a SPOTREP to update the commander. If the platoon leader determines that the platoon is in the direct path of an attacking aircraft. The platoon initiates fire. Step 2. Step 4. Tanks create a nonlinear target by moving as fast as possible at a 45-degree angle away from the path of flight and toward attacking aircraft (see Figure 3-21). The platoon leader may also direct some vehicles to engage high-performance aircraft with multipurpose antitank (MPAT) main gun rounds.15 22 February 2007 . Tanks move quickly to covered and concealed positions and freeze their movement for at least 60 seconds after the last flight of aircraft has passed. Machine gun aim points 3-34 FM 3-20. Figure 3-20. The main gun is effective against hovering attack helicopters. 3-118. tanks throw up a “wall of steel” through which aircraft must fly. Prepare to engage. The platoon leader may use a burst of tracers to designate an aim point for platoon machine gun antiaircraft fires (see Figure 3-20). he initiates the active react to air attack drill.

This drill involves the following four steps: z Step 1. crew members must act quickly to minimize the effects of a nuclear detonation. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. biological.) This drill involves the following four steps: z Step 1. „ Alert the remainder of the platoon and company. „ Redistribute personnel as needed. as necessary. including the following: „ If mounted. or a Soldier suspects the presence of chemical or biological agents. position the vehicle behind a protective terrain feature. If time permits. „ Conduct decontamination. the chemical agent alarm sounds. z Step 2. and turn off the master power until the effects of the blast have passed. z Step 4. „ Conduct essential maintenance. „ Prepare and forward a (nuclear. When the platoon observes a brilliant flash of light and a mushroom-shaped cloud. taking the following actions: „ Evacuate casualties and fatalities. „ Submit a SITREP to the commander. Continue the mission. The platoon initiates this drill during an operation whenever an automatic masking event occurs. z Step 3. Crewmen recognize and react to the hazard. REACT TO A CHEMICAL/BIOLOGICAL ATTACK DRILL 3-120.Offensive Operations Figure 3-21. Refer to Appendix E of this manual for more information on CBRN operations. „ Button up and/or activate the tank overpressurization system. Reorganize the platoon. taking these actions: „ Put on protective mask (and hood) within 15 seconds. M8 detection paper indicates the presence of chemical agents. „ Dismounted crewmen drop to the ground and cover exposed skin until blast effects have passed. Take immediate protective actions. Evading enemy aircraft REACT TO A NUCLEAR ATTACK DRILL 3-119. „ Implement continuous monitoring. close hatches and close the breech and ballistic doors (M1A2 and M1A2 SEP crews stow the CITV).15 3-35 . (Note. Implement SOPs and accomplish related actions in the following areas: „ Reestablish communications. and chemical) NBC-1 report.

M1A2. He will cover employment of the tasks in the company OPORD. assume MOPP 4 (refer to the discussion in Appendix E). After successfully destroying the inferior enemy force. (Note. Figures 3-22A and 3-22B illustrate two potential situations in which a platoon is ordered to destroy an inferior force.EXECUTION—PLATOON TACTICAL TASKS 3-121. Cross-talk among sections and vehicles is important in ensuring mutual support while the overwatch is providing supporting fires during the other section’s movement to the position of advantage. or it may provide covered routes that enable the section to close with and assault the enemy. See Appendix E for additional information. The platoon leader usually employs maneuver techniques (fire and tactical movement) in executing this task or COA. SECTION VI . the platoon can use the tactical tasks as COA when it executes actions on contact (refer to the discussion in Section V of this chapter). and submit NBC-1 and follow-up reports as needed. In addition. „ Initiate continuous monitoring with M256/M256A1 detection kits. the commander may order the platoon to destroy an inferior force. 3-125. 3-123. If the M256/M256A1 detection kit records a negative reading inside an overpressurized M1A1. The moving element uses appropriate movement techniques as well as covered and concealed routes to move to a position of advantage over the enemy. 3-124. „ Conduct operator’s spraydown and decontamination of equipment as necessary.15 22 February 2007 . or M1A2 SEP tank. initiate actions to reduce MOPP levels and discontinue agent monitoring. the platoon positions itself where it can most effectively prepare for subsequent actions. When the platoon is in contact with the enemy. Monitor for chemical/biological agents.) „ Note. the crew can initiate unmasking procedures. DESTROY AN INFERIOR FORCE 3-122. based either on his original plan or on recommendation of the platoon leader. The commander may direct the platoon to execute the collective tactical tasks described in this section as part of the company’s planned scheme of maneuver. as the situation warrants. To maintain the tempo of an attack. he designates one section to overwatch or support by fire to suppress and/or destroy the enemy while the other section moves. the overwatch leader identifies graphic control measures and assigns responsibility for suppression of identified enemy positions. Step 2. Implement SOPs in these areas: „ Administer self-aid and buddy-aid to crewmen with symptoms of chemical/biological agent poisoning (see Appendix E). After the platoon leader designates the route to the next possible overwatch position. Step 4.Chapter 3 z z z Within 8 minutes. Step 3. Continue the mission. This position may offer dominating terrain that allows the platoon to attack enemy positions by direct fire. 3-36 FM 3-20. „ Ensure individual crewmen decontaminate their skin.

Scenarios for destruction of an inferior enemy force Figure 3-22B.) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.Offensive Operations Figure 3-22A.15 3-37 . Scenarios for destruction of an inferior enemy force (cont.

the platoon uses tactical movement to move to a position that allows it to employ weapon standoff or that offers cover for hull-down firing positions.Chapter 3 ATTACK BY FIRE 3-126.15 22 February 2007 . In addition. either as specified in his original plan or on recommendation of the platoon leader. In executing this task. Platoon employs attack by fire against a convoy 3-38 FM 3-20. He issues a platoon fire command specifying the method of fire. The platoon can use an attack by fire to destroy inferior forces when the platoon leader does not desire to close with the enemy or when the platoon is part of a company-level effort. It also must be ready to move to alternate firing positions for protection from the effects of enemy direct and indirect fires. The task is to destroy the enemy using long-range fires from dominating terrain or using standoff of the main gun. the platoon may occupy an attack-by-fire position as part of a company-level hasty defense with the goal of destroying a superior force. Figures 3-232A and 3-23B illustrate attackby-fire situations. firing pattern. As time permits. A successful attack by fire destroys the enemy force. The commander may order the platoon to execute this task. and rate of fire the platoon must sustain to accomplish the task in support of the company. 3-128. the platoon leader designates TRPs and assigns sectors of fire and tentative firing positions for individual tanks. Figure 3-23A. 3-127. 3-129.

the supporting platoon maintains cross talk with the moving force on the company net. however. The techniques involved in occupying an overwatch or support-by-fire position and in focusing and controlling fires are similar to those for an attack by fire. breaching operations. Throughout this type of operation.15 3-39 .Offensive Operations Figure 3-23B. As noted. the platoon must maintain a high level of situational understanding relative to the supported force so it can lift and shift direct and indirect fires as required to prevent fratricide. A successful overwatch/support-by-fire operation suppresses the enemy. Figure 3-24 illustrates a support-by-fire situation in support of an assault. cross talk allows the platoon to provide early warning of enemy positions it has identified and to report battle damage inflicted on the enemy force. In addition to reducing fratricide risk. Some specific considerations exist. 3-132. The purpose is to suppress the enemy using long-range direct and indirect fires from a dominating piece of terrain or using the standoff of the main gun. the commander may order the platoon to provide overwatch or support by fire during the movement of a friendly force. permitting the moving (supported) force to conduct tactical movement. Platoon uses attack by fire against an enemy reconnaissance platoon as part of a hasty defense OVERWATCH/SUPPORT BY FIRE 3-130. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. the overwatch/support-by-fire task is always tied directly to the movement and/or tactical execution of other friendly forces. In executing overwatch or support by fire. Either as specified in his original plan or on recommendation of the platoon leader. or an assault. 3-131. This support sets the conditions that allow moving (supported) friendly elements to engage and destroy the enemy.

The platoon usually assaults the enemy while receiving supporting fires from an overwatch element. The platoon leader receives updated enemy information from support-by-fire elements. Figures 3-25A and 3-25B illustrate two assault situations. the platoon assaults on line. On order. He assigns targets or weapons orientations and confirms the axis of advance and the LOA for the assault. 3-135. either on the objective or on the far side of it. The assault must be extremely violent. Designation of the platoon as the assault force may be made as part of the commander’s original plan or on recommendation of the platoon leader. 3-137. 3-136. Platoon supports by fire to suppress an enemy element during a company assault ASSAULT 3-133. If the platoon assaults buttoned up. If supporting fire is not available. machine gun fire from the support force or wingman tanks can provide close-in protection against dismounted enemy elements on the objective. This should be a predetermined covered and concealed position that provides weapon standoff from the enemy. Following a successful assault. If tanks are unbuttoned. the assault force occupies or moves through an assault position. To prepare for the assault. hand grenades. the TCs and loaders use personal weapons. 3-40 FM 3-20. either on its own or as part of a larger assault force. The commander may direct the platoon to execute an assault. moving and firing as quickly as possible to destroy the enemy and seize the objective.Chapter 3 Figure 3-24.15 22 February 2007 . the platoon conducts tactical movement to a position of advantage over the enemy. 3-134. and machine guns to provide close-in protection. and then conducts the assault. the assault force occupies a defensible position. and begins consolidation and reorganization procedures. A successful assault destroys the enemy elements or forces them to withdraw from the objective. The purpose of the assault is to seize key terrain or to close with and destroy the enemy while seizing an enemy-held position.

Tank section assaults an inferior force as another section supports by fire 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.15 3-41 .Offensive Operations Figure 3-25A.

the supporting platoon hands the enemy over to another force. See Figures 3-26A and 3-26B for an example of a bypass. As part of his original plan or on recommendation of the platoon leader. Once clear of the enemy. Platoon executes an assault as two other platoons support by fire BYPASS 3-138. weapon standoff. The commander may designate one platoon to suppress the enemy. and obscuration to bypass known enemy locations. 3-42 FM 3-20. the platoon leader can employ tactical movement to break contact with the enemy and continue the mission. This COA can be taken against either an inferior or superior force.15 22 February 2007 . (Note. Units may have to execute contact drills while conducting the bypass. If necessary. he can also request supporting direct and indirect fires and smoke to suppress and obscure the enemy as the platoon safely breaks contact.Chapter 3 Figure 3-25B. the commander may order the platoon to bypass the enemy to maintain the tempo of the attack. breaks contact.) 3-139. allowing the other platoons to use covered and concealed routes. and rejoins the company.

Offensive Operations Figure 3-26A. Bypass 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.15 3-43 .

) 3-142. he would use small-arms fire against suspected dismounted elements but employ main guns to engage bunkers or other fortified positions. main-gun fire can also be used. and on wooded areas not yet cleared. on built-up areas that dominate the surrounding terrain. Note. (Note. 3-141. Focus of the reconnaissance by fire is on the key terrain that dominates danger areas. The platoon then conducts tactical movement. occupying successive overwatch positions until it makes contact with the enemy or reaches the objective.Chapter 3 Figure 3-26B. Based on his original plan or a recommendation from the platoon leader. He then either requests indirect fires or employs direct fires on likely enemy locations to cause the enemy force to return direct fire or to move. He directs individual tanks or sections to fire their caliber . A disciplined enemy force may not return fire or move if it determines that the pattern or type of fires employed will be nonlethal. the platoon leader may designate TRPs. At each overwatch position. thus compromising its positions.15 22 February 2007 . the commander may direct the platoon to execute reconnaissance by fire when enemy contact is expected or when contact has occurred but the enemy situation is vague. For example. Bypass (continued) RECONNAISSANCE BY FIRE 3-140. In some situations. 3-44 FM 3-20. Individual tanks and sections not designated to reconnoiter by fire observe the effects of the firing tanks and engage enemy forces as they are identified. The platoon leader must analyze the situation and direct the use of appropriate fires on suspected positions.50 and/or coax machine guns into targeted areas.

Note. 3-148. A critical consideration is that the tank platoon has only limited ability to deal independently with an obstacle or restriction. The overwatch tanks scan for evidence of enemy forces in and around the obstacle and on dominant terrain on the far side of the obstacle. Tank platoons may also be called upon to serve as a breaching or proofing force if BCT assets are unavailable or disabled. They attempt to locate a bypass so the operation can continue without delay. providing suppressive fires. mine. It may also set up a hasty defense when the enemy executes a hasty attack. The platoon must NEVER attempt to approach the obstacle area or breach the obstacle without first killing or obscuring enemy elements overwatching the obstacle. and marking two lanes through a complex wire and mine obstacle. and assault through the obstacle). The platoon maintains contact or fixes the enemy in place until additional combat elements arrive or until it is ordered to move. that the platoon cannot internally accomplish all of the SOSRA elements of the breach (suppress the enemy. 3-145. The platoon may use this task if it is fixed or suppressed by enemy fire and no longer has the ability to move forward or bypass. If this reconnaissance locates a bypass route. including SOSRA procedures. The HBCT has one engineer company for mobility support that is capable of establishing. proofing. They must immediately seek cover and establish an overwatch to evaluate the situation. Tank platoons generally operate in support of deliberate breaching operations by overwatching engineer forces. with the tanks continuing to provide overwatch. If a bypass is not possible. The commander and platoon leader must keep in mind. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. If he needs to develop the situation further. If no bypass is found. the commander has responsibility for continuing to develop the situation. 3-147. tailoring their preparations to templated locations for the expected obstacles. secure the far side. the commander ideally will use scouts or infantry to reconnoiter the obstacle. If it is equipped with mine plows or other breaching assets. reduce the obstacle. Deliberate breaching operations are conducted at the company or higher level and require engineer augmentation. When the platoon must conduct a hasty defense. he may order a breaching operation. They must ensure the platoon knows how to accomplish early detection of both anticipated and unexpected obstacles and how to react instinctively when contact is made. When they expect to make contact with enemy obstacles.Offensive Operations HASTY OCCUPATION OF A PLATOON BATTLE POSITION (HASTY DEFENSE) 3-143.15 3-45 . 3-146. This usually requires him to move mounted or dismounted elements to the far side. however. and other reinforcing obstacles. Refer to the discussion of breaching operations. It is critical that the tank platoon initially remain under cover while evaluating the situation. obscure the breach. When tanks encounter an unexpected obstacle. BREACHING OPERATIONS 3-144. the overwatch determines the dimensions of the obstacle and sends a report to the commander so he can designate a COA. and/or assaulting to the far side of the obstacle to establish a foothold. with the tanks either executing an in-stride breach within their capabilities or supporting a deliberate breach. in Chapter 5 of this manual. the commander often will order the unit to execute a bypass as the preferred COA. crew members must assume that the enemy is covering the obstacle with observation and fire. the platoon can create track-width lanes through most wire. the commander and platoon leader must plan and rehearse actions at an obstacle.

the platoon leader notifies the commander and searches for terrain that is defensible and supports the commander’s intent. as required by unit SOP. z The PSG takes these actions: „ Compile SITREPs from TCs and. submit a consolidated report to the platoon leader or 1SG. Reorganization. ammunition. „ Direct cross-leveling of supplies within the platoon. „ Conduct essential maintenance. The platoon executes consolidation and reorganization on the objective to ensure that it is prepared to destroy an enemy counterattack or is prepared to resume the attack as soon as possible. The platoon leader informs the commander of the new location. Note. Tanks move to hull-down positions. Consolidation consists of actions taken to secure an objective and to defend against an enemy counterattack.153 and unit SOPs for additional information. such as to achieve surprise against the enemy or gain a position of advantage by means of stealth. SITREPs are sent using voice or digital format (or a combination). REORGANIZATION 3-151. „ Oversee consolidation of Soldiers who have been killed in action (KIA). „ Move crewmen who are wounded in action (WIA) to a covered position and provide first aid. is normally accomplished by SOP. the process of preparing for continued fighting. „ Coordinate the movement of detainees to the detainee collection point. Refer to ST 3-20. „ Redistribute personnel as necessary to maintain combat readiness. The platoon takes these steps: z Eliminate remaining enemy resistance and secure detainees. The company commander designates platoon positions and weapons orientations. „ Oversee evacuation of casualties. z The platoon leader takes these actions: „ Forward a consolidated SITREP to the commander. Responsibilities during reorganization include the following: z TCs take these actions: „ Reload machine guns and redistribute main gun ammunition to ready areas. CONSOLIDATION 3-150. z Establish security and coordinate mutual support with adjacent platoons. and the platoon leader assigns sectors of fire. z Execute procedures for a hasty defense to prepare for possible counterattacks (see Chapter 4 of this manual for details on hasty defense). Units conduct limited visibility operations for various reasons. z Occupy positions on defensible terrain as designated in the OPORD or FRAGO.15 22 February 2007 . „ Send a SITREP to the PSG reporting casualties and supply status of equipment.EXECUTION—CONSOLIDATION AND REORGANIZATION 3-149. Darkness obviously has the most dramatic 3-46 FM 3-20.Chapter 3 SECTION VII . „ Reestablish communications with elements that are out of contact. and fuel. If the location designated in the OPORD/FRAGO is not defensible. SECTION VIII – LIMITED VISIBILITY OPERATIONS 3-152.

z Replace the brake light cover with color-coded plastic. and other obscuration factors caused by weapon firing and movement of Soldiers and equipment. and the compass and odometer method to navigate in limited visibility conditions. 3-153. z Gunner’s primary sight and commander’s extension. the most common are the following: z Dust. It provides the TC with a redundant target acquisition and surveillance capability equivalent to that of the gunner’s primary sight and the TIS. the tank platoon must train to fight effectively in all types of visibility conditions. It enhances the driver’s ability to move the tank and enables him to assist in target acquisition and to observe rounds in darkness or other limited visibility conditions. The following paragraphs cover additional considerations for the planning. the platoon can use the following techniques to enhance command and control and to help prevent fratricide (see also Appendix F. and blowing sand and dust. This integrated thermal sight gives the gunner and TC the capability to see and engage targets under almost any visibility condition. fog. The platoon leader uses the GPS and/or POSNAV (if available). snow. Most unit SOPs cover vehicle marking and identification procedures. z Use luminous or thermal tape to “outline” vehicles or to make battle boards. TACTICAL MOVEMENT AND ATTACKS 3-157. TCs must be able to distinguish vehicles of their platoon and company/troop and of other friendly elements from those of the enemy. giving him 360-degree observation capability independent of the gunner’s primary sight. and execution of these operations when visibility is restricted. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. NAVIGATION 3-155. however. The problem of vehicle identification is compounded in limited visibility conditions. this FM. There are. z PVS-7. full-target engagement sight on the M1A2. z CITV. The fundamentals for executing tactical movement and attacks discussed elsewhere in this manual are applicable during periods of limited visibility. The tank platoon is equipped with the following types of equipment for use in limited visibility conditions: z Driver’s night-vision viewer. VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION 3-156. other conditions that restrict visibility. EQUIPMENT 3-154. This passive-vision device enables the TC to observe from his opened hatch to control movement and provide close-in security.15 3-47 . When they are fired to create a ground-burst effect. The CITV extends the TC’s field of view. artillery or mortar illumination rounds can be helpful in confirming locations. If it is to use its superior technology and basic combat skills to sustain continuous operations and destroy the enemy. In addition. including rain. z Weather conditions. z Use radio and digital systems (if available) to provide the platoon with frequent updates of friendly unit locations. for information about fratricide prevention): z Attach color-coded lights or chemical lights to the rear of the turret or the hull. The platoon must first master the execution of tasks under optimum visibility conditions and then continue its training in progressively more difficult situations. This is a fully integrated.Offensive Operations effect on the ability of Soldiers to see the battlefield. preparation. There are normally two PVS-7s per tank. smoke. Refer to Chapter 2 of this manual for a detailed discussion of navigation techniques. terrain association. This sight is either passive (the vehicle visualization system (VVS)-2/driver’s vision enhancer [DVE]) or thermal (the driver’s thermal viewer [DTV]).

the platoon leader must pay particular attention to routes.15 22 February 2007 . He must conduct a thorough reconnaissance to identify locations where the platoon could become disoriented. During PCCs and PCIs. During the planning phase. formations. an effective technique is to have the vehicle that makes contact fire a steady burst of machine gun fire in the direction of the enemy to orient the rest of the platoon. During the execution phase. the platoon leader must ensure that all personnel understand the platoon’s projected actions during each phase of the operation. During confirmation briefs and rehearsals. In the preparation phase. the distance between platoon vehicles is reduced to allow vehicles to observe each other and to decrease the time necessary to react to enemy contact. The platoon leader must assume that the enemy possesses the same limited visibility observation capabilities as friendly units. He must stress light discipline. Such terrain may require a change in formation or movement technique or employment of dismounted ground guides. and navigational aids. Use of terrain to mask movement and deployment remains critical since limited visibility may create a false sense of protection from observation. The platoon must adhere strictly to applicable control measures. PREPARATION 3-159. the platoon leader or PSG views each tank using a passive sight to ensure that sources of light have been dimmed or covered so they are not visible to the enemy. 3-48 FM 3-20. EXECUTION 3-160. During movement. the platoon leader conducts rehearsals in as many types of adverse conditions as possible to prepare the platoon for potential command and control problems. TCs use the PVS-7 and the CITV (if available) to assist their drivers with navigation and to enhance situational understanding.Chapter 3 PLANNING 3-158. The reconnaissance must also focus on finding rough or restricted terrain that will be even more difficult to negotiate with limited visibility. 3-161. especially those covering the employment of direct fires and maintain strict situational understanding of friendly force locations. When the platoon encounters enemy elements. One technique is to designate waypoints or phase lines as trigger points for platoon actions.

The platoon leader must integrate his security plan with that of the company or troop. z To hold key terrain. SECTION I . PREPARATION 4-2. MASS. preparation. Additionally. defensive operations are undertaken for purposes that include the following: z To gain time. z To erode enemy resources at a rapid rate while reinforcing friendly operations.15 4-1 . and concentration. OPORD. A crucial indicator of platoon flexibility is the ability to 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. and flexibility. beginning with receipt of the WARNO. The OPSEC measures discussed in Appendix D of this manual will assist the platoon leader in maintaining security during the planning. FM 3-0 describes several characteristics of an effective defense: preparation. mass. the tank platoon leader must consider the factors examined in the following discussion. or FRAGO. and execution of the defense. disruption. BPs. During the preparation phase of the defense. FLEXIBILITY 4-5. Augmenting the platoon’s direct fires with reinforcing obstacles and indirect fires is a key step in disrupting enemy operations. Platoons achieve mass and concentration by maximizing the number of tanks that can fire into an engagement area or that can move from primary positions to alternate and supplementary positions to concentrate fires on the enemy.Chapter 4 Defensive Operations The immediate purpose of any defensive operation is to defeat an enemy attack. displacement routes. Section III of this chapter describes preparation at the platoon level in detail. The platoon leader contributes to the flexibility of company or troop operations by developing a thorough understanding of the company/troop plan. AND CONCENTRATION 4-4. security. and the axis for possible counterattacks. including on-order and be-prepared missions. He enhances the platoon’s early warning capability by identifying potential mounted and dismounted avenues of approach and then positioning early warning devices and OPs to cover these avenues.FUNDAMENTALS OF THE DEFENSE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEFENSE 4-1. The critical element affecting preparation is time management. He must be alert to any possible contingencies that have not been addressed by the commander. SECURITY 4-3. Military forces defend until they gain sufficient strength to attack. To optimize these characteristics in the defense. z To fix the enemy so friendly forces can attack elsewhere. Effective use of the available time allows the platoon leader to conduct a thorough reconnaissance of engagement areas. the platoon increases flexibility by conducting thorough reconnaissance and mounted rehearsals of all possible plans. DISRUPTION.

The focus of area defenses is on retention of terrain. z Displace. z Screen. 4-8. DEFENSIVE PATTERNS. the planning and preparation phases of the defense. which cover. z Fire support. assaults. between primary. z Delay. the tank platoon conducts tactical movement to occupy BPs or attack-byfire positions. are organized using the WFFs in the order listed above. a company team may be tasked to execute one or more of these missions and tasks: z Defend BPs. or canalize enemy forces. In support of mobile and area defenses. z Execute a reserve mission. MISSIONS. z Protection. or to displace to occupy subsequent BPs based on the commander’s intent. alternate. Included in each section is a discussion of the human aspect of operations. AND TASKS 4-6. block. Soldier-related factors. Note. The two patterns described in FM 3-0 are mobile and area defenses. In conducting planning. z Sustainment. z Withdraw. In a counterattack or reserve mission. z Perform reserve missions. the platoon leader must pay close attention to the considerations applicable for the war-fighting function (WFF). Sections II and III of this chapter. preparation. and supplementary fighting positions as well as subsequent BPs. or other actions on contact based on the commander’s intent for the counterattack. focusing on intangible. the platoon may be tasked to destroy. 4-2 FM 3-20. z Intelligence. defending units engage the enemy from an interlocking series of positions and destroy him. respectively. and execution of defensive operations. WARFIGHTING FUNCTIONS 4-9. A mobile defense is executed to destroy the attacking force by permitting the enemy to advance into a position that exposes him to counterattack by a mobile reserve. largely by direct fires. When defending a BP. which help him to logically organize his thoughts to cover the mission. z Command and control. it executes hasty attacks. z Counterattack. z Defend in sector. z Defend a strongpoint. ROLE OF THE TANK PLATOON 4-7. to retain terrain.15 22 February 2007 . Tank platoons participate in the company team or troop defense by performing one or more of the following operations: z Defend a BP.Chapter 4 move quickly under all battlefield conditions. z Counterattack. The WFFs are the following: z Movement and maneuver.

As planning progresses. fighting positions. The platoon leader’s own reconnaissance includes his TCs and PSG. RECONNAISSANCE AND TIME MANAGEMENT 4-11. It ends when the platoon leader issues his own OPORD or FRAGO. primary and supplementary platoon sectors of fire. He is normally part of the commander’s reconnaissance. 4-17. using a hand-held GPS or the POSNAV system. The primary concern in selecting fighting positions is the platoon’s ability to concentrate and mass lethal fires into its sectors of fire. Planning may continue into the preparation phase as the platoon gains more information through the plan of the higher headquarters and from further reconnaissance and rehearsals. the FIST. he must rely on his map-reading skills to manually identify and record accurate position locations. the platoon leader takes part in two reconnaissance operations during the planning phase. he may allow the platoon leader to make decisions covering some or all of these areas. the platoon will occupy hull-down firing positions as the enemy crosses the direct-fire trigger line.PLANNING 4-10. and routes he thinks the platoon will use in executing the defense. The trigger line should optimize weapon standoff. Whether time permits a thorough ground reconnaissance or only a quick map reconnaissance. and the 1SG. which is organized using the WFF. if neither is available. it is critical that the platoon leader understand where the commander wants to kill the enemy. this will allow him to provide precise locations that the platoon can use in navigation or orientation. During the commander’s reconnaissance. or thermal paper. The planning phase of a defensive operation is a continuous process that begins when the platoon leader receives the higher order (WARNO. however. Ideally. and mark the tentative TRPs. 4-12. initiation of direct fires. the platoon leader can record positions electronically. and disengagement criteria. He records the eight-digit grid coordinates of each position. It is important for him to have sufficient day and night marking materials such as engineer stakes and tape. it is important that the platoon leader make a careful evaluation of the considerations outlined in the following discussion. Ideally. 4-13. MANEUVER AND COMMAND AND CONTROL 4-15. FRAGO. Dispersion among fighting positions reduces vulnerability of platoon vehicles to enemy fires. primary and alternate fighting positions should allow engagement of the enemy in the flank and from two directions.15 4-3 . It is also essential that he identify platoon sectors of fire and tentative platoon BPs. chemical lights. Ideally. along with the XO. Whenever possible. dispersion increases the demands for local security in the area between vehicles. coordinated platoon defense that is effectively integrated into the company or troop scheme of maneuver are reconnaissance and efficient time management during the planning phase. other platoon leaders. however. he develops his plan based on these factors as well as the commander’s intent. The platoon leader must understand the company or troop plan and triggers. The keys to a successful. or OPORD).Defensive Operations SECTION II . record. The commander normally determines operational considerations such as OPSEC. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. WAR-FIGHTING FUNCTION CONSIDERATIONS 4-14. occupation of firing positions. Supplementary fighting positions are planned to allow the platoon to defend against enemy forces that penetrate adjacent platoon positions or that move along additional avenues of approach for which the commander has assumed risk. the platoon leader must identify. 4-16. while the firing positions and the designated firing pattern should be selected to create the opportunity for flank engagements. as well as TRPs that define the company/troop engagement area.

15 22 February 2007 . Supplementary BPs are oriented on sectors of fire along different avenues of approach (see Figure 4-2). Although most fire support planning is done by the company or troop FIST. Supplementary fighting positions orient on different sectors of fire (see Figure 4-1).Chapter 4 Note. if necessary. Figure 4-1. Battle positions FIRE SUPPORT 4-18. The platoon leader posts targets on his overlays (in both traditional and digital format). 4-4 FM 3-20. Primary and alternate fighting positions are oriented on the same sectors of fire. Fighting positions Figure 4-2. the platoon leader can. Subsequent BPs are oriented on sectors of fire along the same avenue of approach as the primary/alternate positions.

He identifies mounted and dismounted avenues of approach and determines the probable formations the enemy will use when occupying support-by-fire positions or when assaulting the platoon’s position.) INTELLIGENCE 4-22. The location of the trigger line is based on the enemy’s expected rate of advance over the terrain. At the conclusion of the reconnaissance. See Appendix D of this manual for more information on OPSEC measures. He should incorporate plans for linkup. 4-24. He should also be prepared to request a mix of smoke and dualpurpose improved conventional munitions (DPICM) rounds in front of his BP to disrupt an enemy assault or behind his BP to help the platoon disengage from the enemy. the platoon leader confirms vehicle positions that will allow the platoon to mass fires into the company or troop engagement area. at choke points along the avenues of approach. Key factors for the platoon leader to consider in countermobility planning are a thorough understanding of the commander’s intent for each planned obstacle and knowledge of the time and personnel he must allocate to supervise or assist emplacement of the obstacle. Platoons use OPs to provide early warning of the enemy’s actions. Because it is probable that enemy elements are already in the area. Mortars should be the platoon leader’s first choice as indirect fire due to the probability of the company’s or troop’s low priority of FA fires. As he conducts the reconnaissance. he may be able to gain a tactical advantage by employing mortar support in certain situations. Based on his analysis and available fields of observation and fire. the platoon leader plots them on his overlays. The platoon leader should plan and coordinate mortar targets on dismounted avenues of approach. he notes its grid coordinates so he can. using the results in conjunction with his knowledge of possible enemy COAs to identify key terrain that may define potential enemy objectives. The platoon’s laser range finders or target designation capabilities (on digitally equipped tanks) enhance its effectiveness in requesting artillery fires using trigger lines. If a target is disapproved. he may leave an OP to report enemy activity in the area of operations. The company or troop FIST should assist in determining all trigger points. because mortar smoke is generally more responsive than smoke delivered by FA. the platoon leader orients his map and references graphic control measures to the terrain. He conducts a terrain analysis.15 4-5 . The platoon leader should complete his reconnaissance by conducting initial coordination with adjacent platoons to establish mutual support and to cover dead space between the platoons. if needed. The platoon leader should plan and request artillery targets on potential avenues of approach. He must keep in mind that 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. at obstacles. 4-23. As these targets are approved. See Chapter 6 of this manual for methods of transmitting calls for fire. Security decisions are based on enemy capabilities. and the priority of fires. The platoon leader may be responsible for supervising engineer efforts. submit a speedy call for fire using the grid method. supervision. the time of flight of the rounds. In addition. 4-19. (See Appendix E of this manual for information on smoke operations. 4-25. and handoff of engineer assets into his time line. at possible enemy support by fire positions. OPSEC is especially critical during the platoon leader’s ground reconnaissance. Each artillery target should have a trigger line overwatched by at least a crew or section. Countermobility Considerations (Obstacles) 4-27.Defensive Operations provide the FIST with nominations for additional targets for inclusion in the company fire support plan. PROTECTION Survivability 4-26. The platoon leader ensures that he provides security for the reconnaissance based on the commander’s guidance. The trigger line triggers the call for fire on a target to ensure that the impact of the rounds coincides with the enemy’s arrival. he must ensure that platoon reconnaissance elements have the capability to protect themselves effectively. 4-20. 4-21. their REDCON status and other OPSEC preparations then enable them to respond in a timely manner. and in dead space within the platoon’s AO.

turn. the platoon leader should analyze the situation and plan hasty or engineer-emplaced obstacles to meet these purposes: z To block the final assault of an enemy force to the front of the platoon. This means that in most situations the platoon will have to depend on the task force or squadron for obstacle planning and transport and on engineers for emplacement. z To shape the engagement area by forcing enemy elements to turn. 4-29. and block the enemy based on the factors of METT-TC. he considers the survivability of unimproved positions and the relative importance of each firing position within the BP. z They are employed in depth and positioned where they will surprise enemy forces. or dozer operator can estimate how much time it will take to improve firing positions. If the commander does not specify the intent for obstacles. 4-28. or flank themselves at known ranges in the engagement area. fix. Figure 4-3 illustrates considerations for obstacle employment in relation to platoon BPs. z To disrupt enemy forces that are assaulting on the flanks of the platoon. The platoon leader must plan the priority of survivability efforts. z To block the seams between vehicles or between adjacent platoons. In general. obstacles are used to disrupt. z They are integrated with existing obstacles.15 22 February 2007 .Chapter 4 both the platoon and the company or troop have only limited ability to transport and emplace obstacles. z They should be covered by direct and indirect fires at all times. Figure 4-3. Considerations for obstacle employment Survivability Considerations 4-30. The commander’s intent will guide the emplacement of obstacles based on the following principles and characteristics: z Obstacles are integrated with and reinforce the scheme of maneuver and the direct fire plan. stop. slow down. When designating priorities. His plan should specify the sequence (first through fourth) in which his tanks will receive digging assets. These estimates will range from 45 minutes to 2 hours depending 4-6 FM 3-20. The engineer platoon leader. section leader.

Ammunition may be pre-positioned on the battlefield to facilitate resupply once the battle begins. He discusses prestock requests with the commander. As noted previously. PHASE OF PREPARATION 4-35. and coordination against the amount of time available for the preparation. and overall readiness. There are three phases. The platoon leader conducts resupply operations to replenish basic loads in accordance with the company or troop plan. He must weigh competing demands of security.15 4-7 . Figure 4-4 Figure 4-4. The commander may designate the phase of preparation for each BP. welfare. this requirement places a premium on effective troop-leading procedures and time management during the preparation process. (Note. and any necessary security considerations. firing position and obstacle preparation. but it is a crucial factor in the success of the defensive mission. The platoon leader must plan for and conduct activities aimed at enhancing each Soldier’s health. SECTION III – PREPARATION 4-34. The platoon leader may raise but not lower the phase of preparation directed by the commander. Some preparation activities may occur while the platoon leader is preparing his order. Preparation of a BP begins after the platoon leader has issued his order and ends at the “defend not later than” time specified in the OPORD. THE HUMAN ASPECT 4-33. The platoon leader determines prestock requirements based on the commander’s intent and scheme of maneuver.) The platoon leader designates these preparations as priorities of work and identifies them in the platoon WARNO or OPORD. illustrates dug-in positions and lists considerations for their construction and use. SUSTAINMENT 4-32. Dug-in firing positions Air Defense 4-31.) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. the time required to conduct resupply. the types (usually ammunition) and amounts of supplies involved. listed here in descending order of thoroughness and time required: (Note. For a more complete discussion of the human dimension of operations. identifying resupply locations. the “human aspect” is not considered a formal WFF. rehearsals. morale.Defensive Operations on soil and light conditions and the type and amount of engineer equipment available. Refer to Chapter 6 of this manual for a discussion of air defense planning and employment. refer to Section II in Chapter 3 of this manual.

In addition. Friendly units can also construct markers to serve as TRPs (see Figure 4-5). PREPARATION TASKS HASTY OCCUPATION 4-36. Initial Occupation Activities and Information 4-37. the platoon leader issues the information in person. z Laser point.15 22 February 2007 . they can be used in calling for and adjusting indirect fires. The position is fully reconnoitered. or an impromptu feature designated as a TRP on the spot. or by digital overlay (if available). Depending on the situation. or in response to FRAGOs reflecting a change of mission. Tank platoons conduct a hasty occupation under a variety of circumstances. Examples of TRPs include the following features and objects: z Prominent terrain feature (for example. the platoon may occupy prepared positions it has previously reconnoitered. A TRP can be an established site. although in some situations. a grain silo). when TRPs are designated as indirect fire targets. Occupy. Prepare. During a movement to contact. This phase includes the steps conducted during the planning and preparation phases for the deliberate occupation of a BP. a large hill mass). z The tentative location of the BP. 4-8 FM 3-20. and occupied prior to the “defend NLT” time specified in the OPORD. like a burning enemy vehicle or smoke generated by an artillery or mortar round.Chapter 4 z z z Reconnoiter. hasty occupation may take place during counterattack missions. z Ground-burst illumination. only a minimum of planning time and information is available prior to execution. As a minimum. passiveinfrared (IR). such as after disengagement. The commander designates company or troop TRPs either to define the company/troop engagement area and platoon sectors of fire or to identify locations where the platoon will mass its fires. Leaders designate TRPs at probable enemy locations and along likely avenues of approach. This phase of preparation consists of the steps conducted during the ground reconnaissance of the planning phase. prepared. Often. Hasty occupation of a BP usually occurs in response to a prearranged signal or a FRAGO. the platoon leader must have the following information when he orders a hasty occupation: z Where the commander wants to kill the enemy. These points can be natural or man-made. TRPs should be visible in three observation modes (unaided. he can elect to use the company or troop TRP alone to mass platoon fires to the left and to the right of the TRP. The platoon leader must pass this information to the platoon. such as a hill or building. 4-38. z Observable enemy position. after disengagement and movement to subsequent BPs. z Smoke round. z Distinctive man-made structure (for example. As an alternative. the platoon may prepare to destroy a moving enemy force by conducting a hasty occupation of BPs or attack-by-fire positions in defensible terrain. A TRP is a recognizable point on the ground that leaders use to orient friendly forces and to focus and control direct fires. z Destroyed vehicle. He may supplement it with tentative section or vehicle fighting positions within the BP and platoon TRPs defining section sectors of fire. This is complete preparation of the position from which the platoon will initially defend. and thermal) so all forces can see them. During defensive operations. over the radio. 4-39.

Vehicle dispersion is generally 100 to 250 meters between tanks.Defensive Operations Figure 4-5. The platoon is now ready to move to hull-down firing positions to engage the enemy. Based on terrain factors. and the location of subsequent BPs. The platoon leader continues to develop the situation. Examples of constructed TRP markers Approaching the Position 4-40. the platoon leader establishes the following fire control measures: z The trigger line and engagement criteria. z Disengagement criteria and the disengagement plan. TCs automatically move to turret-down positions. the platoon leader initiates the steps necessary for a deliberate occupation of the BP. the platoon assumes a modified line formation facing the center of the engagement area. routes into and out of the BP. 4-42. The platoon leader then directs the platoon to approach the position from the flank or rear.15 4-9 . 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. again based on engagement area and terrain considerations. he also designates tentative vehicle positions (as necessary). z The fire pattern to be used. Developing the Situation 4-41. He identifies additional TRPs defining the company or troop engagement area and/or platoon or section sectors of fire. they execute a short halt and overwatch the engagement area. If the enemy has not reached the trigger line and time is available. As time permits. The platoon leader reports “ESTABLISHED” to the company/troop commander.

15 22 February 2007 . z A friendly element is forward of the BP with the mission of providing security for the occupying force. 4-49. They should record the eight-digit grid coordinates for these locations. the platoon leader and TCs move back to the BP. issue a detailed WARNO. (Note. If possible. Prior to departing the BP. TCs move to the platoon leader’s vehicle and prepare to reconnoiter the position. If he is unable to issue the full OPORD during the reconnaissance. outlining probable COAs and the effects of terrain on enemy movement. engagement criteria. if possible. platoon vehicles provide overwatch for the reconnaissance group. briefing his OPORD from an advantageous location within the BP. 4-48. TCs. When reconnaissance of the engagement area is complete and all TCs are sure of where the platoon leader wants to kill the enemy. They also make plans to identify and mark primary and alternate fighting positions. and move to hide positions behind their 4-10 FM 3-20. he uses information from his own reconnaissance to acquaint his TCs with the BP. The reconnaissance group can then move mounted or dismounted around the BP and engagement area. the reconnaissance begins from the enemy’s perspective in the engagement area. They discuss details of the platoon fire plan. The platoon begins by occupying a hide position behind the BP. z The enemy is not expected or has not been located within direct fire range. start vehicles simultaneously. and routes to supplementary or subsequent BPs. Members of the reconnaissance party should use marking materials (for daylight and limited visibility recognition) to indicate key locations. 4-51. otherwise. The platoon leader. More information on coordination is found later in this section. It assumes a formation that will provide 360-degree security based on considerations of METT-TC and OAKOC. including the trigger line. disengagement criteria and disengagement plan. fire control measures may be designated and/or marked using easily identifiable terrain features. the platoon leader should. 4-50. the platoon leader should. He also must coordinate with adjacent platoons to establish overlapping fields of fire and to eliminate gaps and dead space between the platoons. He also identifies the enemy’s potential support by fire positions as well as assault avenues through the platoon’s BP. either manually on their maps or by using electronic means such as the GPS or POSNAV system (if available). conduct a complete ground reconnaissance with the TCs. fire pattern. They may also mark TRPs and tentative obstacle locations. the platoon leader and TCs move back to their vehicles. If the platoon leader has already conducted a leader’s reconnaissance with the commander.Chapter 4 DELIBERATE OCCUPATION 4-43. To be most effective. and a security element (usually the loaders from the wingman tanks) dismount and move to the BP. The platoon leader briefs his gunner on actions to take if the reconnaissance group does not return by a specified time or if contact occurs. After completing the reconnaissance and coordination. If there has been no prior leader’s reconnaissance. Reconnaissance of the Battle Position 4-45. as a minimum. Occupation Procedures 4-52. 4-46. 4-44. the platoon leader briefs the OPs on actions to take if the platoon does not return on time or if contact is made with the enemy.) 4-47. with the party looking toward the BP. As necessary. the platoon leader positions dismounted OPs. The tank platoon can conduct deliberate occupation of a BP when all of the following conditions exist: z Time is available. as necessary. The platoon leader must receive permission from the commander to move in front of the BP. This allows him to confirm his map reconnaissance and tentative plan before he issues the OPORD. The platoon leader and TCs then mark the company/troop engagement area with platoon and section sectors of fire.) The platoon leader should explain the enemy situation. (Note. The TCs remount.

The platoon leader checks with the OPs to ensure that the enemy situation has not changed. See Chapter 2 of this manual for a discussion of REDCON levels. Hull-down positions Sector Sketches and Platoon Fire Plan 4-54. (Note.15 4-11 . Observation can be executed using the CITV (if available).Defensive Operations primary fighting positions. Each crew sends its completed sector sketch to the platoon leader. then orders platoon vehicles to occupy their primary hull-down firing positions (see Figure 4-6B). the crew retains a copy of the sketch card for its own reference. These positions allow the tanks to fire only their caliber . This is a rough topographical sketch of the tank’s assigned sector.) Figure 4-6B. Figure 4-6A. As each tank crew prepares their vehicle for deliberate or hasty defensive operations. which may be prepared traditionally (handwritten) or using the tank’s digital equipment (FBCB2). The sketch card aids the crews in target acquisition and paints a better picture of the battlefield for the platoon leader to be able to develop his platoon fire plan (see Figure 4-8 on page 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. they will be required to develop a sector sketch card (see Figure 4-7 on page 4-15).50 or loader’s M240 machine gun. Tank crews orient on the engagement area and complete their sketch cards. Turret-down positions 4-53. the platoon moves simultaneously into turret-down firing positions (see Figure 4-6A). On order. the gunner’s primary sight also provides observation capability. if available). either by messenger or by digital transmission (FBCB2. Tanks then move individually to their hide positions and assume the appropriate REDCON status.

alternate. or S and placed below the vehicle bumper number. at or beyond the tank’s maximum engagement range. and marked with the letters Ref Pt inside a circle. while important for all tank crewmen. (If terrain permits. which is illustrated in Figure 4-7 on page 4-14. placed directly below the tank symbol.400 meters will be used.) A minimum of three range bands should be used.” z The positions of elements to the left and right and of friendly OPs/listening posts (LPs). the crew will make sure the target areas and obstacles within the sector can be fired upon. 4-58. 4-55. The number of bands will be determined by the terrain or mission. When the cards are completed (normally within 20 minutes). the TC will make physical contact with his wing or flanking elements to determine overlapping fire within the sectors and the position of friendly OPs. The ability to create traditional. z Right and left limits of assigned sector. 4-12 FM 3-20. As the positions are prepared. or supplementary). z Preplanned fires (direct and indirect). When the tank is moved into position. range bands of 1. Mark all TRPs that are visible. The platoon leader must give the TC the number designators for the TRPs. 4-56. one copy will be sent to the platoon leader and the other copy will be kept with the tank. z TRPs. with the letter designation in the top left block and numeric designation in the top right. These limits are marked by double lines beginning at the tank’s position and extending through the terrain feature that designates the boundary limit. is especially critical for crews of the M1 and M1A1. These will help when the LRF fails.15 22 February 2007 . and before engineer assets are released from the position. It is prepared using the same two methods (handwritten or FBCB2). These positions should be marked with standard symbols. z Symbol indicating north. the TC and gunner will prepare the sketch cards for each position. and 2. and readily identifiable feature. Dead space should be marked using diagonal lines with the words “DEAD SPACE. After the positions have been designated and reconnoitered (time permitting). If time permits. This consists of the vehicle bumper number. These may be added after the platoon leader receives this information from the FIST officer and constructs a platoon fire plan. z Range bands. whether they are in your sector or not. or brief word description. Traditional sketch card development. z Identification data. (This information will be omitted if the tactical situation does not allow enough time to make contact with wing and flank elements. will depict the following: z All key terrain features. As a minimum. both organic and attached. and determine if assigned TRPs can be engaged. immovable. ideally. sketch of feature. z Reference point. the traditionally drawn sketch card. The platoon leader must be informed of any inability to engage assigned TRPs and may direct a change in position.200.Chapter 4 4-17). z High-speed avenues of approach. marked with a capital P. These should be marked with a cross. TRPs should be marked with a cross and their assigned number in the upper right quadrant of the cross. 4-57. it should not be a target and should not be easily destroyed. This is located near the center of the sector and. the platoon leader will designate the sector limits of fire for each tank and the TRPs within the sector. The reference point should be depicted using a military map symbol. A TRP that could be engaged before the position was prepared may be masked when the tank is dug in. A. The reference point should be a prominent. These tanks lack the digital capabilities that provide valuable assistance to crews of later-model vehicles in preparing their sketch cards.800. and the firing position (primary. The process begins with the platoon leader designating the primary and supplementary positions for his tanks and each TC selecting his alternate fighting position. Obstacles should be marked on the sketch card using approved military symbols. The fire plan should provide information necessary to distribute and control the fires of all available direct and indirect fire weapons. handwritten sketch cards. 1. z Obstacles and dead space. or otherwise determine their exact location).

4-60. These ranges are especially critical in limited visibility or degraded (LRF) operations. gunner’s primary sight extension (GPSE). z Each crew has marked ranges to all TRPs or identifiable targets within the tank’s sector. „ Range to obstacles and other likely targets. this information includes the following: „ List of TRPs. The sketch card check should ensure that the TCs have covered each of the following considerations: z Tank sectors are mutually supporting and overlapping.Defensive Operations z z Marginal information. the platoon leader must redraw them onto the platoon fire plan before forwarding it to the commander. Using pickets to indicate left and right limits for individual tank main gun fire can help TCs to observe their limits of fire. placed in the bottom right third of the sketch card. Upon receipt of these tank sketch cards. While FBCB2 currently does not have the capability to produce a tank sketch card. includes an explanation of symbols used on the card and other control measures and pertinent information. As he receives the platoon’s sketch cards. „ Description of TRPs. „ Reference points. „ Range to TRPs. Placed in the bottom left third of the sketch card. crews can use the range card tool to produce a rough. z The risk of fratricide between platoon tanks and adjacent elements has been evaluated and appropriate adjustments or restrictions implemented. Each crew member needs to know the location of adjacent vehicles and OPs and what they look like through the tank’s sights. „ Description of obstacles and other likely target areas visible to your position. or CITV. The legend. Rehearsals are the best method of achieving fratricide reduction. with each obstacle covered by machine gun or main gun fire from at least one tank. (Note. z All TRPs assigned to the platoon are covered by fire. z Dead space is covered by indirect fire or alternate positions. Legend.15 4-13 . Future software upgrades of the FBCB2 will include the sketch card function. Sketch card verification. z Each tank and the platoon as a whole has identified alternate positions that cover the same area as the primary positions and supplementary positions that cover additional areas of responsibility assigned to the tank or platoon.) z The sketches show friendly obstacles. Either he or the PSG mounts each tank and views its sector through the gunner’s primary sight. 4-59. as required. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. nondoctrinal sketch card. z Each tank crew understands and has recorded the designated TRPs and FPF. the platoon leader must verify them. Creating sketch cards using FBCB2 (M1A1D and M1A2 SEP).

including the following: 4-14 FM 3-20. The platoon leader can use the exercise to reinforce operational considerations for the mission. “micro” armor. The sketch card verification process provides an optimum opportunity for the platoon leader to conduct backbriefs to confirm that each TC understands his mission.Chapter 4 Figure 4-7. Traditional sector sketch card 4-61.15 22 February 2007 . or a rough terrain model scratched in the dirt). the backbrief includes a field-expedient sand table or chalkboard exercise (using a chalked side-skirt. Backbriefs. If time permits.

and higher unit guidance. covering such areas as specific coordination with adjacent units and engagement criteria and priority. As with other tactical products. 4-63. such as when a tank is unable to cover its entire assigned sector. which. He then prepares the overlay. Depiction of the fire plan. (Note. If a portion of the engagement area appears as dead space on all platoon overlays. As discussed earlier in this chapter. z Information on TRPs (description. means of fire plan development (handwritten or digital). 4-64. He gives one copy to the company commander during the OPORD confirmation brief. and overlays. the commander may wish to plan indirect fires to cover the area. Figure 4-8 shows a handwritten fire plan. z Type of position (primary. The platoon leader must have both maneuver and fire support graphics posted on his map and make sure that all the TCs have done the same. like the fire plan. such as which tank will pick up a sector if another tank is knocked out or what happens if a particular tank’s sector is overloaded with targets. while engineer assets are still on site. list of tanks that can engage each TRP). if the platoon leader believes a TRP should be added to the company graphics. range. 4-66. To enhance the platoon’s understanding of the fire plan and the operation itself. On digitally equipped vehicles. The commander can then apply the platoon overlays to ensure his assigned engagement area is covered. Graphics. Note. z Additional notes as necessary. Adjustments to positions. he marks it on his overlay. he may wish to adjust platoon positions or assign supplementary positions if the entire engagement area is not covered by either observation or direct fire. the platoon leader must know how to make effective use of marginal data. they are the platoon leader’s primary tool for organizing information and synchronizing his assets on the battlefield. z Date. After evaluating the platoon overlays. Tactical contingencies. These notations cover numerous types of tactical information.) 4-62. This should be verified immediately after the position has been prepared. These are critical elements of fire plan development. As an example. or supplementary).Defensive Operations z z z Individual tank responsibilities (which tank will engage where within the platoon sector). the platoon leader uses the available tools to prepare the platoon fire plan. With the information from the individual tank sector sketches. 4-65. maps.15 4-15 . the fire plan product can be handwritten or displayed on the tank’s digital display. As an example. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. They may vary according to mission. He also places at least two reference marks on the overlay to ensure proper alignment with his map. alternate. The overlay technique eliminates the tedious process of recopying operational graphics onto a sketch. marginal data required on the fire plan for an M1 or M1A1 platoon might include the following types of entries: z Unit designation. They assist him in depicting the fire plan accurately. The platoon leader prepares two copies of the overlay. much of the information normally included in marginal data can be developed and transmitted using FBCB2. can be developed by either traditional (handwritten) or digital means.

At this point. the platoon executes its defensive priorities of work. Some tasks will be performed simultaneously.15 22 February 2007 . but are not limited to. Figure 4-9 is an example of a platoon time line to assist the platoon leader in managing the defensive preparation and division of labor based on the “defend NLT” time.) Priorities of work include. (Note.Chapter 4 Figure 4-8. the following tasks: 4-16 FM 3-20. Traditionally prepared fire plan (handwritten) Priorities of Work 4-67.

Conduct rehearsals.15 4-17 .Defensive Operations z z z z z z z Maintain platoon OPSEC and surveillance of the engagement area. demanding parallel planning and preparation if the company is to accomplish the myriad tasks for which it is responsible. Supervise any allocated engineer assets. the indirect fire plan. Sample platoon time line BUILDING THE ENGAGEMENT AREA 4-68. 4-69. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. (Note. engagement area development is a complex function. The engagement area is where the commander intends to trap and destroy an enemy force using the massed fires of all available weapons. and sector of fire. Figure 4-9. The success of any engagement depends on how effectively the commander can integrate the obstacle plan. orientation.) Verify each vehicle’s location. Conduct reconnaissance and mark supplementary engagement areas and subsequent BPs as time permits. At the company level. See Appendix D for more information. Improve the position by emplacing M8/M22 alarms and hot loops and by upgrading camouflage protection. Oversee vehicle maintenance and prepare-to-fire checks. and the direct-fire plan within the engagement area to achieve the company tactical purpose.

1.Chapter 4 Despite this complexity. By doing this. they will be able to destroy the enemy force where the command wants. a unit will. they give subordinates the freedom to act quickly upon acquisition of the enemy. Mass the Effects of Fire 4-72. in almost all situations. 4-70. concentrating the platoon’s fires at a single target may ensure its destruction or suppression. must be tempered by the requirement to destroy the greatest threats first. initially concentrate fires to destroy the greatest threat. and then distribute fires over the remainder of the enemy force. z Minimize friendly exposure. z Plan and integrate indirect fires. z Avoid target overkill (double tapping targets). however. Use only the amount of fire required to achieve necessary effects. The platoon must mass its fires to achieve decisive results. The threat posed by the enemy depends on his weapons. however. In most situations. however. z Prevent fratricide.15 22 February 2007 . Massing entails focusing fires at critical points and distributing the effects. z Plan and integrate obstacles. Destroy the Greatest Threat First 4-73. 4-18 FM 3-20. z Determine likely enemy schemes of maneuver. the commander and subordinate leaders must know how to apply several actions of subordinates. they help the company/troop to accomplish its primary goal in any direct-fire engagement: to both acquire first and shoot first. FIRE DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL 4-71. that fire control COA will probably not achieve a decisive effect on the enemy formation or position. Target overkill wastes ammunition and ties up weapons that are better employed acquiring and engaging other targets. Effective fire distribution and control requires a unit to rapidly acquire the enemy and mass the effects of fires to achieve decisive results in the close fight. z Plan for extreme limited visibility conditions. This discussion focuses on the following principles: z Mass the effects of fire. engagement area development resembles a drill in that the commander and his subordinate leaders use an orderly. the development process covers these steps: z Identify all likely enemy avenues of approach. The idea of having every weapon engage a different target. z Employ the best weapon for the target. Applied correctly. z Determine where to kill the enemy. Beginning with evaluation of METT-TC factors. z Employ combat identification (CID) process. it is necessary for the platoon to overwhelm the enemy with a tremendous volume of fire to compensate for its lack of direct-fire assets. fairly standard set of procedures. z Develop contingencies for diminished capabilities. Avoid Target Overkill 4-74. When planning and executing direct fires. z Destroy the greatest threat first. z Emplace weapon systems. and position. The order in which the platoon engages enemy forces is in direct relation to the danger it presents. z Rehearse the execution of operations in the engagement area. range. however. Random application of fires is unlikely to have a decisive effect. For example. Tank leaders need to be experts in building their sectors of the company engagement area using the same seven steps outlined above. Presented with multiple targets. A detailed discussion of each of the seven steps can be found in FM 3-90.

Although decreased acquisition capabilities have minimal effect on area fire. The CID process has three key purposes: z Identify and classify targets in the operational environment. Additionally. (Note. limited visibility fire control equipment enables the platoon to engage enemy forces at nearly the same ranges that are applicable during the day. Using the appropriate weapon for the target increases the probability of rapid enemy destruction or suppression. enemy. can reduce the capabilities of thermal and infrared equipment. Vehicles equipped with thermal sights can assist dismounted scout and infantry squads in detecting and engaging enemy infantry forces in conditions such as heavy smoke and low illumination. firing positions (whether offensive or defensive) must be adjusted closer to the area or point where the platoon leader intends to focus fires. The platoon leader arrays his forces based on the terrain. as are weapons and ammunition availability and desired target effects. and desired effects of fires. and blowing sand. 4-79. therefore. and exposure are key factors in determining the weapon and ammunition that should be employed. z Identification. Prevent Fratricide 4-80. however. Crews minimize their exposure by constantly seeking effective available cover. The platoon leader should. Typically. the weapons control status. leaders should consider individual crew capabilities when deciding on the employment of weapons. range. (Note. Employ Combat Identification Process 4-77. heavy smoke. the unit’s weapons safety posture. Another alternative is the use of visual or infrared illumination when there is insufficient ambient light for passive light intensification devices. The platoon has many weapons with which to engage the enemy. remaining dispersed. At night. z Mitigation of fratricide and collateral damage to noncombatants. Situational awareness and employment of applicable ROE are the primary means of preventing noncombatant casualties. Because it is difficult to distinguish between friendly and enemy dismounted Soldiers. Target type.) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.Defensive Operations Employ the Best Weapon for the Target 4-75. FBCB2 and situational understanding (see also Appendix F. Effective CID for a crew requires a constant combined effort from each crew member. it saves ammunition. for additional information about fratricide prevention). firing from multiple positions. point target engagements will likely occur at decreased ranges. the commander must constantly monitor the position of friendly dismounted squads.) Plan for Extreme Limited Visibility Conditions 4-81. z Detection. He has numerous tools to assist him in this effort: identification training for combat vehicles and aircraft. and limiting engagement times. Natural or man-made defilade provides the best cover from kinetic-energy direct-fire munitions. develop contingency plans for such extreme limited visibility conditions. The CID process is a series of progressive and interdependent steps (or actions) that lead to the decision process to engage or not engage: z Target search. this FM. Combat identification is the process of attaining an accurate characterization of detected objects in the operational environment sufficient to support an engagement decision. attempting to engage the enemy from the flank. The platoon leader must be proactive in reducing the risk of fratricide and noncombatant casualties. Minimize Friendly Exposure 4-76. 4-78.15 4-19 . recognition markings. z Location. Units increase their survivability by exposing themselves to the enemy only to the extent necessary to engage him effectively. at the same time. Obscurants such as dense fog. z Allow for the timely processing of engagement decisions on targets classified as enemy.

z Displacement to subsequent BPs. z Calls for fire. Initial walk-through rehearsals on a sand table can focus on deliberate or hasty occupation procedures. The information that the platoon exchanges with adjacent elements includes the following: z Locations of primary. snake board exercises. Coordination is initiated from left to right and from higher to lower. z Locations of OPs and patrol routes. they make backup plans for implementation in the event of casualties or weapon damage or failure. While leaders cannot anticipate or plan for every situation. such as having two systems observe the same sector. however.15 22 February 2007 . Platoon Coordination 4-85. z Movement to alternate and supplementary fighting positions. z Indirect fire targets and SOI information. z Initiation. He must also ensure that the platoon conducts necessary internal coordination. should initiate coordination through the chain of command if he desires support not specified in the company or troop OPORD. alternate.Chapter 4 Develop Contingencies for Diminished Capabilities 4-82. Effective internal coordination within the platoon enhances the situational understanding of tank crews and alerts them to the actions needed to prepare the defense. 4-86. including these: z Occupation procedures. The platoon can then conduct mounted movement rehearsals and force-on-force rehearsals. fire distribution. and supplementary fighting positions and locations of flanks. The platoon leader should integrate voice and digital radio traffic as well as calls for fire during all rehearsals. COORDINATION 4-83. Rehearsals are especially effective in helping the platoon to practice and coordinate necessary tactical skills. 4-87. The platoon leader. distribution. In addition. Adjacent Unit Coordination 4-84. z Overlapping fields of observation and direct fire. sector sketches and the platoon fire plan facilitate coordination of fires before the fight begins. which were discussed earlier in this chapter. Throughout the preparation phase. Designating alternate sectors of fire provides a means of shifting fires if adjacent elements are knocked out of action. z Routes into and out of BPs and routes to subsequent BPs. Building redundancy into these plans. Rehearsals can begin as soon as the platoon receives the company or troop WARNO. z Locations of any dead space between units and procedures for how dead space is to be covered. and ammunition transfer drills. is an invaluable asset when the situation (and the number of available systems) permits. and the disengagement plan. One method of ensuring this coordination is dissemination of enemy and friendly information in the form of intelligence updates. the platoon leader coordinates with adjacent platoons and other elements to ensure that platoon sectors of fire overlap and that CS and sustainment requirements are met. they should develop plans for what they view as the most probable occurrences. 4-20 FM 3-20. Leaders initially develop plans based on their units’ maximum capabilities. z Locations and types of obstacles. with individual crews practicing berm drills. and control of direct and indirect fires. continually raising the level of difficulty by conducting the rehearsals at night and at various MOPP levels.

OPSEC is critical during defensive preparations. A member of the platoon. and the priority of the target. this helps to prevent skylining. 4-91. the terrain. The platoon leader can use either of two methods to accurately mark triggers and target locations. INTELLIGENCE 4-90. He must make sure that the location. the platoon leader may determine that engineer assets only have time to dig hull-down firing positions rather than turret-down and hide positions. For example. these locations are based on the enemy’s doctrinal rates of movement. Intelligence is constantly updated by higher headquarters as the battlefield situation develops. either the platoon leader or a designated TC. He should also be aware of the importance of selecting a site with a background that will break up the silhouette of his vehicle (see Figure 4-10). Engineers improve the platoon’s survivability by digging or improving hide. the platoon leader may conduct reconnaissance of subsequent or supplementary BPs.15 4-21 . or POSNAV and marks the sites. The escort provides local security and instructions to the engineers. The platoon should adhere to the procedures outlined in Appendix D of this manual to limit the effectiveness of enemy reconnaissance efforts. He should also mark triggers that will be used to request artillery on moving targets. The platoon leader should confirm locations of artillery and mortar targets. and depth of the hole are correct before the engineer departs for the next fighting position. orientation. 4-92. Each TC should be responsible for the improvement of his firing position. Marking of triggers also may be necessary when readily identifiable terrain features are not available. PROTECTION 4-93. they should never be allowed to remain idle for any reason other than maintenance checks and services. The platoon leader keeps the platoon informed with periodic intelligence updates. the time of flight of artillery rounds (the company FIST has this information). in another situation. or hulldown positions (see Figure 4-4 on page 4-7). must physically link up with the engineers as directed in the platoon OPORD and escort them to each firing position. During the preparation phase. he may direct the engineers to prepare fighting positions for only one section because the other section has access to terrain that provides excellent natural hull-down firing positions. and mark them for daylight and limited visibility recognition. Survivability Considerations 4-94. a member of the platoon moves to the locations using the map. The updated information may force him to reevaluate and adjust his time line to ensure preparations are as complete as possible. adjust them as necessary. In the second. turret-down. GPS. In one method. In both methods. a member of the platoon notes the impact location of rounds during artillery registration and moves to and marks these target locations. 4-89. Simultaneous planning for these positions during the preparation of initial positions is a critical component in effective time management. markings must be visible under daylight and limited visibility conditions.Defensive Operations WAR-FIGHTING FUNCTION CONSIDERATIONS FIRE SUPPORT 4-88. Because engineer assets are at a premium during defensive preparations. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. such as when the enemy fights through a screening or covering force.

Using background to prevent skylining 4-95. 4-98. As discussed previously. the platoon should know the exact location of the start point. and should be evaluated carefully based on the commander’s priority of work for the engineers. Additionally. Resupply methods and procedures are discussed in detail in Chapter 7 of this manual. along the displacement route. Prestock resupply can be accomplished successfully in virtually any location where supplies can be hidden and protected. such as in or behind the primary fighting position. This knowledge contributes to the accuracy of calls for fire. The platoon leader must coordinate with engineers to ensure that the platoon’s direct fires can cover the entire area of any obstacle that the commander intends to emplace in the platoon’s sector of fire. or in the firing positions of a subsequent BP. and supplementary fighting positions as well as to subsequent BPs. The site must also protect the supply materials from enemy observation and the effects of artillery and weather. alternate. Engineer Considerations 4-96. and protection for platoon and delivery personnel and vehicles during the transfer process. to calculate ammunition requirements. end point.Chapter 4 Figure 4-10. Firing positions should maximize weapon standoff and/or the platoon’s ability to mass fires from survivable positions. Preparation of the site includes providing cover. If the commander authorizes pre-positioning. Such efforts are labor-intensive. He then directs the PSG to select and prepare the prestock location and coordinate the delivery of the prestock supplies. Engineers can improve routes from the platoon’s hide position to its primary. The platoon leader can also locate a TRP on the obstacle to ensure more accurate calls for fire. and turns of the obstacle. SUSTAINMENT 4-97. the platoon leader determines the amount and type of prestock (normally ammunition) that will be required for the operation. concealment. 4-22 FM 3-20. Engineer mobility operations in the defense normally are of lower priority than those involving survivability and countermobility. he evaluates the number and type of enemy vehicles the platoon expects to engage and the amount of time available to conduct resupply between engagements. For example.15 22 February 2007 . firing positions and obstacles should be complementary. however. Several factors can help the platoon to significantly increase the number of kills it achieves while executing the defense.

The platoon should conduct periodic security checks or keep the site under constant surveillance to ensure safekeeping of the prestock. or with individual vehicles occupying hide positions behind their primary fighting positions. This section contains a “best case. It deploys OPs as discussed in Appendix D of this manual to provide surveillance of its sectors of fire and early warning for vehicles in the hide position. such as availability of cover and concealment. INDIRECT FIRES 4-106. the prestock site should be concealed. and visual detection. If the GPS or POSNAV is available. The platoon’s hide positions are located behind its primary battle and/or fighting positions. or if the enemy situation is vague and observation of the engagement area is necessary. OP reports should not be the sole criterion triggering the platoon’s occupation of fighting positions. OCCUPATION OF FIRING POSITIONS 4-104. electronic. using perimeter defense techniques discussed in Chapter 5 (this method is used when hide positions are behind the BP). The platoon occupies hide positions in one of two ways: either as a unit. morale. The hide position should not be located on or near obvious artillery targets. rehearsals. The platoon leader employs available artillery to engage targets that are not being requested by other platoon leaders or the company/troop commander. He initiates calls for fire on moving enemy elements using previously 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. The platoon leader monitors intelligence reports provided on the company or troop net and upgrades the platoon’s REDCON status as the enemy approaches or as directed.153). welfare.” chronological discussion of the procedures and considerations that apply during the execution of a typical tank platoon defensive mission.EXECUTION 4-101. Ideally.15 4-23 . Once the supplies are delivered. He monitors the SPOTREPs and calls for fire being sent on the company/troop net and compares these reports with the SPOTREPs from his platoon net. While in the hide position. SECTION IV . the platoon leader updates his crews on the situation reported on the company or troop net. He reports any new enemy information higher using the SPOTREP format (see ST 3-20. Because the observation range of OPs is usually limited to the engagement area. 4-105. TCs use waypoints to assist in controlling movement. As the enemy approaches the direct-fire trigger line. THE HUMAN ASPECT 4-100. each TC moves to his position along a previously reconnoitered route. Based on reconnaissance. HIDE POSITION 4-102. The platoon leader may decide to occupy turret-down positions rather than hide positions based on terrain considerations. When previously identified occupation criteria are met. and overall readiness to fight continue during the preparation phase. It also maintains the REDCON status prescribed in the OPORD. the platoon leader may request permission to occupy turret-down positions for the purpose of scanning the engagement area.Defensive Operations 4-99. Refer to the discussion of the human aspect of operations included in Section II of Chapter 3. Note. the platoon occupies turret-down positions with enough time to orient weapon systems and acquire and track targets before the enemy crosses the direct fire trigger line. and known time-distance factors. Activities aimed at enhancing each Soldier’s health. the platoon employs all applicable OPSEC measures to limit aerial. he orders the platoon to occupy its primary fighting positions. If the enemy situation becomes unclear. 4-103. thermal.

000 meters. Crews of M1A2 SEP tanks can track enemy vehicle movement toward a target location by employing the vehicle’s far target designate capability. a preestablished direct-fire trigger line allows each TC to engage enemy vehicles in his sector of fire. and the lethality of enemy weapon systems. they can use this information to initiate artillery fires. Everyone involved in the reporting process must avoid sending redundant or inflated descriptions of the situation. SPOTREPs. Such reports not only are confusing. The trigger line is a backup to the fire command. and possibly dangerous. The planning range for the 105-mm main gun is 2. The platoon leader initiates tank direct fires using a fire command as discussed in Chapter 2 of this manual. In the absence of communications from the platoon leader. 4-107. The criteria for the direct-fire trigger line should specify the number of enemy vehicles that must pass a designated location before the TC can engage without any instructions from the platoon leader.Chapter 4 identified triggers and the “AT MY COMMAND” method of control (calls for fire are discussed in Chapter 6 of this manual). contact reports are used to alert the platoon to previously unidentified enemy targets. In the defense. z The fields of fire that the terrain allows. Additionally. 4-24 FM 3-20. Contact reports. and/or destroyed and to provide the strength and status of friendly forces. types. TRIGGER LINE 4-109. the accuracy with which the enemy is acquiring and engaging friendly fighting positions. and locations of enemy vehicles observed. z The planning ranges for the platoon’s weapon systems.15 22 February 2007 . at which the platoon will initiate fires to support the company or troop scheme of maneuver. During the direct-fire fight. The fire command enables him to engage single targets (for example. SPOTREPs and SITREPs are sent to list the number. TCs describe the situation for the platoon leader. actions by higher headquarters. REPORTING 4-111. the number of advancing enemy vehicles. and SITREPs are used as appropriate. DIRECT FIRES FIRE COMMANDS 4-108. z The survivability of enemy armor. Influencing each TC’s decision to move between firing positions are such factors as enemy movement rates. engaged. for the 120-mm main gun. it is 2. Considerations might include the following: z A maximum range or a point. Individual TCs move from hull-down to turret-down firing positions within their primary and alternate positions based on two considerations: the necessity to maintain direct fire on the enemy and the effectiveness of enemy fires. such as an obstacle.500 meters. a reconnaissance vehicle) using a single section or an individual vehicle without exposing the entire platoon. Sectors of fire and the preplanned fire pattern should be selected to help prevent target overkill and the resulting waste of ammunition. they can use the far target locator capability to determine the location of stationary targets and to quickly process a tactical fire (TACFIRE) direction system or FBCB2 call-for-fire message to attack unplanned targets. Selection of the trigger line is dependent on METT-TC factors. It also allows the platoon to maintain the element of surprise by simultaneously engaging multiple targets with a lethal initial volley of tank fires. but also may trigger unnecessary. who in turn describes what is happening for the commander. MOVEMENT CONSIDERATIONS 4-110.

The company commander establishes disengagement criteria and develops the disengagement plan to support the company or troop scheme of maneuver.Defensive Operations RESUPPLY 4-112. a numerically superior enemy may force the platoon to displace to a subsequent BP.15 4-25 . He must balance the necessity of maintaining direct fires on the enemy against the demands imposed on the platoon’s crews by the ammunition transfer process and the retrieval of prestock supplies. DISPLACEMENT 4-113. such as ammunition supplies and friendly combat power. It employs smoke grenades and on-board smoke generators to screen the displacement. the platoon leader must develop and execute resupply procedures to maintain a constant supply of main gun rounds. Displacement With Cover 4-116. the entire platoon usually displaces as a whole (see Figure 4-11). Other considerations. In another situation. Displacement may become necessary in several types of situations. also influence the decision to displace. Use of VEESS when burning any other type of fuel will cause a fire hazard. CAUTION On-board smoke (VEESS) will be used only when the vehicle is burning diesel fuel. Displacement with cover from another element (entire platoon moves at once) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. For example. The platoon leader chooses between two methods of displacement depending on whether or not the move is conducted with overwatch (and cover) by an adjacent platoon. The platoon may expend main gun ammunition quickly in a direct-fire fight. If the displacement is covered. Based on the terrain and expected enemy situation. DISENGAGEMENT CRITERIA AND DISENGAGEMENT PLAN 4-114. METHODS OF DISPLACEMENT 4-115. a penetration or enemy advance on a secondary avenue of approach may require the platoon or section to occupy supplementary BPs or fighting positions. Figure 4-11. Disengagement criteria are primarily based on a specified number and type of enemy vehicles reaching a specified location (normally called the break point) to trigger displacement.

The displacement is complete when the platoon has occupied the subsequent BP and all vehicles are prepared to continue the defense. mixing smoke with tank-killing munitions. the occupation should go quickly. In some instances. Displacement without cover from another element (sections move using bounding overwatch) COMPLETION OF DISPLACEMENT 4-119. to help cover the displacement.15 22 February 2007 . the enemy’s rate of advance. Displacement Without Cover 4-118. It also initiates artillery calls for fire. If the platoon leader and TCs were able to reconnoiter and rehearse the disengagement and occupation. If reconnaissance and rehearsals were not possible. the platoon leader must conduct the steps of a hasty occupation outlined earlier in this chapter. either alone or as part of a larger force (usually the company team). 4-26 FM 3-20. COUNTERATTACKS 4-120. When overwatch is no longer necessary to cover the displacing section’s movement. the platoon may have to use bounding overwatch to the rear during tactical movement to the subsequent or supplementary position (see Figure 4-12). If the displacement is not covered by another element. The platoon leader issues instructions or uses a prearranged signal to initiate movement. Figure 4-12. the platoon leader designates one section to overwatch the displacement of the other section. and terrain considerations (fields of fire) do not allow the original overwatch section to displace without the benefit of an overwatch of its own. then displace to the subsequent BP. The platoon is capable of conducting limited counterattacks. The overwatch section is responsible for providing suppressive fires covering the entire platoon sector of fire. the overwatch section may request one last artillery call for fire in front of its own position. This may become necessary when such factors as the distance to the new position. Note. The platoon simultaneously backs down to hide positions. It can employ one of two methods: counterattack by fire and counterattack by fire and movement. Individual tanks orient weapon systems toward the enemy as they move to the subsequent or supplementary positions along previously identified and reconnoitered routes. keeping front hulls toward the enemy until adequate cover protects each tank.Chapter 4 4-117.

The remaining platoons hold their positions and continue to engage the enemy (see Figure 4-13). otherwise.Defensive Operations PURPOSES 4-121. Figure 4-13. this assists the counterattack force and other elements in controlling indirect and direct fires. The intent of this method is to close with and destroy the enemy. z Initiate offensive operations. It conducts hasty attacks and assaults based on the particular situation and the factors of METT-TC. one platoon conducts tactical movement on a concealed route to a predetermined BP or attack-by-fire position from which it can engage the enemy in the flank and/or rear. If adjustments to any route or position become necessary. z Regain key terrain. z Relieve pressure on an engaged unit. Counterattack by fire Counterattack By Fire and Movement 4-124. the counterattack force must take immediate action to ensure that other forces lift and shift fires. Coordination and control are critical to the success of the counterattack. COUNTERATTACK METHODS Counterattack By Fire 4-123. Locations of routes and positions must be planned and disseminated to all units. whenever possible) (see Figure 4-14). 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. The counterattack force uses tactical maneuver to gain a position of advantage from which it attacks the enemy (from the flank. When the company team executes a counterattack by fire. fratricide becomes a distinct danger. COORDINATION AND CONTROL 4-122. The platoon may conduct (or take part in) a counterattack to accomplish the following purposes: z Complete the destruction of the enemy. The intent of this method is to use weapon standoff and/or cover to full advantage and destroy the enemy by direct fires.15 4-27 .

Reorganization in the defense is accomplished in the same manner as in the offense. z Replace. Refer to Section VII in Chapter 3 of this manual for a detailed discussion. 4-28 FM 3-20. z Ensure positions are mutually supporting. the platoon takes these steps: z Eliminate remaining enemy resistance by conducting a counterattack as directed by the commander.15 22 February 2007 . z Reestablish communications. Counterattack by fire and movement CONSOLIDATION AND REORGANIZATION 4-125. it must consolidate and reorganize quickly so it will be ready to destroy follow-on enemy forces and to execute any other required tasks.Chapter 4 Figure 4-14. to shift to the offense. Reorganization. z Reestablish OPSEC by emplacing OPs and early warning devices (such as M8 alarms) and enhancing camouflage for platoon positions. z Improve positions in accordance with procedures for a deliberate defense and established priorities of work. repair. Once an enemy assault is defeated. Consolidation 4-126. the process of preparing for continued fighting. or fortify obstacles. check all sectors of fire to eliminate gaps and dead space that result when tanks are disabled. leaders must ensure their Soldiers are ready to continue with defensive operations. z Secure detainees. REORGANIZATION 4-127. or to displace. To consolidate a defensive position. is usually conducted by unit SOP. If the platoon is directed to hold its current positions.

15 4-29 . EXECUTION 4-132. In the planning phase. preparation. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Dismounted OPs provide local security and augment mounted OPs with shorterrange observation and the ability to listen for approaching enemy elements. PLANNING 4-129. the commander. The defensive fundamentals covered previously are applicable in limited visibility situations. the platoon leader ensures that TRPs and artillery targets are “thermalized” to allow for positive identification during limited visibility. and the TCs conduct a thorough reconnaissance. the same applies to preparation and occupation of fighting positions and to any necessary repositioning. Ideally. They must keep in mind that obscurants that limit visibility may also degrade the effectiveness of their thermal sights and laser range finders. the platoon leader. thermalized TRPs also help TCs to more accurately estimate the range to their targets when smoke or other factors inhibit the use of the LRF. additional considerations for planning. During the preparation phase. the platoon leader must ensure that all crewmen thoroughly understand the occupation and displacement criteria and TCs strictly enforce all fire control measures. In marking their positions. The platoon leader emplaces mounted OPs to take advantage of the capabilities of his vehicles’ thermal sights in scanning the engagement area and the platoon’s assigned sector. rehearsals of occupation and displacement are conducted in limited visibility conditions. OPs are critical in providing security and early warning of enemy activities. and execution of the defense in limited visibility are covered in the following paragraphs. As the platoon enters the execution phase. usually during daylight hours. PREPARATION 4-130. Used with a sector sketch during direct fire engagements. they use materials that will facilitate occupation either in daylight or under limited visibility conditions.Defensive Operations LIMITED VISIBILITY DEFENSE 4-128. 4-131. This may force them to designate engagement areas that are closer than anticipated to the unit’s BPs. TCs use sketch cards and the CITV (if available) to estimate target range when visibility factors prevent use of the LRF. to mark positions and routes. OPSEC is strictly enforced during all phases of defensive preparation.

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z Weapons orientation.Chapter 5 Other Tactical Operations This chapter describes additional tasks the tank platoon may conduct to complement or support its primary operations of move.15 5-1 . z Actions if a vehicle becomes disabled. Road marches are planned at the battalion and company levels and executed by platoons. z The main body. Tank platoons conduct tactical road marches to move long distances and position themselves for future operations. Platoon preparations should address the following considerations: z Movement to the SP. z Actions in case a vehicle becomes lost. z Actions on contact. 5-4. Tactical road marches are conducted using fixed speeds and timed intervals. A road march is composed of three elements: z The quartering party (or advance party). attack.TACTICAL ROAD MARCH 5-1. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. 5-6. The success of a road march depends on thorough preparation and sound SOPs. The main purpose of the road march is to relocate rapidly. SECTION I . and defend. z Speed control. The tank platoon normally travels as a unit in the main body. SOPs should cover the following factors: z Actions at unscheduled halts. the platoon may provide individual Soldiers or a vehicle and crew to assist with quartering party activities (see Section II of this chapter). z Formations. z The trail party. 5-3. The platoon executes these additional tasks separately or as part of a larger force. z Actions at scheduled halts. Before the march begins. COMPOSITION 5-5. z Actions at the RP. z Intervals. PREPARATION AND SOPs 5-2. not to gain contact.

it is normally less than 50 meters. It should be located on easily recognizable terrain. The route is the path of travel connecting the start and release points. although the traditional hard-copy map and overlay must be maintained as a backup. CLOSE COLUMN 5-9. The open column technique is normally used for daylight marches. and checkpoints and must list the distances between these points. and dispersion are desired.Chapter 5 MARCH COLUMNS 5-7. and the route. Digital overlays display waypoints and information concerning unit locations along the route of march that can assist TCs in navigation and help them in maintaining situational understanding. and all checkpoints are considered critical points. This ensures the platoon arrives at the SP at the time designated in the commander’s OPORD. MAP WITH OVERLAY 5-12. If time is available. (Note. RP. Elements do not halt at the RP. A strip map can be used to assist in navigation. INFILTRATION 5-10. The close column technique is normally used for marches conducted during periods of limited visibility.15 22 February 2007 . and/or graphic control measures. The RP location is at the end of the route of march. normally from 50 meters to 200 meters depending on light and weather conditions. far enough away from the unit’s initial position to allow the platoon to organize into the march formation at the appropriate speed and interval. As a minimum. When available. The commander bases his decision on the formation used during the march on which technique is employed. The following discussion focuses on the three primary road march techniques. but continue to their respective positions with assistance from guides. The distance between vehicles is based on the ability to see the vehicle ahead. the overlay must show the SP. (Note. It also is located on easily recognizable terrain. deception. Locations along the route of march where interference with movement may occur or where timing is critical are represented using checkpoints. the RP. Detailed blow-up sketches should be used for scheduled halt 5-2 FM 3-20. It provides the best possible passive defense against enemy observation and detection.) CONTROL MEASURES 5-11. Infiltration involves the movement of small groups of personnel or vehicles at irregular intervals. RP. It must include the SP. DIGITAL OVERLAYS 5-13. CHECKPOINTS 5-14. digital overlays serve as the platoon’s primary source of graphic control measures. The road march is usually executed in column or staggered column formation. The SP. The following discussion covers control measures the platoon leader can use in effectively controlling his platoon during the conduct of a road march.) OPEN COLUMN 5-8. waypoints. It is used when sufficient time and suitable routes are available and when maximum security. The SP location represents the beginning of the road march route. The distance between vehicles varies. Infiltration is most commonly used by dismounted elements. STRIP MAPS 5-15. It can be used at night with blackout lights or night-vision equipment. the platoon leader should determine the time to reach the SP.

Other Tactical Operations locations and other places where confusion is likely to occur. or designated elements from the quartering party may serve as guides. Military police. See Figure 5-1 for an example of a strip map. This becomes important because the enemy may have the ability to interfere with FM communication. TRAFFIC CONTROL 5-17. Figure 5-1. They should have equipment that will allow march elements to identify them during periods of limited visibility. Road guides and traffic signs may be posted at designated traffic control points by the headquarters controlling the march. if possible. guides assist in creating a smooth flow of traffic along the march route. Hand-and-arm signals provide an alternate means of passing messages between vehicles. Leaders must understand that this is a perishable skill. members of the battalion scout platoon. Strip maps are included as an annex to the movement order.15 5-3 . Some commanders will designate a staging or marshaling area that enables platoons to organize their march 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. At critical points. The platoon must arrive at the SP at the time designated in the company or troop OPORD. a copy should be provided to all TCs. Example strip map VISUAL SIGNALS 5-16. ACTIONS DURING THE MARCH MOVING TO THE START POINT 5-18.

TCs assign sectors of observation to crewmen both to cover their portion of the platoon sector and to achieve 360-degree observation. paying particular attention to signals and timing. it should accelerate slowly out of turns or choke points. Other units require platoons to move directly to the column from their current positions. MARCH SPEED 5-19. this allows the platoon to gradually resume the speed of march after moving past the restriction. In addition. The movement order establishes the speed of march and maximum catch-up speed. This can produce an undesirable accordion effect. Sectors of fire 5-4 FM 3-20. To avoid confusion during the initial move. issue clear movement instructions. An element’s speed in a march column will change as it encounters variable routes and road conditions. Each tank in the platoon has an assigned sector of fire (see Figure 5-2). ORIENTATION 5-20. Figure 5-2. During the march.Chapter 5 columns and conduct final inspections and briefings before movement.15 22 February 2007 . and conduct thorough rehearsals. the platoon leader and TCs conduct a reconnaissance of the route to the SP. the platoon’s lead vehicle must not exceed either the fixed march speed or the top catch-up speed.

The OPORD will specify the amount of fuel or the amount of time at the pump for each vehicle. z Sufficient space for dispersion of vehicles and equipment.ASSEMBLY AREAS 5-27. z Suitable exits. Established in accordance with company or troop SOP. usually comprised of the maintenance team with the M88 recovery vehicle and some type of security. the quartering party may consist of one or two Soldiers from each platoon or even one tank per platoon with the prescribed equipment and uniform. The platoon conducts actions on contact and establishes 360-degree security. During long marches. 5-23. Refer to the discussion of assembly area procedures in Section II of this chapter. refueling.15 5-5 . Vehicles that drop out of the column should return to their original positions only when the column has halted.Other Tactical Operations HALTS 5-21. the vehicle is recovered by the maintenance element. ACTIONS AT THE RELEASE POINT 5-26. 5-25. It will also give instructions for security at the ROM site and at the post-fueling staging area. z Good drainage and a surface that will support tracked and wheeled vehicles. The time and duration of halts are established in the movement order. The platoon moves through the RP without stopping. A well-planned assembly area will have the following characteristics: z A location on defensible terrain. It is led by the 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. z Concealment from enemy ground and air observation. An assembly area is a site at which maneuver units prepare for future operations. and posts guides to direct traffic. a quartering party assists the platoon in the occupation of an assembly area. The platoon leader picks up the assigned guide or follows the guide’s signals to the assembly area. the platoon must be prepared to conduct both scheduled and unscheduled halts. entrances. with a 10-minute break every two hours thereafter. QUARTERING PARTY ACTIONS 5-28. reports its status. the platoon may conduct ROM for all vehicles simultaneously or by section. establishes security. (Note. guides and marking materials may be posted at or near exact vehicle locations. such as when the unit encounters obstacles or contaminated areas or if a disabled vehicle blocks the route. The first priority at a halt is to establish and maintain local security (see Appendix D of this manual). A disabled vehicle must not be allowed to obstruct traffic. and personal relief activities and to allow other traffic to pass. Unscheduled Halts 5-24. Scheduled Halts 5-22. they move at the rear just ahead of the trail element. Depending on terrain and the equipment available (GPS or POSNAV). While taking part in a road march. Normally.) SECTION II . These are executed to conduct maintenance. The crew moves the vehicle off the road immediately (if possible). If possible. Depending on the tactical situation and the company or troop OPORD. the unit may conduct a refuel-on-the-move (ROM) operation. A maintenance halt of 15 minutes is usually taken after the first hour of the march. the crew repairs the vehicle and rejoins the rear of the column. Until then. and internal roads or trails. Unscheduled halts are conducted under a variety of circumstances. unit SOP specifies actions taken during halts. If the crew cannot repair the vehicle.

z Camouflage vehicles. z Verify weapon system status. and internal routes. it establishes a perimeter defense (explained later in this chapter). The key consideration is to move quickly into position to clear the route for follow-on units. The quartering party takes these actions in preparing the assembly area: z Reconnoiter for enemy forces. space. Normally. These actions enable the platoon to defend from the assembly area as necessary. muzzle reference system (MRS) updates. the party contacts the commander and requests permission to find a new location for the site. z Position vehicles. If the platoon occupies an assembly area alone. condition of the route to the assembly area. Priorities of work are: z Establish and maintain security (REDCON status). The company or troop commander assigns a sector of responsibility and weapons orientations for each platoon. Quartering party members guide their elements (including the platoon) from the RP to their locations in the assembly area. z Establish lateral communications/flank coordination. The platoon can then prepare for future operations by conducting troop-leading procedures and the priorities of work in accordance the company or troop OPORD. z Organize the area based on the commander’s guidance. Once in position. trains. supplementary positions. z Improve and mark entrances. refueling. maintaining surveillance and providing security of the area within its capabilities. z Mark tentative vehicle locations. z Mark and/or remove obstacles (within the party’s capabilities). z Conduct resupply. If the area is unsatisfactory. CBRN contamination. test-firing. z Emplace OPs. conduct boresighting. z Perform maintenance activities on vehicles. z Establish field sanitation. and rearming operations. z Select alternate. 5-6 FM 3-20. the quartering party awaits the arrival of the company or troop. z Establish wire communication (if directed by unit SOP). the platoon conducts hasty occupation of a BP as described in Chapter 4 of this manual. This includes designating and marking tentative locations for the platoon. rest. Once the assembly area has been prepared. It establishes and maintains security (see the OPSEC discussion in Appendix D) and coordinates with adjacent units. and suitability of the area (covering such factors as drainage. SOPs and prearranged signals and markers (for day and night occupation) should assist the TCs in finding their positions. the platoon occupies an assembly area as part of a company team or troop.15 22 February 2007 . 5-30. exits.Chapter 5 company/troop XO or 1SG or by a senior NCO. 5-31. and CP vehicles. and other necessary preparations. z Conduct PCCs and PCIs. OCCUPATION PROCEDURES 5-29. z Emplace CBRN alarms. and rally points. The team or troop may be adjacent to or independent of the task force or squadron (see Figures 5-3A and 5-3B). z Develop an obstacle plan. and internal routes). z Conduct troop-leading procedures. z Conduct rehearsals and training for upcoming operations. z Prepare range cards and fire plans. communications equipment. z Eat. and weapon systems. and conduct personal hygiene.

During this “occupation by force. directs adjacent unit coordination. a company or troop will occupy an assembly area without first sending out a quartering party. begins troop-leading procedures. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. He establishes local security. Battalion assembly area.Other Tactical Operations Figure 5-3A. and establishes priorities of work.” the platoon leader orders a hasty occupation of a BP at the platoon’s designated location.15 5-7 . Company team assembly area independent of the battalion OCCUPATION BY FORCE 5-32. In some cases. company team adjacent to other company teams Figure 5-3B.

the tank platoon will execute the escort mission under control of the security force commander. z A unit moving to assist an encircled force. METT-TC factors). 5-37. Actions at a contact point entail the meeting of friendly ground forces. the platoon will be OPCON or attached directly to the convoy commander. z Cross-attached units moving to join their new organization.ACTIONS AT A CONTACT POINT 5-33. „ Disposition of stationary forces (if either unit is stationary).CONVOY ESCORT 5-35. „ Finalized location for the linkup point. The relationship between the platoon and the convoy commander must provide for unity of command and effort if combat operations are required during the course of the mission. The forces coordinate the following information: „ Known enemy situation. This mission requires the tank platoon to provide the convoy with security and close-in protection from direct fire while on the move. „ Near recognition signal. If one unit is stationary. The convoy commander should issue a complete OPORD to all vehicle commanders in the convoy prior to execution of the mission. z A tank platoon moving forward during a follow and support mission with dismounted infantry or scouts. The platoon is well suited for this role because of its vehicles’ mobility.15 22 February 2007 . „ Type and number of friendly vehicles. the platoon may perform convoy escort either independently or as part of a larger unit’s convoy security mission. Within a larger unit. the following actions are critical to the execution of a speedy. such as maneuver instructions or requests for medical support. The linkup consists of three phases. but is not limited to. The lead element of the linkup force should monitor the radio frequency of the other friendly force. the following situations: z Advancing forces reaching an objective area previously secured by air assault or airborne forces. During this phase. the moving unit moves through the linkup point to a predetermined location. „ Any special coordination. who is usually OPCON or attached to the convoy commander. COMMAND AND CONTROL 5-36. In most cases. „ Fire control measures. It may occur in. safe operation: z Phase 1—Far recognition signal. Platoons conduct actions at a contact point independently or as part of a larger force.Chapter 5 SECTION III . escort assets available. and armor protection against mines and direct and indirect fires. If both units are moving. z Units conducting coordination for a relief in place. firepower. This occurs when the platoon is providing security for tactical operations centers (TOC) or when it is operating independently with a small convoy. the controlling headquarters designates a location in the formation for the subordinate unit. The units enforce strict fire control measures to help prevent fratricide. „ Routes to the linkup point. 5-34. SECTION IV . the tank platoon may lead the linkup force. z Phase 2—Coordination and movement to the linkup point. At times. Depending on a variety of factors (size of the convoy. z Phase 3—Linkup. however. the two units should establish communications before they reach direct-fire range. Battle command is especially critical because of the task organization of the convoy escort mission. This is vital because the convoy may itself be task organized from a 5-8 FM 3-20.

but special emphasis should be placed on the following subjects: z Route of march (with a strip map provided for each vehicle commander). This element provides immediate. with escort vehicles positioned either within the column or on the flanks. The advance guard reconnoiters and proofs the convoy route. z Actions at halts. z Actions if a vehicle becomes disabled. The platoon leader may also be required to attach a tank with a mine plow or mine roller to this element.15 5-9 .Other Tactical Operations variety of units and because some vehicles may not have tactical radios. close-in protective group. TACTICAL DISPOSITION 5-38. a section. an individual tank platoon vehicle. either as a unit or dispersed. 5-42. several factors. They can adjust the disposition of the platoon. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. z Communications and signal information. including convoy size and METT-TC. In some cases. z Chain of command. a section. or the entire platoon may be designated as part of the advance guard. often moving with medical and recovery assets. LARGE-SCALE ESCORT MISSIONS 5-39. it attempts to clear the route and provides the convoy commander with early warning before the arrival of the vehicle column. z Order of march. an individual vehicle. and rear guard. It searches for signs of enemy activity. affect this disposition. When sufficient escort assets are available. 5-41. The rear guard follows the convoy. The reaction force will either move with the convoy or be located at a staging area close enough to provide immediate interdiction against the enemy. The tank platoon will normally be task organized to operate within the close-in protective group. 5-40. The convoy commander’s vehicle is located within this group. As noted. z Actions on contact. It provides security in the area behind the main body of the vehicle column. the convoy security commander and tank platoon leader must establish and maintain security in all directions and throughout the length of the convoy. the convoy commander will usually organize the convoy into three distinct elements: advance guard. to fit the security requirements of each particular situation. Within its capabilities. or the entire tank platoon may be part of this element. Figure 5-4 shows a convoy in which the tank platoon is part of a company team-size escort force. During all escort missions. Note. close-in protection for the vehicle column. The order should follow the standard five-paragraph OPORD format. Perhaps the key consideration is whether the platoon is operating as part of larger escort force or is executing the escort mission independently. Again. such as ambushes and obstacles. The convoy commander may also designate the tank platoon as part of a reaction force for additional firepower in the event of enemy contact.

Chapter 5 Figure 5-4.15 22 February 2007 . Tank platoon as part of a larger escort force 5-10 FM 3-20.

it executes tactical movement based on the factors of METT-TC. Platoon performing rear security for a convoy 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. it can provide forward.15 5-11 . In such situations. Platoon performing flank security for a convoy Figure 5-5C.Other Tactical Operations 5-43. Figures 5-5A through 5-5C illustrate the platoon using various formations while performing escort duties as a unit. or rear close-in security. Platoon performing forward security for a convoy Figure 5-5B. When the platoon is deployed as a unit during a large-scale escort operation. flank. Figure 5-5A.

acting as the reconnaissance element or moving with scouts to proof the convoy route.15 22 February 2007 . Platoon escort using modified traveling overwatch ACTIONS ON CONTACT 5-46. wingman tanks should maintain visual contact with their leaders. flank. and rear security. Figure 5-7. Figure 5-6. It shows one section leading the convoy while the other trails the convoy. Whenever possible. or occupies an assembly area as required until enemy contact occurs. such as the tank platoon or a tank section. it then is given a reaction mission by the convoy commander. This contact will usually occur in the form of an ambush. variations in terrain along the route may require the platoon to operate using a modified traveling overwatch technique. these assets may be required to move ahead of the convoy. When the tank platoon executes a convoy escort mission independently. Depending on the terrain. At times.Chapter 5 INDEPENDENT ESCORT OPERATIONS 5-44. portions of the convoy security force. Tanks equipped with mine plows or mine rollers (and engineer assets. often with the use of a hastily prepared obstacle or improvised explosive device (IED). The safety of the convoy then rests on the speed and effectiveness with which escort elements can execute appropriate actions on contact. In some independent escort missions. As the convoy moves toward its new location. may be designated as a reaction force. Figure 5-7 illustrates such a situation. Based on the factors of METT-TC. The reaction force performs its escort duties. conducts tactical movement. 5-12 FM 3-20. 5-47. Platoon performing convoy escort independently 5-45. the trail section may not be able to overwatch the movement of the lead section. the convoy commander and platoon leader will disperse the tanks throughout the convoy formation to provide forward. if available) should be located near the front to react to obstacles. Figure 5-6 illustrates this kind of escort operation. the enemy may attempt to interdict it. Dispersion between vehicles in each section is sufficient to provide flank security.

z The escort leader (in the example included here. They seek covered positions between the convoy and the enemy and suppress the enemy with the highest possible volume of fire permitted by the ROE. overwhelming. Figure 5-8A. the platoon will take several specific. If necessary. the escort leader or the convoy security commander can then request support from the reaction force. z Convoy vehicles. In almost all situations. The platoon leader or the convoy commander may request. reaction to an ambush must be immediate. An ambush is one of the most effective ways to interdict a convoy. Contact reports are sent to higher headquarters as quickly as possible. as a last resort. include the following: z As soon as they acquire an enemy force. may return fire only if the escort has not positioned itself between the convoy and the enemy force. Convoy escort actions toward ambush 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. z The convoy commander retains control of the convoy vehicles and continues to move them along the route at the highest possible speed (see Figure 5-8A). These steps. and decisive. z Security forces must plan to secure all damaged or disabled vehicles and equipment. if they are armed. 5-49. instantaneous actions when it must react to an ambush. Actions on contact must be planned for and rehearsed so they can be executed as a drill by all escort and convoy elements. he can also call for and adjust indirect fires.15 5-13 . the escort vehicles conduct action toward the enemy (see Figure 5-8A).Other Tactical Operations ACTIONS AT AN AMBUSH 5-48. that any damaged or disabled vehicles be abandoned and pushed off the route (see Figure 5-8B). this is the tank platoon leader) uses SPOTREPs to keep the convoy security commander informed. Conversely. with care taken to avoid fratricide. illustrated in Figures 5-8A and 5-8B.

Once the convoy is clear of the kill zone. the commander’s intent.Chapter 5 Figure 5-8B. Contact should be broken only when the tactical situation requires. 5-51. In most situations. the escort element executes one of the following COAs based on the composition of the escort and reaction forces. z Assaults the enemy (see Figure 5-9B). Escort suppresses the ambush to facilitate attack by the reaction force 5-14 FM 3-20. z Breaks contact and moves out of the kill zone (see Figure 5-9C). Convoy continues to move 5-50.15 22 February 2007 . tanks continue to suppress the enemy or execute an assault to destroy enemy forces. and the strength of the enemy force: z Continues to suppress the enemy as combat reaction forces move to support (see Figure 5-9A). Figure 5-9A.

the enemy or its obstacles may avoid detection by the reconnaissance element. Obstacles can be used to harass the convoy by delaying it or stopping it altogether. The purpose of the route reconnaissance ahead of a convoy is to identify obstacles and either breach or bypass them.Other Tactical Operations Figure 5-9B. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. however.15 5-15 . Obstacles are a major threat to convoys. Escort breaks contact ACTIONS AT AN OBSTACLE 5-52. obstacles may canalize or stop the convoy to set up an enemy ambush. In some cases. Escort assaults the ambush force Figure 5-9C. In addition. 5-53. the convoy must take actions to reduce or bypass the obstacle. If this happens.

5-16 FM 3-20. The convoy escort overwatches the obstacle (see Figure 5-10) and requests that the breach force move forward. the convoy escort faces two problems: reducing or bypassing the obstacle and maintaining protection for the convoy. z The convoy security commander relays a SPOTREP higher and requests support by combat reaction forces. z The convoy escort maintains 360-degree security of the convoy and provides overwatch as the breach force reconnoiters the obstacle in search of a bypass. and actions at the obstacle must be accomplished very quickly.15 22 February 2007 . „ Breach the obstacle with reinforcing assets. the following actions should occur when the convoy escort encounters a point-type obstacle: z The lead element identifies the obstacle and directs the convoy to make a short halt and establish security. When an obstacle is identified.Chapter 5 5-54. engineer assets (if they are not part of the convoy). and/or aerial reconnaissance elements. z Once all reconnaissance is complete. To reduce the time the convoy is halted and thus to reduce its vulnerability. „ Breach the obstacle with the assets on hand. The convoy commander must assume that the obstacle is overwatched and covered by the enemy. z Artillery units are alerted to be prepared to provide fire support. the convoy commander determines which of the following COAs he will take: „ Bypass the obstacle. Security becomes critical.

) If the halt is for any reason other than an obstacle. During a short halt. leaving space for escort vehicles (see Figure 5-11B). the platoon leader must maintain the security of the convoy. (Note. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. All vehicles in the convoy assume a herringbone formation. the convoy escort remains at REDCON-1 regardless of what actions the convoy vehicles are taking. If the convoy escort is required to breach limited obstacles using plow tanks. escort vehicles are positioned up to 100 meters beyond the convoy vehicles. but establish local security based on the factors of METT-TC. ensuring that adequate support forces are in place to overwatch the breach operation. which are just clear of the route (see Figure 5-11A).Other Tactical Operations Figure 5-10. convoy vehicles reestablish the movement formation.15 5-17 . Convoy escort overwatches an obstacle 5-55. the following actions should be taken: z The convoy commander signals the short halt and transmits the order via tactical radio. Tanks equipped with mine plows are ideal for breaching most obstacles encountered during convoy escort missions. z If possible. z When the order is given to move out. Refer to Chapter 2 of this manual for more information on REDCON levels. ACTIONS DURING HALTS 5-56. Escort vehicles remain at REDCON-1.

Chapter 5 z z Once the convoy is in column. Convoy escort vehicles rejoin column 5-18 FM 3-20. Figure 5-11A.15 22 February 2007 . Convoy moves back into column formation Figure 5-11C. local security elements (if used) return to their vehicles. the convoy resumes movement. and the escort vehicles rejoin the column (see Figure 5-11C). When all elements are in column. Convoy assumes herringbone formation Figure 5-11B.

in which one unit moves through the stationary positions of another. For a forward passage. The platoon holds its fire until it passes the BHL.15 5-19 . The passing unit may not be able to maneuver and react to enemy contact. he may designate the XO. If it is part of a passing unit. the platoon conducts tactical movement in accordance with its orders. including location of the battle handover line (BHL). depending on whether the passing unit is moving toward (forward) or away from (rearward) an enemy unit or area of operations. z Passing unit arrival time(s). Disabled vehicles are bypassed. and near and far recognition signals). Units are highly vulnerable during a passage of lines. The following items of information are coordinated (Note. At times. As the passing unit. z Chain of command. z Available CS and sustainment assets and their locations. z Location of attack positions or assembly areas. * z Current enemy situation. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. including type and number of passing vehicles. patrol. The use of GPS/POSNAV waypoints will simplify this process and.) * z Guide requirements. z Additional procedures for the passage. (Note. and passage lanes. Once clear of passage lane restrictions. z Stationary unit’s mission and plan (to include OP. as part of a larger force. z Supporting direct and indirect fires.PASSAGE OF LINES 5-57. z Order of march. or a platoon leader to conduct liaison duties for reconnaissance and coordination. the platoon occupies defensive positions and assists the passing unit. the platoon executes tactical movement through the stationary unit. 5-59. the passing unit first moves to an assembly area or an attack position behind the stationary unit. passage points. * z CBRN conditions. The tank platoon participates in a passage of lines. and obstacle locations). CONDUCTING A PASSAGE OF LINES FORWARD PASSAGE OF LINES 5-60. * z Communications information (to include frequencies. 1SG. digital data. An asterisk indicates items that should be confirmed by reconnaissance): z Unit designation and composition. The commander normally conducts all necessary reconnaissance and coordination for the passage. Designated liaison personnel move forward to link up with guides and confirm coordination information with the stationary unit.Other Tactical Operations SECTION V . the tank platoon conducts tactical movement to maximize its AO within the limitations of the passage lane. Detailed reconnaissance and coordination are critical in overcoming these potential problems and ensuring the passage of lines is conducted quickly and smoothly. If it is part of the stationary force. speed the passage. including location of the restrictive fire line (RFL). z Anticipated and possible actions on enemy contact. * z Location of contact points. and fires may be masked. 5-61. Radio traffic is kept to a minimum. OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 5-58. as a result. Vehicles may be concentrated. A passage may be forward or rearward. Guides then lead the passing elements through the passage lane.

The platoon leader may or may not have coordinated directly with the passing unit. If guides are provided by the stationary unit. As noted. 5-66. and the platoon is responsible for their own security until it passes the BHL. SECTION VI . Gun tubes are oriented on the enemy. The passing unit contacts the stationary unit while it is still beyond direct-fire range and conducts coordination as discussed previously. or restrict movement. The platoon leader ensures that the platoon understands the points of coordination listed previously in this section. swamps and marshes over 1 meter deep. which include these types: „ Ravines. As the passing unit. Obstacle breaching entails the employment of a combination of tactics. This can occur after the platoon has consolidated on an objective or has occupied a BP. 5-20 FM 3-20. gaps. They fall into two major classifications: z Natural obstacles. „ Streams. RFLs and near recognition signals are emphasized. If the platoon is to provide guides to assist the passing unit. the passing unit contacts the stationary unit by radio at a point beyond the direct-fire range of weapon systems. They are usually covered by observation and enhanced by direct or indirect fires and as such the platoon leader needs to plan for this possibility. rivers.Chapter 5 REARWARD PASSAGE OF LINES 5-62. ASSISTING A PASSAGE OF LINES 5-64. „ Tree stumps and large rocks over 18 inches high. gullies. Existing obstacles are already present on the battlefield and are not emplaced through military effort. The guides are responsible for linking up with and guiding the passing unit through the passage lane and for closing obstacles as necessary. FM 3-34. EXISTING OBSTACLES 5-69. 5-65. In a forward passage. techniques. or canals over 1 meter deep.2 (FM 90-13-1) contains a more detailed discussion of breaching operations and enemy obstacle employment. „ Mountains or hills with a slope in excess of 60 percent (30 degrees). delay. The platoon moves quickly through the passage lane to a designated location behind the stationary unit. divert. He must further understand the basic tenets of breaching operations and roles the platoon may be tasked to play in a breach. or ditches over 3 meters wide. coordination of recognition signals and direct-fire restrictions is critical. TYPES OF OBSTACLES 5-68. and procedures (TTP) and equipment to project combat power to the far side of an obstacle. the stationary unit engages known enemy targets until the passing unit moves past the BHL. The stationary unit then holds all fires until the passing unit reaches the BHL. This discussion examines the two categories of obstacles.BREACHING OPERATIONS 5-67. the tank platoon provides this assistance while it is in stationary defensive positions. 5-63. he selects the personnel and briefs them on the points of coordination. The platoon leader must understand the challenges presented by various types of obstacles and the capabilities and limitations of the assets the platoon and its parent unit can employ to defeat them. Obstacles are any obstructions that stop. „ Lakes. During a rearward passage. the passing unit may conduct a short halt to link up and coordinate with them. Control of direct fires is a critical role for the element that is assisting the passage of lines. the tank platoon then continues tactical movement toward the passage lane. Because of the increased chance of fratricide during a rearward passage. Coordinating instructions may be in the form of a company or troop OPORD or a FRAGO issued over the radio.15 22 February 2007 .

The following discussion focuses on several types of reinforcing obstacles. stop. It can be used separately or in conjunction with other obstacles. It is easier and quicker to emplace than other obstacles and can be very effective in destroying vehicles.Other Tactical Operations z Forests or jungles with trees 8 inches or more in diameter and with less than 4 meters of space between trees on a slope. Reinforcing obstacles are placed on the battlefield through military effort and are designed to slow. or by mechanical means (the Volcano system). „ REINFORCING OBSTACLES 5-70. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Man-made obstacles.15 5-21 . or canalize the enemy. or railroad embankments. both friendly and enemy forces will enhance the effectiveness of their reinforcing obstacles by tying them in with existing obstacles. cities. Whenever possible. Minefields 5-71. by air or artillery delivery using scatterable mines. The minefield is the most common reinforcing obstacle the platoon will encounter on the battlefield. refer to Figure 5-12 for possible minefield locations. The minefield may be emplaced in several ways: by hand. which include built-up areas such as towns.

Potential minefield locations 5-22 FM 3-20.15 22 February 2007 .Chapter 5 Figure 5-12.

In addition. may be reinforced with wire and/or mines to make it more complex and more difficult for the attacker to overcome. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. The antitank ditch. illustrated in Figure 5-13. Potential minefield locations (continued) Antitank Ditch 5-72.15 5-23 .Other Tactical Operations Figure 5-12. soil from the ditch can be built up into a berm on the emplacing unit side.

Figure 5-14. with the main trunks crisscrossed and pointed toward the enemy at approximately a 45-degree angle. Abatis are usually mined or booby-trapped.Chapter 5 Figure 5-13. Road craters can be rapidly emplaced and are especially effective where restricted terrain on the sides of a road or trail prevents a bypass (refer to Figure 5-14). Abatis 5-24 FM 3-20. Trees are felled either by sawing or by use of explosives. An abatis provides an effective barrier against vehicle movement. the trunk of each tree should remain attached to the stump to form an obstacle on the flanks of the abatis (see Figure 5-15). the cut is made at least 1.15 22 February 2007 . Road craters Abatis 5-74. Figure 5-15. Antitank ditch Road Craters 5-73.5 meters above the ground. Craters are at least 1. The abatis is usually about 75 meters in depth and ideally is located on trails where there is no bypass.5 meters in depth and 6 meters in diameter and are usually supplemented with mines and/or wire.

22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Tank walls and berms are constructed of dirt and rock to slow or canalize enemy tanks. will have little effect on armored vehicles. They can also create “belly” shots for the defender while the attacker is unable to engage (see Figure 5-18). wire obstacles are also very effective against tanks and similar vehicles (see Figure 5-17). the use of burning tires or trash will cause this to be a more complex obstacle hindering thermal and optical scanning.or triple-strand concertina.15 5-25 . they are frequently employed on dismounted avenues of approach in the form of tanglefoot. Wire obstacles provide an effective and flexible antipersonnel barrier. Employed in depth or in conjunction with mines. Wire obstacle in depth Tank Wall and Tank Berm 5-77. A single wire obstacle. In addition. double. Log crib Wire Obstacles 5-76. the sprocket of M1-series tanks is designed to cut wire. and fourstrand fences.Other Tactical Operations Log Crib 5-75. A log crib is a framework of tree trunks or beams filled with dirt and rock (see Figure 5-16). Figure 5-16. Figure 5-18. however. Belly shot created by a tank berm Road Blocks in Urban Terrain 5-78. These obstacles would also create “belly” shots when the platoon tries to climb over the obstacle. Figure 5-17. to include overturned vehicles. Road blocks can be constructed of any local material. It is used to block roads or paths in wooded and mountainous terrain.

In either case. SOSRA STEPS 5-80. z The support force requests immediate or preplanned smoke to obscure the enemy and prevent observation of the breach operation. The support force should be in position to request suppressive artillery fires and smoke for obscuration. z The breach force must organize in such a manner as to secure the reduction area to prevent the enemy from interfering with the obstacle reduction. The commander decides whether to maneuver to a bypass or to breach the obstacle. BREACHING ORGANIZATION 5-81. z Move through the lane to provide local security for the assault force on the far side of the obstacle. it moves to covered and concealed areas and establishes support-by-fire positions. This element usually leads movement of the breach elements. the breach force may move to hull-down firing positions that allow it to suppress enemy elements overwatching the obstacle. He must keep in mind that a bypass may lead to an enemy kill zone. the breach force. He may task the tank platoon to serve in any of these elements. and the assault force. The light forces will not have the capability to create a breach large enough for a tank force. and the location of possible bypasses. with suppressive fires provided by the support force. The support force uses direct and indirect fires to accomplish its mission. At other times. During operations with light forces the platoon leader may need to be prepared to cover any one or several of the above missions. Breach Force 5-84. the support force suppresses any enemy elements that are overwatching the obstacle to allow the breach force to breach or bypass the obstacle. known by the abbreviation SOSRA. occur during a breaching operation: z Sufficient support elements are employed to suppress enemy elements that are overwatching the obstacle. as well as the tank platoon’s role in the operation. the support force lifts or shifts supporting fires. The discussion in this section covers the actions and responsibilities of these elements. Breaching operations entail the coordinated efforts of three task-organized elements: the support force. It then must organize internally to fulfill these responsibilities: z Provide local security for the breach site as necessary. The following actions. and assault forces. Support Force 5-82. as detailed in the following discussion. 5-26 FM 3-20. it may assault the enemy.15 22 February 2007 . The breach force receives a voice or digital SPOTREP identifying the location of the obstacle or bypass. the support force must be prepared to move to alternate positions while maintaining suppressive fires. In some instances. Because the enemy is likely to engage the support force with artillery. The support force leader sends a voice or digital SPOTREP to the commander. the composition of enemy forces that are overwatching the obstacle. z Conduct the actual breach. After identifying the obstacle. The commander in charge of the breaching operation will designate support. proofs. and marks a lane through the obstacle or secures the bypass. The breach force creates. This report must describe the location and complexity of the obstacle.Chapter 5 BREACHING PROCEDURES 5-79. (Note. breach.) 5-83. z The breach force takes actions to reduce the obstacle and allow follow-on forces to assault enemy forces beyond the obstacle after the lane is proofed and marked. As the breach and assault forces execute their missions.

or 1/4-pound blocks of TNT.) 5-88. Note. usually 75 to 100 meters apart. the commander may order the platoon to force through an obstacle. z Manual breaching. This process ensures that the lane is clear. picks. a disabled vehicle can be pushed ahead of the lead breach vehicle in an attempt to detonate mines. If the platoon has two or more plows. The mine plow is the breaching device most commonly employed by the tank platoon. Creating and Proofing the Lane 5-86. 5-87. M173 line charge. The PSG follows immediately behind to proof the lane and provide overwatch. with the section leader’ tanks following to proof the lanes and provide overwatch (see Figure 5-19).Other Tactical Operations Breaching Methods 5-85. shovels. Immediately following them are vehicles that proof the lane. it can create multiple lanes. Manual breaching is the least preferred method for the tank platoon. The wingman tanks are normally equipped with the plows. it may be required to provide close-in protection for attached engineers with breaching assets. the PSG’s wingman normally serves as the breach tank. these are usually tanks equipped with mine rollers. In extreme cases. axes. The battalion or company commander may allocate one to three plows per platoon. usually with mine plows or mine rakes. Plow tanks lead the breach force. The platoon leader’s section follows the PSG. with Soldiers probing by hand or using such items as grappling hooks. and chain saws. If available. the platoon can create up to two lanes through an obstacle. When properly equipped and supported. The tank platoon can create a lane by itself if it is equipped with the assets required to breach the type of obstacle encountered. Three breaching methods are available to the platoon: z Mechanical breaching. Note. If the platoon does not have this capability. the platoon leader may choose to lead with tanks equipped with mine rollers to identify the beginning of the obstacle. employing such means as the mine-clearing line charge (MICLIC). 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. If the location and/or dimensions of the obstacle are unknown. z Explosive breaching. 5-89. If the platoon is allocated one plow. This technique requires the breach force to move in column formation through the obstacle location.15 5-27 .

Unit SOPs will dictate marking methods and materials. which commonly include the following: z Cleared lane mechanical marking system (CLAMMS). z Pathfinder system. z Chem lights. A visible line down the center is effective.Chapter 5 Figure 5-19. To minimize the necessary breaching time. z Guides. After the lane is created and proofed.15 22 February 2007 . 5-28 FM 3-20. Figure 5-20 shows a sample marking method. Distinctive markers must show where the lane begins and ends. the proofing vehicle may simultaneously mark the lane. z Expended shell casings. Another technique is to mark both sides of the breached lane. z Engineer stakes with tape. it can then be marked to ensure safe movement by vehicles and personnel. this is critical for follow-on forces that may not know the exact location of the cleared lane. Plow tanks create multiple lanes while the section leaders’ tanks provide overwatch Marking the Lane 5-90.

) Assault Force 5-93.15 5-29 . 5-92. Throughout the operation.Other Tactical Operations Figure 5-20. including the tank platoon. The assault force will often move behind the breach force and closely follow the breach vehicles through the new lane. Note. are ideally suited for assault force operations against mobile enemy defenses in open terrain. Digital overlays enable units to move quickly to the breach lanes using the POSNAV or GPS. While the breach is in progress. Sample technique for obstacle lane marking Completing the Breach 5-91. After marking is complete. Consideration should have mechanized infantry as an assault force attacking dug-in enemy positions in close terrain. It secures the far side of the obstacle by physical occupation and/or continues the attack in accordance with the commander’s intent. the assault force then moves through the breach. Once a lane is cleared through the obstacle. Tank units. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. the platoon leader uses voice and digital systems to report the location of the lane and the method of marking to expedite the movement of the assault force. the assault force assists the support force or follows the breach force while maintaining cover and dispersion. 5-94. He also coordinates with the support force for suppressive fires. the platoon leader provides continuous updates of the breach force’s progress to higher headquarters and other elements involved in the breach.

examples include the defense of lodgment areas (forward operating base). and maneuver space to the protected force. reaction time. Missions of this force include the following: „ Moving to BPs that block potential areas of enemy penetration. Additionally. During the conduct of a stationary screen. the tank platoon will normally occupy a hide position or a hasty defensive position in depth behind OPs. normally through use of the coil formation. The tank platoon will normally execute a perimeter defense while attached to company. the 5-30 FM 3-20. reconnoiter. z When a unit has been isolated or bypassed by the enemy.or battalionsize dismounted infantry units. the commander issues FRAGOs for the tank platoon to conduct tactical movement and occupy a hasty defensive position or an attack-by-fire position. the tank platoon may occupy a hasty BP as part of the screen line. the platoon must carefully coordinate. The platoon may also establish a perimeter defense when it is operating alone and requires 360-degree security. 5-96. (Note. z Defense of key terrain (such as a bridge.) Common situations for the use of the perimeter defense include the following: z Defense of assembly areas. airfields. tactical bridge.15 22 February 2007 . Considerations for the execution of a perimeter defense include the following: z One section or the entire platoon orients on the most likely mounted avenues of approach. Cavalry troops conduct stationary or moving flank screens. The purpose of the perimeter defense is to protect the force or hold key terrain when the force is not tied in with adjacent units. z Facilitate counter reconnaissance operations. When the OPs identify the enemy. or roadblock). z A section or the entire platoon may occupy an assembly area within the perimeter as a reserve or reaction force. or assembly areas. z Defense of specific installations. z Impede and harass the enemy. the platoon must rely on dismounted infantry to provide security against enemy infiltration of the perimeter as well as close-in protection from dismounted enemy attacks. The OPs are provided by scout or mechanized infantry platoons. and conduct rehearsals on mounted movement routes to positions within the perimeter. z To avoid disrupting other fighting positions. SECTION VIII – SCREEN 5-97. Company teams usually establish screen lines (for counter reconnaissance purposes) in front of a task force as part of a defense. It is generally conducted in the same manner as a defense from a BP (hasty or deliberate) except that it orients on a full 360-degree sector. hilltop. „ Conducting counterattacks to repel or destroy an enemy penetration. within its capability. z Tanks must never fire over the heads of unprotected personnel. z Provide real-time information. allowing the screening force. pickup zone. z As part of a larger force’s perimeter defense. to destroy enemy reconnaissance elements. or landing zone). The screen is a common security mission for cavalry troops and company teams. refer to the discussion of tactical movement in Chapter 3 of this manual. Purposes of the screen include the following: z Provide early warning of enemy approach. or equipment (such as a TOC. acquiring and killing the enemy forward of the position. z Close coordination with dismounted infantry is critical. downed aircraft. During stationary screens. such as during screen missions or while occupying platoon hide positions. The concussion of the main gun as well as discarded sabot petals can endanger these troops. At times.PERIMETER DEFENSE 5-95. sites. the platoon also may conduct a hasty attack to destroy the enemy.Chapter 5 SECTION VII . 5-98. The tank platoon must know the location and routes of dismounted OPs and patrols to help prevent fratricide. For information on the coil formation. „ Moving to BPs that add firepower to a portion of the defense.

OPSEC is critical throughout the operation. To reduce the potential for fratricide. z Location and identification of friendly forces. When time is available and the situation permits. the tank platoon conducts tactical movement to the rear of scout platoons.15 5-31 . the incoming platoon leader coordinates with the in-place platoon leader and conducts a reconnaissance to confirm details of the relief. The tank platoon conducts the delay as part of a company team. engagement criteria should be as specific as possible when friendly units operate to the front and flanks of the tank platoon as it executes a screen mission. 5-99. During screen missions. These tasks are discussed in other sections of this chapter. In a moving flank screen (platoons normally execute this as a follow and support operation. All elements are relieved simultaneously. The considerations involved in planning and executing a delay at platoon level are the same as for offensive operations (refer to Chapter 3 of this manual) and defensive operations (refer to Chapter 4). preferably during periods of limited visibility. Units involved in a delay maximize the use of terrain and obstacles. it will then disengage and occupy successive BPs in depth as part of the delaying force. It is critical that the tank platoon leader keep these considerations in mind during all screen operations: z OPSEC requirements. and reconnaissance before the operation is executed and precise movement and effective communications once execution begins. maintaining contact with the enemy but avoiding decisive engagement. the commander issues a FRAGO for the tank platoon to occupy a hasty defensive position or attack-by-fire position or to conduct a hasty attack to destroy the enemy. z The platoons’ maneuver and fire support plans. it will occupy either a hasty or deliberate BP. 5-104. 5-100. the platoon may be required to operate apart from other units. z Sequential. The platoon should maintain voice and digital (if available) communications with the OPs. In some instances. The purpose is to trade the enemy space for time while retaining freedom of action. A relief in place requires detailed planning. Who will provide fire support and for how long? 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. The platoon may also be required to conduct local counterattacks or to support the movement of other platoons during the delay. It may be accomplished during either offensive or defensive operations. In some cases. The platoon leader should know all patrol routes and OP locations within the platoon’s AO. The two leaders should coordinate and exchange the following information: z The enemy situation and other pertinent intelligence. 5-102. The relief takes place one element at a time (by individual vehicle or by section).Other Tactical Operations tank platoon may be required to break contact or conduct a withdrawal and then execute a passage of lines. It may periodically occupy hasty BPs. coordination.RELIEF IN PLACE 5-103. z Engagement criteria. discussed earlier in this chapter). COORDINATION AND RECONNAISSANCE 5-105. local counterattacks are used to assist units during disengagement or to take advantage of battlefield opportunities. SECTION X . A relief in place occurs when one unit assumes the mission and positions of another unit. SECTION IX – DELAY 5-101. There are two methods by which to conduct a relief in place: z Simultaneous. When the scouts identify enemy elements. A delay operation is a continuous series of defensive actions over successive positions in depth.

the platoon leaders continue with their troopleading procedures and prepare to execute the relief. Once OPs are in place.15 22 February 2007 . obstacles. 5-106. Routes to be used during the operation The location of weapons and fighting positions. and information is exchanged between the two units. Once OPs are in place. POL. Reconnaissance of relief positions is the same as for any BP. and the time of change of responsibility for the area. to include triggers. z Hide positions. leaders at all levels have the ability to contact other units involved in the relief to warn of emergency situations. Net discipline is the key to an effective. After reconnaissance and coordination are complete. 5-32 FM 3-20. The incoming platoon leader should obtain information on the following: z The engagement area. SECURITY AND COMMUNICATIONS 5-109. Individual vehicles then relieve forward positions using one of three techniques: z The relieving vehicles occupy primary positions after the relieved unit has moved to alternate positions. alternate. and the break point. or alternate positions. z The relieving vehicles occupy alternate positions while the relieved unit remains in primary positions. The platoon leader then orders the relieving unit to occupy primary positions as necessary. and secure. Sketch cards and fire plans (including grid locations for input into digital systems). the relieving unit changes to the outgoing unit’s frequency and the two units operate on the same net throughout the relief. Once the relief is complete. z Routes to and within the BP. Once OPs are in place. Before beginning the relief. The latter technique offers several advantages: z The relieving unit establishes voice and digital communications and is prepared to defend immediately upon the exit of the relieved unit. Command and signal information. the relieved unit withdraws. Final coordination is conducted. RELIEF PROCEDURES 5-107. primary. leaders must remember that the net will be crowded with many stations and digital links competing for limited availability of “air time. Initially. Details of the relief. there are two methods for returning to separate unit frequencies. the use of recognition signals and guides. The relieving unit links up with guides or finalizes linkup procedures. TRPs. The incoming unit observes radio listening silence while the outgoing unit maintains normal radio traffic. OPSEC is critical in preventing enemy reconnaissance and intelligence assets from identifying the weaknesses and vulnerabilities that occur during the relief. By monitoring the same frequency and maintaining digital links. 5-108. As noted. wire lines (hot loops).Chapter 5 z z z z z z z Unit level obstacle plans.” 5-111. the relieving unit moves to an assembly area behind the unit to be relieved. the relieved unit can withdraw. z Primary. however. to include the sequence. One technique is to have the incoming unit switch back to its original frequency. z Location of guides. and supplementary fighting positions. 5-110. Because of the proximity of the relieved and relieving elements. the relieved unit withdraws. z The relieving unit occupies a hide position while the relieved unit occupies hide. and other materiel to the incoming unit. relief operation. The other is to have the outgoing unit switch to an alternate frequency. such as enemy contact. Procedures for transferring excess ammunition. and trigger lines.

Other Tactical Operations

z

z

The relieving unit never loses the digital link (if applicable) as it assumes the new mission. Once the relief is complete, the relieved unit simply logs off the digital net and switches to an alternate FM frequency; it can then reestablish a digital link after leaving the relief site. Maintaining radio traffic on the same frequency before, during, and after the operation will help deceive the enemy as to whether a relief has occurred.

SECTION XI - WITHDRAWAL
5-112. The purpose of this retrograde operation is to free a force in contact with the enemy so it can execute a new mission. Conducting a withdrawal at platoon level is identical to disengagement (see the discussion in Chapter 4 of this manual). The withdrawal may be conducted under pressure (with direct or indirect fire enemy contact) or with no pressure.

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Chapter 6

Combined Arms Operations
The tank platoon must take full advantage of available combined arms assets to accomplish its mission and to reduce its vulnerability on the battlefield. Combined arms integration may include mortars, FA, combat engineers, ADA, and aviation units. These assets are not organic to the tank platoon, but they may be available to through its parent battalion, company, or troop. The platoon leader must understand the capabilities and limitations of each combined arms asset in order to effectively employ them in combat.

SECTION I - FIRE SUPPORT
6-1. Mortars and FA are the primary means of indirect fire support available to tank platoons. In addition to understanding the capabilities and limitations of these assets, platoon leaders and their TCs must know what fire request channels to use to request fires. They must also understand how to work with the FIST at company team/troop level to plan and coordinate indirect fires. FM 6-30 explains how to call for and adjust fires.

MORTAR SUPPORT
6-2. Mortars afford immediate and responsive indirect fire support to maneuver forces. Each combined arms battalion (CAB) has four 120-mm mortar systems organized into two sections. Each reconnaissance squadron has six 120-mm mortar systems organized with two systems organic to each troop.

CAPABILITIES
6-3. With a maximum effective range of 7,200 meters, 120-mm mortars can provide a heavy volume of accurate, sustained fires. They are ideal weapons for attacking a variety of targets, including the following: z Infantry in the open. z Targets on reverse slopes. z Targets in narrow ravines or trenches. z Targets in forests, towns, and other areas that are difficult to strike with low-angle fires. 6-4. In addition to these highly flexible targeting options, mortars have the following capabilities and advantages: z Rapid response time. z Effective against low-density targets. z Highly destructive target effects.

LIMITATIONS
6-5. Mortars are limited in the following ways: z Maximum range is limited in comparison to the indirect fire support capability of FA elements. z They cannot be used against targets inside their minimum indirect fire effective range (200 meters from the mortar tube position). z Only limited types of ammunition are available.

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z z

Mortar elements carry limited amounts of ammunition. Their fire direction center (FDC) and tubes are not linked to the TACFIRE system.

EMPLOYMENT CONSIDERATIONS
6-6. Mortars can be extremely effective when used for the purposes outlined in the following discussion.

Destruction
6-7. High-explosive (HE) rounds, mounted with variable-time (VT) fuses, can be used to destroy or disperse dismounted infantry and vehicles that are in the open. HE mortar rounds have the capability to destroy or disable some armored vehicles.

Suppression
6-8. HE rounds can be used to force the enemy to button up or move to less advantageous positions.

Smoke
6-9. Mortar smoke builds up more rapidly than artillery smoke. White phosphorus (WP) rounds are used for obscuration and screening. See Appendix E of this manual for detailed information on the use of smoke.

Illumination
6-10. Illumination rounds are used to light an area or enemy position during periods of limited visibility. Illumination can increase the effectiveness of the tank platoon’s image intensification devices (passive sights). This helps the platoon in gathering information, adjusting artillery fire, and engaging enemy targets. Ground-burst illumination can also be used to mark enemy positions and to provide a thermal TRP for control of fires. 6-11. Units must be careful, however, not to illuminate friendly positions. Also, because U.S. night-vision devices may or may not be superior to those of most potential adversaries, illuminating the battlefield may be unnecessary or even counterproductive.

FIELD ARTILLERY SUPPORT
6-12. Tank platoon leaders must fully understand how to use artillery support to their best advantage. It is often their primary means of delaying and disrupting enemy formations and suppressing enemy positions. FA can provide immediate, responsive, accurate fires with a wide variety of munitions. 6-13. FA support is provided by an artillery (fires) battalion of the brigade (BCT). Each ground squadron in the armored cavalry regiment (ACR) has its own organic howitzer battery to provide dedicated indirect fire support. The platoon generally receives FA support through its attached company or troop FIST.

CAPABILITIES
6-14. In support of the tank platoon, FA elements can accomplish the following tasks: z Provide immediate suppression on unplanned targets. z Provide continuous fire support on planned targets in all weather conditions and types of terrain. z Allow commanders and platoon leaders to shift and mass fires rapidly. z Offer a variety of conventional shell and fuse combinations. z Provide obscuration and screening smoke to conceal movement. z Fire battlefield illumination rounds as necessary.

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LIMITATIONS
6-15. FA support has the following limitations: z Limited capability against moving targets. z Limited capability to destroy point targets without considerable ammunition expenditure or use of specialized munitions. z Highly vulnerable to detection by enemy target acquisition systems.

FIRE SUPPORT TEAM
6-16. The FIST is attached to companies or troops for combat operations or assigned as part of the company in the CAB. It may be positioned forward with a security force in support of operations when on-target designation is required for special munitions engagements. The FIST, however, is a valuable resource because of its command and control link with the artillery; it should not be exposed to direct fire except when absolutely necessary.

SUPPORT CONSIDERATIONS
6-17. FISTs are organized, equipped, and trained to provide the following personnel and support to the company or troop: z A fire support advisor and coordinator. z A communications link to all available indirect fire support assets. z On-the-spot support for infantry companies (ten-man team) or for armor companies and cavalry troops (four-man team).

COMMUNICATIONS
6-18. The armor or mechanized infantry FIST normally monitors the following radio nets: z Attached unit command net (battalion, company team, or troop). z Battalion mortar fire direction net. z Direct support (DS) battalion fire direction net (digital). z Battalion fire support net (voice). 6-19. The armored cavalry troop FIST normally monitors these radio nets: z Troop command net. z Troop fire support net. z Supporting artillery fire direction net (digital and voice). z Squadron fire support net. 6-20. The FIST serves as the net control station (NCS) on the unit fire support net, while the fire support element (FSE) serves as the NCS on the maneuver battalion fire support net. The FIST relays calls for fire to supporting artillery on a digital net (TACFIRE) or sends the fire mission to the mortar platoon or section. The command net allows the FIST to monitor operations and links the FIST to the commander and platoon leaders for planning and coordination.

FIRE SUPPORT TEAM VEHICLE
6-21. The FIST will operate from one of two vehicles; the M981, known as the fire support team vehicle (FISTV) or the M7 Bradley fire support team (BFIST) vehicle. Refer to Figure 6-1 for an illustration.

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Figure 6-1. Fire support team vehicle

FIRE REQUEST CHANNELS
6-22. In a tank company, all requests for indirect fire support are normally sent through the FIST on the company or troop command net. The commander approves the request using a prearranged method (oral approval or silence). The FIST selects the best available fire support asset to engage the target. Adjustments of the fire mission normally are also sent to the FIST, which then relays the message to the artillery unit on a digital fire direction net or to the battalion mortars on the fire support net. In cavalry troops, the FIST may pass the fire mission to the troop mortars; all adjustments are sent directly to the mortars. 6-23. Besides specific requests sent to the FIST, the platoon can request fire support in several other ways: z Calls for fire can result from SPOTREPs sent on the company or troop command net; the company FIST eavesdrops on the net and requests fires on targets of opportunity and on targets approved by the commander. z Requests for fire can be “tagged” onto preformatted SPOTREPs and contact reports sent via FBCB2. The TC presses the button for “request fire,” “immediate suppression,” or “immediate smoke” when sending a FBCB2 report (see Figures 6-2). z Requests for fire support can be entered directly into the TACFIRE system using FBCB2. Using the digital system, the platoon leader can exit a communications net and link into the TACFIRE system. Once the request is complete, the platoon leader exits the TACFIRE system and reenters the unit’s net. Unit SOP will dictate the use of this TACFIRE capability; see ST 320.153 for details.

Figure 6-2. FBCB2 SPOTREP (immediate suppression request)

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FIRE DIRECTION AND CONTROL PROCEDURES
INITIAL CALL-FOR-FIRE
6-24. The standard call for fire consists of three basic transmissions, which in turn comprise six elements: z Observer identification and WARNO (first transmission). z Target location (second transmission). z Target description, method of engagement, and method of fire and control (third transmission).

Observer Identification and Warning Order (First Transmission)
6-25. Observer identification tells the FDC who is calling. It also clears the net for the duration of the call. The WARNO tells the FDC the type of mission and the method of locating the target. The types of indirect fire missions are the following: z Adjust fire. This is used when the observer is uncertain of the exact target location. The observer says, “ADJUST FIRE.” z Fire for effect. The observer should always attempt first-round fire for effect if he is sure his target location is correct. He should also be sure the rounds of the first volley will have the desired effect on the target so little or no adjustment will be required. The observer announces, “FIRE FOR EFFECT.” (Note. On FBCB2-equipped vehicles, properly updated POSNAV data and an accurate lase to the target provide extremely accurate target location. This enables observers to call “FIRE FOR EFFECT” on the first transmission.) z Suppression. The word “SUPPRESS” is used to quickly bring fire on a preplanned target when unable to observe. This is a simplified call for fire and is sent in one transmission. Example: “G24—THIS IS G59—SUPPRESS AF2401—OVER.” Target description is not announced. z Immediate suppression. This is used to bring fire quickly on a planned target or a target of opportunity that is firing at a friendly unit or aircraft. As an example, the observer says, “G24— THIS IS G57—IMMEDIATE SUPPRESSION AF2402—OVER.” Target description is not announced. z Immediate smoke. This is used to place smoke quickly on a planned target or a target of opportunity that is firing at a friendly unit. Sample transmission: “G24—THIS IS G54— IMMEDIATE SMOKE AF2405—OVER.” 6-26. The polar and shift methods are announced to the FDC as part of the first transmission. They will be covered more in the following paragraph.

Target Location (Second Transmission)
6-27. Following the type of mission, the method of target location is announced; this prepares the FDC to receive the data sent by the observer and apply it to locate the target. The three methods for locating targets are grid, polar plot, and shift from a known point. The polar and shift methods are announced to the FDC. If the observer does not specify either polar or shift, the FDC knows the grid method is being used; the word “grid” is not announced. Example: “H24—THIS IS H67—FIRE FOR EFFECT—POLAR— OVER.” Grid Method 6-28. In the grid method, the target location normally consists of a two-letter grid zone identifier with eight digits (example: “AB180739”). The direction from the observer to the target (in mils, if possible) must be given to the FDC after the call for fire, but before the first adjusting rounds are shot. Note. With the likelihood of operating in built-up areas, crew members should call for fire using eight- or ten-digit grids to reduce collateral damage.

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Range shifts are given as “ADD” (when the target is beyond the known point) or “DROP” (when the target is closer than the known 6-6 FM 3-20. The observer then determines the lateral and range shifts (see Figure 6-5). To locate the target. Normally. This method requires that the observer and the FDC know the observer’s exact location. He then determines direction to the target using the RALS rule (right add.Chapter 6 Polar Plot Method 6-29.15 22 February 2007 . Polar plot method of target location Shift From a Known Point Method 6-30. This method can be used if the observer and the FDC have a common known point (see Figure 6-4). The observer determines the direction (to the nearest 10 mils) of the observer-target (OT) line and the distance (to the nearest 100 meters) from his position to the target (see Figure 6-3). Figure 6-3. Lateral shifts are left or right from the known point to the OT line and are given to the nearest 10 meters. left subtract). he can determine the direction by using a map and protractor or by using his binocular reticle pattern and a known direction to the known point. the observer must first determine the direction to the known point to the nearest 10 mils. Figure 6-4. If the observer has no compass. Shift from a known point method using direction (in mils) 6-31. this point is an artillery target.

and method of fire and control in his call for fire using the guidelines discussed in the following paragraphs. The observer includes the target description. This is the last required element in the call for fire. FM 6-30 explains in detail how to determine lateral and range shifts. and Method of Fire and Control (Third Transmission) 6-32. Range shifts are given to the nearest 100 meters. method of engagement. Method of Engagement.Combined Arms Operations point).15 6-7 . Target Description 6-33. see Figure 6-6 for examples. Figure 6-5. The FDC then determines the type and amount of ammunition needed. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. The observer describes the target to the FDC. The target description should be brief but accurate. Lateral and range shifts from a known point Target Description.

the platoon leader may plan and request more targets if needed. the observer’s next concern is to get the fire on the target. one artillery piece or mortar is used in adjustment. The observer will state who will give the command for fire to begin firing. “AT MY COMMAND. If the target is within 600 meters of friendly troops. fuse. If he can locate the target accurately. At the proper time. lack of identifiable terrain features. back to the FDC until fire hits the target. For an area target (area fire). “FIRE.Chapter 6 Figure 6-6. the target is the adjusting point. The observer tells how he wants to attack the target (including type of ammunition. Target description Method of Engagement 6-34. 6-37. as required. or poor visibility. If the observer wants to control the time of firing. he must execute an adjustment to bring fires on the target. The fire support plan is developed along with the scheme of maneuver supports. for any reason such as deceptive terrain. and distance from friendly troops). The FDC may change the ammunition type and fuse based on availability or other constraints. For a destruction mission (precision fire).” The FDC will tell the observer when the unit is ready to fire.” the FDC will fire as soon as the platoon or battery is ready. Normally. 6-8 FM 3-20. When the observer cannot accurately locate the target.15 22 February 2007 . TANK PLATOON FIRE SUPPORT PLANNING 6-38. ADJUSTING INDIRECT FIRE 6-36. Method of Fire and Control 6-35. It discusses the use of all available indirect and direct fires. he will say. “AT MY COMMAND. The observer must first pick an adjusting point. the observer announces “DANGER CLOSE” to supporting mortars and artillery. see FM 6-30. The observer spots by relating the burst or group of bursts to the adjusting point. The observer must spot the first adjusting round and each successive round and send range and deviation corrections. Once the call for fire has been made. the observer must pick a well-defined adjusting point at the center of the area or close to it. he will request fire for effect in his initial call for fire. The goal is to destroy as many enemy elements as possible and to suppress any others to keep them from firing on friendly forces. however. For a further discussion of adjusting mortar and artillery fire.” If the observer does not say. The company commander and FIST plan indirect fires. the observer will say.

ARMY AVIATION 6-40. Aviation forces may also be attached or OPCON to another command. attack helicopters may conduct direct air-to-ground coordination with companies and platoons during combat operations. Figure 6-7. Normally. the platoon leader checks it to ensure that targets are planned on all known or suspected enemy positions in front of. the attack helicopter unit may be placed OPCON to the ground force. Attack helicopter units operate either as a separate element within a division or as part of the air cavalry. it can be OPCON to a battalion or squadron. is organized. establish communications with ground forces. This helicopter provides substantial limitedvisibility and all-weather acquisition capability.Combined Arms Operations 6-39. When working with ground maneuver units. behind. equipped. Attack helicopter companies are maneuver units and are normally integrated into the ground scheme of maneuver. After receiving the company offensive fire plan. likely areas for these targets include observed choke points. SECTION II . Aeroscouts identify targets. obstacles. behind. The company defensive fire plan should list planned targets in front of. however. and likely support-by-fire positions. It can acquire armored vehicle targets at night at ranges up to 10 kilometers. on rare occasions. and to the flanks of the objective. If more targets are necessary for either the offensive or defensive plan. TIS. The attack helicopter is primarily employed as an anti-armor weapon system. 6-45. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. on. It can be armed with a wide assortment of weapons and thus can be configured for a variety of threat situations (see Figure 6-7).15 6-9 . The aircraft features a stabilized mast-mounted sight (MMS) with a low-light TV camera. Army aviation units normally will not be OPCON to echelons below battalion level. found in combat aviation brigades. OH-58D armed helicopter 6-44. Army aviation forces may be employed organic to a division or higher level of command to conduct maneuver or provide support. it is OPCON to a maneuver brigade or regiment. and to the flanks of BPs. AIR CAVALRY 6-41. and coordinate the situation and mission with the commander. ATTACK HELICOPTERS 6-42. The primary aircraft in air cavalry units is the OH-58D. and laser range finder/designator. and control attack helicopter fires. Figure 6-8 shows the type of attack aircraft in the Army’s inventory. Armed reconnaissance. and trained to conduct reconnaissance and security missions. the platoon leader coordinates them with the commander and the FIST. the AH-64 Apache. 6-43. choose general BPs. on. avenues of approach. Aeroscouts usually arrive before attack aircraft.

Army attack helicopters SECTION III . chain saw. In fast-moving offensive operations. The combat engineer platoon is organized. CAPABILITIES 6-47. Engineers are trained to fight as infantry as a secondary mission. In the defense. The higher unit commander determines the engineers’ specific tasks and responsibilities in these three roles.15 22 February 2007 . The platoon headquarters is authorized one M9 armored combat earthmover (ACE). In the heavy BCT. Brigade/regiment and battalion/squadron commanders decide how best to employ their engineer assets: as a distinct unit. commanders generally keep engineer units intact to construct major obstacles and execute survivability operations. or in direct support of the subordinate elements. attached to their subordinate elements. countermobility. designating the priority of work to be accomplished. which is highly mobile. and survivability missions in support of ground operations.Chapter 6 Figure 6-8. trained. one technique is to place engineers OPCON to the lead company team or troop to support breaching operations. Figure 6-9. however. ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT Organization 6-48. the maneuver battalions have an engineer company assigned to the battalion. armored. and two mine detectors.COMBAT ENGINEERS 6-46. Combat engineer platoon organization 6-10 FM 3-20. Every squad has a demolition set. they are employed as infantry only if absolutely necessary. The combat engineer platoon consists of three squads mounted in M113s or M2 IFV (see Figure 6-9). and amphibious (see Figure 6-10). and equipped to conduct mobility.

4. fix. SECTION IV . 6-52. ENGINEER SUPPORT TO THE TANK PLATOON 6-53. and fords. In a countermobility role. maneuver units can expect not to receive any air and missile defense protection. The platoon may also be supplemented with equipment from the engineer company.15 6-11 . and (as necessary) actions required to engage enemy aircraft. Additional details on engineer support and employment are in Chapters 3. actions to limit the damage if an attack occurs. OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 6-50.AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE 6-55. and 5 of this manual. 6-51. Air and missile defense assets are scarce. countermobility. the company normally must order much of the material through battalion supply channels. During planning for mobility. or block the enemy force. engineers can assist with obstacle construction to obstruct the enemy’s scheme of maneuver. and maintain roads. bridges. the engineers may need the help of armor crewmen. Engineers can improve survivability by constructing dug-in positions and overhead protection to reduce the effectiveness of enemy weapons. the tank platoon must be able to protect itself from enemy air attacks during all combat operations. M9 armored combat earthmover Equipment 6-49. Combat engineers normally support the company team as a platoon under the direction of the company team commander. turn.Combined Arms Operations Figure 6-10. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Air and missile defense measures include actions to avoid enemy air attack. thereby improving their supported unit’s maneuver capability. In mobility operations. improve. As a result. The tank platoon leader frequently will be tasked to provide security while the engineer platoon conducts its missions. The engineers can reduce or negate the effects of obstacles. They can reinforce terrain and existing obstacles to disrupt. the engineers can advise the commander on construction time and materials needed. 6-54. The engineers can construct. To speed up the construction process. z Route construction. and survivability work. the engineer platoon can provide the following support: z Obstacle reduction.

They may be inbound. 6-59. Aircraft are inbound or attacking locally now.15 22 February 2007 . static positions must provide effective overhead concealment. vehicles disperse quickly. There are no aircraft posing a threat at this time. There are three local air and missile defense warning levels: z DYNAMITE. and sandbagged positions can provide this protection. All shiny objects that could reflect light and attract attention must be covered. but they cover a larger area of operations. depressions. z LOOKOUT. When concealment is not available. It is essential when a unit is occupying static positions such as assembly areas or is preparing to cross a water obstacle or pass through a breached obstacle. Track marks leading into the position must be obliterated. If an enemy pilot cannot find friendly elements. and WHITE are established at levels higher than division. Although passive measures are the first line of defense against air attack. DAMAGE-LIMITING MEASURES Dispersion 6-60. ATTACK AVOIDANCE 6-58. Note. The platoon should use concealment. Refer to the discussion of OPSEC in Appendix D of this manual. the tank platoon must be prepared to engage enemy aircraft. Another damage-limiting measure is the use of natural or man-made cover to reduce the effects of enemy munitions. taken to minimize the effects of hostile air action. It includes all measures. These roughly parallel the local warning levels. and any other necessary action to prevent enemy detection. Aircraft are in the area of interest but are not threatening. There are two types of passive air and missile defense: attack avoidance and damage-limiting measures. YELLOW. They are used in conjunction with the weapon control status (discussed in the active air and missile defense portion of this section) to provide early warning of and planned responses to enemy aircraft. Folds in the earth. Air and missile defense warnings of RED. Whenever possible. camouflage. buildings. Passive air and missile defense is the tank platoon’s first line of defense against enemy air attack. Local air and missile defense warnings are used to indicate the air threat. he cannot attack them. The decision to fight back against an air threat is based on the situation 6-12 FM 3-20. but there is time to react.Chapter 6 AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE WARNINGS 6-56. When the platoon is on the move and air guards identify an enemy air attack. PASSIVE AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE 6-57. such as a theater. z SNOWMAN. deception. Dispersion is one of the most effective ways to reduce the effects of enemy air attack. communications security. and stop (a stationary vehicle is more difficult to see than a moving vehicle). other than active defense. An early warning system that includes both visual and audible signals can help to limit damage by enabling the platoon to begin dispersion at the earliest possible moment. ACTIVE AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE 6-62. vehicles must be camouflaged to blend into the natural surroundings. move to covered and concealed positions if possible. Cover 6-61. Refer to the discussion of the react to air attack battle drill in Chapter 3 of this manual.

Refer to the battle drill for reaction to air attack in Chapter 3 of this manual. can be employed to destroy large enemy armor formations or when using smart weapons can be effective against point targets. These rules are simple and logical. Figure 3-20 of this manual for guidelines and procedures for selecting machine gun aim points. Engaging aircraft with volume fire is the key to effective use of the machine guns. Several types of main gun ammunition are effective against helicopters.S. The main gun aim point is always center of mass. everyone in the platoon must learn and retain them.Combined Arms Operations and the capabilities of organic weapon systems. and it has the radio equipment needed to talk to U. The air cavalry can see the battlefield and the target better than ground forces can. This is the least restrictive weapon control status. Close air support (CAS). Crews can fire only at air targets positively identified as hostile according to the prevailing hostile criteria. including MPAT. The ETAC on the ground or the forward air controller (FAC) in the air acts as a link between the ground element and the CAS aircraft. CAS strikes can be either preplanned (at brigade. provided by the U. The platoon leader receives the status from the company or troop commander. battalion. z WEAPONS TIGHT.15 6-13 . Refer to Chapter 3. 6-68. or squadron level) or requested on an immediate-need basis through the battalion enlisted terminal air controller (ETAC). Crews are prohibited from firing except in self-defense or in response to a formal order from the unit commander.S. All platoon members must understand that they can defend against a direct attack but cannot engage aircraft that are not attacking them unless the weapon control status allows it. gunners do not attempt to track the target with machine guns.S. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. PLATOON AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE FIRES 6-64. It applies to all weapon systems. they are directed at an aim point. Delivered on the platoon leader’s command. WEAPON CONTROL STATUS 6-63.AIR SUPPORT CLOSE AIR SUPPORT 6-67. For further information on MPAT ammunition. z WEAPONS HOLD. Air Force assets in joint air attack team (JAAT) and attack helicopter operations. Note. The weapon control status describes the relative degree of control in effect for air and missile defense fires. Main Gun Fires 6-66. This is the most restrictive control status. These fires must be coordinated to be effective. Crews can fire at any air target not positively identified as friendly. refer to FM 3-20. Air Force aircraft. Air Force and Marine Corps. Army air cavalry is best equipped to coordinate with U. and armor-piercing discarding sabot (APDS) rounds.12. Machine Gun Fires 6-65. The three control statuses are the following: z WEAPONS FREE. The attack aircraft organic to air cavalry units can assist CAS aircraft in suppressing the enemy ADA threat. When it must fight back. the platoon can use the tank’s main gun and machine guns against attacking aircraft. highexplosive antitank (HEAT). SECTION V .

but it has limitations. Specialized CAS/rear area combat operations (RACO) aircraft. Whenever possible. USAF Reserve. typical load 7. 25mm Gatling gun.000 lbs. This aircraft is vulnerable to threat air defense systems and must operate in a low ADA threat environment.000 lbs. Vehicle lights. except it has no 7. two models. Chemical glow lights can also be used to mark friendly positions. Multi-role aircraft. especially when friendly troops are within 300 meters of the target. Multi-role fighter.500 lbs. Violet or white smoke shows up well against most background colors. USAF NG USAF USAF. The A-model is equipped with two 40-mm guns. propeller driven. wide variety of air-to-surface weapons. This will help platoon leaders understand which aircraft would best be able to support the platoon for a certain type of mission. priority is air-to-ground. such as an unshielded red taillight. Both models have advanced sensors and a target acquisition system including forward-looking infrared and low-light TV. a crewman can swing the light in a circular motion to mark the location. typical load 4. Maximum load 17. Specialized CAS aircraft. MARKING FRIENDLY POSITIONS 6-69. USMC F/A-18 AC-130 USAF.000 lbs. typical load 6. supersonic. 6-14 FM 3-20. subsonic. The H-model is similar. Weapons employment accuracy is outstanding. z Mirrors and signal panels. typical load 6. One technique that can be used at night is to tie an infrared or green chemical light on a 10-foot string. Characteristics and capabilities of fixed-wing aircraft AIRCRAFT AV-8B SERVICE USMC CHARACTERISTICS (Typical Munitions) Vertical/short takeoff and landing (VSTOL) CAS aircraft. Maximum load 9. USAF NG USN. Rocket or 40-mm flares are useful for attracting attention at night.500 lbs. When aircraft are in the area. are visible to a pilot for several miles at night.62-mm mini guns. they can sometimes be employed effectively during the day. 20-mm gun mounted in the nose and air-to-air missiles. two 20-mm guns.000 lbs. If the sun is shining and the operator is skillful. Ammunition load is for information purposes only. 30-mm gun. USAF Reserve Note.200 lbs. Signal mirrors are probably the best ground-to-air devices for attracting attention. pilots can see a mirror’s flash miles away. The smoke grenade is the most commonly used marker. Maximum load 16. Maximum load 10. subsonic.62 mini guns and one of the 40-mm guns is replaced with a 105-mm howitzer. battery-powered strobe lights produce brilliant white or blue flashes at about 1-1/2-second intervals. Typical load is average load for typical support mission. as the platoon has no control of aircraft configurations.000 lbs.Chapter 6 Table 6-1. 20-mm cannon with 512 rounds. and two 7. The flash is visible at night for 1 to 3 miles. USAF Reserve. friendly positions should be marked during close air strikes. Wind may cause smoke to drift above trees. complements the F-15 in an air-to-air role. Resources for marking positions include the following: z Smoke. A-10 or O/A-10 F-15E F-16 USAF.000 lbs. supersonic. maximum load is the amount the aircraft can carry in an ideal situation. z Flares. Multi-role aircraft. Pocket-size.15 22 February 2007 . and some colors can blend with the background. VS-17 signal panels are also good visual references for pilots. z Lights. most accurate air-to-ground delivery system in the inventory. maximum load 24.

and critical assets. Within the Army and through the combatant commander. This can place a tremendous challenge on tactical forces and can significantly reduce the capturing unit’s combat effectiveness. to include area damage control. or mobile patrols. The Army is the Department of Defense’s (DOD) executive agent for all detainee operations. The MPs. The MPs support the battlefield 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. marking and controlling routes. protection. A detained person in the custody of US armed forces who has not been classified as an RP (retained person) or a CI (civilian internee) is treated as an EPW until a legal status is ascertained by competent authority. With organic firepower. The MPs’ mobility makes it possible for them to detect the threat as they aggressively patrol the AO. and equipment when and where they are needed.15 6-15 . The MPs perform the area security (AS) function to protect the force and enhance the freedom of units to conduct their assigned missions. In any conflict involving U. These MP assets may be attached or OPCON to combat units for the duration of a specific mission and then will be released to the control of their parent unit. breaching operations. defilades.S. the MPs are capable of engaging in decisive operations against a Level II threat and delaying (shaping) a Level III threat until commitment of the tactical combat force (TCF). and moving units of impending enemy activities. may be captured. area security. MP operations require continuous coordination with host-nation civilian police to maintain control of the civilian population and to enforce law and order. As part of the MMS function. The MPs move all units quickly and smoothly with the least amount of interference possible. Military police (MP) operations play a significant role by assisting the commanders in meeting the challenges associated with conducting combat operations. or conducting a reconnaissance for bypassed or additional routes. forces. accountability. route reconnaissance and surveillance (R&S). play a key role in supporting forces in operations outside main battle area. and detainee control. The MPs expedite the forward and lateral movement of combat resources and ensure that commanders get forces.Combined Arms Operations SECTION VI . DETAINEE OPERATIONS 6-75. supplies. They also provide straggler control. The MPs’ organic communications enable them to advise the appropriate headquarters. Their training in urban operations can be of great assistance for help in crowd control. The MPs support the commander and help expedite military traffic by operating traffic-control points (TCPs). military prisoners. MPs provide a wide range of diverse support in urban terrain. The MPs maintain the security and viability of the strategic and tactical lines of communication to ensure that the commander can deploy and employ his forces. who provide AS. Additionally. and MSR regulation enforcement. The MPs act as a response force that delays and defeats enemy attempts to disrupt or demoralize military operations in the AO. 6-72. and a passage of lines. The I/R function is of humane as well as tactical importance. 6-76. and sustainment for all types of detainees. key terrain.S. and noncombatant operations. MSRs. The maneuver and mobility support (MMS) function involves numerous measures and actions necessary to support the commander’s freedom of movement in his area of responsibility (AOR).MILITARY POLICE 6-70. MANEUVER AND MOBILITY SUPPORT 6-71. detainee operations. erecting route signs on main supply routes (MSR) or alternate supply routes (ASR). dislocated-civilian control. the MPs are tasked with coordinating shelter. AREA SECURITY 6-74. the MPs support river-crossing operations. base clusters. bases. separated and disorganized by the shock of intensive combat. Entire units of enemy forces. Military actions on the modern battlefield will result in many detainees. This is particularly important in the modern battlefield where there is a greater geographical dispersal of forces and lengthened lines of communication. roadblocks/checkpoints. safe and humane treatment of detainees is required by international law. 6-73. the Army is DOD’s executive agent for long-term confinement of U.

and securing detainees throughout the AO. evacuating. In this process. The MPs’ L&O function extends the battlefield commander’s C2.15 22 February 2007 . work to suppress the chance for criminal behavior throughout the AO. LAW AND ORDER 6-77.Chapter 6 commander by relieving him of the problem of handling detainees with combat forces. The MPs perform their I/R function of collecting. The MPs. and punitive regulations. directives. the MPs coordinate with military intelligence (MI) to collect information that may be used in current or future operations. in close coordination with the Criminal Investigative Division (CID). The law and order (L&O) function consists of those measures necessary to enforce laws. 6-16 FM 3-20.

BASIC AND COMBAT LOADS BASIC LOAD 7-5. z Evacuation of equipment and vehicles for replacement and/or repair. The platoon has no organic sustainment assets. and safeguarding of the unit’s assigned equipment. The PSG is also the primary recipient of all maintenance. z Turn-in of equipment for repair. and personnel requirements. He also keeps the platoon leader informed of the platoon’s status. Most routine sustainment functions are accomplished by SOP. fuel. 7-4.Chapter 7 Sustainment Sustainment elements arm. especially high-use items. detainees). and personnel reports within the platoon. They must anticipate supply expenditures and request resupply before an operation begins. z Evacuation of personnel (WIA.SUPPLY OPERATIONS 7-3. All leaders must make periodic checks to ensure that the platoon’s equipment. SECTION I . The PSG coordinates directly with his 1SG for all sustainment assets. During combat operations. The company or troop delivers supplies to the platoon. and provide transportation and personnel for the platoon. and classes of supply. The PSG advises the platoon leader of logistical requirements during preparation for combat operations. SECTION II . These procedures and services include the following: z Accountability. as the 1SG is for the company and troop. but it is his responsibility to keep the platoon leader informed of the current status of the platoon. The PSG is assisted by the other TCs and the gunners on the platoon leader’s and PSG’s vehicles. supply.15 7-1 . clothe. z Reporting of the status of personnel. maintenance. He is assisted by the TCs. equipment. Priorities for delivery are established by the company/troop commander. the PSG coordinates directly with the 1SG.ORGANIZATION 7-1. z Requests for resupply. feed. informing him of the platoon’s supply. The platoon leader is responsible for supervising sustainment within the platoon. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. The PSG is the sustainment operator for the platoon. Each platoon has a large amount of equipment and requires frequent resupply to accomplish its mission. fix. The PSG distributes supplies within the platoon. 7-2. maintenance. KIA. is accounted for and ready to use. The quantity of each item of supply in a basic load is based on the number of days the unit may have to sustain itself in combat without resupply. the basic load covers supplies kept by units for use when combat is initiated. For supply classes other than ammunition.

Soldiers will eat more than three meals per day. CLASS II 7-11. Vehicle crews must maintain a stock of oil. 7-10. individual equipment and clothing items. however. morale. All meals should be eaten in shifts. The platoon must top off vehicles whenever the tactical situation permits. COMBAT LOAD 7-7. chemical lights. grease. During continuous or cold-weather operations. that are prescribed in authorization and allowance tables. ready-to-eat (MRE).to five-day stock. 7-13. which are requested through the supply sergeant. on digitally equipped vehicles. Rearming and refueling usually occur daily or at the conclusion of major operations. into combat in a single delivery. other than principal items. 7-14. as appropriate. the platoon leader should balance the range and fuel capacity of his vehicles against the requirements of future operations. that the platoon must have on hand to sustain operations in combat for a prescribed number of days. Supply sergeant should also keep 10-percent overage of central issue facility (CIF) items in order to replace Soldier’s equipment that is lost or damaged during operations. the platoon’s combat load is specified by higher headquarters. and ice) as well as gratuitous issue of items related to health. they should be executed simultaneously under the cover of limited visibility. The platoon’s parent unit must be capable of moving the combat load. using organic transportation assets. the basic load is the quantity of ammunition required to be on hand to meet combat needs until resupply can be accomplished. 7-2 FM 3-20. Each vehicle maintains a supply of rations. CLASSES OF SUPPLY CLASS I 7-8. tentage. usually a three. or units of weight. and welfare. The platoon leader must control redistribution of fuel and ammunition when these supplies cannot be delivered or when only limited quantities are available. and hydraulic fluid. and they should never be served at one centralized location. Refer to ST 3-20. The PSG continually monitors the platoon’s supply status through CS reports and. Each combat vehicle should maintain a minimum of 10 gallons of potable water. automated SITREPs.Chapter 7 7-6. replenishing these POL products every time they refuel. Class II includes items of equipment.153 for report formats. 7-9. units. Among these items. The platoon leader and PSG must make sure not only that the platoon is fed. The combat load is the quantity of supplies. For ammunition (Class V). the platoon leader must choose between topping off vehicles that need the most fuel first and giving limited amounts to each vehicle. In planning for refueling operations. Hot meals are brought forward whenever possible. The PSG notifies the platoon leader before a specific vehicle or the platoon as a whole is critically short of these major classes of supply.15 22 February 2007 . When time is limited. for optimum security. Class I includes subsistence items (rations. but also that their Soldiers eat nutritious meals to maintain the energy levels required in combat. one technique is to recycle water previously used for personal hygiene. CLASS III 7-12. are individual tools and tool sets. The two techniques of refueling and rearming and tailgate and service-station resupply are covered later in this section. batteries. The basic ammunition load is specified by the theater army and is expressed in rounds. Like the basic load. in all classes. more during operations in arid climates or in MOPP gear. Potable water should be replenished daily. This extra allowance must be planned and requested. engineer tape. and housekeeping supplies. either by refilling from the water trailer or by rotating 5gallon cans with the 1SG or supply sergeant. water. Class III comprises all types of POL products. in the form of meals. The platoon should also maintain a minimum amount of nonpotable water for vehicle and equipment maintenance.

In a combat environment. Class IX supplies are requisitioned through the company or troop maintenance section by using the DA Form 2404. fuses. Prestock operations are fairly rare in the offense and generally are limited to refueling. and emergency resupply. missiles.15 7-3 . Pre-positioning of supplies. Normally. He should take steps to ensure ammunition is equally distributed throughout the platoon before the start of any tactical operation. Prior planning for resupply is required due to long delivery and large amounts of haul assets required. and toiletry articles are normally sold through the exchange system during peacetime or for units not in a combat environment. road wheels. 7-17.153 for report formats). mines and demolitions. Equipment Inspection and Maintenance Worksheet. Class VII includes major-end items. CLASS VII 7-19. PRE-POSITIONING 7-23. CLASS VIII 7-20. and foot powder. but Class I and Class III supplies may be included in some situations. assembled and ready for intended use. Class V is ammunition. or troop. These basic-load supplies are part of the PLL. Included are individual medical supplies such as first-aid dressings. refills for first-aid kits and combat lifesaver bags. also known as prestock resupply. which are provided through the battalion or squadron medical platoon and ordered through the medical team supporting the platoon. Based on unit SOP. The items will be replaced by the parent unit as they are reported and as available. assorted bolts. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. after direct-fire contact with the enemy. and during consolidation on an objective. CLASS VI 7-18. METHODS OF RESUPPLY 7-22. These are major pieces of equipment. Class IX comprises repair parts carried by the maintenance team. only Class V items will be prestocked. The tank platoon uses three methods in conducting supply operations: pre-positioning. artillery and tank rounds. and major weapon systems. routine resupply. other materials are requested through the company or troop headquarters. and bombs. may be required in some defensive operations. water purification tablets. to include small arms. some Class IV materials may be part of the tank load plan. candy. PLL items carried by the platoon usually include spare track. Barrier materials include lumber. machine gun parts. sandbags. Class IV includes construction and barrier materials used by the platoon to construct OPs and obstacles and to improve fighting positions. these items are sent with Class I as health and comfort packs. Class VI covers personal-demand items. The method to be used is determined after an analysis of the factors of METT-TC. Tobacco products. such as combat vehicles. company.Sustainment CLASS IV 7-15. artillery pieces. Major-end items that are destroyed are reported immediately by means of CS reports (see ST 3-20. missile launchers. and light bulbs. concertina or barbed wire. and pickets. CLASS V 7-16. Class VIII includes medical supplies. CLASS IX 7-21.

Resupply of Class III (specifically fuel) is usually accomplished behind a unit’s current BP or en route to a successive BP. As noted. Another technique is to locate Class V supplies en route to or within a successive BP. The ROM technique is planned and organized at battalion or higher level to sustain vehicles during long movements. The following considerations influence selection of prestock sites and execution of the resupply operation: z Availability of overhead cover for the prestock location. The location and amount of a prestock must be carefully planned and then verified through reconnaissance and rehearsals.Chapter 7 Operational Considerations 7-24. Prestock in the Offense 7-26. the unit must have a plan for the destruction or removal of supplies to prevent their capture by the enemy. Security will require planning to prevent enemy dismounted/guerilla forces from destroying or sabotaging prestocked supplies. When the platoon must conduct this type of resupply in the defense. z Cover and concealment for the location and routes that vehicles will take to reach it. The LOGPAC comprises company/troop and battalion/squadron assets that transport supplies to the company or troop (see Figure 7-1). z Security procedures required to safeguard the resupply operation. Destruction or Removal of Supplies 7-27. ROUTINE RESUPPLY 7-28. There are several techniques for accomplishing prestock resupply in the defense. In all prestock operations. 7-4 FM 3-20. This enables the tank crew to resupply during an engagement without displacing. III. Normally. The goal of the ROM is to ensure that vehicles are topped off prior to possible contact with the enemy. z Procedures for protecting friendly personnel and vehicles in the event prestock ammunition is ignited. vehicles either assume a herringbone formation or occupy hasty defensive positions until they can top off. platoons. If enough fuel-hauling vehicles are available. individual vehicles. Class V (ammunition) is positioned next to or within a vehicle’s fighting position. If the number of fuel vehicles is limited. sections. and IX and of any other items requested by the company or troop. The plan should include information about the location of and routes to prestock sites. pre-positioning of supplies in the offense is normally limited to refueling. V.15 22 February 2007 . Use of this method requires consideration of security procedures to safeguard the prestock. Security for ROM sites is normally maintained using battalion assets. Prestock in the Defense 7-25. Routine resupply is planned at battalion level and normally takes place at every opportunity. or companies/troops proceed directly to their specified fuel vehicle and either top off or receive an amount of fuel specified in the OPORD. the platoon leader directs the PSG to rotate vehicles or sections through prestock positions based on the enemy situation and shortages within the platoon. These operations include regular resupply of items in Classes I. Each TC must be informed of prestock locations.

The 1SG or his representative meets the LOGPAC and guides it to the company or troop resupply point. Once the LOGPAC is prepared for movement. 7-30. the supply sergeant moves the vehicles forward from the field trains as part of the battalion/squadron resupply convoy to the logistics resupply point (LRP). The company or troop supply sergeant assembles his LOGPAC in the battalion/squadron field trains area under the supervision of the support platoon leader from the FSC and the company 1SG.15 7-5 . The company or troop then executes tailgate or service-station resupply.Sustainment Figure 7-1. Example company or troop LOGPAC 7-29. Replacements and hospital returnees travel to company/troop locations on LOGPAC vehicles as required. refer to the discussion of these resupply techniques later in this section. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.

Note. TECHNIQUES OF RESUPPLY 7-33. The tactical situation will dictate which technique of resupply the platoon will use: tailgate. 7-6 FM 3-20. TAILGATE RESUPPLY 7-34. the tank platoon may have to conduct resupply while in contact with the enemy. If necessary. In the tailgate technique. The situation will also dictate when to resupply. emergency supplies are brought forward by the battalion/squadron support platoon. This is a version of the service-station technique. Emergency resupply.Chapter 7 EMERGENCY RESUPPLY 7-31. Refer to the following discussion of the tailgate and service-station resupply techniques. supplies can be hand carried to vehicle positions to further minimize signatures. Two techniques are used to resupply units in contact: z Limited supplies are brought forward to the closest concealed position. Based on the enemy situation. z Individual vehicles or sections disengage and move to a resupply point. the platoon should attempt to avoid resupply during the execution of offensive operations. is executed when the platoon has such an urgent need for resupply that it cannot wait for the routine LOGPAC. service station.15 22 February 2007 . 7-32. obtain their supplies. or a combination of both types. resupply should be done during mission transition. normally involving Class III and Class V. followed by crossleveling of ammunition within the platoon. a variation of one type. where the tailgate technique of resupply is used. Resupply is unavoidable during defensive missions of long duration. Emergency resupply procedures start with immediate redistribution of ammunition in individual vehicles. It is better to have four tanks with 20 rounds of ammunition each than two tanks with 40 rounds and two others with none. but it is useful in maintaining stealth during defensive missions because tanks do not have to move. fuel and ammunition are brought to individual tanks by the 1SG or another responsible individual who is assisting him (see Figure 7-2). It is timeconsuming. Generally. and then return to the fight. Once requested through the commander or 1SG. This method is used when routes leading to vehicle positions are available and the unit is not under direct enemy observation and fire.

In the service-station technique. vehicles move to a centrally located point for rearming and refueling. however. Service-station resupply is inherently faster than the tailgate method. Tailgate resupply technique SERVICE-STATION RESUPPLY 7-35. it can create security problems.Sustainment Figure 7-2. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. because vehicles must move and concentrate.15 7-7 . either by section or as an entire platoon (see Figure 7-3). During defensive missions. the platoon must be careful not to compromise the location of fighting positions.

Chapter 7 Figure 7-3.15 22 February 2007 . During a defensive mission. The platoon leader can vary the specifics of the two basic techniques. he may use the tailgate technique for a mounted forward OP and the service-station method for the remainder of the platoon located in hide positions (see Figure 7-4). or he can use them in combination. for example. Service-station resupply technique VARIATIONS AND COMBINATIONS 7-36. 7-8 FM 3-20.

repairing.MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS 7-37. which consists of general support (GS) tasks and some DS tasks. which consists of crew tasks. When personnel cannot repair the equipment on site within two hours. and evacuating systems to higher levels for repair.15 7-9 . z Sustainment maintenance.Sustainment Figure 7-4. 7-39. as well as inspecting. testing. There are two maintenance echelons in the tank platoon: z Field maintenance. These tasks generally require disassembly of components away from the combat system and. 7-40. recovering. Sustainment maintenance involves off-system tasks that support the supply system. requisitioning. organizational tasks. are returned to the supply system rather than the user. they move the equipment to the nearest rear unit maintenance collection point (UMCP). and evacuating equipment and materiel when necessary. These tasks do not require disassembly of components after removal from the system. and direct-support (DS) tasks. The tank platoon maintenance structure is designed to support the “replace forward. 7-38. when repaired. This concept focuses on the combat repair team (CRT) replacing nonserviceable line replaceable units (LRU). It includes PMCS. Proper maintenance keeps equipment and materiel in serviceable condition. repair rear” concept. servicing. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Combination of resupply techniques SECTION III . Repair and recovery take place as far forward as possible. Field maintenance primarily involves system tasks that are performed on or nearby a system to return it to mission-capable status. 7-41.

z Knowing the status of current platoon maintenance activities. His duties include the following: z Directing and supervising unit maintenance of platoon equipment. and communications equipment are combat ready at all times. z Supervising and accounting for platoon personnel during maintenance periods. Because time constraints will not allow all equipment to be PMCS’d every day. z Ensuring that repair parts are used or stored as they are received. z Ensuring that tank crews have appropriate technical manuals on hand and are trained and supervised to complete operator maintenance properly. z Ensuring that vehicles are always topped off with fuel in garrison and that they receive adequate fuel in the field. PLATOON SERGEANT 7-44. The platoon leader also ensures that equipment that cannot be repaired at platoon level is reported to organizational maintenance as soon as possible using DA Form 2404. z Planning and rehearsing a maintenance evacuation plan for every mission. and supervising unit maintenance for the platoon. z Ensuring that unit-level PMCS are performed on all assigned equipment in accordance with appropriate operator’s manuals. LEADER RESPONSIBILITIES PLATOON LEADER 7-43. including corrective actions for equipment faults. he must ensure that personnel provide support for DS maintenance elements when equipment must be evacuated. z Coordinating with the maintenance officer in planning. that all platoon vehicles.Chapter 7 7-42.15 22 February 2007 . and equipment such as night-vision devices. his duties include the following: z Ensuring. z Collecting reports of the platoon’s maintenance status in the field and sending the appropriate consolidated reports to maintenance personnel. vehicles. He also must ensure that personnel perform scheduled services as part of organizational maintenance. mine detectors. z Helping the platoon leader to comply with his responsibilities and assuming these responsibilities in his absence. The platoon leader has ultimate responsibility for the condition and performance of the platoon’s equipment and materiel. weapon systems. The platoon leader is concerned primarily with supervising operator maintenance. In that role. within the platoon’s maintenance capabilities. and requisition of repair parts. job orders to DS maintenance elements. In addition. weapons and vehicles must be checked daily. At a minimum. z Ensuring that drivers are trained and licensed to operate platoon vehicles and equipment. z Developing and supervising an ongoing maintenance training program. The platoon leader keeps his commander informed of the platoon’s maintenance status. z Coordinating with the 1SG to arrange organizational or DS maintenance. and weapon systems. the PSG will need to develop a schedule to ensure all equipment is checked in a reasonable time. z Keeping the platoon leader informed of the platoon’s maintenance and logistics status. The PSG has primary responsibility for most of the platoon’s maintenance activities. 7-10 FM 3-20. directing.

performing minor lubrication. and adjusting. 7-48. cleaning. The M1A2 is equipped with embedded nonintrusive and intrusive diagnostic test capabilities. Operator maintenance includes proper care. z After-operation. the platoon’s maintenance status. The driver and gunner are required to record the results of checks and services. servicing. (See special note after paragraph 7-45. to include inspecting. The worksheet is the primary means of reporting equipment problems through the TC to the PSG and platoon leader and ultimately to organizational maintenance personnel. z Constantly updating the PSG on the maintenance and logistics status of the vehicle. preserving. Unit SOP should specify how to report the results of these tests as well as identify the duties of organizational mechanics. z Ensuring that dispatch records are completed accurately and turned in on schedule. these include the built-in test (BIT) and fault isolation test (FIT). The TCs and the gunner from the platoon leader’s tank are the platoon’s first-line maintenance supervisors. and thus its combat readiness. the TC must ensure that all crew members are trained and licensed as drivers. weapon systems. Checks and services prescribed for the automotive system. In large part.15 7-11 . CBRN equipment. z During-operation. below. z Ensuring that the crew is properly trained in PMCS procedures and that PMCS are performed on the vehicle in accordance with the appropriate technical manuals. In preparing for continuous operations. Soldiers must be made to use the book. LEVELS OF MAINTENANCE FIELD MAINTENANCE—OPERATOR 7-46. to ensure correct checks are being completed. 7-47. stored. maintained. and accounted for. and turret are divided into three groups: z Before-operation. These tests enable crews to identify and isolate many system and component failures prior to the arrival of organizational mechanics. use. and night-vision devices. on the equipment inspection and maintenance worksheet (DA Form 2404). z Ensuring that all tools and basic issue items (BII) are properly marked. tightening.) z Ensuring that.Sustainment TANK COMMANDERS AND PLATOON LEADER’S GUNNER 7-45. as a minimum. z Ensuring that repair parts are installed upon receipt or are stored in authorized locations. as well as all equipment faults and deficiencies that they cannot immediately correct. depends on their commitment to proper maintenance procedures. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. The driver and other crew members perform daily checks and services on their vehicle and equipment. the assigned driver for each vehicle is properly trained and licensed. z Ensuring that each vehicle is always topped off in garrison and that it receives as much fuel as possible at every opportunity in the field. Their duties in this area include the following: z Ensuring that the equipment inspection and maintenance worksheet is filled out accurately and updated in accordance with DA Pam 750-8. and maintenance of assigned vehicles and crew equipment such as weapons.

to the MSR. Organizational maintenance is the responsibility of the unit assigned the equipment. These support teams may go forward to fix disabled equipment on site. It is vital that the crew move the damaged vehicle to a covered position that allows the recovery vehicle to reach it without exposing the recovery crew to enemy fire. Sustainment maintenance assets operate at echelons above corps (EAC). to provide security. 7-51. This vehicle travels with the company or troop maintenance team under the direction of the 1SG. many faults can be corrected. and the vehicle returned to the platoon. A recovery vehicle from the company/troop or battalion/squadron maintenance team will evacuate the damaged vehicle. or to the UMCP as necessary. Based on METT-TC factors and the tactical situation. the organizational mechanic can verify the fault as soon as he arrives on site and replace the component without further diagnostic testing. SUSTAINMENT MAINTENANCE 7-53. and to return the repaired vehicle to the platoon as soon as possible. Evacuation is necessary when a damaged vehicle cannot be repaired on site within two hours or when evacuation is the only means (besides friendly destruction) available to prevent capture or destruction by the enemy. maintenance must be performed using the appropriate technical manual—not from memory! FIELD MAINTENANCE—FIELD MAINTENANCE TECHNICIANS 7-49.or team-size elements may be moved as far forward as necessary to fulfill support requirements. and limited fabrication. When the crew isolates a problem using these tests. Because the tank’s design allows rapid modular replacement of parts. it gives units the capability to task-organize to meet special mission requirements.Chapter 7 Special Note Detailed vehicle and equipment checks and services are outlined in every operator’s manual and should always be conducted as stated in the manual. The recovery team normally employs an M88A1/A2 recovery vehicle. 7-12 FM 3-20. Maintenance support teams from DS units are usually located forward with the battalion or squadron field trains. 7-56.15 22 February 2007 . on the company or troop net to personnel designated in the unit SOP. The location of the maintenance team during operations is designated in the company/troop OPORD. When a vehicle needs to be evacuated. 7-55. but they are limited in what they can fix and where they can go. The crew should remain with the vehicle to assist in evacuation and repair. if known. he notifies his chain of command so the problem can be isolated and corrected. The vehicle is evacuated to an LRP. 7-52. components. the platoon leader or PSG reports its exact location. RELATED OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS EVACUATION 7-54. assemblies. The built-in diagnostic tests on the M1A2 SEP (BIT/FIT) facilitate rapid replacement of defective components and systems. and the extent of damage. Sustainment maintenance entails operations employing job shops or bays or production lines. The company or troop maintenance team provided by the FSC has trained mechanics who are authorized to perform field maintenance tasks as prescribed in the technical manuals for the vehicle. platoon. 7-50. Other functions performed by field maintenance technicians either at the FSC or BSB consist of repair and/or replacement of parts. It is performed by the operators and mechanics provided by the FSC of the brigade support battalion. with minimum delay. the vehicle type. When the operator identifies a problem that is beyond his level of maintenance capability. Although operators must learn to operate equipment without referring to the manual.

the platoon can replace other vehicles’ damaged equipment (such as weapons and radios) with properly functioning items from the damaged vehicle within the commander’s controlled substitution policy. the platoon leader is ultimately responsible for coordinating personnel services and providing them to his platoon. welfare.PERSONNEL OPERATIONS PERSONNEL SERVICES 7-59. and morale of the Soldier. A moving vehicle will cause a windchill effect even if the air is calm. nonetheless. such as TCs and gunners. For additional information. The platoon leader must submit accurate strength reports to ensure that crew positions. Self-evacuation by the platoon is a last resort that should be considered only to prevent losing the damaged vehicle to the enemy. If a recovery vehicle is not available or if time is critical. such as clothing exchange and showers. PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 7-60. They may advise the company/troop commander and platoon leader on the implementation of unit-level procedures for PMM and DNBI. z Any other service designed to maintain the health. They must also learn that the effects of windchill on exposed skin are equal to those of temperatures much lower than the thermometer shows. Damaged equipment can then be repaired or replaced while the vehicle is being repaired.Sustainment 7-57. in which critical shortages exist. other platoon vehicles can evacuate the damaged vehicle for short distances. are filled with qualified personnel.MEDICAL TREATMENT AND EVACUATION HEALTH AND HYGIENE 7-61. z Rest and relaxation. 7-63. The decision to do this rests with the platoon leader. a towel. Field sanitation teams are trained in preventive medicine measures (PMM) and in treatment of disease and nonbattle injuries (DNBI). promotions. soap. z Legal assistance. If the damaged vehicle will be lost for an extended period. assignment. bathing and changing clothes regularly are essential in preventing disease. Leaders must emphasize high standards of health and hygiene. z Mail. During cold weather. Towing procedures are outlined in the operator’s manual. z Financial services. z Awards and decorations. Each crewman should carry shaving equipment. z Command information. they are normally performed by the battalion or squadron staff or by a division-level organization. Personnel management includes classification. 7-58. Many of the personnel services required by the platoon are provided automatically by higher-level support elements. Soldiers must check their hands and feet regularly to prevent such conditions as frostbite. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. and a change of clothing in a waterproof bag inside his pack. z Religious services. Soldiers must shave daily so their protective masks will seal. SECTION V . and immersion foot. and reenlistments.15 7-13 . z Leaves and passes. SECTION IV . Although the platoon leader requests these actions through the company or troop. trench foot. These services are nearly always executed and supervised by the PSG and TCs and include the following: z Personal needs and comfort items. 7-62.

for the platoon to sustain continuous operations with three-man crews. Each platoon should have an NCO designated a field sanitation representative to ensure the platoon follows proper procedure when operating in a decentralized environment. The use of crewmen who are trained as combat lifesavers is absolutely critical. but not impossible. is preferred because of its speed. See Figure 7-5A. 7-66. including casualty collection points for the company/troop and/or combined arms battalion/squadron. The tank platoon provides local security of the landing zone until the evacuation is complete. Aerial evacuation. one member of each tank crew must be a trained combat lifesaver. the platoon leader or PSG takes one of the following steps: z Coordinate with the 1SG or company/troop aidman for ground evacuation. z Coordinate with the 1SG or company/troop commander for aerial evacuation. It is the TC’s responsibility to make sure that WIA crewmen receive immediate first aid and that the platoon leader or PSG is notified of all casualties. if it is available. He must pick a relatively flat. (Note. the platoon leadership will know about it without having to relay on radio traffic. It is extremely difficult. After evacuation is complete. The platoon leader or PSG coordinates with higher headquarters and then switches to the designated frequency to coordinate directly with aerial assets for either MEDEVAC or casualty evacuation (CASEVAC) services. As a minimum.) 7-14 FM 3-20. directs TCs to take the actions necessary to prepare for operations at reduced manpower levels. The location should be given to the aircraft by radio and marked with colored smoke as the aircraft approaches the area. ACTIONS FOLLOWING EVACUATION 7-68. The platoon leader redistributes crewmen and. TCs will need to mark their vehicles so that the unit medics can identify where casualties are located and who has priority. DA Form 1156 (Casulaty Feeder Card [front side]) and Figure 7-5B. If wounded crewmen require evacuation. 7-67. DA Form 1156 (Casualty Feeder Card [back side]) for a sample casualty feeder report. z Coordinate with the company or troop commander for self-evacuation using organic platoon assets. however.Chapter 7 refer to FM 21-10. As per unit SOP. The platoon has to have a plan to ensure sections keep eyes on each other so that if one is damaged or destroyed. as necessary. all TCs must have the necessary sustainment graphics available. each crewman should be a combat lifesaver. and covered and concealed position for the aircraft’s landing zone. SOLDIERS WOUNDED IN ACTION CREW RESPONSIBILITIES 7-64.15 22 February 2007 . the PSG compiles and submits witness statements and casualty feeder reports in accordance with unit SOP. Evacuation procedures must be included in the platoon plan and should be rehearsed as part of mission preparation. Regardless of the method of evacuation. EVACUATION PROCEDURES 7-65. open. Ideally.

Personal effects. A wounded crewman’s individual weapon becomes the responsibility of the TC. The lower dog tag is removed and retained by the PSG or 1SG. overlays. weapons. these include maps. DA Form 1156. and equipment are turned in to the company or troop supply sergeant at the earliest opportunity.15 7-15 . The company/troop commander will designate a location for collection of KIA personnel. Casualty Feeder Card (back side) 7-69. Casualty Feeder Card (front side) Figure 7-5B. The remains of each KIA Soldier are placed in a body bag or sleeping bag or rolled in a poncho and are evacuated by the PSG or 1SG. DA Form 1156. All sensitive items remain with the vehicle. and SOPs. The crewman’s protective mask stays with him at all times.Sustainment Figure 7-5A. SOLDIERS KILLED IN ACTION 7-70. or senior remaining crewmen. The 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.

and reprisals of any kind.Chapter 7 personal effects of the KIA Soldier remain with the body.” Speed detainees to the rear to remove them from the battle area and to quickly obtain and use their information. The following discussion focuses on considerations that may apply when the platoon must deal with detainees. The unit SOP or company/troop OPORD should designate specific detainee handling procedures. In the defense. however. The Soldier’s weapon. (Enemy Prisoner of War (EPW) Capture Tag) or a field-expedient capture tag that includes the following information: y Date of capture. or developing false “cover stories. 7-73.DETAINEES 7-72. If the PSG or 1SG cannot expedite evacuation. sex. (See FM 3-19. Protect them from violence. it may be the next BP. Detainees are excellent sources of combat intelligence. The basic principles for handling detainees are covered by the “five-S’s and T” procedures (search. and procedures for moving prisoners. and other gear that will protect them from the immediate dangers of the battle area. however. responsibilities for safeguarding prisoners. the bodies of KIA Soldiers should not be placed on the same vehicle as wounded Soldiers. safeguard. speed. separate detainees by rank. it is the tank crew’s responsibility to take them into custody and control them until they can be evacuated. equipment. planning escapes. SECTION VI . Tag detainees with a DD Form 2745. a vehicle may have to carry dead and wounded personnel together to its next stop. Prevent detainees from escaping. and tag) outlined below. If enemy soldiers want to surrender.40 for additional information on the handling of detainees. y Location of capture (grid coordinates). this may be the objective. this information will be of tactical value only if the prisoners are processed and evacuated to the rear quickly. Break the chain of command. 7-71. curiosity. segregate. In the attack. “Five-S’s and T” Procedures for Handling Detainees SEARCH Remove and tag all weapons and documents. and issue items become the responsibility of the TC until they can be turned over to the supply sergeant or 1SG. captured equipment and materiel. and civilians. Return to the detainee all personal items with no military value. protective mask.) HANDLING DETAINEES BASIC PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES 7-74. silence. y Capturing unit.15 22 February 2007 . and other suitable categories (keep the staunch fighter away from those who willingly surrender). Prevent detainees from giving orders. As a rule. insults. such as collection points. SEGREGATE SILENCE SPEED SAFEGUARD TAG 7-16 FM 3-20. Detainees are allowed to keep their helmet.

If the unit cannot evacuate a prisoner within a reasonable time. water. attach a DD Form 2745. TAGGING OF DETAINEES 7-79. and so forth). The senior officer or NCO on the scene is legally responsible for the care of detainees. if he resisted. The first rule that platoon members must keep in mind is that they must never approach an enemy soldier. The following procedures apply for taking the prisoner into custody: z Gesture for him to come forward. If a detainee is wounded and cannot be evacuated through medical channels. or he may be booby-trapped. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. The detainee will be escorted to the company or troop trains. 7-75. and then wait until it is clear that he is honestly surrendering and not trying to lure friendly troops into an ambush. As directed by the platoon leader. the platoon leader notifies the XO or 1SG. he must be provided with food. Note. mistreated detainees or those who receive special favors are not good interrogation subjects. The prisoners are then evacuated to the rear for interrogation. if he gave up. always have another friendly Soldier cover him with a weapon. even when it appears certain that he wants to surrender. It is a court-martial offense to physically or mentally harm or mistreat a detainee or to needlessly expose him to fire. Enemy Prisoner of War (EPW) Capture Tag to him listing all pertinent information and procedures. Once an enemy soldier shows he wants to surrender.15 7-17 .Sustainment y Special circumstances of capture (how the person was captured. he must be treated humanely. z Do not move between the enemy and the Soldier covering him. or the 1SG will come forward with guards to evacuate him. DD Form 2745 tags are not available by electronic media. The rights of detainees have been established by international law. An example is illustrated in Figure 7-6. and medical treatment. In addition. 7-76. Before evacuating the detainee. The capturing unit must complete a capture tag because failure to do so hinders further processing and disposition. crewmen take the detainees to an area designated by the commander. and the United States has agreed to obey these laws. 7-78. but may be obtained through supply channels or made from materials available on the battlefield. z When searching the prisoner. He may have a weapon hidden nearby. z Use a thermal sight to locate possible ambushes. DETAINEE RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES 7-77.

however. These items must be evacuated to the next level of command as rapidly as possible. If captured items are not handled properly. Enemy Prisoner of War (EPW) Capture Tag CAPTURED ENEMY DOCUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT 7-80. DD Form 2745.Chapter 7 Figure 7-6. and photographs) and equipment are excellent sources of intelligence information. the information in them may be lost or delayed until it is useless. records. Captured enemy documents (such as maps. 7-18 FM 3-20. orders.15 22 February 2007 .

The battle in urban terrain is won through effective application of necessary combat power. They plan for establishing evacuation routes and thoroughfare crossing control. platoons. but CA and PSYOP can help facilitate mission accomplishment. Enemy medical equipment will never be destroyed. Army PSYOP assets. local government officials. Sample tag for captured documents and equipment CIVILIANS 7-82.) Figure 7-7. If the brigade or battalion task force is tasked to facilitate the evacuation of civilians from the AO. which is accomplished in two separate but supporting actions. z CA personnel coordinate with U.S. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. If the item is found in the detainee’s possession. the platoon needs to have a plan on destroying the equipment so it will not fall back into the enemy’s hands. Civilians who are captured as the result of curfew violations or suspicious activities are treated the same other detainees.15 7-19 .Sustainment 7-81. They are critical force multipliers that can save lives. Infantry units may provide security and command and control for the execution of this operation. newspapers. In such cases. Civil affairs (CA) units and psychological operations (PSYOP) have essential roles during urban operations (UO). (Note. and so on. z CA personnel coordinate with the military police and local police officials for evacuation planning. suffering. include the prisoner’s name on the tag and give the item to the guard. CIVIL AFFAIRS UNITS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS 7-83. and for removing civilians from the MSRs. thus minimizing the amount of close combat conducted by companies. and squads (see Chapter 4. CA and PSYOP offer the possibility of mission accomplishment in urban terrain without the destruction. Sections IV and V). The platoon should tag each captured item (see Figure 7-7 for an example). radio and television stations. Platoons may find themselves in a fastpaced operation where equipment that is not of significant intelligence value may not be transported or recovered. the unit is normally augmented by CA personnel. These units may become key factors in shaping the urban battlefield and facilitating movement from shaping directly to transition. and horror of battle. The platoon evacuates them quickly to higher headquarters using the “five-S’s and T” principles discussed earlier in this section. The guard delivers the item with the detainee to the next higher headquarters. to publicize the evacuation plan. EVACUATION OF CIVILIANS 7-84.

Again. The PSYOP unit would be in support of the unit conducting this mission. posters. Television. thereby reducing his combat effectiveness.Chapter 7 HEALTH AND WELFARE OF CIVILIANS 7-85. and they use loudspeakers to broadcast warnings and or incentives not to resist. PSYOP units also provide support during urban operations using television. including videotapes. Note. infantry units may be given the mission to clear a specific urban objective where it has been determined that a graduated response will be used. PSYOP are designed to exploit individual and group weaknesses. They provide the tactical commander with a system that can weaken the enemy soldier’s will to fight. radio.15 22 February 2007 . They can also help prevent civilian interference with military operations. It offers many advantages for PSYOP and is appropriate for use during urban operations. PSYOP are an integral and coordinated part of the overall tactical plan. leaflets. receivers may be distributed to public facilities and selected individuals. refugee. OTHER PSYOP 7-87. 7-20 FM 3-20. and loudspeakers to disseminate propaganda and information.40 for further discussion on civil affairs. and evacuee (DPRE) camps. brigades and battalion task forces may be tasked to provide security and command and control for some of these missions. In areas where television is not common. They can include the reestablishment of water systems. distribution of available food stocks and clothing. For example. is one of the most effective media for persuasion. Tactical PSYOP in support of urban operations are planned and conducted to achieve immediate and short-term objectives. TACTICAL PSYOP 7-86. CA assets will also conduct coordination for the health and well-being of civilians. and establishment of displaced persons. See FM 3-05.

Chapter 8 Urban Operations The platoon may take part in large-scale urban operations as part of a larger force.15 8-1 . Figure 8-1 illustrates examples of underground systems. however. which include subways. To ensure that the platoon can operate effectively in an urban environment. Obstacles on urban streets thus are usually more effective than those on roads in open terrain since they are more difficult to bypass. Thick-walled buildings provide ready-made. refer to FM 3-90. z Streets are usually avenues of approach. Forces moving along a street. They also severely restrict fire distribution and control. These features of urban terrain create a variety of tactical problems and possibilities. and utility systems. but they may prove critical to the outcome of urban operations. confuse.URBAN OPERATIONS PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS 8-1. cellars. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. the aboveground fight (in multistoried buildings). z Buildings offer cover and concealment and severely restrict movement of military elements. the platoon observation and direct-fire plans must address the ground-level fight (in streets and on the ground floor of buildings). sewers. especially armored vehicles. z Subterranean systems found in some built-up areas can be easily overlooked. are often canalized by buildings and have little space for off-road maneuver. streets. Built-up areas consist mainly of man-made features such as buildings.11 (FM 90-10-1). For more detailed information. SECTION I . This chapter examines the basic characteristics of urban operations as well as special planning considerations and techniques of offensive and defensive operations as well as employment of attack and assault/cargo helicopters. and degrade command and control. and subterranean systems.1 (FM 71-1) or FM 3-06. fortified positions. The following considerations apply: z An important aspect of the urban environment is that built-up areas complicate. especially fields of fire. and the subterranean fight. requiring careful overwatch. Every street corner and successive block becomes an intervisibility line.

The pattern consists of row houses or single-family dwellings with yards. These areas are often adjacent to industrial or transportation areas or interspersed with closed-orderly block areas. or any combination of the above. rock. random construction or closed-orderly block areas. random construction. Wide streets are laid out in rectangular patterns. steel-reinforced concrete. separated open areas. random construction is typical of the old inner-city pattern with narrow. Buildings are located close together and frequently close to the edge of a roadway. service facilities. z Industrial-transportation. These areas are generally located on or along major rail and highway routes in urban complexes. Some of the latest variants have been built underground and employ heavy tank or warship armor. and single-story buildings. Street patterns are normally rectangular or curving. The buildings frequently form a continuous front along the blocks. High-rise areas are typical of modern construction in larger cities and towns. pose significant obstacles to military movement. gardens. especially rail facilities. These facilities. It consists of multistoried apartments. flatroofed factory and warehouse buildings.15 22 February 2007 . High-rise areas providing worker housing is normally located adjacent to these areas throughout the orient. brick. z Closed-orderly block. Dispersed residential areas are normally adjacent to closed-orderly block areas in Europe. and fences. concrete. This type of city block typically has wider streets that form rectangular patterns. Dense. z Dispersed residential area. New construction normally consists of low. Older complexes may be located within dense. internal communications. z High-rise area. Permanent-type fortifications can be made of earth. Underground systems CATEGORIES OF URBAN AREAS 8-2. wood. Identification of transportation facilities within these areas is critical.Chapter 8 Figure 8-1. Inner-block courtyards are common. winding streets radiating from a central area in an irregular manner. and CBRN overpressure systems. trees. There are six types of urban terrain (see also FM 34-130 for more information): z Dense. This category also includes other military 8-2 FM 3-20. z Permanent or fixed fortifications and other military installations. major caliber and other weapons.

MPAT-OR (obstacle-reducing) (M908). and could be as little as 35 meters when engaging enemy troops.15 8-3 . z The external M2 HB (heavy barrel) machine gun can elevate to +36 degrees. endanger accompanying infantry elements. z The loader’s M240 machine gun can effectively deliver suppressive fire against enemy personnel and against enemy positions that are behind light cover. z Sabot petals. however. Numerous factors related to vehicles and their organic weapons and munitions affect the tank platoon’s urban operation planning and execution. smooth. Because of the shape and metal components of the projectiles. and canister (M1028). This creates considerable dead space for the crew at the close ranges that are typical in the urban environment. VEHICLES. It loses most of its effectiveness against urban targets at ranges of less than 60 feet. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.12 explains special uses for tank-mounted machine guns in the urban environment. however. This weapon may be dismounted and used in a ground role if units are equipped with the M240 dismount kit.Urban Operations installations (examples. Figures 8-2 and 8-3 illustrate the dead space associated with tank operations in an urban environment. z FM 3-20. and Norfolk Navy Base). z Engagement ranges will tend to be less then 200 meters. Fort Huachuca. including those on MPAT and MPAT-OR. z HEAT ammunition will open a larger hole in reinforced concrete or masonry structures than MPAT or MPAT-OR (M908). z MPAT and MPAT-OR rounds arm approximately 100 feet from the muzzle of the gun. z HEAT ammunition arms approximately 60 feet from the gun muzzle. the loader must be exposed to operate it. Both MPAT and MPAT-OR. They create a hazard area extending 70 meters on either side of the gun-target line. z The tank’s main gun can depress to -10 degrees and can elevate to +20 degrees. WEAPONS. These all perform much better than sabot rounds against bunkers and buildings. z When operating with hatches closed. z Canister (M1028) ammunition is used primarily against troop formations from 100 to 500 meters. however. out to a range of 1 kilometer. the tank crew has limited visibility to the sides and rear and no visibility to the top. the TC must be exposed to fire the M2 on the M1A2 or M1A2 SEP. this ammunition remains effective at ranges of less than 100 feet. however. z The M240 coax machine gun can effectively deliver suppressive fires against enemy personnel and against enemy positions that are behind light cover. and leaders should understand that engagements have the chance of causing large fires. including the following: z The preferred main gun rounds in the urban environment are HEAT. but can be used effectively against light-skinned vehicles (technical) and to reduce simple obstacles at ranges of less than 200 meters. z There will tend to be large amounts of flammable material in the urban area. Travis Air Force Base. The effect of the rounds is reduced by their tendency to strike at an oblique angle and increase the threat of ricochets. offer greater incapacitation capability inside the structure. AND MUNITIONS 8-3. MPAT (ground mode). z Hard. Camp Lejeune. flat surfaces are characteristics of urban terrain.

automatic fires for the suppression or destruction of targets. long-range.62-mm M240 machine gun provides high-volume.62-MM AND CALIBER . 8-6. 8-4 FM 3-20. The primary consideration that impacts the employment of machine guns within urban areas is the limited availability of long-range fields of fire. Tracers from both machine guns are likely to start fires.50) 8-4. Tank weapon dead space at street level Figure 8-3. The caliber . 8-7.50 machine gun can be used as an accurate.50 machine gun and the 7. the caliber .50 machine gun is often employed on its vehicular mount during both offensive and defensive operations. The M240 machine gun is useful to suppress and isolate enemy defenders. long-range weapon and can supplement sniper fires. Tank main gun and coax dead space above street level MEDIUM AND HEAVY MACHINE GUNS (7. In the urban environment. They provide final protective fire along fixed lines and can be used to penetrate light structures.15 22 February 2007 . Employment 8-5. the caliber .50 machine gun is most effective in this role.Chapter 8 Figure 8-2. The caliber .

Table 8-1 explains the penetration capabilities of a single 7. or both sides of a car body. a hollow cinder block. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. the 7.62-mm round can penetrate a windowpane at a 45-degree obliquity.62-mm (ball) round at closer ranges.5 7 8 10 8 2 2 2 8-12. Loose Sand Cinder Block Concrete 25 100 200 13 18 41 5 4.50 round can penetrate all the commonly found urban barriers except a sand-filled 55-gallon drum. but not a double layer.50 rounds (Tables 8-3 and 8-4). partitions. and bedding can be penetrated easily by both 7.50 rounds to penetrate is also affected by the range to the target and type of material fired against. natural-stone walls.62-mm and caliber . Most urban targets are closer. For hard targets. The penetration of the 7. home appliances. the caliber .62-mm ball round cannot reliably penetrate a single layer of well-packed sandbags. floors.400 Protection 8-13.62-mm rounds with some exceptions. common office furniture.800 2.50 round’s penetration is reduced least of all. Weapon Penetration 8-9.62-mm and caliber . The caliber .50 round is also optimized for penetration at long ranges (about 800 meters). The armorpiercing round does only slightly better against sandbags. Table 8-2. ceilings. Table 8-2 explains the effect of a 25-degree obliquity on a caliber . reinforced-concrete structures or dense. It cannot penetrate a double layer but can penetrate up to 10 inches at 600 meters.50 machine gun because of its reduced penetration power.200 1.62-mm round is best at 600 meters.62-mm (ball) round Range (meters) Penetration (inches) Pine Board Dry. At 50 meters. The 7. plaster. The M240 is less effective against masonry targets than the caliber . The caliber .50 penetration. Penetration capabilities of a single 7. obliquity and range affect caliber . It can penetrate a single layer of sandbags at 200 meters. 8-11.56mm. Barriers that offer protection against 5. The ability of the 7. Number of rounds needed to penetrate a reinforced concrete wall at a 25-degree obliquity Thickness (feet) 100 Meters (rounds) 200 Meters (rounds) 2 3 4 300 450 600 1. Continued and concentrated machine gun fire can breach most typical urban walls.62-mm round is affected less by close ranges than the 5. Table 8-1. Both armor-piercing and ball ammunition penetrate 14 inches of sand or 28 inches of packed earth at 200 meters.15 8-5 . Wall Penetration 8-14. The longest effective range is usually 200 meters or less.50 penetration. Such fire cannot breach thick. Internal walls. It can also penetrate wooden frame buildings easily. 8-10. if the rounds impact perpendicular to the flat face of the target.56-mm rounds are also effective against 7. The 7.Urban Operations 8-8.

The following command and control considerations will affect the platoon’s urban operations planning and execution: z Communications problems. especially one through which small arms may be fired. physical and psychological demands on Soldiers and leaders. Friendly elements often must operate in confined and restrictive areas during urban operations. no loop hole. especially one through which small arms may be fired. (A small hole or slit in a wall. which can be disrupted by buildings and other urban terrain features. and they may not be able to see other nearby friendly forces. (A small hole or slit in a wall. Extensive direct-fire planning and restrictive fire control measures are an absolute requirement in urban operations. These factors significantly increase the danger of fratricide.62-mm round (NATO ball) against typical urban targets (range 25 meters) Type Thickness (inches) Hole Diameter (inches) Rounds Required Reinforced concrete Triple brick wall Concrete block with single brick veneer Cinder block (filled) Double brick wall Double sandbag wall Log wall Mild steel door 8 14 12 12 9 24 16 3/8 7 7 6 and 24 * * * * * 100 170 30 and 200 18 45 110 1 1 * Penetration only. The low-level task organization that may take place during urban operations will require elements to establish additional communications links.Chapter 8 Table 8-3. z Fire control. z Proximity and visibility.) COMMAND AND CONTROL 8-15. Structure penetrating capabilities of 7. z Personnel factors.15 22 February 2007 . and often extreme.50 ball against typical urban targets (range 35 meters) Type Thickness (inches) Hole Diameter (inches) Rounds Required Reinforced concrete 10 18 12 12 1 24 16 12 24 7 8 26 10 33 * * * 50 100 140 15 50 25 45 1 5 1 Triple brick wall Concrete block with single brick veneer Armor plate Double sandbag wall Log wall * Penetration only. 8-6 FM 3-20.) Table 8-4. Structure penetrating capabilities of caliber . no loop hole. Urban operations impose significant.

Additionally. it is absolutely imperative that leaders and units at all levels maintain all-around situational awareness and security. Whereas task organization normally is done no lower than platoon level. z Protecting tanks from antitank fires. The slow pace of urban operations. individual tanks. They can be employed against both enemy vehicles and enemy dismounted elements.15 8-7 . behind. z The role of infantry. z Assaulting enemy positions and clearing buildings with tank support. This will usually prevent the platoon from taking full advantage of the speed and mobility of its tanks. z Vulnerability of friendly forces. units operating in urban terrain must know how to effectively employ linguists and counterintelligence and civil affairs teams. vulnerable to attack from enemy infantry. To deal with these concerns. Urban operations are usually executed as a deliberate attack. Light Infantry Limitations 8-18. such as a tank section or an individual tank working with an infantry platoon or squad. the infantry can help the tank platoon by— z Locating targets for tanks to engage. Infantry squads are employed extensively during urban operations as part of the combined arms team. Leaders must strive to employ armored vehicles in sections at a minimum. 8-17. demanding extensive intelligence activities and rehearsals. but they are. z Destroying antitank weapons. Light infantry limitations include the following: 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. The ability of the enemy to move rapidly within an urban environment to gain positions above. When conducting urban operations. z Absolute necessity to maintain all-around security and situational awareness. see Section IV of this chapter. For a detailed discussion of employment of Army aviation in an urban environment. The following factors related to maneuver will affect the platoon’s urban operations planning and execution: z The need for detailed centralized planning and decentralized execution. armored vehicles must work together to overwatch movements and defeat threats outside the capabilities of dismounted forces. z Requirements for cooperation.Urban Operations z z ROE/ROI and civilians. Whether conducting operations as a twotank section or a tank/Bradley section. the tank platoon’s command and control and freedom of maneuver will be reduced due to limited visibility. z Formation of combined arms teams at the lowest levels. The ROE and/or ROI may restrict the use of certain weapon systems and TTPs. Integration of aviation assets and their ability to communicate and act in coordination with small-unit ground forces greatly increases the chances of mission success. Tanks can provide firepower to effectively support accompanying infantry squads. As an integral part of urban operations. The tank platoon may face a variety of organizational options. MANEUVER PLANNING AND OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 8-16. Urban operations are most successful when close cooperation is established between dismounted forces. When buttoned up. In addition. and aviation elements at the lowest level. urban operations may require task organization of squads and sections. and platoons must be extremely vigilant in conducting local security of their vehicles and formation as well as providing overwatch for attached mechanized or dismounted elements. armored vehicles. or below friendly forces necessitates an active and vigilant reconnaissance and IPB of the tank platoon’s area of operations and area of interest. sections. noncombatants create special operational problems. The attacking force in urban operations must also guard against local counterattacks. in turn.

the security element should have two members attempt to observe from a second floor window to provide greater situational understanding. Considerations for dismounted tank security include the following: z Each tank will require a four-man team of dismounted infantry to provide local security to the flanks and rear for the vehicle. How does armor support the infantry? z Use main-gun fire to reduce obstacles or entrenched positions for the infantry. How does the infantry support the tank? z Provide local flank and rear security for each vehicle. z Provide reconnaissance by fire for the infantry. z If possible. From those positions. z Provide reconnaissance and fire direction of enemy positions for main gun engagement. Fighting positions for tanks and infantry fighting vehicles are essential to a complete and effective defensive plan in urban areas. HULL DOWN 8-24. 8-20. signal methods. Light Infantry Strengths 8-19.15 22 February 2007 . z Know and understand how the infantry clears and marks the cleared buildings. z Increase crew member’s situational understanding by reporting sights and sounds masked by track noise and movement. observation. z Infantrymen can use stealth to move into position without alerting the enemy. ARMORED VEHICLE POSITIONS 8-23. Armored vehicle positions are selected and developed to obtain the best cover. Light infantry forces are more vulnerable to fratricide-related casualties from friendly direct and indirect fire.Chapter 8 z z z Light infantry forces lack heavy supporting firepower. briefing the infantrymen on safety procedures for the vehicle and weapon systems. hull-down positions should be used to gain cover and fire directly down streets (Figures 8-4A and 8-4B). tanks and BFVs are protected and 8-8 FM 3-20. as well as the casualty evacuation plan. z Take directions from the infantry ground commander (platoon leader/PSG/squad leader) to support their fire and maneuver. z Tank crewmen should rehearse the mounting and dismounting of the security element from their vehicle. z Infantrymen have excellent all-around vision and can engage targets with small-arms fire under almost all conditions. front line trace reporting. Exposed light infantry forces are subject to a high number of casualties between buildings. and fields of fire while retaining the vehicle’s ability to move. If fields of fire are restricted to streets. engagement criteria for tank main gun. concealment. 8-21. regardless of the amount of damage to buildings. and long-range mobility. Light infantry strengths include: z Infantry small-arms fire within a building can eliminate resistance without seriously damaging the structure. z The security element can ride on the tank. z Tank commanders need to rehearse communicating with dismounted Soldiers via the infantry phone or TA-1 and DR-8 in the bustle rack. and ground communication from the tank with the dismounted personnel. Infantrymen can move over or around most urban terrain. but when the tank stops for more than 5 minutes. the tank commander should direct the troops to dismount along likely avenues of ATGM/rocketpropelled grenade (RPG) attack. 8-22. protection.

The observer acquires the target and signals the armored vehicle to move to the firing position and to fire. Figure 8-4A. an observer from the vehicle or a nearby infantry unit must be concealed in an adjacent building to alert the crew. After firing. Urban hull-down position Figure 8-4B. Since the crew will not be able to see advancing enemy forces.15 8-9 . Urban hull-down position HIDE 8-25. The hide position (Figure 8-5) covers and conceals the vehicle until time to move into position for target engagement. Figure 8-5. the tank or BFV moves to an alternate position to avoid compromising one location.Urban Operations can move to alternate positions rapidly. Buildings collapsing from enemy fires are a minimal hazard to the armored vehicle and crew if operating in a closed hatch configuration. Hide position 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.

Chapter 8

BUILDING HIDE
8-26. The building hide position (Figure 8-6) conceals the vehicle inside a building. If basement hide positions are inaccessible, engineers must evaluate the building’s floor strength and prepare for the vehicle. Once the position is detected, it should be evacuated to avoid enemy fires.

Figure 8-6. Building hide position

INTELLIGENCE
8-27. Threats to the U.S. have one common goal: to coerce the U.S. military or a U.S.-led multinational force to redeploy out of the theater of operations. The primary means of accomplishing this goal is for the threat to cause a politically unacceptable level of casualties to friendly forces. Urban areas provide a casualty-producing and stress-inducing environment ideally suited for threat operations. Moreover, urban areas provide the threat with an unmatched degree of cover and concealment from friendly forces.

TYPES OF THREATS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT
8-28. Active threats to U.S. Army forces operating in an urban environment include terrorists, paramilitary forces, mercenaries, disgruntled civilians, and conventional military units. Further, urban environments may also expose Army forces to many passive dangers such as psychological illnesses, hazardous materials, and disease from unsanitary conditions.

URBAN THREAT TACTICS
8-29. While active threats vary widely, many techniques will be common to all. This discussion examines several operational and tactical tenets that can be used against U.S. forces in the urban environment.

Use the Population to Advantage
8-30. The populace of a given urban area represents key terrain: the side that manages it best has a distinct advantage. Future urban battles may see large segments of the populace remain in place as they did in Budapest and Grozny. Army forces involved in stability operations will certainly conduct missions in and among the residents of the area. 8-31. Threat forces may use the population to provide camouflage, concealment, and deception for their operations. Guerilla and terrorist elements may look no different from any other member of the

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Urban Operations

community. Even conventional and paramilitary troops may often have a “civilian” look. Western military forces adopted the clean-shaven, close-cut hair standard at the end of the nineteenth century to combat disease and infection, but twenty-first-century opponents might very well sport beards as well as civilian-looking clothing and other “non-military” characteristics. The civil population may also provide cover for threat forces, enhancing their mobility in proximity to friendly positions. Allowing the enemy to shoot and then disappear into the crowd. 8-32. Threat forces may take advantage of U.S. moral responsibilities and attempt to make the civil population a burden on the Army’s logistical and force-protection resources. They may herd refugees into friendly controlled sectors, steal from U.S.-paid local nationals, and hide among civilians during offensive operations. 8-33. The civil population may also serve as an important intelligence source for the threat. Local hires serving among U.S. Soldiers, civilians with access to base camp perimeters, and refugees moving through friendly controlled sectors may be manipulated by threat forces to provide information on friendly dispositions, readiness, and intent. In addition, threat SPF and hostile intelligence service (HOIS) assets may move among well-placed civilian groups.

Use All Dimensions
8-34. Upper floors and roofs provide the urban threat with excellent observation points and BPs above the maximum elevation of many weapons. Shots from upper floors strike armored vehicles in vulnerable points. Basements also provide firing points below many weapons’ minimum depressions and strike at weaker armor. Sewers and subways provide covered and concealed access throughout the area of operations. 8-35. The threat will think and operate throughout all dimensions of the urban environment. Conventional lateral boundaries will often not apply as threat forces control some stories of the same building while friendly forces control others.

Employ Urban-Oriented Weapons
8-36. Whether they are purpose-built or adapted, many weapons may have greater than normal utility in an urban environment while others may have significant disadvantages. Urban threat weapons are much like the nature of urbanization and the urban environment: inventive and varied. Small, man-portable weapons, along with improvised munitions, will dominate the urban environment. Figure 8-7 lists examples of threat weapons favored in urban operations.

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Chapter 8

Figure 8-7. Favored threat weapons

Engage the Entire Enemy Force
8-37. Threat forces may “hug” high-tech conventional forces operating in an urban area to avoid the effects of high-firepower standoff weapon systems. Additionally, they may attempt to keep all or significant portions of Army forces engaged in continuous operations to increase their susceptibility to stress-induced illnesses. Urban operations, by their nature, produce an inordinate amount of combat stresscasualties and continuous operations exacerbate this problem. Threat forces that employ this tactic often maintain a large reserve to minimize the psychological impacts on their own forces.

Focus Attacks on Service Support and Unprotected Soldiers
8-38. Threat forces may prey on Soldiers poorly trained in basic infantry skills. Ambushes may focus on these type Soldiers conducting resupply operations or moving in poorly guarded convoys. Urban operations are characterized by the isolation of small groups and navigational challenges, and the threat may use the separation this creates to inflict maximum casualties even when there is no other direct military benefit from the action.

FIRE SUPPORT
8-39. The urban operations environment affects how and when indirect fires are employed. The following factors may have an impact on planning and execution of indirect fire support: z When taking part in urban operations, the platoon must always keep in the mind that the urban operations environment creates unique requirements for centrally controlled fires and more restrictive fire control measures. z An urban operation requires the careful use of VT ammunition to prevent premature arming. z Indirect fire may cause unwanted rubble. z The close proximity of friendly troops to enemy forces and other indirect fire targets requires careful coordination. z WP ammunition may create unwanted fires or smoke. z Artillery may be used in direct fire mode against point targets. z Fuse delay should be used to ensure rounds penetrate fortifications as required.

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Urban Operations

z z

z

VT and ICM rounds are effective for clearing enemy positions, observers, and antennas on rooftops. Illumination rounds can be effective in the urban setting; however, employment must be carefully planned to ensure friendly positions remain in the shadows while enemy positions are highlighted. Tall buildings may mask the effects of illumination rounds. Mortars are the most responsive indirect fires available to the platoon in the urban environment. They are well suited for combat in built-up areas because of their high rate of fire, steep angle of fall, and short minimum range. In employing mortars, however, the platoon faces difficulties in target acquisition and the effects of the rounds (rubble).

SUSTAINMENT
8-40. Guidelines for providing effective sustainment to units fighting in built-up areas include the following: z Plan for a higher consumption rate of supplies when operating in an urban environment due to the slow pace. z Plan the locations of casualty collection points and evacuation sites. z Plan for the use of carrying parties and litter bearers. z Plan for and use host-country support and civil resources when authorized and practical. z Develop plans for requesting and obtaining special equipment such as ladders and toggle ropes with grappling hooks.

SECTION II - OFFENSIVE URBAN OPERATIONS
8-41. Offensive operations in a built-up area are planned and executed based on the factors of METT-TC and established doctrine. This section focuses on the unique problems and challenges that offensive urban operations pose for the tank platoon.

HASTY AND DELIBERATE ATTACKS IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT
8-42. The platoon may be employed in an urban offensive mission as part of a larger force, usually a company team and task force. Offensive urban operations take the form of either a hasty or deliberate attack. Both types of attacks require the friendly force to conduct as much planning, reconnaissance, and coordination as time and the situation permit.

HASTY ATTACK
8-43. Task forces and company teams conduct hasty attacks in a variety of tactical situations: z As a result of meeting engagements. z When unexpected contact occurs and bypass has not been authorized. z When the enemy is in a vulnerable position and can be quickly defeated through immediate offensive action. 8-44. The following special considerations apply for hasty attacks in the urban environment: z In built-up areas, incomplete intelligence and concealment may require the maneuver unit to move through, rather than around, the unit fixing the enemy in place (the base of fire element). Control and coordination become important factors in reducing congestion at the edges of the built-up area. z Once its objective is secured, an urban hasty attack force may have to react to contingency requirements, either by executing on-order or be-prepared missions or by responding to FRAGOs.

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Chapter 8

DELIBERATE ATTACK
8-45. A deliberate attack is a fully integrated operation that employs all available assets against the enemy’s defense. It is employed when enemy positions are well prepared, when the built-up area is large or severely congested, or when the element of surprise has been lost. Deliberate attacks are characterized by precise planning based on detailed information and reconnaissance and thorough preparations and rehearsals. 8-46. Given the nature of urban terrain, the techniques employed in the deliberate attack of a built-up area are similar to those used in assaulting a strongpoint. The attack avoids the enemy’s main strength, instead focusing combat power on the weakest point in the defense. A deliberate attack in a built-up area is usually conducted in four phases: reconnoiter the objective, isolate the objective, secure a foothold, and clear the built-up area. The following discussion examines these phases in detail.

PHASES OF OFFENSIVE URBAN OPERATIONS
RECONNOITER THE OBJECTIVE
8-47. The reconnaissance phase of urban operations must provide the platoon and other friendly elements with adequate intelligence to stage a deliberate attack. Communications with friendly elements in or near the urban area is essential to gain up-to-date information on the objective.

WARNING
Friendly elements may still be operating in the area; therefore, extra caution must be taken to prevent fratricide.

MOVE TO THE OBJECTIVE
8-48. Once the objective has been reconnoitered, forces move to the objective by the most expedient, covered, and concealed route to prevent detection of the force by the enemy.

ISOLATE THE OBJECTIVE
8-49. Isolating the objective involves seizing terrain that dominates the area so that the enemy cannot supply or reinforce his defensive forces. This step may be taken at the same time as securing a foothold. If isolating the objective is the first step, the subsequent steps should be carried out quickly so that the defender has no time to react.

GAIN A FOOTHOLD
8-50. Gaining a foothold involves seizing an intermediate objective that provides attacking forces with cover from enemy fire as well as a place at which they can enter the built-up area. When the tank platoon is operating with the company, the foothold is normally one to two city blocks. As the platoon attacks to gain the foothold, it should be supported by direct and indirect suppressive fires and by obscuring or screening smoke.

CLEAR THE URBAN AREA
8-51. In determining the extent to which the urban area must be cleared, the commander of the attacking force must consider the factors of METT-TC. He may decide to clear only those parts of the area necessary to the success of his mission if any of the following factors apply. z An objective must be seized quickly.

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Urban Operations

z z

Enemy resistance is light or fragmented. Buildings in the area are of light construction with large open areas between them. In this situation, the commander would clear only those buildings along the approach to his objective or those necessary to ensure the unit’s security.

8-52. On the other hand, the attacking unit may have a mission to systematically clear an area of all enemy forces. Through detailed analysis, the commander may anticipate that the unit will be opposed by a strong, organized resistance or will be operating in areas where buildings are close together. The platoons move slowly through the area, clearing systematically from room to room and building to building. Other maneuver elements support the clearing elements and are prepared to assume their mission as necessary.

CONSOLIDATE AND REORGANIZE
8-53. Once the objective is secure, the unit must consolidate and reorganize equipment, supplies, and personnel quickly to prepare for counterattack or continue the mission.

TASK ORGANIZATION
8-54. The task organization of a platoon taking part in an attack during an urban operation may vary according to the specific nature of the built-up area and the objective. In general, the parent task force and/or company team will employ an assault force, a support force, and a reserve; in some cases, a security force is also used. Normally, there is no separate breach force; however, breaching elements may be part of the assault or support force, depending on the type and location of anticipated obstacles.

SUPPORT FORCE
8-55. Most mounted elements of the urban unit, such as the tank platoon, are generally task organized in the support force. This allows the task force/company team commander to employ the firepower of the fighting vehicles without compromising their survivability, a distinct danger when heavy forces move into an urban area. The support force isolates the area of operations and the actual entry point into the urban area, allowing assault forces to secure a foothold.

ASSAULT FORCE
8-56. The assault force is the element that gains a foothold in the urban area and conducts the clearance of actual objectives in the area. This force is normally a dismounted element task organized with engineers, with specific augmentation by armored vehicles.

RESERVE FORCE
8-57. The reserve force normally includes both mounted and dismounted forces. It should be prepared to conduct any of the following tasks: z Attack from another direction. z Exploit friendly success or enemy weakness. z Secure the rear or flank of friendly forces. z Clear bypassed enemy positions. z Maintain contact with adjacent units. z Conduct support by fire or attack by fire as necessary.

OFFENSIVE TECHNIQUES IN URBAN OPERATIONS
ROLE OF THE TANK PLATOON
8-58. During the attack of a built-up area, the commander must employ his tanks to take advantage of their long-range lethality. The tank platoon may provide support by fire while lead elements are seizing a foothold. The platoon then can provide overwatch or serve as a base of fire for the infantry until the area has been secured.

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Chapter 8

8-59. The commander may position the platoon outside the built-up area, where it will remain for the duration of the attack to cover high-speed avenues of approach. This is especially true during the isolation phase. (Note. Before providing support for the attack, tanks must be able to maneuver into overwatch or base-of-fire positions; this will normally require support from organic infantry weapons to suppress enemy strongpoints and ATGM assets.) Additionally, the tank platoon can conduct the following urban offensive operations: z Neutralize enemy positions with machine gun fire. z Destroy enemy strongpoints with main gun fire. z Destroy obstacles across streets. z Force entry of infantry into buildings. z Emplace supporting fires as directed by the infantry. z Establish roadblocks and barricades.

MUTUAL SUPPORT
8-60. In house-to-house and street fighting, tanks move down the streets protected by the infantry, which clears the area of enemy ATGM weapons. The armored vehicles in turn support the infantry by firing their main guns and machine guns from a safe standoff range to destroy enemy positions. Particular attention must be paid to the layout of the urban area. Streets and alleys provide ready-made firing sectors and killing zones for tanks to use. Note. Figure 8-8 illustrates a situation in which two tank platoons are participating in a task force attack in an urban operations environment.

Figure 8-8. Example task force attack in an urban environment, with tank platoons in the support and assault forces

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They should be located on likely enemy avenues of approach in positions that allow them to take advantage of their long-range fires. ENEMY FORCES WITHIN THE URBAN AREA 8-63. this allows the tanks to take advantage of the close security provided by the infantry and to provide immediate direct-fire support to the infantry. Refer to FM 3-90. concealment. conducting reconnaissance of the defensive position. z Before moving into position to engage the enemy. 8-65. procedures and considerations are the same as those for defensive operations in open terrain. Hide positions may be located inside buildings or underground garages. a tank can occupy a hide position for cover and concealment. This section examines urban operations considerations that affect the platoon in the defense. While positioned in an urban area as part of a larger force. z On key terrain on the flanks of towns and villages. In the defense. Careful selection of fighting positions and firing positions for tanks is an essential component of a complete and effective defensive plan in built-up areas. they must not restrict the vehicles’ ability to move when necessary. the platoon may be tasked to defend against an enemy approaching from outside the area. z In positions from which they can cover barricades and obstacles by fire. the commander designates BPs that take advantage of all available weapon systems.1 [FM 71-1] for detailed information on these operations. The commander also has the alternative of employing sections or individual vehicles with infantry platoons and squads. including defend in sector. the tanks are protected while retaining their ability to rapidly move to alternate positions. defensive urban operations require thorough planning and precise execution based on METT-TC and established doctrine. This type of urban operation may transition into an in-depth defense of the urban area.Urban Operations SECTION III . and defend a BP.15 8-17 . such as the following: z On the edge of the city in mutually supporting positions. Like offensive urban operations. The commander should designate engagement areas that take advantage of integrated obstacles and urban terrain features and that can be covered by direct and indirect fires. at the same time. if the attacker continues to commit forces to the battle and the defending force fails to divert or destroy them. When it faces enemy forces within the urban area. From these positions. Procedures and considerations for these defensive operations are generally similar to those used in more conventional open terrain situations. these may include preventing the enemy from isolating the defensive position. tanks provide the urban operations commander with a mobile force that can respond quickly to enemy threats. hull-down positions should be used to provide cover and to enable tanks to fire directly down the streets. In general. Tanks are normally employed as a platoon. the platoon may be called upon to take part in any of several types of defensive operations. Objectives are similar as well. and fields of fire. FIGHTING POSITIONS AND FIRING POSITIONS 8-66. Vehicle positions must be selected and developed to afford the best possible cover. defend a strongpoint. For example. and/or gaining a foothold in the urban area. observation. Effective positioning allows the commander to employ the armored vehicles in a number of ways. ENEMY FORCES OUTSIDE THE URBAN AREA 8-62. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. DEFENSIVE TECHNIQUES IN URBAN OPERATIONS ROLE OF THE TANK PLATOON 8-64.DEFENSIVE URBAN OPERATIONS 8-61. (Note. as described in the following paragraph. z As part of the reserve. Buildings collapsing from enemy fires are a minimal hazard to tanks and their crews. These considerations apply: z If fields of fire are restricted to the street area.

After firing. SECTION IV – EMPLOYMENT OF ATTACK AND ASSAULT/CARGO HELICOPTERS 8-69. Aviation forces operating on the urban periphery effectively enhance isolation. Lift helicopters can also transport needed supplies to urban areas that may be inaccessible to ground transportation or serve as CASEVAC platforms if ground evacuation is not feasible or timely. Ground units may receive support from a variety of attack helicopters including (but not limited to) the AH-64. Ground maneuver commanders must understand that aviation forces can provide a significant advantage during urban operations. to fire. z In platoon-level urban operations. OH-58D. For combat in built-up areas. 7. and supplies to those critical urban areas. The commander’s defensive scheme of maneuver in an urban operation must always include the employment of a reserve force. Lift helicopters can provide a distinct advantage by placing personnel and weapon systems at critical locations at critical times to surprise and overwhelm the enemy. and AH-6. reconnaissance. EMPLOYMENT OF THE RESERVE FORCE 8-68. ground maneuver planners must understand that the unique capabilities of Army aviation also require unique planning and coordination. ROLE DURING URBAN OPERATIONS 8-71. In a company team defense. z It may be supported by tanks. he signals the tank to move to the firing position and. or to provide a base of fire for disengaging elements. troop movement.15 22 February 2007 . 8-18 FM 3-20. Army aviation is normally most effective conducting shaping operations. the reserve force may be a section or squad. surveillance. the reserve force has these characteristics: z It normally consists of infantry elements. Attack helicopters can also assist with intelligence. Refer to Figure 8-5 on page 8-9 for an example of a tank using an urban hide position. an observer from the tank or a nearby infantry unit must be concealed in an adjacent building to alert the crew (see Figure 8-5 on page 8-9). the tank moves to an alternate position to avoid compromising its location. When the observer acquires a target.50 machine gun. to block enemy penetrations. their primary role is to transport personnel. caliber . such as the UH-60 and CH-47. Other supporting (lift) helicopters. equipment. Army aviation forces must be fully integrated in the military decision-making process to ensure effective combined arms employment. EMPLOYMENT OF INFANTRY SQUADS 8-67. however. the limited number of available infantrymen may require squad positions to be interspersed with tank positions for mutual support. to protect the flanks of the friendly force.Chapter 8 z z adjacent to buildings (using the buildings to mask enemy observation). Since the crew will not be able to see the advancing enemy from the hide position. This section highlights some possible procedures that will aid in creating a common air-ground perspective.62-mm minigun) that aid in the suppression of enemy forces when operating in urban terrain. SUPPORT FOR GROUND MANEUVER UNITS 8-70. Effective combined arms employment also requires that aviation and ground maneuver forces synchronize their operations by operating from a common perspective. and reconnaissance (ISR) and communications using their advanced suite of sensors and radios. however. Army aviation’s primary role during urban operations is to support the ground maneuver force’s operations. resupply. at the proper time. or in culverts. Infantry squads are usually employed abreast so that they all can fire toward the expected direction of attack. In addition. This force should be prepared to counterattack to regain key positions. z It must be as mobile as possible.62-mm machine gun. Attack helicopters can provide area fire to suppress targets. may have weapon systems (7. and precision fire to destroy specific targets or breach structures.

MANEUVER GRAPHIC AIDS 8-73. may operate in close vicinity to one another. Buildings are coded and each corner of the building is coded. COMMAND AND CONTROL 8-72. z Sketches help correlate air and ground control measures with predominate urban features. Table 8-5. Army aviation forces may be employed organic to a division or higher level of command to conduct maneuver or provide support. and key terrain in an area and designates a letter or numeral code to each. IDENTIFYING FRIENDLY POSITIONS. friendly and enemy forces.15 8-19 . It is best used for smaller towns and villages but can be applied to a certain engagement area or specific area of operations in a larger city. AND ACQUIRING TARGETS 8-74.Urban Operations evacuation. attack helicopters may conduct direct air-to-ground coordination with companies and platoons during combat operations. The greatest strength of aviation is the ability to maneuver in the third dimension. control. structures and debris can cause problems with the identification of precise locations. Common graphics and sketches can help alleviate these differences. z A network route structure of air control points (ACP) and routes (preferably surveyed) may be used to facilitate route planning. methods must be established to allow air crews to visually identify key locations. Aviation forces may also be attached or OPCON to another command. MARKING METHODS 8-75. and support by fire for ground forces. It is the responsibility of both the aviation unit and the ground maneuver unit to ensure they use the same area sketch for accurate coordination (see Figure 89). 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. This gives the air crews an accurate way to identify specific buildings as requested by the ground unit commander or to identify friendly locations. navigation. In the urban environment. fire support control measures (FSCM). page 8-21 describes different marking methods. Reliable communication is essential to ensure air crews know the locations of all participants in urban operations. In an urban environment. Army aviation also enhances the combined arms team’s ability to quickly and efficiently transition to new missions. The area sketch captures the natural terrain features. man-made features. however. Furthermore. MARKING LOCATIONS. and communications. along with noncombatants. this strength can be a detriment due to associated challenges. and airspace control measures (ACM) further allow air crews and maneuver elements to better visualize the urban portion of the area of operations. and command. z Inclusion of maneuver graphic. The area sketch offers the ground commander and the aircrew a means of identifying friendly and enemy locations for planning and coordination. One associated challenge is that air crews have different visual cues and perspectives than do ground forces. Army aviation units normally will not be OPCON to echelons below battalion level. To further enhance air-ground coordination.

Simplified area sketch 8-20 FM 3-20.Chapter 8 Figure 8-9.15 22 February 2007 .

Urban Operations Table 8-5. The infrared zoom laser illuminator designtor (IZLID)-2 is the current example. Risk of compromise is high. Effectiveness dependent on degree of urban lighting. windows.15 8-21 . May be difficult to distinguish mark from other gunfire. Less likely to compromise than overt light. Visible to all with NVGs. Highly visible to all. and requires line of sight to target.4 watts) IR Laser Pointer (above . Easily identifiable. Compromises friendly position and warns of fire support employment. Placement may be difficult due to structures. Ground Burst Signal Mirror D/N D All All NA Good Good NA Spotlight N All Good Marginal IR Spotlight N All NVD Good Marginal IR Laser Pointer (below . but may compromise friendly position. Dependent on weather and available light and may be lost in reflections from other reflective surfaces (windshields. Highly effective under all but the most highly lit or worst weather conditions. Easily identified. May compromise position.4 watts) N N All NVG All NVD Good Good Marginal Good Visual Laser N All Good Marginal Laser Designator D/N PGM or LST equipped All NA Good Tracers D/N NA Marginal 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. or warn of fire support employment. Highly visible to all. Very restrictive laser acquisition cone. Placement may be difficult due to structures. Marking methods Method Smoke Day/ Night D Assets All Friendly Marks Good Target Marks Good Remarks Easily identifiable. obscure target. Effectiveness is dependent on degree of urban lighting. but may wash out NVDs. Effectiveness dependent on degree of urban lighting. or warn of fire support employment. Highly effective with PGM. etc. may be more effective to kick up dust surrounding target. During daytime use. obscure target. Smoke (IR) D/N All NVD AT Good Good Illumination. Less affected by ambient light and weather conditions. water. Avoids compromise of friendly location. Night marking is greatly enhanced by the use of IR reflective smoke. May require precoordination of laser codes.). but may compromise friendly position. Effectiveness dependent on degree of urban lighting.

can be effective when used to contrast cold background or when aircraft knows general location. Coded strobes aid in acquisition. Ground maneuver elements generally use a terrain-based reference system during urban operations. except in highly lit areas. Only visible during daylight. Marking methods Method Electronic Beacon Day/ Night D/N Assets See remarks Friendly Marks Excellent Target Marks Good Remarks Ideal friendly marking device for AC130 and some USAF fixed wing (not compatible with Navy or Marine aircraft). May be obscured by structures. Provides unique signature. Visible to all NVDs. Provides a distinct signature that is easily recognized.15 22 February 2007 . To facilitate combined arms operations. Easily identified by air crew. references to the objective or target may include local landmarks 8-22 FM 3-20. Coordination with air crews essential to ensure equipment and training compatibility. Using common techniques allows air crews to transition to the system in use by the ground element upon arrival in the objective area. These techniques are based on the street and structure pattern present. Easily obscured by structures.Chapter 8 Table 8-5. aviation and ground maneuver forces must use common control methods. Effectiveness dependent on degree of urban lighting. checkpoint targeting. Can be used as a TRP for target identification. Visible by all. Difficult to acquire. Visible to all NVDs. Easily masked by urban structures and lost in thermal clutter. Very effective. objective area reference grid. Military grid reference system (MGRS) coordinates have little meaning at street level. May be obscured by structures. Strobe (Overt) N All Marginal NA Strobe (IR) N All NVD Good NA Flare (Overt) Flare (IR) GLINT/IR Panel D/N N N All All NVD All NVD Good Good Good NA NA NA Combat ID Panel D/N All FLIR Good NA VS-17 Panel Chemical Heat Sources D D/N All All FLIR Marginal Poor NA NA Spinning Chem Light (Overt) N All Marginal NA Spinning Chem Light (IR) N All NVD Marginal NA TARGETING GRIDS AND REFERENCE TECHNIQUES 8-76. without regard to the MGRS pattern. May be obscured by urban terrain. Least impeded by urban terrain. Effectiveness dependent on degree of urban lighting. For example. Effectiveness dependent on degree of urban lighting. Possible techniques include urban grid. Easily identified by air crew. and TRPs. Effectiveness dependent on degree of urban lighting. Not readily detectable by enemy. Visible by all. Provides temperature contrast on vehicles or building. Provides unique signature.

south-east corner.” This transition should be facilitated by using a “big to small” acquisition technique. Urban grid technique Figure 8-11. “The third floor of the Hotel Caviar.15 8-23 .Urban Operations such as. Figure 8-10. Checkpoint technique 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.

Attack helicopters will conduct a variety of TTPs to engage targets in the urban area. Coordination is imperative to ensure positive identification of the target as well as friendly locations.Chapter 8 Figure 8-12.15 22 February 2007 . 8-24 FM 3-20. TRP technique ATTACK HELICOPTER TARGET ENGAGEMENT 8-77. Techniques range from support-by-fire/attack-by-fire at maximum standoff ranges to running/diving fire and closecombat attack at minimum engagement ranges. Objective area reference grid technique Figure 8-13.

Due to aviation delivery parameters. Leaders and air crew must consider the following when choosing weapons: z Hard.Urban Operations Note. such as fires. begins with standardizing techniques and procedures. and noncombatant casualties. Effective integration of air and ground assets begins with the ground maneuver force. The end-state is a detailed SOP between air and ground maneuver units that addresses the attack in a close combat situation. AIR/GROUND INTEGRATION IN THE HASTY ATTACK/CLOSE FIGHT 8-79. Target engagement from oblique angles. Targets. z Depression and elevation limits create dead space. z The effect of the weapon and the position of friendly and enemy personnel with relation to structures must be considered. historically. rubble and man-made structures can mask fires. This may reduce the effect of munitions and increase the chance of ricochets. munitions will normally strike a target at an angle less than 90 degrees. When the aviation brigade or task force receives a mission to provide assistance to a ground unit engaged in close combat and planning time is minimal. smooth. and shadows mask targets. z Identification and engagement times are short. The risks from friendly fires. dust. must be considered. En route to the holding area. Commanders must choose the weapons to use on a specific mission based on the effects on the target. The attack teams utilized in this procedure are under aviation brigade control. z Coordination for aviation close fires (ACF). This procedure contains five major steps: z Battalion close-fight SITREP. z Munitions can produce secondary effects. the initial information provided by the unit in contact should be sufficient to get the aviation attack team out of the aviation tactical assembly area to a holding area to conduct direct coordination with the engaged maneuver unit. 8-80. Additionally. The tendency of rounds to strike glancing blows against hard surfaces means that up to 25 percent of impact-fused rounds may not detonate when fired onto rubbled areas. and the subsequent execution of the tasks involved. z Attack team check-in. even those at close range. The key to success for enhancing air-ground coordination. z Battle damage assessment/reattack. the hasty attack. tend to be indistinct. z Smoke.15 8-25 . lacks proper coordination between air and ground elements to ensure mission success. Ground forces should make every attempt to pass along accurate 8-digit grid coordinates. WEAPONS MIX 8-78. and the target’s proximity to ground forces. BATTALION CLOSE FIGHT SITREP 8-81. employment techniques. This SITREP verifies the location of the holding area and a means to conduct additional coordination. and fratricide must be considered during the planning of operations. Leaders must consider proportionality. Armed helicopters can carry a mix of weapons. collateral damage. z Urban fighting often involves units attacking on converging routes. The AH-64D can easily and accurately engage targets using this method. The attack team leader receives an update 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. The hasty attack in the close fight. both horizontal and vertical. the attack team leader contacts the ground maneuver battalion on its FM command net to receive a close-fight SITREP (Figure 8-14). ricochets. Chose weapons for employment based on their effects against the building’s material composition rather than against enemy personnel. Attack helicopter employment in urban operations will typically involve the close fight and often. flat surfaces with 90-degree angles are characteristic of man-made targets.

Regardless of which key leader the attack team leader conducts coordination with. including the FIST chief and the attack team leader and his attack crews. i. Location of company in contact. Friendly situation. If intended to be used for face-to-face coordination. Coordination begins with the ground maneuver company commander and ends with the leader of the lowest-level unit in contact. HARDROCK 06 IS TAKING DIRECT FIRE FROM A PLATOON-SIZE ARMOR ELEMENT AT GRID VQ 96000050. using a light/heat source to provide a recognizable signature.” “BULLDOG 06. the attack team leader changes frequency to the ground company’s FM command net to conduct final coordination before progressing on attack routes to BPs or ABF/SBF positions. Battalion Close Fight SITREP 1. however. By this time. the ground maneuver battalion has contacted the ground maneuver unit leader in contact to inform him that attack aviation is en route to conduct a hasty attack.Chapter 8 from the ground maneuver battalion on the enemy and friendly situations. L/C. 2.” “BLACKJACK 26. as well as its higher headquarters or a fire support element (see Figure 8-16). Battalion close fight SITREP Attack Team “BULLDOG 06. Figure 8-15 shows an example of radio traffic and what may occur. mission assigned to them. Operating on the command net also allows the attack team to request responsive mortar fire for either suppression or immediate suppression of the enemy. BLACKJACK 26 EN ROUTE TO HOLDING AREA AT GRID VQ 98454287.15 22 February 2007 . Upon receiving the required information from the ground maneuver battalion.” Ground Maneuver Battalion “BLACKJACK 26. OVER. Attack team/maneuver company communications check 8-26 FM 3-20.. The AH-64 Apache and the AH-1 Cobra are limited to only one FM radio due to aircraft configuration.e. OVER. which gives the attack team leader the capability to maintain communications with the ground maneuver company. ENEMY SITUATION FOLLOWS. a sign counter-sign must be agreed upon. The battalion also verifies frequencies and call signs of the unit in contact. Enemy situation. OVER. THIS IS BULLDOG 06. type of enemy vehicles/equipment position (center mass) and direction of movement if dispersed provide front-line trace. HOLDING AREA VQ 94004000. Holding area verification. Call sign/frequency verification. EXPECT RADIO COORDINATION ONLY. REQUEST SITREP. OVER.” Figure 8-15. CONTACT HARDROCK 06 ON FH 478. the OH-58 is dual-FM capable. OVER. It allows all key leaders on the ground. Attack Team “HARDROCK 06. the ground command net is the most suitable net on which both air and ground elements can conduct the operation. answered by either aircraft IR lights or visible light flashes to signify which aircraft to approach. OVER. L/C. Figure 8-14.” Figure 8-16. THIS IS BULLDOG 06. to communicate on one common net throughout the operation. THIS IS BLACKJACK 26 ON FH 478. method of marking their position. Example radio conversation 8-82. 8-83.” Ground Maneuver Battalion “BLACKJACK 26. THIS IS BLACKJACK 26. 3. 4. Focusing on ADA in the AO. THIS IS HARDROCK 06.

If time is not available to accomplish face-to-face coordination. z Map graphics update.Urban Operations ATTACK TEAM CHECK-IN 8-84. These area fire weapon systems pose a danger to friendly soldiers who may be in the lethality zone of the rounds or rockets. 8-88. the leader on the ground must be very precise in describing the target he wants the aircraft to engage. are the preferred system for armor or hardened targets when engaging targets in the close fight. which is normally the ground or aerial holding area. then radio-only communications will be the means for coordination using the request for immediate ACF (see Figure 8-17 for a sample request for immediate ACF). z The composition of the attack team. Upon making initial radio contact with the ground maneuver unit in contact. z Friendly situation location and method of marking friendly positions. Weapon systems and munition selection for a given engagement is METT-TC dependent. z Attack aircraft scheme of maneuver. ACF should be coordinated face-to-face using the following ACF coordination checklist: z Enemy situation-specific target ID. z The armament load and weapons configuration. the attack team will select and occupy an aerial holding area within FM communications range until all required coordination is complete. The gun systems and the 2. Point target weapon systems. z Total station time.75-inch rockets are the preferred system/munition for engaging troops in the open and for soft targets such as trucks and trenchworks. When possible. 8-86. In the event a ground holding area is not used because of METT-TC considerations. z Planned engagement area and BP/SBF. z Fire coordination and restrictions. z Method of target marking. This check-in includes a SITREP with the following check-in information— z The attack team’s present location. such as Hellfire or TOW. Time is the primary constraining factor for coordinating ACF in the hasty attack. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. z The night-vision device capability of the attack team. COORDINATION FOR AVIATION CLOSE FIRES 8-87.15 8-27 . 8-85. the attack team leader executes a succinct check-in. z Request for immediate ACF should be used for targets of opportunity or for ground-to-air target handoff. In this case. The attack team leader and ground unit’s key leaders must consider the effects on friendly forces of the various weapons carried by the attack aircraft prior to target selection and engagement. z Ground maneuver mission/scheme of maneuver.

the attack team leader informs the ground unit leader of the BP. or the series of positions his team will occupy that provide the best observation and fields of fire into the engagement or target area. GOOD COPY. I’LL BE HANDING YOU DOWN TO HARDROCK 16 FOR THE ACF REQUEST. This also ensures that rotor wash.” “ROGER HARDROCK. END OF MISSION. but close to the position of the requesting unit to facilitate efficient target handoffs. LOW WIRES DIRECTLY OVER OUR POSITION. OVER. BLACKJACK 26. 8-28 FM 3-20. OUT. time required to move forward from their current position. The attack team leader maintains FM communications with the ground unit leader while he maintains internal communications on either his very high frequency (VHF) or ultra high frequency (UHF) net. OVER. 8-90. OVER.” “BLACKJACK 26. depending on the intensity of the on-going engagement. THERE HAS BEEN SPORADIC HEAVY MACHINE GUN FIRE AND MAIN TANK GUN FIRE INTO OUR POSITION. Example request for immediate ACF 8-89. ROGER TWO T80s DESTROYED. WE WILL ESTABLISH A BP 100 METERS TO THE WEST OF YOUR POSITION. This may be as simple as relaying the direction the aircraft will be coming from or attack route. the size of the engagement area. NO FRIENDLIES NORTH OF THE 00 GRID LINE. OVER. TWO T-80S AT THE ROAD INTERSECTION. OVER. STROBES ON AT THIS TIME. NEGATIVE KNOWLEDGE ON DISPOSITION OF ENEMY ADA. HARDROCK 16. The offset position also allows the aircraft to engage the enemy on its flanks rather than its front. STAND BY FOR UPDATE. FRIENDLY PLATOON IN CONTACT LOCATED AT VQ 96000050. 30 SECONDS. Grid locations may be difficult for the ground maneuver. OVER. OVER. and lessens the risk of fratricide along the helicopter gun target line. FIRE APPEARS TO BE COMING FROM ROAD INTERSECTION VICINITY VQ 96204362.15 22 February 2007 . TURN ON IR STROBES AT THIS TIME. TWO T-80s DESTROYED. ROGER. 800 METERS.” “HARDROCK 16. TARGET LOCATION VQ 96000850. REQUEST FOLLOWS. EN ROUTE FOR ATTACK. HARDROCK 16. and the type of terrain.” “HARDROCK 16. SBF. ENEMY PLATOON-SIZE ARMOR ELEMENT IS 800 METERS DUE NORTH. it uses nap of the earth (NOE) flight along attack routes to mask itself from ground enemy observation and enemy direct fire systems. After receipt of a request for immediate ACF. AN/PAQ-4 SPOT ON. ELEMENTS WILL ATTACK FROM THE SOUTHEAST. z The BP or SBF is a position from which the attack aircraft will engage the enemy with direct fire. MARKED BY IR STROBES.” “ROGER BLACKJACK 26. HARDROCK 16. The attack team leader then provides the ground maneuver unit leader with his concept for the team’s attack on the objective. and the location of the BP.” Figure 8-17.” Ground Maneuver Battalion “BLACKJACK 26. STANDING BY AT HOLDING AREA FOR ACF REQUEST.” “HARDROCK 16.” “BLACKJACK 26. Note. HARDROCK 06. BLACKJACK 26. It includes a number of individual aircraft firing positions and may be preplanned or established as the situation dictates.Chapter 8 Attack Team “HARDROCK 06. ammunition casing expenditure and the general signature of the aircraft does not interfere with operations on the ground. Only on completion of coordination with the lowest unit in contact does the flight depart the holding area for the battle position. BLACKJACK HAS YOUR POSITION. As the attack team moves out of the holding area. and actual FM communications between the ground and air may not work this well. z The BP or SBF is normally offset from the flank of the friendly ground position. BLACKJACK. Size will vary depending on the number of aircraft using the position. ENGAGEMENT COMPLETE. FRIENDLY LOCATION VQ 96000050. 360-DEGREES TO TARGET.

After completing the requested ACF. the attack team leader must consider the effects on duration and strength of coverage he can provide the ground maneuver commander. Requests for ACF can be continued until all munitions or fuel is expended. Based on his intent. the attack team leader provides a battle damage assessment (BDA) to the ground maneuver commander. The attack team may be required to devise a rearming and refueling plan. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Upon request for a reattack. maintaining some of his aircraft on station with the unit in contact. the attack team leader is required to coordinate this effort with his higher headquarters.Urban Operations BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT AND REATTACK 8-91. In addition to coordinating with the ground maneuver unit in contact.15 8-29 . the ground maneuver commander will determine if a reattack is required to achieve his desired endstate. while the remainder returns to the forward arming and refueling point (FARP).

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A balance must be achieved between the mindset of peacetime military engagement in areas of stable peace through major combat operations during general war. Local and national agencies normally are the lead. however. The platoon may be called upon to perform a variety of missions in a wide range of political. particularly the regular Army. cooperative activitied and coercive actions in response to crisis. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.S. and Army forces cooperate and synchronize their efforts closely with them. Proactive leaders that are communicating and enforcing the ROE are instrumental to achieving this mindset. Army policy normally does not allow a unit to modify its warfighting missionessential task list (METL) unless and until the unit is selected for stability operations or civil support operations. accidents. There are many similarities between civil support and stability operations. laws carefully circumscribe the actions that military forces.S. and the nature of the conflict. but also must not be too eager to rely on the use of force to resolve conflict. whose security and protection is the reason the Armed Forces exist. U.S. These operations will almost always be decentralized and can require the tank platoon leader to make immediate decisions that may have strategic or operational consequences. citizens. military. The distinction between these roles and situations will not always be clear. national interests during stable peace by influencing the operational environment in ways that reduce the likelihood of conflict. its leaders. Chief among these are operations with very restrictive ROE/ROI and orientation on the area. The tank platoon has unique capabilities that make it an important asset to Army units executing missions as part of stability operations and civil support operations. They do this through a combination of peacetime developmental.15 9-1 .S. considerations. Note. This balance is the essence of full-spectrum operations and the fundamental aspect that will enable the company team to perform its mission successfully and avoid an escalation to combat. BALANCED MINDSET 9-2. presenting unique challenges for the platoon. and incidents within the United States and its territories. Regional security is supported by a balanced approach that enhances government and economic prosperity. and characteristics are related. Only then should a unit train for specific mission-related tasks. U. and its crewmen.Chapter 9 Stability Operations and Civil Support Operations Stability operations promote and protect U. The local population is composed of U. its culture. The purposes. Soldiers cannot become too complacent in their warrior spirit. and geographical environments and in both combat and noncombat situations. SECTION I – GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 9-1. Civil support operations are operations conducted to address the consequences of natural or man-made disasters. can conduct within the United States and its territories.

conduct disaster relief and humanitarian assistance. 9-6. Stability operations involve both coercive and cooperative actions by the military force. Conflict approaches the threshold of a state of war as the number of nations and/or troops. TYPES OF STABILITY OPERATIONS 9-9. facilitate reconciliation among local or regional adversaries. They act in support of other governmental and host-nation agencies. z Armed clashes between nations or between organized parties within a nation to achieve limited political or military objectives. populations. Protecting the populace from serious external and internal threats. z Situations in which opposing political factions engage in military actions to gain control of political leadership within a nation. may be achieved by the short. focused. and direct application of military force. SECTION II – STABILITY OPERATIONS 9-8. training should be planned that focuses on the individual and collective tasks that would be performed during transition to offensive and or defensive missions. Conflict is often protracted. forces may conduct training exercises to demonstrate national resolve. a variety of measures are employed to achieve national objectives. Most stability operations are multiagency and multinational. social.S. When the host nation or other agency is unable to accomplish their role. and the level of violence increase over an extended time. Army forces may provide basic civil functions directly. Stability operations are executed outside the United States. PEACETIME 9-4. Refer to Section IV of this appendix for examples of stability and support situations in which the tank platoon may participate. Army forces engaged in stability operations establish or restore basic civil functions and protect them until the host nation is capable of providing these services. establish political. 9-7. CONFLICT 9-5. Stability operations contribute to an environment in which the other instruments of national power can predominate. these include political. Confrontations and tensions may escalate during peacetime to reach a point of transition into a state of conflict. Stability operations include— z Civil security. as well as military actions short of combat operations or active support of warring parties. U. If the stability or civil support operation extends over prolonged periods of time. Stability operations and civil support operations involving tank platoons often occur in the state of peacetime. including the following: z Clashes or crises over boundary disputes and land and water territorial claims. and informational measures. confined to a restricted geographic area. 9-2 FM 3-20. or exploit security and control over areas. or execute shows of force.Chapter 9 COMBAT SKILLS TRAINING 9-3. the frequency of battles. economic. establish. and economic institutions. usually in support of other elements of national power. Limited objectives. In this state. In peacetime. preserve. however.15 22 February 2007 . Stability operations are operations that occur in conjunction with offensive and defensive operations to restore. While regular military forces are sometimes involved. and limited in weaponry and level of violence. Within this environment. They are operations designed to establish a safe and secure environment. conduct peacekeeping operations. provide security assistance to friends and allies. and facilitate the transition to legitimate local government. military response to a threat is exercised indirectly. Conflict can encompass numerous types of situations. the use of irregular forces frequently predominates in conflict actions. and resources. participate in nation-building activities.

rule of law. that is. (Note. essential services. Once this transition is complete. these operations provide a foundation for transitioning control to other governmental agencies and eventually to the host nation. Although military forces set the conditions for success. 9-10. See FM 3-07 [FM 100-20] for detail on stability operations. Essential services include emergency life-saving medical care. The goal of these combined military and civil efforts is to strengthen legitimately recognized governance. z Develop an indigenous capacity for a viable market economy. Essential services. By providing security and control to stabilize the AO. During hostilities. and influence the attitudes and civil activity away from supporting adversaries and toward supporting the legitimate government. or both. They may be the decisive operation within a phase of a campaign or major combat operation. Concurrently. while working with other agencies to restore basic capabilities to the area or region. Army forces located in Kuwait but supporting operations in Iraq is an example of this. Stability operations seek to reduce the level of violence and establish order by working with the local population and their government. and support the conditions for economic reconstruction. They employ military capabilities to restore or establish essential services and support civilian agencies. provision of emergency shelter from the elements. Stability operations can be conducted in support of a host government. control and essential services. it aims to redirect. Army forces within Iraq may be responsible for the well-being of the local population. these operations provide a foundation for transitioning control to other governmental agencies. and normalizing means of succession of power. and democratic institutions. Governance. By providing security and control to stabilize the AO. and the provision of basic sanitation (sewage and garbage disposal). z Gain support for the indigenous government. The provision of societal control functions that include regulation of public activity. Once this transition is complete. taxation.15 9-3 . host nation. maintenance of security. compel. or a part of an occupation when no government exists. In some operations.) PURPOSES OF STABILITY OPERATIONS 9-11. The degree to which Army forces engage in these types of stability operations is circumstantial. the operation focuses on transferring regional control to a legitimate civil authority according to the desired end state. The goal is to enable local institutions to assume their civic responsibilities. the other instruments of national power are decisive. Regulating the behavior and activity of individuals and groups to reduce risk to individuals or groups and to promote security. they secure the support of local 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. stability operations help prevent armed conflict from spreading. z Shape for interagency and host-nation success by providing the necessary security and control for the host nation and interagency elements to function. 9-13. Isolation in stability operations is usually indirect. 9-12.Stability Operations and Civil Support Operations z z z Civil control. control. On the other hand. Stability operations conducted in the absence of a local civil government provide the necessary security and control for the local population. Control channels the population’s activity to allow for the provision of security and essential services while coexisting with a military force conducting operations. an interim government. The first aim is to limit the influence on disaffected populations. This requires security. the operation focuses on transferring regional control to a legitimate civil authority according to the desired end state. A curfew is an example of civil control. the prevention of epidemic disease. They occur simultaneously with offensive and defensive operations. provision of food and water. Stability operations seek to manage the level of violence and establish order by working with the local population. and governance provided by the military. the host nation is capable of carrying out these types of operations and Army forces are engaged in civil-military operations to minimize the impact of military presence on the populace. Stability operations complement offensive and defensive operations. The purposes of stability operations are— z Isolate adversaries from the local population. rebuild governmental infrastructure and institutions to establish sustainable peace and security fostering a sense of confidence and well-being.

and synchronization between host-nation elements and Army forces are enhanced by impartiality. z Use PA to inform local and regional populations. Security is vital to achieving reconciliation. can improve the prospects for lasting peace. and resuming vital services. Fair and even-handed treatment of all sides in the conflict. z Be consistent and credible with the local population. z Be impartial. 9-4 FM 3-20. Impartiality does not imply that force will affect all sides equally. To establish a stable and lasting peace. This produces a secondary effect of preventing the populace from becoming disillusioned and offering support and sanctuary to irregular forces. Following conventional hostilities. As civil security is established. rebuilding lost infrastructure. the force returns territory to civil authorities’ control. Credibility reflects the local populations and host nation’s assessment of the capability of the force to accomplish its mission. integration. Commanders and staffs consider several factors when conducting stability operations. z Display the capability to use overwhelming force. and synchronization with nonmilitary organizations. Commanders must make sure their units apply force consistent with and adequate to assigned objectives and employ combat power selectively in accordance with assigned missions and prescribed legal and policy limitations. defeat. Force will be used against threats not because of who they are but because they are violating the law. stability. with increased endurance and in depth across the AO. part of the force secures critical infrastructure and population areas. The commander uses transparency to make the populace aware of mandates. providing governance. APPLY FORCE SELECTIVELY AND DISCRIMINATELY 9-18. This allows all participants to exploit their capabilities and conduct operations simultaneously. Stability operations take a different form during contingencies. z Establish HUMINT networks early. forces conduct stability operations to provide a secure environment for civil authorities. cooperation. but use minimum lethality consistent with rules of engagement and proportional to the mission requirements. CONSIDERATIONS FOR STABILITY OPERATIONS 9-14. opposition movements. z Be transparent when dealing with the local population. consistent with the ROE. Impartiality is not neutrality. and security even within ongoing combat operations. The commander on the ground is best qualified to estimate the correct degree of force that must be used. Properly focused and effective stability operations prevent population centers from degenerating into recruiting areas for insurgencies. Coordination. They support this by isolating irregular forces from the population. and techniques used to ensure security and control. and civil unrest. These include: z Understand the operational environment. recognizing neither aggressor nor victim.Chapter 9 populations in unstable areas. Facilitating the transition to the civil authority promotes the coordination. 9-16. and credibility. Transparency serves to reinforce impartiality and credibility. cooperation. leaving no doubt as to its will and intensions. integration. As offensive operations clear populated areas of hostile forces. 9-15. stability operations capitalize on the coordination. z Use IO. or destroy forces seeking to undermine the effectiveness or credibility of the stability mission. and synchronization of civil and military efforts to build the peace. Conversely. they may conduct defensive and offensive operations to physically isolate. Commanders use the rules of engagement to guide the tactical application of combat power. particularly civil considerations. integration. intentions. The force must have the proper structure and resources with appropriate ROE to accomplish the mission and discharge its duties swiftly and firmly. transparency.15 22 February 2007 . Effective stability operations focus on the population’s essential needs. to engage and influence the local population and isolate adversaries. 9-17. Forces engaged in an operation where stability predominates may have to defend themselves.

attack.15 9-5 . maneuver. and survivability. and knowledgeable leaders and Soldiers at every level. This means the tank platoon occasionally may be assigned operations that are normally handled by specially trained and equipped elements. well-trained. Individual and small-unit actions can have consequences disproportionate to the level of command or amount of force involved. The training must be updated continuously after deployment. UNDERSTAND THE POTENTIAL FOR UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF INDIVIDUAL AND SMALL-UNIT ACTIONS 9-20. USING THE PLATOON’S CAPABILITIES 9-22. however. and legal consequences of the actions they take or fail to take. The tank platoon has unique capabilities that make it an important asset to U. and defend missions using procedures similar to those described throughout this manual. TRAINING FOR STABILITY OPERATIONS AND CIVIL SUPPORT OPERATIONS 9-25. tank platoons are usually used to execute stability and support activities that take maximum advantage of their inherent capabilities of firepower. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. They execute move. Whether it is operating organic to the company or task organized to a light or heavy force. and individual Soldier responsibilities. In addition.Stability Operations and Civil Support Operations ACT DECISIVELY TO PREVENT ESCALATION 9-19. and survivability). each Soldier must understand the potential military. To perform with complete effectiveness and efficiency. crewmen should receive special equipment and training before executing such operations. Examples of these operations are included in Section IV of this appendix. Every Soldier must be aware of the operational and strategic context of the mission. the platoon could be tasked for crowd and riot control if a shortage of military police exists. Additionally. force protection. disciplined. For example. Recognizing and avoiding these potential problems requires trained. dismounted missions effectively negate the tank platoon’s inherent advantages (lethality. Dissemination of this information throughout the force minimizes any possible confusion regarding desired objectives. On the other hand. A discussion of these operational considerations is included later in this section. the platoon may be called upon to support a wide range of operations in various political and geographical environments. ROLE OF THE TANK PLATOON 9-21. Disciplined. Because of the resources necessary to deploy. and combined forces executing missions in stability operations and civil support operations. mobility. the factors of METT-TC and the operational considerations prevalent in stability operations and civil support operations may modify the conditions for successful mission accomplishment. the platoon must be thoroughly trained before deployment on such factors as the operational environment. the ROE and ROI. shock effect. Army forces assure friend and foe alike that they not only can protect themselves and the people and facilities under their charge but also achieve stability objectives. Units and individuals must pursue military objectives energetically and apply military power forcefully. Opponents of stability may perceive hesitation to act decisively as weakness. Several problems arise when armored forces are used in this type of role. 9-23. By doing so. political. In some cases. 9-24. To achieve this degree of readiness. combat-ready leaders and crewmen can adapt to the specialized demands of stability operations and civil support operations. Army forces must always be prepared to act with speed and determination when carrying out assigned tasks. tactical operations and individual actions can have strategic impact. and sustain armored forces.S. operate.

the platoon must be prepared to operate in any type of terrain and climate. belligerents can be expected to execute both overt and covert operations to test friendly reaction times and security procedures. Although extreme tension may underlie stability operations and civil support operations. In all cases. Units that are predictable or that lack sound OPSEC leave themselves susceptible to attack.S. dramatic effect on the strategic or operational situation. (Note.S. Flexibility and situational understanding are paramount requirements. Intelligence is crucial during the planning. Throughout stability operations and civil support operations. the tempo of these operations is generally slow. Tempo 9-29. the key to a secure environment is not only to maintain the highest possible level of OPSEC. He should understand the military situation. but also to vary the techniques by which security procedures are executed. Each country or region is unique. preparation. For the tank platoon. and focused to support all planning. U. the commander’s intent and projected end state should be simplified and presented in a way that gives Soldiers the guidance they need to accomplish the mission. especially the doctrine. and problems.S. leaders who disregard the will of belligerent parties and the lethality of these groups’ weapons compromise the success of their mission and risk the lives of their Soldiers. processed. where social. In this uniquely tense setting. The threats faced by military forces in these operations are more ambiguous than those in other situations because combatants. 9-30.) 9-6 FM 3-20.Chapter 9 LEADER REQUIREMENTS 9-26. and execution of stability operations and civil support operations. Orientation training should also clarify the following environmental factors as well as the planning and operational considerations discussed in the remainder of this section. with its own history. intelligence must be collected. and terrorists can easily blend with the civilian population. Each Soldier must understand the political and economic situation. from fast. they are most likely to occur in third world countries. The speed of military action can vary widely. forces will play in the overall mission. forces must undergo orientation training on the complex conditions and factors at work in a specific region.15 22 February 2007 . economic. To deal effectively with the diverse situations they may face. political. as well as the cultures. The platoon’s role and/or objectives in stability operations and civil support operations will not always be clear. especially for the tank platoon leader. In addition. violent tactical movement by a reaction force for the purpose of relieving encircled friendly forces to the deliberate occupation of stationary defensive positions to provide overwatch at traffic control points. forces deployed to these areas can be subject to rapid and dramatic changes in situations and missions. goals. See FM 3-07 [FM 100-20] for additional information. he must plan for rapid changes in the situation or mission and constantly be prepared to adapt to them. This is especially vital when Americans are part of a combined force that requires constant interaction and coordination with the Soldiers of foreign nations. and operational requirements. and equipment that are employed by hostile forces or civil unrest. INTELLIGENCE 9-32. guerrillas. The tank platoon leader must understand this environment. and psychological factors contribute to political instability. U. training. culture. tactics.S. Although stability operations can take place in any part of the world. Forces 9-31. Before forces are committed. All crewmen should be aware of the role U. The platoon leader will sometimes be called upon to make on-the-spot decisions that could have an immediate. PLANNING AND OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 9-27. and terrain of the region. climates. Role of U. 9-28.

without approval from division level. and other public utilities may not be engaged without approval from division level. museums. B. Privately owned property may be used only if publicly owned property is unavailable or its use is inappropriate. attack helicopters. H. and main tank guns should not be used against known or suspected targets without the permission of a ground maneuver commander (LTC or higher). ROE are politically imposed restrictions on military operations. and properly executing ROE are especially important to success in stability operations and civil support operations. all air attacks must be controlled by FAC or FO. The unit’s SOP will require adjustment based on each particular situation’s ROE. AC-130s. this means ROE must be explained to friendly Soldiers continuously. Civilian aircraft will not be engaged.15 9-7 . mortars. and CAS. Civilians and their property should not be harmed unless necessary to save U. except in self-defense. and incendiary weapons are prohibited without approval from division. these restrictions may require that the forces involved limit their use of firepower to a certain geographical area or that they limit the duration of their operations. While ROE must be considered during the planning and execution of all operations. 9-36. schools. If civilians are in the area. Refer to Figure 9-1 for an example of ROE for one possible situation. All indirect fire and air attacks must be observed. WP weapons. churches.Stability Operations and Civil Support Operations DECENTRALIZED OPERATIONS 9-33. G. If civilians are in the area. Hospitals. Each Soldier must understand the ROE and be prepared to execute them properly in every possible confrontation. The ROE are directed by higher military authorities based on the political and tactical situations and the level of threat. Armed civilians will be engaged only in self-defense. Riot control agents can be used only with approval from division level. All enemy military personnel and vehicles transporting enemy personnel or their equipment may be engaged subject to the following restrictions: A. K. the enemy can be expected to exploit such violations. infantry will shoot only at known enemy locations. Although stability operations are normally centrally planned. and political consequences that may affect national security.S. lives. F. adjusting for. If possible. and other historical or cultural sites will be engaged only in self-defense against fire from these locations. dams. understanding. All civilians should be treated with respect and dignity. civilians should be evacuated before any U. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. E. For example. ROE violations can have operational. water treatment plants. Responsibility for making decisions on the ground will fall to junior leaders.S. In addition. shrines. The restrictions change whenever the political and military situations change. execution takes the form of smallscale. attack. 9-35. J. C. Booby traps are not authorized. Effective command guidance and a thorough understanding of the applicable ROE and/or ROI (refer to the following discussions) are critical at each operational level. D. RULES OF ENGAGEMENT 9-34. If civilians are in the area. Pilots must be briefed for each mission as to the location of civilians and friendly forces. Public works such as power stations. strategic. I. tubelaunched or rocket-launched weapons. decentralized actions conducted over extended distances. artillery. Authority to emplace mines is reserved for the division commander. ROE provide the authority for the Soldier’s right to self-defense.

Chapter 9

L. M.

Prisoners should be treated humanely, with respect and dignity. Annex R to the operational plan (OPLAN) provides more detail. In the event this card conflicts with the OPLAN, the OPLAN should be followed.

Distribution: One for each Soldier deployed (all ranks). Figure 9-1. Example rules of engagement

RULES OF INTERACTION/GRADUATED RESPONSE
9-37. ROI and graduated response embody the human dimension of stability operations and support operations; they lay the foundation for successful relationships with the myriad of factions and individuals that play critical roles in these operations. ROI encompass an array of interpersonal communication skills, such as persuasion and negotiation. Graduated response deals with the process of applying greater levels of force to a situation in response to the changes in that situation. These are tools the individual Soldier will need to deal with the nontraditional threats that are prevalent in stability operations, including political friction, unfamiliar cultures, and conflicting ideologies. In turn, ROI enhance the Soldier’s survivability in such situations. Refer to Figure 9-2 for an example of a graduated response card.

Figure 9-2. Example graduated response card

9-8

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Stability Operations and Civil Support Operations

9-38. ROI are based on the applicable ROE for a particular operation; they must be tailored to the specific regions, cultures, and/or populations affected by the operation. Like ROE, the ROI can be effective only if they are thoroughly rehearsed and understood by every Soldier in the unit.

FORCE PROTECTION
9-39. Because of the influence of local politics and news media in stability operations and civil support operations, precautions and operations required to minimize casualties and collateral damage become a particularly important operational consideration during these operations. At the same time, however, force protection must be a constant priority. Armored forces are commonly deployed in a force protection role. 9-40. In attempting to limit the level and scope of violence used in stability operations and civil support operations, leaders must avoid making tactically unsound decisions or exposing the force to unnecessary risks. On the other hand, an overpowering use of force correctly employed and surgically applied, can reduce subsequent violence or prevent a response from the opposing force. These considerations must be covered in the ROE and the OPORD from the battalion or brigade. 9-41. OPSEC, tempered by restrictions in the ROE and ROI, is an important tool for the platoon leader in accomplishing his force protection goals. Security procedures should encompass the full range of antiterrorist activities for every Soldier and leader. Examples include proper RTP; strict noise, light, and litter discipline; proper wear of the uniform; display of the proper demeanor for the situation; as well as effective use of cover and concealment, obstacles, OPs and early warning devices, the protection afforded by armor vehicles, and safe locations for eating and resting. 9-42. A final consideration in force protection is hygiene. Proper field sanitation and personal hygiene are mandatory if Soldiers are to stay healthy.

TASK ORGANIZATION
9-43. Because of the unique requirements of stability operations and civil support operations, the tank platoon may be task organized to operate with a variety of units. As noted, this may include armor or mechanized company team or a light infantry company or battalion. In addition, the platoon may operate with other elements with linguists, counterintelligence teams, and civil affairs teams.

SUSTAINMENT CONSIDERATIONS
9-44. The operational environment that the platoon faces during stability operations and civil support operations may be very austere, creating special sustainment considerations. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following: z Reliance on local procurement of certain items. z Shortages of various critical items, including repair parts, Class IV supplies (barrier materials), and lubricants. z Special Class V supply requirements, such as pepper spray. z Reliance on bottled water.

OPERATIONS WITH OUTSIDE AGENCIES
9-45. U.S. Army units may conduct certain stability operations and civil support operations in coordination with a variety of outside organizations. These include other U.S. armed services or government agencies as well as international organizations, including private volunteer organizations (PVO) (such as Doctors Without Borders), nongovernmental organizations (NGO) (such as the Red Cross), and United Nation (UN) agencies.

SOLDIERS’ RESPONSIBILITIES
9-46. U.S. Soldiers may have extensive contact with civilians during stability operations and civil support operations. As a result, their personal conduct has a significant impact on the opinions, and thus the

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support, of the local population. As noted, Soldiers must understand that misconduct by U.S. forces (even those deployed for only a short time) can damage rapport that took years to develop. U.S. Soldiers must treat local civilians and military personnel as personal and professional equals, affording them the appropriate customs and courtesies. 9-47. Every Soldier must be updated continuously on changes to operational considerations (such as environment, ROE/ROI, media, and force protection). Such changes can have an immediate impact on his freedom to react to a given situation. Keeping the Soldier informed of changes enhances his situational understanding and his ability to adapt to changing conditions. Leaders must disseminate this information quickly and accurately. 9-48. Every individual is an intelligence-collecting instrument. The collection of information is a continuous process, and all information must be reported. Intelligence is provided by many sources, including friendly forces, enemy elements, and the local populace. From the friendly standpoint, each Soldier must be familiar with the local PIR and other applicable intelligence requirements. At the same time, enemy Soldiers or other outside countries’ intelligence agencies will be continuously seeking intelligence on U.S. actions, often blending easily into the civilian population. U.S. Soldiers must be aware of this and use OPSEC procedures at all times. 9-49. To emphasize Soldier responsibilities, leaders conduct PCCs and PCIs that focus on each Soldier’s knowledge of the environment and application of the ROE. These checks and inspections should also identify possible OPSEC violations and deficiencies that could place the Soldier and his equipment at risk. Leaders should stress that terrorists and thieves may attempt to infiltrate positions or mount vehicles either to steal equipment and supplies or to cause harm to U.S. forces or facilities. 9-50. To enhance civilian cooperation and support, the tank platoon leader is responsible for obtaining a key word and phrase card from the S2 to assist in translation of key english phrases into the language of the host nation. These phrases should apply specifically to the area of operations.

SECTION III – CIVIL SUPPORT OPERATIONS
9-51. Civil support operations are operations conducted to address the consequences of natural or manmade disasters, accidents, and incidents within the United States and its territories. Army forces engage in civil support operations when the size and scope of events exceed the capabilities of domestic civilian agencies. The Army National Guard often acts as a first responder on behalf of state authorities when functioning under Title 32 U.S. Code authority or while serving on State active duty. The National Guard is uniquely suited to perform these missions; however, the scope and level of destruction may require the use of additional active military forces to respond to the disaster, accident, or incident. There are many similarities between civil support and stability operations. The purposes, considerations, and characteristics are related; however, U.S. laws carefully circumscribe the actions that military forces, particularly the regular Army, can conduct within the United States and its territories. The local population is composed of U.S. citizens, whose security and protection is the reason the Army forces exist. Local and national agencies normally are the lead and Army forces cooperate and synchronize their efforts closely with them.

TYPES OF CIVIL SUPPORT OPERATIONS
9-52. Civil support encompasses three types: support civil law enforcement, support civil authority, and restore essential services. These types are similar to the stability types of operations. They differ because they are conducted within the U.S. and its territories and are executed under U.S. law. Within the U.S., National Guard forces under state control have law enforcement authorities not granted to regular Army units. In addition to legal differences, operations conducted within the U.S. are conducted in support of other government agencies. These agencies are trained, resourced, and equipped far more extensively than counterpart agencies involved in many stability operations overseas. In stability operations, multinational operations are typical; in civil support operations, they are the exception.

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SUPPORT CIVIL LAW ENFORCEMENT
9-53. When authorized and directed, Army forces provide support to local, state, and federal law enforcement officers. In extreme cases, when directed by the President of the United States, regular Army forces maintain law and order under martial law.

SUPPORT CIVIL AUTHORITY
9-54. The civil authorities within the U.S. and its territories are dedicated and experienced civil servants. They are manned, funded, and equipped to provide governance and essential serivces to the citizens. As a result of disaster or attack, the capacity of government may be reduced or overextended. Army forces provide C2, protection, and sustainment to government officials at all levels to support governance until these agencies are able to function without Army support.

RESTORE ESSENTIAL SERVICES
9-55. In response to natural or man-made disaster, Army forces provide essential services to an affected area. Essential services include rescue, emergency medical care, prevention of epidemic disease, provision of food and water, provision of emergency shelter from the elements, and the provision of basic sanitation (sewage and garbage disposal). Army forces work directly with local and federal officials to restore and return control of services to civilian control as rapidly as possible.

PURPOSES OF CIVIL OPERATIONS
9-56. Army forces conduct civil support operations as part of Homeland Security. Homeland Security provides the nation its strategic flexibility by protecting its citizens, critical assets, and infrastructure from conventional and unconventional threats. It has two related elements. The first is homeland defense. If the United States comes under direct attack or is threatened by hostile armed forces, Army forces under Joint Command conduct offensive and defensive operations against enemy elements while simultaneously providing civil support. The other is civil support. The purposes of civil support operations are: z Save lives. z Maintain or restore law and order. z Protect infrastructure and property. z Maintain or restore local government. z Shapte for interagency success.

CONSIDERATIONS FOR CIVIL SUPPORT OPERATIONS
9-57. Commanders and staffs consider and incorporate several factors into civil support operations. These include the following: z Provide essential services and support to the largest number of people. z Respond quickly to save lives and alleviate suffering. z Use C2 capabilities and forces to complement civilian jurisdictions. z Use defensive capabilities to secure critical assets and key infrastructure. z Hand over responsibility to civilian agencies as soon as possible. z Display the capability to use overwhelming force, but use deadly force only as a last resort and in self-defense. z Treat all civilians as U.S. citizens. 9-58. Most operations conducted within the U.S. have only minor offensive and defensive components; however, Homeland Security employs complementary offensive and defensive capabilities. Defensive capabilities employed in Homeland Security missions include the protection of critical assets and key infrastructure during crises. The ability to conduct offensive operations, though maintained only as a potential for homeland defense, is also present. Discipline, endurance, and unit cohesion developed during

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training prepare Soldiers and units to address the ambiguities and complexities inherent in civil support operations.

SECTION IV – EXAMPLES OF STABILITY OPERATIONS
9-59. The following discussion and accompanying figures examine several situations the tank platoon may face during stability operations and civil support operations. The list is not all-inclusive; assessment of METT-TC factors and the operational considerations applicable in the area of operations may identify additional mission requirements. 9-60. The platoon leader must keep in mind that the relatively simple situations illustrated here cannot adequately portray the ever-changing, often confusing conditions of the stability operations and civil support operations. As noted, flexibility is a key to success (and survival) under such conditions. To the extent possible, the platoon leader should attempt to shape the role or mission to match the platoon’s unique characteristics and capabilities. Note. Refer to Chapter 6 of this manual for a discussion of urban operations. As noted, these operations often provide the operational framework for stability operations and civil support operations.

ESTABLISH A BATTLE POSITION
9-61. The platoon establishes a BP or conducts a relief in place at a platoon BP as part of a company perimeter or strongpoint defense (the circled “A” in Figure 9-3) (see Chapter 4 for detailed information on defensive operations). Dismounted infantry should be integrated with the tank platoon. Coordination with dismounted patrols and OPs outside the perimeter is critical for situational understanding. Signs, in the local language, should be posted as necessary within the engagement area to identify movement restrictions on the local populace.

Figure 9-3. Battle position and reserve/reaction force missions

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CONDUCT RESERVE OPERATIONS
9-62. As part of the battalion or company reserve, the tank platoon occupies an assembly area or sets up a perimeter defense (the circled “B” in Figure 9-3). Potential missions include linkup with and relief of encircled friendly forces (the circled “B1”); linkup and movement to secure an objective in an operation to rescue a downed helicopter or stranded vehicle (the circled “B2”); and tactical movement to destroy enemy forces attacking a convoy (the circled “B3”). In all three scenarios, the platoon conducts tactical movement and operations in contact. Tasks such as linkup, support by fire, attack by fire, assault, hasty attack, and consolidation and reorganization are also critical to the reserve mission. For more information on these operations, refer to Chapters 3 and 5.

OVERWATCH A TRAFFIC CONTROL POINT
9-63. The tank platoon (or section) overwatches an infantry or MP traffic control point (the circled “C” in Figure 9-4). In turn, the overwatch element must ensure its own local security; it usually does this by coordinating with dismounted infantry for OPs and dismounted patrols from the company. Overwatch is covered in Chapter 3, occupation of a defensive position in Chapter 4. Also see Figures 9-5 and 9-6 for manning of light and heavy traffic checkpoints.

Figure 9-4. Traffic control point, choke point, blockade, convoy escort, and route proofing missions

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DEFEND A CHOKE POINT
9-64. The tank platoon (supported by infantry) occupies a perimeter defense to protect traffic and facilitate movement through a choke point along the MSR (the circled “D” in Figure 9-4). Infantry is integrated into the perimeter defense to augment the platoon’s firepower and to provide early warning and OPSEC for the defense by means of dismounted patrols and OPs. For detailed information on defensive operations, see Chapter 4.

OVERWATCH A BLOCKADE/ROADBLOCK
9-65. The tank platoon (or section) overwatches a blockade or roadblock, either a manned position or a reinforcing obstacle covered by fires only (the circled “E” in Figure 9-4). It coordinates with dismounted infantry from the company for local security (OPs and dismounted patrols). Positions are improved using procedures for deliberate occupation of a BP (see Chapter 4). Also see Figures 9-7A and 9-7B for examples of tank platoon roadblocks set up and a list of equipment needed to conduct the operation.

CONDUCT CONVOY ESCORT
9-66. The tank platoon conducts convoy escort duties (the circled “F” in Figure 9-4) using procedures covered in Chapter 5.

CONDUCT PROOFING/BREACHING OPERATIONS
9-67. The tank platoon (or section) overwatches breaching operations along the MSR or provides overwatch to engineer elements as they clear the route (the circled “G” in Figure 9-4). In doing so, the platoon conducts tactical movement as outlined in Chapter 3 of this manual. 9-68. Based on METT-TC factors, the tank platoon may use tactical movement techniques to provide overwatch for the proofing vehicle, which can be a tank (equipped with a mine roller, if available) or an engineer vehicle. If mines are detected, the platoon continues to overwatch the breaching unit until all mines have been detected and neutralized. If the obstacle is not within the breaching unit’s capability, engineers are called forward. At all times, overwatch vehicles should take notice of anything that is out of the ordinary, such as new construction, repairs to damaged buildings, plants or trees that seem new or out of place, and freshly dug earth. These conditions may indicate the presence of newly emplaced or command-detonated mines. At no time will tanks conduct breaching or proofing operations.

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Figure 9-5. Tank section manning a light traffic checkpoint

Figure 9-6. Tank platoon manning a heavy traffic checkpoint

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Figure 9-7A. Tank platoon roadblock

Figure 9-7B. Equipment list for roadblocks and checkpoints

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CONDUCT CORDON AND SEARCH OPERATIONS
9-69. During cordon and search operations, the tank platoon occupies overwatch and/or hasty defensive positions to isolate a search area (see Figure 9-8). Close coordination and communication with the search team are critical, as is employment of OPs and patrols to maintain surveillance of dead space and gaps in the cordoned area.

Figure 9-8. Cordon and search operations 9-70. The tank platoon (or section) must be prepared to take immediate action if the search team or OPs identify enemy elements. Enemy contact may require the platoon to execute tactical movement and linkup; it would then coordinate with other units to destroy the enemy using techniques discussed in Chapter 3 of this manual. 9-71. Additionally, the tank platoon may support the infantry by conducting vehicle and personnel searches as part of the search operation or traffic control points. Refer to FM 3-20.98 (FM 17-98), Appendix E, for a detailed discussion on vehicle and personnel search procedures.

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Appendix A

Digitization
Army digitization is the result of the desire to employ existing and emerging technology to enhance Army operations from the strategic to the tactical level by providing its Soldiers an automated, near real-time capability for planning, coordinating, monitoring, controlling, and executing operations. At the tactical level, the Army is capitalizing on this technology by digitizing its vehicles, weapons, and equipment. Digitized systems enhance operational effectiveness in many ways. Providing the user the ability to take the initiative on the battlefield and achieve combat superiority over an enemy through increased situational understanding especially enhances it. Situational understanding is the ability to maintain a constant, clear mental picture of relevant information and the tactical situation. This picture includes the knowledge of both the friendly and threat situation and of relevant terrain. (Note. Even with the addition of these digital enablers, the basic combat skills of tankers must be mastered and reinforced in the event digital technology is compromised or fails. Once the basic skills are mastered, the digital enablers can be exploited to their fullest capabilities.) As outlined throughout this manual, the tank platoon’s primary tools on the digitized battlefield is the Force XXI battle command brigade and below (FBCB2) system. This appendix focuses on the impact of these systems on various phases of platoon operations and on the duties and responsibilities of platoon leaders and crewmen employing these systems while conducting tactical operations. This appendix also provides a brief overview of the structure of the tactical Internet (TI) and its major subcomponents.

SECTION I – THE TACTICAL INTERNET AND FBCB2

THE TACTICAL INTERNET
A-1. The TI is designed to provide users with near real-time, shared situational understanding. It consists of tactical radios linked with routers that use commercial protocols to allow digital systems to interoperate in a dynamic battlefield environment. The TI provides reliable, seamless communications connectivity to deliver situational understanding and command, control, and intelligence (C2I) data to digital systems. A-2. The TI is comprised of two echelons: the upper TI and the lower TI. Company level and below operate on the lower TI. The upper TI passes situational understanding and C2I between the command posts at the task force level and higher.

FORCE XXI BATTLE COMMAND BRIGADE AND BELOW
A-3. The FBCB2 is a battle command information system designed for units performing missions at the tactical level. FBCB2 is a system of computers, global-positioning equipment, and communication systems that work together to provide unprecedented amounts of real-time information to combat leaders. FBCB2 integrates with the Army tactical command and control system (ATCCS) to provide complete, seamless battle command capability with increased battlefield awareness. It provides command and control capabilities relevant to each of the BFAs, increasing the effectiveness of their capabilities in

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reported enemy locations. This information shows the user his location. and known enemy and plotted friendly battlefield obstacles. the FBCB2 automatically updates and broadcasts its current location to all other FBCB2 and embedded battle command (EBC) platforms. FBCB2 computer system A-4. but are equipped with software capabilities that allow them to share situational understanding and command and control information with the FBCB2 platforms.) Figure A-2. the location of other friendly forces.Appendix A relation to the mission. Utilizing these interfaces. The warfighter receives data “pushed” from all the battlefield systems to maintain real-time battle information. FBCB2 tactical display A-5. FBCB2 receives data across the TI via the Internet controller (INC). blue force tracker (BFT).) Figure A-1. and SINCGARS data/voice radio transmit and receive digital information between vehicles. Each FBCB2 derives its own location via the precision lightweight GPS receiver (PLGR). such as selected M1A2s and M2A3s.15 22 February 2007 .) A-2 FM 3-20. (Figure A-1 shows the FBCB2 system. (Figure A-3 shows the tank platoon FBCB2 TI architectural diagram. The enhanced position location reporting system (EPLRS) data radio. The INC is a tactical router built into the SINCGARS. FBCB2 displays the relevant information regarding the situational understanding environment. EBC platforms. are not installed with FBCB2 hardware. Both the lower and upper TIs support FBCB2 communications. (Figure A-2 shows the FBCB2 tactical display.

22 February 2007 FM 3-20. these digital systems increase the command and control demands on the individual TC. They require the platoon to make more effective use of the wingman concept.15 A-3 . SECTION II – OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS A-7.Digitization Figure A-3. Even as they improve command and control within the platoon. Digital systems on the battlefield pass messages using the joint variable message format (JVMF). however. WINGMAN CONCEPT A-8. This section focuses on several areas in which FBCB2 affect tank platoon operations. It prescribes uniform message formats for all branches of the armed services. The JVMF is a Department of Defense standardized message format. The FBCB2 system allows tank sections and platoons to maneuver outside their direct line of sight of each other and still maintain situational understanding and mutual support (see Figures A-4A and A4B). Tank platoon FBCB2 TI architecture diagram A-6.

FBCB2 display of the tank sections maneuvering separately A-9. M1A2. the platoon leader must still consider mutual support between sections. or M1A2 SEP platoon must be able to operate as two independent sections. The M1A1D.) A-4 FM 3-20.Appendix A Figure A-4A. Although FBCB2 allows the ability to spread forces over a large area. This capability provides the platoon leader and company/troop commander with the flexibility to maneuver using sections.15 22 February 2007 . Tank sections maneuvering separately on actual terrain outside of their direct line of sight of each other Figure A-4B. (Note.

command and control.) A-13. and designated movement technique. On the M1A2. In turn. the navigation system must be periodically updated to increase accuracy. The DID does not display terrain relief. Each TC uses the CID or commander’s display unit (CDU) to designate these checkpoints as waypoints for the driver in accordance with the platoon leader’s guidance. Unless the tank is in contact. It also enhances the ability of the company team commander or platoon leader to maneuver his unit on the battlefield. the POSNAV system on the M1A2 SEP automatically updates itself with a GPS built into the system. however. Enhances survivability through enhanced awareness of known enemy locations. however. the TC can focus more effectively on the tactical situation and maintain better overall command of the tank. The tank driver can then steer to these waypoints to maintain orientation and dispersion within the company team or platoon. Users must be aware that the size of • 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. can lead the platoon via the waypoint designated by the platoon leader. This inertial navigation system allows the unit to maintain greater depth and dispersion. Limitations Digitized equipment has or causes these tactical limitations: • Units not equipped with the SINCGARS SIP INC radio (SINCGARS with system improvement program and Internet controller) cannot send digital and voice traffic simultaneously. Also. digital enhancements assist the platoon leader and other friendly leaders and commanders in gaining and maintaining the initiative against enemy forces. Digitized equipment has the potential to improve the platoon’s effectiveness in several areas. the platoon leader must keep in mind several areas in which digitized equipment imposes limitations on the platoon and other friendly units.Digitization NAVIGATION A-10. The POSNAV system (a built-in navigational system on digitally-equipped tanks that operates through FBCB2) significantly improves navigation for the company team and platoon. Table A-1. A-11. This loader’s assistance will give the TC more freedom to send and receive digital traffic and monitor the CID or CDU. As a result. These enhanced capabilities allow the platoon leader to more effectively synchronize his elements with other units through the employment of timelier and more accurate information. This information reduces the chance of fratricide and enhances situational understanding. intelligence. The TC must ensure that the loader is knowledgeable of tank platoon formations and active in acquiring targets. including situational understanding. and navigation. Once the TC selects a waypoint to which he wants the driver to steer. He then sends the overlay to the remainder of the platoon. Capabilities and limitations of the digitized tank platoon Capabilities Digitized equipment provides these tactical advantages: • Provides accurate locations of friendly units with respect to known enemy locations. The driver must not become ‘fixed’ on driving the tank via the DID only. One method of controlling platoon movement is for the platoon leader to preselect checkpoints and add them to the FBCB2 overlay. using his DID steer-to capability. (Note. • • Allows platoon leaders to increase dispersion among the platoon. This allows the platoon leader and TCs to use waypoints to orient vehicles during movement. SECTION III – CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS A-14. The remainder of the tanks will orient on the lead tank and maintain their position in the formation. A-12. the loader should be up in the hatch to assist the driver and provide security. • Users must physically manipulate digital controls or visually read digital information causing a loss of focus on enemy acquisition and destruction and situational understanding. movement orders.15 A-5 . but should maneuver the tank visually and periodically check the DID to apply course corrections as needed. the platoon leader’s driver. Table A-1 summarizes the limitations and capabilities of the digitized tank platoon. At the same time. the DID will display direction and distance information to that waypoint.

A-18. OPORDs. To ensure combat effectiveness of their units. standardized reports (SALUTE. CITV. the platoon will lose situational understanding until they conduct net join procedures (EPLRS). This section discusses factors that affect the platoon’s organization and its relationship with other elements.15 22 February 2007 . It allows the platoon to— z Maintain friendly situational understanding (Blue SU). however. • Greatly improves maneuver capability on the battlefield through the use of the POSNAV system. Capabilities and limitations of the digitized tank platoon Capabilities • Enables leaders to receive. Even though each crewman has specific duties and responsibilities. M1A2.) LEADER AND CREW RESPONSIBILITIES A-19. call-for-fire. NBC. This discussion focuses on responsibilities specific to the unique capabilities and employment considerations of digitized tanks. and FRAGOs) in near real time. and SINCGARS. z Enhance situational understanding and decrease dependency on graphic control measures. • If the net server is lost. and distribute information (including WARNOs. M1A2. z Maneuver in dispersed formations. the effectiveness of the digital unit depends on the synergy of its subordinate elements (individual tanks and tank sections) as well as its relationship with higher headquarters and support elements. A-6 FM 3-20. Individually. A comprehensive training program must include cross training. In addition. Every crewman must be proficient in the operation of all tank systems. (Note. and so forth). z Submit preformatted. process.Appendix A Table A-1. z Rapidly disseminate graphic overlays and written FRAGOs. success in battle often depends on his ability to function at any position on the tank. ROLE OF TRAINING A-17. A-15. leaders in both the company team and platoon must place special emphasis on the training of individual tank crews. Constant sustainment training is a must in order to remain proficient on the digital systems particular to their vehicle. As with all tactical organizations. SECTION IV – DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES A-16. including the FBCB2. Digital units must understand that they need to push situational understanding information to nondigitized units and attachments. members of the M1A1D. MEDEVAC. Together. and M1A2 SEP are extremely perishable. and M1A2 SEP company team and platoon hold the same functional responsibilities as their counterparts in other tank units. tank crew members must have a thorough understanding of how to maintain and service the tank and its component parts to keep the vehicle fully mission capable. The skills required to operate and maintain the highly technical systems on the M1A1D. Limitations graphics (if too large) could cause the system to run at a slower speed or crash. Battle command of the tank platoon is significantly enhanced through the use of FBCB2. SITREP. In general. Training programs for digitized units must be coordinated with the training programs of nondigitized units. these components create a broad array of capabilities. the platoon has a number of vulnerabilities. z Track actual and templated enemy positions and obstacles (Red SU). Effective application of the platoon within the combined arms force can capitalize on its strengths and enhance the capabilities of its parent unit.

) A-26. plumb and synchronization berms. the commander receives FBCB2 reports from his platoon leaders. the XO can provide periodic position updates to the FIST on the forward trace of the company team. and 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. After the battle. and makes sure that combat power is massed at the proper point on the battlefield. the XO must coordinate with that unit to ensure it remains informed throughout the attachment. Looking at his display screen. the 1SG consolidates the FBCB2 situation rollup reports (covering ammunition. A-25. During offensive operations. The digital systems offer him a variety of overlays (operations. The 1SG’s sustainment role in the digital company team is to consolidate all of the A/L reports and send them digitally (with FM confirmation) to the battalion S4/combat trains command post (CTCP). When executing a particular COA. XO. which can decrease the possibility of fratricide from indirect fires. and consolidate other required reports from the platoons. He receives tactical FBCB2 reports from the platoons. he monitors the movement of the company team. If the FIST lacks FBCB2 compatibility. the XO conducts tactical coordination with higher. adjacent. Executive Officer A-23. and M1A2 SEP platoons in establishing or coordinating boresight lines. The FBCB2 system also enables the XO to receive. The commander can use FBCB2 to quickly establish platoon sectors of fire in overwatch positions or during consolidation. the company team commander exercises command and control of the company team using his FBCB2 fire plan. In coordination with the 1SG. He can streamline the planning process by preparing and sending FBCB2 overlays. In the defense. he assists in the command and control of the team’s maneuver. Fire Support Team A-28. He uses FBCB2 to quickly disseminate information and begin parallel planning. M1A2. He can forward the company team’s consolidated reports digitally (with FM voice confirmation) to the task force XO. he develops the situation and evaluates COAs. Master Gunner A-29. he plans and supervises the team’s sustainment preparations. The company team commander plans and coordinates tactical operations for the team. It also gives the position of friendly elements.Digitization COMPANY TEAM RESPONSIBILITIES Company Team Commander A-20. A-22. obstacle.15 A-7 . as necessary. He forwards the company team’s consolidated FBCB2 situation rollup report to the company team commander. and vehicle status) from the platoon leaders and directs cross leveling. He uses FBCB2-generated TRPs and trigger lines to shift and mass the team’s fires to destroy the enemy. First Sergeant A-27. these reports will have to be sent by FM voice. The master gunner’s specific responsibilities include assisting the crews of the M1A1D. The intervehicular information system (IVIS) and FBCB2 allow units to send fast. and other areas) that can reduce the clutter of a combined overlay. A-24. accurate call-forfire requests with a ten-digit grid location. the commander uses FBCB2 to gather and consolidate updated CS status reports from his platoons. S3. S4. (Note. If units that are cross attached to the company team lack digital capabilities. and/or commander. verify. personnel. He lases to known or suspected enemy positions to create enemy icons on the FBCB2 display. both visually (limited) and on the display. and battalion S4/CTCP. Before the battle. Acting as the company team NCS. The XO performs most of his sustainment responsibilities before and after the battle. A-21. At the conclusion of tactical operations. fuel. and supporting units as required or directed. In the event that the task force TOC does not possess FBCB2 capability. and then submits consolidated reports via digital means (FBCB2) and FM voice to the task force S3 and/or commander as required. fire support. He then uses the grid coordinates generated by this process to initiate calls for fire and mass indirect fires when the enemy is outside direct-fire range.

The gunner’s duties include many communications tasks that are applicable to digitized operations.Appendix A using live-fire screening ranges and zero ranges. including the following: z Monitoring both digital and radio traffic. If the platoon leader’s vehicle is destroyed or disabled and standard FBCB2 routing is affected. they keep FM voice communications to a minimum to facilitate the timely transmission and receipt of FBCB2 reports. he must be prepared to handle the tactical aspects of digitized operations as well. using the interface between the POSNAV system and LRF to identify targets and initiate calls for fire. The TC also lases to possible indirect-fire targets and forwards FBCB2 call-for-fire requests to the platoon leader as necessary. or as a section NCOIC in the company team’s wheeled vehicles with responsibility for handling communications with the task force. During the planning and preparation phases of an operation. Prior to contact. He uses FBCB2 to transmit reports as requested by the platoon leader or PSG. The PSG consolidates these reports and forwards an FBCB2 situation rollup report to the platoon leader. the PSG must log on as the platoon leader to receive operations overlays from the company team commander or XO. A-31. A-8 FM 3-20. although the PSG’s duties will lean more heavily toward sustainment activities. A-35. z Inputting graphic control measures on digital overlays. the commander or XO can send FBCB2 operations overlays to the PSG at any time. In combat operations. The TC monitors the FBCB2 screen for friendly vehicle position updates. to serve as NCOIC of the command post. All TCs. PLATOON RESPONSIBILITIES Platoon Leader A-30. the master gunner may serve as the gunner on one of the command tanks. M1A2. (Note.15 22 February 2007 . As applicable (either as directed by unit SOP or at the conclusion of the battle). In general. use the FBCB2 to forward SITREPs to the PSG. overlays. as a sustainment operator riding on the APC. He employs the CITV (along with such nondigitized equipment as binoculars and/or the PVS-7) to scan his assigned sector and to assist the driver as necessary during limited visibility. the battalion aid station. z Logging onto nets. digital overlay updates. and to help the company team commander with his troop-leading procedures. each platoon leader receives a situation rollup report from his PSG containing consolidated individual tank CS reports for the platoon. and rally points. He then sends the same report and any other A/L reports to the 1SG. With custom routing. z Monitoring digital displays during the planning and preparation phases of an operation. the master gunner may be called upon to help coordinate and execute the sustainment operations. and the ammunition and fuel status of their platoons to the commander and XO as required by unit SOP. Examples include checkpoints. either digitally or via FM voice. Gunner A-36. The platoon leaders act as forward observers (FO) for the commander and FIST.) Tank Commander A-34. A-33. Platoon leaders in M1A1D. Platoon Sergeant A-32. The platoon leader reviews the situation rollup report and forwards the platoon report to the 1SG and XO. They transmit digital reports. including the platoon leader. and M1A2 SEP units inform the company team commander and XO on the tactical situation by forwarding FBCB2 contact reports and SITREPs. The TC can use waypoints from his digital system to mark his map with key positions that will be critical to mission accomplishment. and digital reports.

In turn. He uses terrain to conceal the tank’s movement at all times. It is the driver’s responsibility to maneuver the tank to the next waypoint. platoon leaders and TCs should give strong consideration to assigning their second-most experienced crewman as the loader. z Sending digital NBC-1 reports. z Sending enemy SPOTREPs when not in contact (FBCB2 creates an enemy icon).) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. In the M1A2 and M1A2 SEP tanks. this allows the TC to participate directly (on the ground) in such activities as orders drills. but with minimal guidance from the TC. (Note.) A-40. and company level is recommended as the primary means of communication for the following purposes: z Transmitting graphics and orders. leader’s reconnaissance. Presently. z Sending FBCB2 reports. SECTION V – DIGITAL VERSUS FM OPERATIONS A-41. The loader’s duties include logging into unit radio nets and being an expert in operating and manipulating the SINCGARS radio and VIC-3 intercom system. and level of unit training. The gunner also assists the TC in performing other digitized functions. the loader performs a variety of functions when the TC is occupied with digital traffic on the FBCB2 screen or CITV. (This creates a contaminated area icon across the network. These duties include the following: z Assisting the driver in keeping the tank in its position in formation. z Monitoring the CID or CDU during the planning and preparation phases of an operation. and rehearsals. Because the loader is ideally positioned to assist the TC in maintaining battlefield awareness. z Sending routine reports. Digital messaging at the individual. z Acting as the air guard or ATGM guard. Some message traffic should be sent digitally followed by an FM alert directing recipients to check their message queues. The decision of when to use digital and/or FM depends on the situation. These digital-related duties include the following: z Entering graphics into FBCB2 overlays. and monitoring the CID or CDU during the planning and preparation phases of an operation. the driver can monitor the DID steer-to indicator and select the best tactical route using preselected waypoints as designated by the TC. such as personnel and CS status or requests. z Requesting MEDEVAC support. The loader may assist the TC in entering graphics on FBCB2 overlays. z Assisting in acquiring targets for the gunner. z Transmitting planned call-for-fire missions (follow up via FM). Once an operation is under way. Loader A-39. digitization does not eliminate the requirement for maps and FM communications. z Dismounting for local reconnaissance and security as required.Digitization A-37. when the situation allows. Commanders should not rely on digital communications alone. DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS USES OF DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS A-42. platoon. Driver A-38. z Building FBCB2 sketch and range cards. sending FBCB2 reports. with the loader’s assistance. z Sending contact reports (vehicles not in contact).15 A-9 . Follow up with an FM report on the company team or battalion task force command net. unit SOP.

z Requesting urgent MEDEVAC support. z Obstacle reports. and time frame (SALTT) report feeds into the all-source analysis system (ASAS) intelligence database for correlation into the joint common database for higher situational understanding and analysis. The following are threaded messages: z SALTT reports. however. These are called “threaded messages. Some other types of orders and reports that can be sent via FBCB2 include the following: z Fragmentary orders. Users may add to the threaded message addressee list but should not delete from it. It should include all five paragraphs of the OPORD. Multiple stations can monitor the net. A digital FRAGO can be used to provide changes to existing OPORDs.15 22 February 2007 . A-45. For example. z Free-text messages. A free-text message can be used to send an unstructured digital message to other FBCB2 or Army battle command systems (ABCS) (like an e-mail message). Note. z Making subsequent adjustment of fires on planned and unplanned targets.Appendix A A-43. for example. for example. z Calling for fire on targets of opportunity. z Coordinating operations when in contact or moving. The routing for these is SOP driven. The CFF message originator may add as many recipients as desired to the addressee list. the call-for-fire (CFF) message must be threaded properly to interface with the advanced field artillery tactical data system (AFATDS). A-46. THREADED MESSAGES A-44. A-10 FM 3-20. FM radio remains the primary means of communication after crossing the LD because it is more responsive. if he alters any of the default recipients. the size. Certain messages require specific routing for them to be effective. A-48. The CP can generate and manage FBCB2 SPOTREPs based on FM SPOTREPs and updates. FM TRANSMISSIONS A-47. z NBC-1 reports. Light discipline in night operations may dictate the use of FM communications. activity. An orphan mission is where a mission task order and target number was not received from AFATDS. the message may not reach AFATDS. FM radio is recommended as the primary means of communication for— z Making initial contact report. Most threaded messages must follow specific paths for information to reach intended personnel or communication systems or to feed into the correct databases. which is stationary and postured to use the FBCB2 display while maintaining light discipline). z Transmitting enemy air reports. brigade cavalry troop Soldiers may go to blackout light FBCB2 operations and send SPOTREPs via FM to a vehicle (usually the troop CP. Each paragraph should state either “No Change” or give the new information to ensure that recipients know they have received the entire FRAGO.” The exception to this is the personnel status report and the task management message. and parties can convey emotion during the transmission—a critical tool in assessing and understanding the battlefield situation. z Fire support messages. These defaults are dictated by Army doctrine and communication architecture. type of resource. and the fire mission will not be processed. “orphan” fire missions will occur. If all addressees are not kept on the thread. location.

however. OPORDs. Commanders. from the earliest notification that an operation will occur through the final phases of execution. all operations are combat missions and must be planned as such. Units may find themselves conducting the same type of operations on a repeat basis. This allows the platoon to conduct parallel planning and perpetrations. The tank platoon leader normally issues instructions to his platoon in the OPORD format. do not always have the time to issue a full OPORD. the platoon leader and PSG work with these vital tools on a daily basis.15 B-1 . SECTION I – ORDERS B-1. instead. orders for the platoon. FRAGOs become the normal method of issuing orders. When the higher headquarters issues a complete five-paragraph OPORD. they may have to issue a FRAGO. This must be avoided. yet thorough. In a tactical situation. commanders and leaders use WARNOs as a shorthand method of alerting their units and individual Soldiers (see Figure B-1 for a sample of a platoon WARNO). WARNING ORDERS B-7. They are absolutely critical to mission success. He must be able to convert these into concise. these items can enhance their subordinates’ understanding of the FRAGOs. and then issues a WARNO of his own to alert the platoon to the upcoming operation. Before the commander issues the OPORD. When time is short. Once an operation begins. analysis of the order is a fairly simple. B-3. During the planning phase of an operation. to do otherwise leads to the Soldiers not having the combat focus. There will tend to be a point where units will want to stop using the combat orders process. Digital systems allow commanders and leaders to supplement oral orders with overlays and a limited text capability. The tank platoon leader must be familiar with the formats of WARNOs. The company or troop commander usually sends a series of WARNOs to his platoon leaders. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. he still issues as complete an order as possible. Each platoon leader immediately analyzes the information. timely reports. such as route clearance. He analyzes all information in these orders and transmits important details to the platoon as soon as possible. These orders help subordinates to prepare for new missions by providing directions and guidelines for platoon-level planning and preparation. but he does so using a FRAGO. At the same time. He should always plan to issue his own five-paragraph order when time permits. B-5. straightforward process for the platoon leader. and FRAGOs. B-6.Appendix B Orders and Reports Orders and reports are the means by which the tank platoon receives and transmits information. B-4. obviously. they must ensure that every member of the platoon understands how to receive and respond to the various types of orders and how to compile and submit accurate. He derives much of the content from the higher order he received during execution of his troop-leading procedures. they must have precise knowledge of orders formats and reporting procedures. OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS B-2. the platoon leader may receive one or more WARNOs.

ALPHA SECTION DEFENDS NORTHWEST FROM CHECKPOINT 24. the platoon leader should send graphics to the TCs. rest. WHITE IS MOVING TO PHASE LINE BULLDOG TO PROVIDE OVERWATCH AND SECURE INNER CORDON. „ Time and location at which the platoon OPORD will be issued. ON ORDER. events. maintenance. If he knows other times. z Commander’s intent (if available). maintenance. the platoon WARNO includes the following information: z Updated enemy situation. movement. on digitally equipped tanks using the free-text message capability of FBCB2. movement.” “WE WILL MOVE IN A STAGGERED COLUMN FORMATION THROUGH WAYPOINTS TWO AND FIVE. As a minimum. The OPORD provides platoon leaders with the B-2 FM 3-20. z Company or troop commander’s intent (if available). z Specific instructions for preliminary actions (including security. PREPARE TO COPY. z A tentative time line. training. ATTACK TO CLEAR COMPOUND. REPORT RECON 1. WARNING ORDER FOLLOWS.15 22 February 2007 . reconnaissance.” “SUSPECTED SQUAD-SIZE ELEMENT OF INSURGENTS IS REPORTED IN SAFE HOUSE VICINITY NK77368900. and coordination requirements). BLUE IS MOVING TO CHECKPOINT 32 TO STAGE AND. (Figure B-1 shows an example of a platoon WARNO. rehearsals. Sample platoon WARNO OPERATION ORDERS B-11. including the following: „ Earliest time of movement. BRAVO SECTION DEFENDS TO THE SOUTH FROM CHECKPOINT 26.Appendix B B-8. B-10. z Company and platoon mission statement. „ Specific instructions for preliminary actions (including security.” “SP IN FIVE MINUTES.” “OUR MISSION IS TO BLOCK ROAD JUNCTIONS ALONG AXIS THUNDER VICINITY CHECKPOINTS 24 AND 26 TO ESTABLISH OUTER CORDON. rehearsals. B-9. When time and information are available. rest. or details related to the operation. Warning orders generally follow the five-paragraph OPORD format (illustrated in Figure B-2).” Figure B-1. reconnaissance. resupply. THIS IS RED ONE. resupply. The order is almost always given orally and in person. the platoon leader may include the information in the WARNO. z Higher headquarters’ mission. the company or troop commander will normally issue a complete OPORD as part of his troop-leading procedures. z Time and place at which the company or troop OPORD will be issued. z Earliest time of movement. ACKNOWLEDGE. OVER. The key consideration is that they should be as brief as possible while giving units and Soldiers the information they need to begin preparing for the operation. either by traditional overlay or by using their digital systems (if available). but it may be issued by radio or. and coordination requirements). A company-level WARNO normally includes these elements: z Enemy situation. training.) “RED. Before he issues his own WARNO.

To make the order even more understandable. This helps to ensure that required information is presented in a logical manner. See FM 5-0 for more information concerning company OPORDs. the site at which the platoon order will be issued should afford adequate security and minimum distractions. As far as possible. Although the five-paragraph format is straightforward.Orders and Reports essential information required to conduct the operation and to carry out the commander’s intent. (e) Type and condition of enemy vehicles. including helicopters. including the following: z The operation map and accompanying overlays. (g) Most dangerous enemy COA. with contents and delivery procedures covered by SOPs and other guidelines. (c) Aviation. to include the following: (a) Chemical and nuclear capabilities. B-14. TASK ORGANIZATION (company or troop and allocation of forces to support the concept of operations). Refer to Figure B-2 for a sample platoon OPORD in the five-paragraph format. FIVE-PARAGRAPH OPORD FORMAT B-12. every commander and leader will develop techniques that allow him to make a clearer. a type of drill. the OPORD is issued orally and in writing in the five-paragraph format. a. butcher paper. The commander should distribute graphics (traditional and digital) before issuing the OPORD. He can take advantage of a number of pre-made and field-expedient materials. ISSUING THE PLATOON OPORD B-13. that simply reading off the five paragraphs word for word is usually ineffective. B-15. or the back of a map. His foremost consideration is effective communication. 1. The platoon leader must ensure that the TCs post accurate graphics on their overlays and/or digital displays. TCs should arrive at the OPORD site early to study maps and post graphics. For example. Issuing the OPORD is. Enemy forces. in effect. (2) Other enemy information critical to the upcoming operation. more concise OPORD presentation. page B-10) for reporting likely and known location of enemy forces and their composition. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. z Sketches on dry-erase boards. The platoon leader should request a copy of his commander’s OPORD format to facilitate note-taking. He must integrate the friendly and enemy situations and the effects of terrain and weather into the platoon maneuver plan. this may require gathering the TCs in one tank or under a tarp supported by gun tubes.15 B-3 . (d) Electronic warfare. z Terrain models or impromptu sand tables. At night. Units with digital capability should post the graphics on their vehicle displays before the platoon leader issues the order. (1) Use SALTT report format (see Figure B-4. the platoon leader must establish optimum physical conditions that will allow effective presentation of the OPORD. He must fully understand all aspects of the operation and know how to describe and discuss them. however. (b) ADA. Whenever possible. the platoon leader should use visual aids to illustrate key points. (f) Most probable enemy COA. SITUATION. MRE boxes. The platoon leader must understand.

to include on-order missions. method. e. (5) Which higher headquarters element has priority of fires. (2) Avenues of approach. MISSION. This is the WHO. EENT: _____. c. Moonrise: _____. Weather and light data. right. Friendly forces (include the following items as applicable). and built-up area. and end state of the operation. including concept of the operation. 2. (c) Effect on lasers/thermals. BMNT: _____. (2) Identification (ID)/mission of adjacent units (left. Percent Illumination: _____.15 22 February 2007 . Sunset: _____. (6) CAS allocated to higher headquarters. in general terms. WHAT. (c) Objective. Attachments and detachments to the platoon and higher. a. engineer. EXECUTION. (1) Obstacles. ADA). State the essential task(s) to be accomplished by the entire unit. Sunrise: _____. (4) Observation and fields of fire. Moonset: _____. The purpose is the WHY of the operation. WHEN. valleys. (3) Effects of weather and light conditions on the operation. Task and purpose? 3. (d) Effects on air operations. front. (4) ID/mission of supporting units with a direct support/reinforcing (DS/R) role to higher headquarters (field artillery. (6) Engagement areas. (2) Weather forecast for the operation. including number of sorties available. road types and conditions. (a) Trafficability. streams. The end state specifies final disposition of forces and explains how the end state will facilitate future operations. rear). (a) Size unit that can be supported. (b) Start and end point. (3) ID/mission of reserves in higher headquarters. The method tells how the platoon leader visualizes achieving success with respect to the company/troop mission as a whole and outlines. Commander’s intent.Appendix B b. (3) Key terrain (discuss how friendly and/or enemy forces may attempt to use it to their advantage). hills. d. (1) Mission and intent of higher headquarters two levels above (company team/troop and battalion/squadron). and WHY. (1) Light conditions: (for all the days of the operation). (7) Overall effect of terrain on the operation. Terrain. (b) Visibility. B-4 FM 3-20. (5) Cover and concealment. use of combat multipliers. bridges. rivers. WHERE. Using the commander’s intent as a guideline. the platoon leader may issue his own intent to define the purpose. Clearly define the platoon’s objective.

It conforms to the commander’s intent. (d) First movement. (c) Allocation of FPF. (d) Obstacle list. (f) Description of enemy fires in the area of operations. (3) Engineer support (obstacles. (g) Special fire allocation/use (smoke.15 B-5 . routes or avenues of advance. (a) SP/RP times. (b) Priority of engineer support. (e) Triggers (trigger line/point or event). The platoon leader uses a concept statement when he feels more detail is necessary to ensure subordinates will take the appropriate actions in the absence of additional communications or further orders.” for each tank.Orders and Reports b. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. and be-prepared missions. The sequence of subparagraphs is as follows: (1) Scheme of maneuver. (b) Confirmation briefs and backbriefs. (2) Fires. (b) Formation and movement technique. Dismount team. (a) Priority of engineer effort (mobility. This is how the platoon will maneuver to kill the enemy or to accomplish its mission. and bridge team. Concept of the operation. (a) Purpose for FA and mortar fires (how fires will be used to support the maneuver). List the specific missions. detainee team. (c) Order of march. In defensive operations. mines. Coordinating instructions. CAS). (c) Obstacle overlay. BPs. other details. Include movement techniques. d. and fortifications). (f) On-order missions. c. CBRN team. and plans for direct fire and overwatch. including the attached elements. (b) Priority of fires within the platoon and company/troop. (d) Route of march. (e) Logistical constraints. (1) Time schedule for critical events. it specifies the platoon engagement plan. Specific instructions. (h) Restrictions. it specifies the platoon’s formation. (c) PCCs and PCIs. particularly his vision of HOW he will conduct the operation and WHO he will assign to execute it. In offensive operations. (e) Arrival of any attachments/detachments. orientation of weapons. and the plan for movement to supplementary or successive positions. obstacle team. (2) Movement instructions. countermobility. flank coordination requirements. (d) Preparation starting time and duration of fires. (f) Boresighting. This paragraph further explains and expands on the platoon leader’s (and/or commander’s) intent. movement technique. in “battle sequence. (i) Target overlay annex. (a) Rehearsals. illumination. survivability).

(c) Ration cycle. (a) Location of water points.15 22 February 2007 . Intelligence requirements (IR). (1) Supply. (b) Resupply points and prestock sites. (c) Priorities established on MSRs. SERVICE SUPPORT. (a) Maintenance procedures. (3) Procedures for treatment and evacuation of WIA personnel. (1) Location of company/troop medics. 4. (4) Maintenance. (4) Aero medical evacuation information. (c) Task force UMCP location. ROE/ROI. (a) Supply routes. Contact points. Actions at danger areas. (10) MOPP level and operational exposure guidance (OEG). c. (b) Location of deliberate decontamination sites. Actions on expected contact. Lanes (to include identification/markings). Trains. (b) LRPs.Appendix B (3) (a) (b) (c) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (PIR). Rally points. (6) Handling of contaminated WIA personnel. Medical evacuation and treatment. B-6 FM 3-20. b. (2) Transportation. (b) Vehicle evacuation. (a) Priorities of supply. Passage of lines. (3) Services. Handling of KIA personnel. to include priority intelligence requirements (9) Air defense warning and weapons control status. (12) Be-prepared tasks or other general information not provided in concept of the operation or specific instructions. Passage points. a. (5) Location of ambulance exchange points (AXP). (e) LOGPAC instructions. (11) Any changes regarding battlesight and battlecarry ranges. Location and movement plan of the company/troop trains (initial and subsequent grids). Material and services. (d) Location of task force trains. (2) Location of battalion/squadron aid station. (13) Actions on the objective.

(2) Succession of command. (c) Current item number identifier. however. (1) SOI/ANCD index and edition in effect. 5. 6. For simplicity and complete clarity. (6) Code words. (4) Instructions for interaction with local civil populace (ROI). Miscellaneous. B-18. (6) Cross-leveling procedures. (2) Detainee guard instructions. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. z Mission.15 B-7 . a. (5) Special signals. (Note. b.) z Scheme of maneuver. z Provide pertinent extracts from more detailed orders. Signal. (3) Location of detainee collection point. Sample platoon OPORD format FRAGMENTARY ORDERS B-16. COMMAND AND SIGNAL. Platoon FRAGOs normally include the following information: z Updated enemy or friendly situation. digitally equipped units can quickly develop hasty graphics and transmit digital overlays. z Provide specific instructions to subordinates who do not require a complete order. (1) Location of commander. (2) KY-57/ANCD fill and changeover data. TIME CHECK (for synchronization). it normally follows the five-paragraph OPORD structure. to include use of pyrotechnics. There is no specific format for a FRAGO. z Provide instructions until a detailed order is developed. (a) Key frequencies. (b) Key call signs. Figure B-2. z Specific instructions as necessary. (4) Challenge and password.Orders and Reports d. e. (3) Listening silence instructions. it includes only the information required for subordinates to accomplish their mission. B-17. TOC. (5) Number of expected replacements. (1) Handling and disposition instructions for detainees. The FRAGO is a brief oral or written order that can serve any of the following purposes: z Implement timely changes to existing orders. (8) Actions to counteract jamming or “hot mike” situations. XO. Command. and/or tactical command post (TAC CP). Personnel. The platoon leader must ensure that platoon tasks and purpose are clearly stated. (7) Digital traffic instructions (digital systems only). To enhance understanding of voice FRAGOs.

MANEUVER TO FLANK THE T80s. TROOPS: TEN DISMOUNTED TROOPS. timely. WE WILL MOVE IN A PLATOON WEDGE THROUGH WAYPOINTS 2 AND 5. Digital systems.Appendix B B-19. Among the factors influencing tank platoon report procedures are the preferences and requirements of the chain of command. Sample platoon FRAGO SECTION II – REPORTS B-20. the tactical environment in which the platoon is operating. ENSURE THAT BLUE AND WHITE SHIFT FIRES WEST AS WE BEGIN OUR ASSAULT. CONTINUING TO OBSERVE—OVER. two guidelines remain constant throughout the reporting process: the importance of compiling timely. Sample FM SALTT report B-8 FM 3-20. THIS IS BLUE ONE—SALTT REPORT—OVER.15 22 February 2007 . and the electronic warfare situation. THIS IS BLACK SIX—SEND IT—OVER. THIS IS RED ONE—FRAGO FOLLOWS. and safeguarding reports will vary from unit to unit and from situation to situation. WHITE IS IN CONTACT AND ENGAGING TWO T80s VICINITY NK77368900. For leaders at all levels. (See Figures B-4 through B-7 for sample reports/sample formats.“ “BLUE ONE. “RED. B-22. along with the PSG and TCs. AND ASSAULT FROM EAST TO WEST. and most secure method possible. THIS IS BLACK SIX —ROGER—CONTINUE OBSERVATION—OUT. BLUE IS MOVING TO CHECKPOINT 26 TO FIX THE T80s. OUR MISSION IS TO ASSAULT AND DESTROY THE T80s AND ALLOW BRAVO COMPANY TO CONTINUE THE ATTACK NORTH. Procedures for preparing. ACTIVITY: MOVING SOUTH. for example. They must be accurate. Refer to ST 3-20.153 for an extensive sample SOP that includes line-by-line descriptions of voice and digital report formats used by the platoon. accurate information and the need to relay that information by the clearest. Reports are the unit’s primary means of providing information for plans and decisions. terrain. and complete. quickest. RED 4.“ Figure B-4.” “BLUE ONE. The tank platoon leader.) “BLACK SIX. and reduce confusion by developing and implementing thorough SOPs covering report procedures. available equipment. TIME: 180640MAY99 ZULU. ensure completeness. Figure B-3 illustrates a platoon FRAGO transmitted by voice over a secure net.” Figure B-3. LOCATION: GRID CG100456. B-21. transmitting. OVER. enable the transmission of accurate preformatted reports. can save time.” “BLACK SIX. THIS IS BLUE ONE—REPORT FOLLOWS: SIZE: ONE BMP.

the MEDEVAC can fly. Call Sign. Continue with remainder of report when you can. LINE 6 (Personnel Status): GREEN.15 B-9 . Line 6 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.” Figure B-5. Once complete with Lines 1 through 5. etc. THIS IS BLUE ONE—SITREP—OVER. LINE 8: CONTINUING MISSION. Suffix Number of Patients by Precedence: Urgent Urgent/Surgical Priority Special Equipment: Aircraft Rescue Hoist Jungle/Forest Penetrator Semirigid Litter Strokes Basic Litter Kendrick Extraction Device Jaws of Life Number of Patients by Type: L = Litter A = Ambulatory If in Wartime: N = No Enemy in Area P = Possible Enemy in Area E = Enemy in Area X = Enemy in Area.Orders and Reports “BLACK SIX. LINE 2 (Enemy Activity in Brief): OBSERVING FOUR ENEMY SOLDIERS. Sample FM SITREP Medical Evacuation/Aero-Medical MEDEVAC MEDEVAC FREQ: Line 1 Grid Line 2 Line 3 Unit frequency. LINE 7: CLASS THREE AMBER—CLASS FIVE GREEN. LINE 3 (Friendly Locations): CP 28. Escort Required If in Peacetime: (Type of injury) Gunshot Broken Bones Illness. THIS IS BLUE ONE—REPORT FOLLOWS: LINE 1 (As of DTG): 181217MAY99 ZULU.” “BLACK SIX. THIS IS BLACK SIX—ROGER—OUT. LINE 4 (FMC Vehicles): FOUR.“ “BLUE ONE. LINE 5 (Defense Obstacles): NONE. THIS IS BLACK SIX—SEND IT—OVER. OVER.” “BLUE ONE. Line 4 Line 5 Note.

” Figure B-7. MEDEVAC request format Line 8 Line 9 “BLACK SIX. THIS IS BLUE ONE—CONTACT—TROOPS. EAST—OUT. Sample FM contact report B-10 FM 3-20.Appendix B Medical Evacuation/Aero-Medical MEDEVAC Line 7 Method of Marking Site: A = VS-17 B = Pyro C = Smoke D = None E = Other Patient Nationality and Status (Military/Nonmilitary) CBRN Contamination: Y = Yes N = No Description of Terrain at Pick-Up Site Figure B-6.15 22 February 2007 .

15 C-1 . z Conducting reconnaissance to support the tank unit’s maneuver. retaining key terrain. Regardless of terrain. forests. Covered here will be the employment of the tank platoon as part of an infantry organization. Armor provides close-in direct fire support against hard and soft targets that could slow the infantry’s advance. z Destroying. including the platoon. Open terrain such as desert. mechanized infantry supports the forward movement of the armor units by providing local security. This appendix examines. In close terrain. 4. especially tanks. and the ability to protect the infantry by quickly developing the situation on contact. Infantry supports tanks by— z Clearing or breaching obstacles and marking lanes. and flat countryside is conducive to the employment of massed armor formations. z Leading the assault to provide protection for following infantry when enemy antitank capability is limited. it is more advantageous for tanks to take a supporting role in the forward movement of the infantry. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. z Providing close security at night or in restricted terrain. plains. and movement discussed in Chapters 3. to allow tanks to exploit their speed and mobility. Tanks support the infantry by— z Leading movement. in detail. forests. or narrow defiles. z Using firepower. suppressing. On the other hand. almost never fight alone. clearing dug-in enemy positions. Leaders of both tank (heavy) and infantry (light) forces must understand the TTP employed by their operational counterparts. how both elements are employed to support each other. restricted terrain (such as built-up areas. The principles of offense.1 (FM 71-1). stream crossings. or neutralizing antitank weapons or by destroying bunkers. z Securing or clearing choke points such as towns. and 5 are applicable. In such terrain. defense. and jungles) increases the vulnerability of armor units. To cover the employment of an infantry platoon in use in an armor unit would be out of the scope of this manual and is covered as part of the company team manual FM 3-90. z Following the tank assault closely to protect the rear and flanks of the tanks from handheld HEAT weapons. z Destroying enemy armored vehicles. mobility. infantry and armor units fight as part of a combined arms team to maximize their respective capabilities and minimize their limitations. and enhancing direct fires with organic small arms and antitank fires. or to reduce bypassed enemy forces. to clear the objective. especially in minefields.Appendix C Infantry/Armor Operations Tank units.

z As part of the task force reserve. Note. a heavy/light operation is one in which the controlling headquarters is a heavy unit. with light infantry in support.15 22 February 2007 . he may be able to coordinate some assistance through the company/troop commander or XO. In some situations. often with a reactive role in an antiarmor defense (AAD) mission. It is important that the tank platoon leader understand the infantry unit he supports. The platoon may perform one of several functions. Characteristics of these battalions vary by the composition and mission of the forces involved. the mix of units is referred to as light/heavy. Infantry leaders must understand the tactical doctrine for employing a heavy company team (as prescribed in FM 3-90. (Note. He must rely on the infantry staff for immediate support. When the tank platoon is task organized to support a light infantry battalion task force. the armor platoon also may be used as a separate special platoon.Appendix C SECTION I – TASK ORGANIZATION C-1. C-4. Of the three types of infantry units described in this section. C-7. this is the most common type of light/heavy task organization. This is the most austere conventional combat battalion.71). the organization of the light infantry battalion differs most from that of the armor battalion. light battalion/heavy platoon refers to a light infantry battalion supported by a tank platoon. When an armor unit is task organized to support infantry. and must C-2 FM 3-20. a tank platoon (refer to this FM). the greatest being the organization of support and logistics. There are also differences among this battalion and the air assault and airborne battalions. The platoon leader must be able to brief the battalion leadership on how to best use the tank platoon. or airborne battalion. z In a DS role when infantry is the primary maneuver element. as outlined in the following discussion. C-6. C-3. air assault. INFANTRY ORGANIZATIONS LIGHT INFANTRY BATTALION C-5. this generally will be a light infantry. including the following: z As the primary maneuver element (main effort). The platoon is the lowest level at which the armor leader must be trained to interact with a controlling headquarters. Conversely. For example. It has limited antiarmor capability: four HMMWV-mounted TOW systems in one platoon at battalion level and six Dragon (Javelin) launchers at company level. The light infantry battalion has no trucks larger than its 27 cargo HMMWVs. The battalion has only 18 long-range radios. this support may not be available. ROLE OF THE TANK PLATOON C-2. If the platoon’s parent company or troop is in the vicinity. leaders must know the specific capabilities and limitations of the vehicle and its weapon systems.1). and a mechanized infantry platoon (refer to FM 7-7 and FM 3-21. the controlling commander will determine the role of the platoon based on METT-TC factors. or it may be attached to one of the infantry companies in a DS role. To effectively employ any armored vehicle.) Light company/heavy section refers to a light infantry company supported by a tank or MGS platoon. He is the subject matter expert. The light infantry battalion has only three rifle companies and a headquarters and headquarters company (HHC). The platoon leader must act as the armor force advisor to the battalion commander. either armor or mechanized infantry. however. Note.

the airborne battalion performs tactically much like a light infantry battalion. The tank platoon leader must ensure that the controlling infantry headquarters understands that considerations for positioning and control of the tank’s crew-served direct-fire weapon systems are the same as those for the infantry’s crew-served and AT weapons. The tank platoon leader’s first responsibility is to have a thorough tactical and technical knowledge of his tank’s systems and its logistical needs. walking is the principal means of transportation.15 C-3 . For example. and a headquarters company. The most common limitations they must overcome are the tank’s relative lack of mobility and the need for close-in security in restricted terrain situations and urban operations and stability and support environments. C-10. he must be able to anticipate the effects of his weapon systems on both friendly and enemy forces. the armor platoon leader must appreciate the tactical assets and liabilities of the infantry. Besides understanding the capabilities and limitations of his tanks. M1series tanks provide rapid mobility as well as excellent protection and lethal. allowing it to execute nontactical movement by truck. The air assault battalion has 6 5-ton cargo trucks and 45 HMMWVs. The airborne battalion has 30 long-range radios. INFANTRY CONSIDERATIONS C-13. he must understand precisely the vehicle’s capabilities as well as its limitations (see Chapter 1 of this manual). He must realize that infantry elements move much more slowly than tanks over certain types of terrain. accurate direct fires. In addition. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. C-14. AIR ASSAULT BATTALION AND AIRBORNE BATTALION C-8. At the same time. Once inserted. In the line companies. Its rifle squads also have antiarmor capability. These tanks are most effective in open terrain with extended fields of fire. The air assault battalion and airborne battalion are similarly organized. The battalion does have 10 2-1/2-ton trucks and 36 cargo HMMWVs. SECTION II – LIAISON ACTIVITIES C-11. he will learn that infantry can use terrain very effectively to gain a positional advantage over the enemy and that terrain has a direct impact on survivability for the infantryman. Tactical movement for both is usually accomplished by a combination of air insertion and foot marches. Light/heavy operations demand effective coordination between the tank platoon and the infantry unit it is supporting. Based on these factors. C-9. an antiarmor company (with five AT platoons of four vehicles each). There is a mess section and a 17-person maintenance platoon. he must remember that sabot ammunition cannot be fired over the heads or flanks of unprotected infantry because of the danger created by the concussion of the main gun and the discarding sabot petals of tank rounds. A major difference is in the number and types of wheeled vehicles available in each type of battalion. with three rifle companies. enhanced target acquisition (including night sights). he then works with the infantry commander and S3 to formulate plans to support the infantry. It has a mess section and a 16-member maintenance platoon. The following discussion covers several important areas on which light/heavy liaison activities should focus. They maximize use of the tank’s capabilities for lethal firepower.Infantry/Armor Operations ensure the battalion understands the capabilities and limitations of the tank platoon. Communications are served by 29 long-range radios. TANK PLATOON CONSIDERATIONS C-12. and effective armor protection. As an example. a Javelin.or Dragon-equipped section within the company headquarters provides AT capability.

They may consolidate the platoon to provide a larger antiarmor force. Individual tanks and dismounted infantry communicate with each other using one of these techniques: z FBCB2 (digital). and tanks by fire and maneuver. z Heavy forces lead infantrymen in open terrain and provide them with a protected. and known and templated threat locations. C-19. light/heavy forces must take advantage of every training opportunity that arises. which enhance their ability to send and receive OPORDs and FRAGOs. light/heavy liaison activities must emphasize the importance of combined arms training. Infantry squad radios or other short-range hand-held radios can be distributed during the linkup to provide a reliable means of communications between infantry and supporting TCs. To enhance coordination and execution. (Note. bunkers. A section should normally be OPCON to a company for only a limited time to accomplish a specific direct-fire support mission. This is a fast. in some instances. They can also transport infantrymen when the enemy situation permits. They detect and destroy or suppress enemy antitank weapons. For example. such as an ammunition can. The following considerations apply when the tank platoon operates in support of dismounted infantry.) The platoon leader needs to understand this is only a stop gap method and should only be used when all other methods fail. friendly graphics. locations of adjacent units. and visual means. SECTION III – OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS C-17. which is then welded. These radios allow the infantry to use terrain more effectively in providing C-4 FM 3-20. When attached at lower levels. the platoon leader or PSG gains and maintains contact with the company commander and talks to other platoon leaders on the company net. Leaders are responsible for ensuring proper connectivity of digital assets. Finally. Note. the logistical demands of the armor section would overwhelm the separate infantry company’s sustainment capabilities. the platoon or a section may be placed OPCON to support a company. reliable method of communications that does not require any additional assets. leaders must know how to communicate by digital. Armor and infantry elements must train together. The TI provides situational understanding at company/troop level and above. The tank platoon leader and PSG maintain communications with the controlling infantry battalion headquarters. or they will not be able to execute combined arms operations smoothly in combat. phone. Ideally. An important aspect of training is teaching leaders of light and heavy elements how to work together and how their forces can support each other. however. radio. or otherwise affixed to the tank. The field phone must be rigged inside a protective container.Appendix C ROLE OF TRAINING C-15. Other areas of the training include the following: z Infantrymen help heavy forces by finding and breaching or marking antitank obstacles. z Wire. Tanks can suppress and destroy enemy weapons. fast-moving assault weapon system. The infantry may also designate targets for armored vehicles and protect them in close terrain.15 22 February 2007 . As previously discussed. this training is conducted prior to deployment. Tank crewmen can route WD-1 wire from the VIC-1 through the loader’s hatch or vision block and attach it to a field phone on the back of the tank. z Hand-held radios. bolted. the tank platoon leader becomes the principal advisor to the infantry battalion commander regarding the employment of his tanks. C-16. z FM radio. In longer-duration operations. The infantry platoon leader uses his SOI information and contacts supporting tanks on the tank platoon frequency. COMMAND AND CONTROL C-18.

INTELLIGENCE C-20. including the following: z Execute reserve/reaction force missions. suppress enemy AT weapons with direct and indirect fires. the tank platoon may execute missions “pure. z Friendly disposition. examining the effects of weather. Visual signals. supported by armor. it can overwatch forward movement of the infantry from stationary positions. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. and limited visibility on the speed and mobility of armored vehicles. Terrain analysis is another area of supreme importance in which the platoon leader must work closely with the S2. z It can follow and support the infantry. The tank platoon leader must obtain information from the battalion S2 on enemy capabilities. The use of nonsecure radios is not recommended. TCs and section leaders conduct a ground reconnaissance of the area of operations. The tanks move forward and link up with the infantry (see Figure C-2). At the linkup point. and mortar fires to disable his vehicles. C-21. this method will cause confusion and lead to either infantry or tank leader exposing them selves to enemy fire in an attempt to understand what the other element requires. The terrain analysis and subsequent reconnaissance also confirm whether the platoon needs to employ ground guides who are knowledgeable of the terrain and the limitations it will impose on tracked vehicle movement. MOVEMENT CONSIDERATIONS C-25. They determine trafficability of the terrain. When the light/heavy operation begins. z Support the advance of infantry with close-in direct fires. as prescribed by SOP or coordinated during linkup. the platoon can perform one of several roles. the tank platoon or section leader (depending on the size of the supporting armor element) dismounts and coordinates the following information with the infantry leader: z Enemy disposition. The reconnaissance confirms the trafficability of routes and aids in the effective positioning of weapon systems. but also on the capacity of the enemy’s mines. z During company-level tactical movement. He should focus not only on direct fire capabilities. When infantry leads.Infantry/Armor Operations z close-in protection for the tank. The following discussion of moving with infantry covers a situation in which terrain and other factors of METT-TC clearly favor the use of infantry in the lead. When operating with infantry. Visual signals. can facilitate simple communications. artillery. In such a situation. Platoon leaders must understand and account for the fact that infantry do not view the terrain in the same manner as a mounted element. the platoon can be employed in one of three ways: z It can remain stationary at the battalion or company command post until called forward. and request tank support to destroy the enemy. MANEUVER C-22. Following this detailed analysis.” either on its own or as part of a tank company or cavalry troop. They deploy into position. obstacles. z Attack separate objectives. C-24. especially those of antiarmor assets. TANK PLATOON EMPLOYMENT C-23.15 C-5 . infantrymen can watch for enemy elements while limiting exposure to enemy fires directed against the tank. Platoon leader needs to remember that tanks and infantry use different visual signals. staying close enough to provide direct-fire support when requested. Infantrymen conduct tactical movement until they identify an enemy force that halts their progress (see Figure C-1). either the tanks or the infantry can lead. so without prior coordination and training.

and communications and signal information. Figure C-1. Any additional tactical information not already covered in the OPORD or maneuver plan. including the use of guides.Appendix C z z The tentative maneuver plan. control of direct and indirect fires. Infantry leads while tank platoon remains stationary C-6 FM 3-20. close-in protection for the tank.15 22 February 2007 .

Infantry/Armor Operations Figure C-2. the trail vehicle must overwatch the movement of the lead vehicle to the firing position. The armor leader (either the platoon or section leader) conducts a ground reconnaissance of the route to the final firing position and finalizes the plan with the infantry leader. one section overwatches the movement of the lead section to the firing position.15 C-7 . Depending on task organization and terrain factors. using guides provided by the infantry (see Figure C-3). Tanks move forward to link up with infantry C-26. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. He then returns to the platoon or section and briefs the plan to his platoon or section. the tank platoon or section moves forward to the firing position. C-27. If a single section is used. If the entire platoon is involved.

or grenades fired from the M203 grenade launcher. ENGAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS C-29. however.Appendix C Figure C-3. tanks then suppress or destroy targets using main gun or machine gun fire. At the same time. it degrades the tank’s target acquisition capability and makes it easier for dismounted enemy forces to attack the tank with small arms or machine gun fires. Infantry guides tanks to the firing position C-28. the infantry signals the tanks to cease fire (see Figure C-4). This provides better protection for the crew and helps to prevent damage to the gunner’s sights. the infantry designates each target using tracers.15 22 February 2007 . Depending on the amount of suppressive fires received. If tank crews cannot immediately identify targets when they reach the firing position. C-8 FM 3-20. with the ballistic doors closed (M1A2 crews may stow the CITV). TCs open the ballistic doors as necessary to acquire and lase to their targets. the firing tank may move to the position buttoned up. When targets are destroyed. mortars. smoke.

the crew is focused on the enemy or on potential enemy locations rather than any nearby infantrymen. Tanks destroy enemy targets SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS C-30. Infantry Soldiers operating near tanks are exposed to the effects of any fires the enemy directs against the vehicles. even when they are required to provide security or close support. Leader awareness and involvement is particularly important if the infantry unit has had little training with armored vehicles. Tank and infantry leaders at all levels must be aware of the safety considerations involved in light/heavy operations. discarding sabot rounds that pose hazards to infantry. Tank crewmen are often unable to see infantry Soldiers operating close to their vehicle. Dismounted Soldiers should be at 70 meters to the left or right of the line of fire and/or at least 1.000 meters to the front of a firing tank. Proximity also severely degrades the infantry’s to avoid detection by the enemy. C-33. All personnel in both the light and heavy units must be aware of these considerations to prevent unnecessary casualties. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Any infantry within this danger area must have overhead cover and protection (a berm or tree) from the rear. in these conditions. It is the infantry’s responsibility to stay alert and to maintain a safe position in relation to the vehicle. armor-piercing. This limitation is worse during limited visibility and when the hatches are closed. Tanks fire high-velocity.Infantry/Armor Operations Figure C-4. It therefore becomes the responsibility of infantry leaders to maintain sufficient distance to avoid the effects of fires directed against the tanks. C-31. C-32.15 C-9 . This is true whether the infantry and vehicles are moving or stationary.

passengers mount and dismount over the left front slope of the vehicle. C-35. if they are directly behind the vehicle. but they must be aware of the serious safety concerns involved. with the infantry platoon leader on the armor platoon leader’s vehicle and the infantry PSG on the armor PSG’s vehicle. PSGs. and team leaders should position themselves near the TC’s hatch. This is the least preferred method of transporting infantry and should only be used when both the mounted and dismounted element have had time to train and have a firm understanding of how each element will work. If the platoon is moving as part of a larger force and is tasked to provide security for the move. using the external phone (if available) to talk to the TC and relay signals to the unit. The use of exhaust shield will overcome this problem. z Whenever possible. the tank platoon may be required to transport infantrymen on its tanks (as illustrated in Figure C-5). TRANSPORTING INFANTRY C-36. Infantry and armor leaders must observe the following procedures. the lead section or element should not carry infantry. z Tank crewmen must remember that the vehicle cannot return fire effectively with infantry on board. and considerations when infantrymen ride on tanks: z Infantry teams should thoroughly practice mounting and dismounting procedures and actions on contact. This will automatically keep them clear of all weapon systems. The shield is a critical element in tanks recovering other tanks. precautions. z Infantry platoons should be broken down into squad-size groups. Riders restrict turret movement and are more likely to be injured or killed on initial contact. z Platoon leaders. Passengers must ensure that they remain behind the vehicle’s smoke grenade launchers.Appendix C C-34. the lead vehicle should not carry infantrymen. Dismounted Soldiers following behind the tank must position themselves either to the side of the exhaust grill or. similar to air assault chalks. so they should be readily available in the tank platoons. Infantrymen may ride on tanks if conditions allow. This is done only when contact is not expected. At times. z If possible. C-10 FM 3-20. Figure C-5. This ensures that the driver can see the infantrymen and that the infantrymen do not pass in front of the coax machine gun. Sample positions for infantry riding on a tank C-37. They must follow the commands of the TC. The exhaust from an M1-series tank may reach more than 1. at a safe distance away.15 22 February 2007 .700˚F. z Passengers must always alert the TC before mounting or dismounting. Consideration should be given to fabricating enough for all tanks as a leader will not know when he will be working with the infantry.

Tanks must move very slowly when they lead infantrymen (approximately 2-1/2 miles per hour). restricted terrain severely limits the mobility of the tank platoon. injury. Tank crews maintain constant communications with the infantry so they do not outrun the ground force. FIRE SUPPORT C-41. In these situations. All armor and infantry leaders must plan actions to counter the effects of these fires. the infantry maintains a standoff distance to prevent injury from the “splash” and ricochet of enemy AT weapons and small-arms fire aimed at the tanks. Do not move in front of vehicles unless ordered to do so. Additionally. The enemy will use indirect fires to strip away supporting infantry and to force tank crews to button up. a fall could be fatal. C-39. Do not move behind or forward of the vehicle. the infantry must provide close-in protection and early warning against dismounted and mounted threats. Infantrymen should scan in all directions. C-40. tanks have a much greater chance of becoming stuck in close terrain or of being the target of enemy fires. Rucksacks and B-bags should be transported by other means. Do not smoke when mounted on a vehicle. or damage to the equipment or vehicle. Infantrymen should not ride with anything more than their battle gear. Indirect fires are used to suppress enemy AT weapons and dismounted infantry in the area of operations. It further increases the platoon’s vulnerability by limiting visibility for tank crews. they must watch for lowhanging objects like tree branches. Passengers should be prepared to take the following actions on contact: „ Wait for the vehicle to stop. The infantry’s antitank assets should stay close enough to overwatch the tanks during tactical movement. „ At the TC’s command.15 C-11 . INDIRECT FIRES C-42. Do not fall asleep when riding. they could get caught in the tracks. The use and control of indirect and direct fires are critical to the effective employment of armor with infantry. equipment. Certain situations may require that tanks lead the infantry. They may be able to spot a target the vehicle crew does not see. this is. CONSIDERATIONS WHEN TANKS LEAD C-38. Do not move forward of the turret. When tanks lead. This hinders their ability to use speed as a survivability tool. Do not stand near a moving or turning vehicle at any time. Tanks have a deceptively short turning radius. dismount immediately (one fire team on each side). Do not carry too many riders on the vehicle. the light/heavy force can expect tanks to attract the attention of mortar and artillery gunners. causing death. Without the aid of infantrymen serving as guides and providing security. The tank platoon uses its optics to detect targets and its communications systems to initiate 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.Infantry/Armor Operations z z z z z z z z z z z z Passengers must always have three points of contact with the vehicle. All passengers should wear hearing protection. Do not dismount a vehicle unless ordered or given permission to do so. further reducing their ability to acquire targets. Do not dangle arms or legs. or anything else off the side of a vehicle. „ Move at least 5 meters to the sides of the vehicle. The warm engine may induce drowsiness. the least preferred method of light/heavy employment. In addition. however.

As previously discussed. HEAT. adding the element of surprise to the operation. He must understand they do not have the same capabilities and limitations as a self propelled artillery unit. helps to conceal the movement of tanks moving forward. This discussion lists techniques the tank platoon can use to operate more safely and effectively under these conditions. The thermal sight provides a significant capability for observation and reconnaissance.Appendix C calls for fire in support of infantry. as well as the HE-OR-T and canister rounds. Target Acquisition C-44. MOBILITY AND SURVIVABILITY C-49. The platoon leader needs to have an understanding of the light force’s indirect capabilities and limitations. C-47. but may not have the destructive capability necessary to destroy prepared fighting positions or penetrate walls in built-up areas. Tank Capabilities C-48. The 7. and MPAT ammunition. The target acquisition capabilities of the tank exceed the capabilities of all systems in the infantry battalion. These machine guns provide a high volume of supporting fires for the infantry. these characteristics are covered later in this discussion. On the M1A1. Both vehicles consume fuel at a high rate. All current tanks fire sabot. The canister is an AP round that is extremely effective for area suppression. the S2 must provide mobility information to the platoon leader. survivable platform. MPAT. They can fire sabot.500 meters. The weapon systems on each tank offer unique capabilities and limitations that must be considered in relation to infantry support. and HEAT rounds. The main gun is extremely accurate and lethal at ranges up to 2. One of the primary assets that tanks offer in working with infantry is their ability to provide accurate. The TC’s caliber. Both vehicles are limited in ammunition storage capacity (40 rounds in the M1A1. 42 in the M1A2).50 without exposing himself. The main gun remains the best antitank weapon on the battlefield. C-12 FM 3-20. and their mobility is limited in terrain that does not support heavy tracked vehicles. Main Gun C-46.15 22 February 2007 . lethal direct fires from a mobile. even through light vegetation. Although the mobility and survivability of the tank are well known. the noise of mortar and artillery fires.50 machine gun is effective against both personnel and materiel. Tanks with stabilized main guns can fire effectively even when moving at high speeds across country. These have great penetrating power against armored vehicles. unless equipped with common remotely operated weapons station (CROWS). Machine Guns C-45. High explosive. Infantry units can take advantage of the tank’s laser range finder to enhance their capabilities in establishing fire control measures (such as trigger lines and TRPs) and in determining exact locations on the battlefield. C-50. The Army’s tanks have the following firepower capabilities and limitations: z M1A1 and M1A2. the TC can fire the M2 caliber . The following factors can help to enhance the tank platoon’s mobility in restricted terrain: z Information from the S2. obstacle-reducing with tracer (HE-OR-T) rounds (the M908) have enough destructive power to destroy most prepared positions and to create large holes in walls.62-mm coax machine gun is an effective AP weapon. DIRECT FIRES C-43. The M1A2 TC must expose himself to fire the M2. It can also be used during the day to identify heat sources (personnel and vehicles). In addition. these capabilities suffer significantly when tanks are employed by themselves in close terrain. combined with the use of smoke.

Refer to the discussion in Chapter 6 of this manual. C-51. the use of ground guides is critical in leading tanks to their firing positions. they will face intense small arms. When a class of supply falls below 70 percent. Knowledge of vehicle capabilities. Engineer support. The old maxim still holds true: “What can be seen can be hit. mortar. artillery. discussed in Chapter 3 of this manual. z Moving into the attack-by-fire position buttoned up. The platoon leader should use ground reconnaissance by a knowledgeable member of the platoon (preferably a section leader or TC) to confirm or deny the S2’s estimate. the tank platoon must prepare to operate under austere conditions. especially during periods of limited visibility. the tank platoon leader and PSG will do much of their logistical coordination directly through the battalion staff. In addition to the factors listed previously. The ground guide can be either an infantryman or the section leader who conducted the reconnaissance. or AT fires. This enables overwatch vehicles to fire their coax machine guns to protect the moving vehicles if they are attacked by dismounted forces. Suppression of enemy AT assets and dismounted infantry forces by artillery and close infantry support is critical. The tank platoon leader must be familiar with the air defense considerations applicable to light/heavy operations.” Every potential enemy has the ability to employ weapons that can disable or destroy any tank. sniper. Crew members must be ready to use their M4 carbine. C-54. Engineers can enhance tank mobility by spanning unfordable rivers or gaps. When tanks move into an attack-by-fire position to engage a prepared enemy position.Infantry/Armor Operations z z z z Ground reconnaissance. When attached to infantry. They offer varying degrees of protection against small arms fire. as well as grenades. The tank platoon can enhance the survivability of the various systems using these techniques: z Terrain driving. The addition of a mine plow or mine roller enhances the tank’s breaching capability. In an infantry task force. wire obstacles. and cutting down larger trees to construct hasty tank trails. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. 70 percent (RED). but also hinders movement in rough terrain. small trees (up to 12 inches in diameter). but also the area around moving vehicles. z Having individual weapons ready. They coordinate reporting procedures within the platoon and notify the staff when classes of supply fall below the levels of 80 percent (identified by the code word AMBER). are still extremely important for the tank platoon. Terrain driving techniques. In restricted terrain. and AT weapons. AIR DEFENSE C-52. and/or 9-mm personal weapons. the survivability of the crew depends on its ability to take full advantage of the armor protection of the vehicle. including ADA capabilities and employment considerations. The key to effective combat support in this situation is to maintain a constant flow of reports updating the platoon’s supply status and requirements. The tank has an awesome ability to bull or force through walls. and other hasty barricades such as cars or trucks blocking a road or trail. what can be hit can be killed. M16A2. The survivability of the Army’s tanks differs by system. the platoon leader or PSG requests resupply. Wingman tanks or sections scannot only their sector of fire.15 C-13 . z Overwatch. to repulse close-in dismounted attacks. time-fused artillery. SUSTAINMENT C-53. Ground guides. reducing obstacles. and 60 percent (BLACK). z Suppression.

it will be critical that fuel requests are forecasted in advance so that the battalion will have the required amounts on hand or request support from their parent brigade. A basic load of ammunition should be on hand to provide for emergency resupply during periods of heavy contact.15 22 February 2007 . Infantry battalions will not be able to support the requirements of main gun ammunition. The tank platoon’s ammunition requirements present a unique challenge for the infantry battalion. recovery. Engines should be shut down whenever possible. Fuel. Platoon sergeants must constantly think about CS constraints. If fuel support is coming through the infantry battalion only. The type of rounds requested should be based on the S2’s analysis to fit the needs for direct fire support of the light/heavy mission. Infantry personnel can be employed to provide local security during recovery operations or to protect the vehicle as the attack progresses. When a tank is disabled. Fuel conservation must be a priority at all times. Recovery and maintenance assets may be part of the infantry battalion’s attached slice within the brigade forward support battalion. z Ammunition. the crew makes the necessary coordination to secure the vehicle until recovery and maintenance personnel reach it. If this is not possible. C-14 FM 3-20. or they may be on call from the tank platoon’s parent company or troop headquarters.Appendix C C-55. but can support the platoon for small arms and grenade requirements. and maintenance are the primary concerns of the attached platoon. and not limit themselves to only one area (the parent company) for support. REDCON status should be used to help regulate engine start-up requirements and to assist in operational preparations. The tank platoon can normally support infantry operations for 24 hours before refueling. These considerations apply: z Fuel. the platoon should first attempt selfrecovery. ammunition. z Recovery and maintenance. Infantry units normally do not understand the amount of fuel that tanks will consume. Other logistical needs are usually handled through the normal sustainment functions of the battalion.

SECTION I – OPERATIONS SECURITY D-1. can be hit. As a last resort. „ Do not allow smoking outdoors at night. OPSEC measures consist of countersurveillance. „ Use terrain to mask resupply and maintenance areas. They then must provide their Soldiers with the training and leadership they will need to meet the challenges of the battlefield. Maneuver units use countersurveillance measures to protect against surprise. D-2. at any given moment. the enemy will. what can be seen. Tank platoon leaders must understand the demands of continuous operations under all possible conditions. „ Use short-count procedures to start engines simultaneously. As was true in the past is even more so now. but would be a large victory from a propaganda standpoint. Selecting and executing measures that eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the vulnerabilities of friendly actions to enemy exploitation. „ Use hand-and-arm signals and digital communications whenever possible. „ Collect and turn in all garbage during LOGPAC. In future operations. observation. be attempting to acquire intelligence information and gain a tactical advantage. and infiltration. tank platoons may find themselves to be high-value targets for the enemy. The following considerations and procedures will assist the tank platoon in executing countersurveillance operations: z Enforce noise and light discipline. „ „ 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Follow these procedures: Turn off the circuit breaker for the brake lights. Determining which indicators enemy intelligence systems might obtain that could be interpreted or pieced together to derive critical intelligence in time to be useful to the enemy. garbage will be burned and buried. OPSEC is a process of identifying critical information and analyzing friendly actions attendant to military operations and other activities. COUNTERSURVEILLANCE D-3. signal security.15 D-1 . One destroyed M1-series tank would not be a large military victory. and what can be hit will be destroyed.Appendix D Operational Security Throughout the area of operations. „ Use headsets or the combat vehicle crewman (CVC) helmet to monitor the radio. do not use the radio’s external speakers. The enemy will continue to further his use of precision weapons in place of massed artillery fire. information security (INFOSEC). „ Do not slam hatches. Use a passive night observation device (NOD) to check vehicles for light leaks before operations begin. and physical security. Dim or cover all sources of light in the turret. „ Move only when necessary. including: z z z Identifying those actions that can be observed by enemy intelligence systems.

„ Consider the effects of dust and exhaust smoke when moving. „ Minimize track. Follow these procedures: „ Disperse vehicles and personnel under foliage or inside structures whenever possible. „ Drive vehicles in previously made tracks when possible. Physical security is the protection of materiel and equipment. that may be of intelligence value to the enemy. the platoon goes to REDCON-2 from 30 minutes before BMNT until 30 minutes after BMNT and again for a similar period at EENT. (Note. z Garbage will be turned in with LOGPAC or burned to prevent the enemy from gathering any type of information. z Before leaving an area. This includes unit identification. z As operations are conducted near and around foreign nationals. The following procedures will assist the platoon in maintaining INFOSEC: z Ensure that Soldiers do not put critical information in the mail. and concertina wire. As a minimum. Refer to the discussion of INFOSEC in Appendix A. such as shadows. z Maintain the prescribed REDCON status. as discussed in Appendix A of this manual.15 22 February 2007 . „ Cover all headlights and optics whenever possible. and foot trails that could be detected from the air or from enemy positions. employ anti-intrusion devices. PHYSICAL SECURITY AND LOCAL SECURITY D-6. tire. „ Conceal vehicles and personnel behind objects that block the thermal “line of sight” of enemy devices. and information on combat losses or morale. Soldiers tend to assume that local people do not speak English and could inadvertently give up details of operations to enemy agents who appear as local population. „ Park vehicles in natural concealment. Use challenges and passwords.) Local security is the active measures used by the platoon to protect itself from enemy attack. ensure that vehicles travel on existing tracks or roadways. The following considerations and procedures can help the platoon maintain physical security: z When stationary. INFORMATION SECURITY D-4.Appendix D z z z Use camouflage to best advantage. police it to make sure items of intelligence value are not left behind. The discussion of communications in Chapter 2 of this manual outlines considerations and procedures for establishing and maintaining signal security. and capabilities. D-2 FM 3-20. location.” „ Drape camouflage nets over gun tubes and turrets. „ In heavily used areas such as CPs and trains. Physical security is also an important component of INFOSEC. „ Tie antennas down. INFOSEC entails the protection of all materials. SIGNAL SECURITY D-5. care must be taken in exchanging information between Soldiers. Refer to the discussion in Appendix A of this manual. trip flares. the commander’s name. The platoon should assume REDCON-2 each morning and evening to ensure that all crewmen are ready for action and to allow them to adjust to the changing light conditions. both classified and unclassified. „ Ensure vehicles in hide positions protect against aerial observation by minimizing or eliminating their thermal signatures. Follow these procedures: „ Place vegetation on vehicles to break up their “profile. Maintain effective concealment.

z A location that will not attract enemy attention. the M4 will allow the crew to engage and destroy dismounted threats as they approach the tank. SELECTION OF THE OBSERVATION POST SITE D-8. and or dismounted elements. The enemy will constantly be watching vehicles to detect a period of low security in which to conduct attacks. crews may be required to conduct dismounted operations or OPs and will be required to wear IBA as a force protection measure.Operational Security z z z z z z z Conducting area sweeps right before or right after BMNT/EENT will allow the platoon to destroy enemy reconnaissance elements. Avoid hilltops. OPs can be employed either mounted or dismounted. Also. z A location that does not skyline observers. Before deploying an OP. Crews must ensure that the caliber . Ideally. Position the OP farther down the slope of the hill. Positions with natural cover and concealment help to reduce the OP’s vulnerability to enemy observation and attack. Local vehicles will not be allowed to park near or place objects close to the platoon. it is critical that the platoon’s tanks have an M4 rifle positioned on the turret. the platoon will not be able to stop every person walking in the area. The wearing of interceptor body armor (IBA) with the small arms protective inserts (SAPI) by the loader and TC will reduce their vulnerability to small-arms fire when they are exposed out of the turret hatches. An OP should have the following characteristics: z Clear observation of the assigned area or sector. Do not allow foreign nationals and unauthorized observers in or near the unit’s area or positions during operations. This when used in a varied method will keep the enemy off guard and will force him to react to the platoon and not the other way around. Close-in terrain. During all operations and especially during areas of close-in terrain. platoons need to be observant of civilians taking too much interest in unit actions or missions. ready to be used rapidly. Crews faced with multi-echelon threats will need to ensure they wear their protective equipment.50 machine gun and tank radios are manned at all times.15 D-3 . will allow the enemy to get closer to the tank prior to the crew being able to engage him. An IED or a VBIED could. An OP should not be in a site that would logically be the target of enemy observation or that would serve as artillery TRPs. Next. OBSERVATION POSTS D-7. establish procedures for handling civilian intruders. the fields of observation of adjacent OPs and/or units will overlap to ensure full coverage of the sector. OPs are especially important in maintaining the platoon’s OPSEC and enhancing its AO. Attention must be paid to ensure the civilians stay out of a stand off zone to prevent them from placing explosives on the vehicles. In accordance with ROE/ROI and the company or troop commander’s intent. The platoon leader must consider the platoon’s reaction time based on the REDCON status. They help to protect the platoon when long-range observation from current positions is not possible. In addition. this can occur when the platoon is in a hide position or when close terrain offers concealed avenues of approach to the platoon’s position. or more restrictive ROE. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. the platoon leader analyzes the terrain in his sector. he decides on the type of OP necessary to observe the avenue of approach based on requirements for early warning and platoon security. but would be deadly to exposed crewmen or supporting infantry. Employ OPs to maintain surveillance on avenues of approach into the platoon’s AO. and the Soldier is looking around to prevent the enemy or unknown personnel from getting too close to the tank. he also coordinates with adjacent platoons to discover ways to enhance his own AO and eliminate gaps in the AO between units. but may not. Soldiers must be able to enter and leave their OPs without being seen by the enemy. z Effective cover and concealment. cause catastrophic damage to the tank itself. z Covered and concealed routes to and from the OP. Due to dead space of the turret machine guns and limited stopping power of the pistol. In urban areas.

Paper and pen/pencil for making a sector sketch. All other types of vehicles must occupy turret-down or hull-down positions that allow them to move their turrets when scanning the sector. however. is not recommended. D-10. lethal weapon systems. M4 rifle. Mounted OPs are used when the platoon has access to hull-down or turret-down positions that afford unobstructed surveillance of mounted avenues of approach in the platoon sector. and red flag for enemy elements. Another method of enhancing local security is to coordinate with infantry elements. Note. Flag use will be based on local SOP. MOUNTED OBSERVATION POSTS D-9. „ „ „ Seasonal uniform with load-bearing equipment (LBE) and appropriate MOPP gear. They allow the platoon leader to take advantage of his vehicles’ capabilities: magnified thermal and daylight optics. and enhanced survivability. sophisticated communications. but a general rule of thumb is green flag for friendly elements. and/or radio). to include hand-held types. In two-man OPs. D-4 FM 3-20. Some short-duration OPs may consist of one crewman providing local security for individual vehicles in close terrain. (Note. Dismounted OPs provide local security along dismounted avenues of approach whenever the platoon must halt and occupy vehicle positions from which the terrain impedes observation or early warning of enemy activities. DISMOUNTED OBSERVATION POSTS D-12. The dismounted crewmen occupy positions far enough away that sounds from the vehicle do not prevent them from hearing an approaching enemy. The tank platoon uses the following steps to occupy. z The platoon leader or PSG assembles OP personnel at his vehicle. and improve a dismounted OP: z The platoon leader or PSG determines the need for the OP and identifies the location based on the physical characteristics outlined previously in this section.Appendix D z A location that is within range of platoon small-arms fire. If used.) Note. one crewman observes the sector while the other provides local security. The CITV on the M1A2 is especially valuable in the mounted OP. The use of nonsecure radios. but loaders may be required to fill this mission if infantry is not available. A common mounted OP technique is to position one vehicle to observe an engagement area or obstacle while the remainder of the platoon occupies hide positions. and grenades. Use of supporting infantry is the best answer. but are normally the loaders from wingman tanks. Binoculars and NODs. flag set. D-11. platoons must exercise extreme caution. This enables the platoon to cover the OP if withdrawal becomes necessary. The infantry can conduct patrols and occupy dismounted OPs in accordance with the company or troop commander’s OPSEC plan. They also augment or replace mounted OPs based on the commander’s OPSEC plan. „ Communications equipment (such as wire. Even when the mounted OP has clear fields of observation. OP personnel are designated in the unit SOP. it is advisable to dismount one or two members of the crew to provide close-in local security for the vehicle. z The platoon leader or PSG briefs the OP personnel to ensure that they are trained in reporting procedures and individual camouflage techniques and that they have the proper equipment as designated in the unit SOP. flashlight. Equipment will normally include the following: „ Individual weapons. The M1A2 can occupy a turretdown position and use the CITV to scan the designated sector without moving its turret. staff. During urban operations. yellow flag for unknown elements.15 22 February 2007 . TCs will need to place OPs to protect blind spots.

this rotation may be done more frequently. „ Dig in to provide protection from indirect and direct fires. or when enemy dismounted infantrymen approach to within 300 meters of the OP. They must realize that operations that run counter to official U. Soldiers must also gain an understanding of which subjects they are authorized to discuss and which ones they must refer to higher authorities. such as their chain of command or the public affairs office (PAO). protractor and compass. when an enemy tank section crosses a phase line. policy may damage the nation’s interests and international standing. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. will allow them to keep their night vision and maintain good scanning techniques. „ When and how to report. examples include withdrawal when a CBRN attack is detected. „ Challenge and password. „ OP personnel must execute a plan for night-vision operations. A good rule of thumb is to dig when dismounted infantry dig. Tank platoon crewmen must learn how to deal effectively with broadcast and print reporters and photographers. „ Prepare a sector sketch based on the platoon fire plan (see Chapter 4 of this manual). „ Camouflage the position and routes into and out of it. The presence of the media is a reality that confronts everyone conducting military operations. OP personnel take these steps to improve the position: „ Establish communications. If possible. Training should cover any information restrictions imposed on the media. During cold weather. PAOs usually issue daily guidance dealing with these subjects. As a general rule. Rotating between Soldiers with one Soldier not scanning for longer than 20 minutes. Local security measures such as trip flares and claymore mines. All leaders and Soldiers are subject to instantaneous worldwide scrutiny as a result of the growth of news coverage via international television and radio broadcasts and the Internet. The platoon leader or PSG leads OP personnel to the OP site and briefs them on the following information: „ Ensure OP personnel understand that their mission is to see and report and not become engaged with the enemy dismounts. „ When they will be replaced. emplace hasty obstacles for additional protection.S. „ „ MEDIA CONSIDERATIONS D-13.Operational Security z z Map with overlay. OP personnel should be replaced every 2 hours. The withdrawal criteria should be specific. D-14. Once in place.15 D-5 . „ When and how to withdraw.

If given permission from the commander to conduct filming and interviews. 7. 9. This is especially important when dealing with the embedded media. or personal feelings. Soldier Tips when Dealing with the Media 1. 6. Do not degrade the unit. 4. mission. detain the media in accordance with the ROE until given further guidance. 5. open terms. do not become bogged down in a series of details. say that. 3. 7. Escort the media to the platoon leader. When filming is authorized. or any upcoming operations. Should stay within the boundaries of their job. pay attention to what is being filmed and the background. do not allow the media to take pictures of the unit. Soldiers must stop and check the reporter’s identifications and authorization to be working in the sector. Do not cover any secure information. if they don’t know. equipment capabilities. 4. Tell the truth. After a short period of time. avoid taking them past any sensitive areas if possible.Appendix D Actions when Approached by the Media during Operations 1. Platoon leader informs unit commander. Unless given clearance.15 22 February 2007 . to include allies or host nations. and will be more likely to release information. If not authorized to be in the area. or the government. the platoon leader will designate someone to escort and observe the media. 2. 2. Do not answer questions about the unit’s mission. 3. equipment. or near-by land marks. D-6 FM 3-20. Don’t speculate about policy or future events. Always maintain military bearing. 8. 6. Answer questions in broad. Everything is “on the record” and will be used by the media. Soldiers will come to see the reporter as a member of the unit. the Army. 5.

processing. and decontamination. E-3. and Smoke Operations Because many potential adversaries have the capability to employ nuclear. the unit is not required to spend the time and resources needed for decontamination. The tank platoon’s success on the battlefield may depend on how well crewmen understand the effects of smoke on enemy and friendly acquisition systems in various weather conditions. To survive and remain effective on the integrated battlefield. Selected crews should be designated and trained as chemical agent detection teams and radiological survey and monitoring teams. z Warning other members of the platoon as well as other units. the tank platoon must prepare to fight in a CBRN environment. Additional-duty CBRN personnel should be designated by the platoon SOP for operations in a CBRN environment. A thorough understanding of CBRN capabilities and unit detection equipment will allow the platoon to function and operate. the tank platoon must be proficient in the three fundamentals of CBRN defense: contamination avoidance.15 E-1 . CBRN protection. Faced with the contemporary operating environment it is as likely now as at any point for enemy forces to use CBRN weapons. Biological. and chemical weapons. it is employed extensively by enemy and friendly elements in both offensive and defensive operations. and disseminating needed CBRN hazard information are also vital functions. biological. and 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Radiological. z Identifying CBRN agents. GENERAL AVOIDANCE MEASURES E-2. Avoiding contaminated areas minimizes the risk of additional casualties. Effective use of concealment. Passive avoidance measures can decrease the possibility of CBRN attack or reduce the effects of an attack already under way. Contamination avoidance measures include the following: z Using passive avoidance techniques. Nuclear (CBRN). The effectiveness of smoke depends on the type that is used and the weather at the time it is employed. prepared positions. It’s has been proven that a units fear of CBRN weapons is as disabling as the weapons themselves. Collecting. both at the small unit level as well as strategic level. In addition. dispersion. z Locating contaminated areas.Appendix E Chemical. Smoke has a variety of uses on the battlefield. SECTION I – CONTAMINATION AVOIDANCE E-1. it also prevents the degradation of combat power that results when a unit must operate in MOPP level 3 or 4 for extended periods of time. z Reporting CBRN threats to higher headquarters. OPSEC. Avoidance is the most important fundamental element of CBRN defense because the best way to survive is to avoid being the object of a chemical or nuclear attack.

Since insects may carry biological agents. E-4. crossing. The quartering party can then evaluate the location and type of hazard (nuclear radiation or chemical/biological agent) to determine the best plan for bypassing. The initial radiation and the heat and light from the fireball of a nuclear blast tend to be absorbed by hills and mountains. Equipment that would be damaged in the explosion must be safe guarded. and sanitation discipline. Unit defensive positions. fallen trees. The use of gullies. Soldiers should prevent insect bites by keeping clothes buttoned and skin covered. all movement routes and future positions should be reconnoitered for CBRN contamination. Inside the vehicle. The tank platoon must have an effective method of quickly giving the alarm in the event of a CBRN attack. or hand-and-arm signals. clothing. Attacks and contamination must be detected quickly and reported to adjacent units and headquarters elements. which range from individual foxholes to full-scale improved fighting positions. Keeping the body clean helps to prevent ingestion of biological agents. and other issue items in their vehicles. water. Leadership must ensure all Soldiers understand the risk from getting food or water from local sources. Supplies. Protect all equipment and supplies from liquid chemical contamination by keeping them organized and covered with a tarp. if they detect contaminated areas. to prevent damage to the image enhancing mechanism by the flash. Quartering party personnel should be prepared to conduct monitoring operations. or operating in the contaminated area. E-8. Whenever possible. the chances of survival are better if crew members are healthy and physically fit and maintain good personal hygiene. if not required by the mission. equipment and any loose items must be secured because the blast wave can turn unsecured objects into lethal missiles. ditches. Alarms can be passed by radio. explosives.Appendix E signal security reduces the chances of being acquired as a target. DEFENSIVE ACTIONS BEFORE AN ATTACK BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE E-6. Make sure all personnel have their protective masks available. Exposed gear will not be decontaminated and will be destroyed and E-2 FM 3-20. equipment. One technique is not using all night-vision goggles at the same time. the platoon leader and company commander must be able to implement protective measures specified in the SOP to minimize personnel losses and limit the spread of contamination. The unit SOP should specify criteria and automatic procedures for employing detection teams and submitting the required CBRN reports following a CBRN attack or when contamination is encountered. E-9. Personnel should keep their individual weapons. If an attack occurs. Based on the situation. and flammable materials should be dispersed and protected. The platoon will only consume water and food that has come through approved sources. and mark them.15 22 February 2007 . and first-aid measures. All personnel should wear the proper protective clothing in accordance with the MOPP level designated by the commander. Reverse slopes of hills and mountains give some nuclear protection. The tank platoon should continually analyze its vulnerability to chemical or nuclear attack and take appropriate protective measures. Small cuts or scratches should be covered and kept germ-free by means of soap. they identify. audible signals. ravines. and make sure each mask fits and functions properly. E-5. Inform everyone to remain alert and to be constantly aware of the chemical threat. report. The best defense against a nuclear attack is to dig in. personal hygiene. Biological attacks are difficult to detect. The key protective measure against a biological attack is maintaining a high order of health. natural depressions. should be prepared whenever the tactical situation permits. CHEMICAL DEFENSE General Guidelines E-10. and caves can also reduce nuclear casualties. NUCLEAR DEFENSE E-7.

chemical. The platoon sergeant and CBRN tank commander must ensure the platoon has sufficient batteries to support continuous operation of the chemical agent alarm. SECTION II – CBRN PROTECTION E-16. STANDING OPERATING PROCEDURES AND MOPP LEVELS E-17. Automatic Alarm System E-11. The platoon must have a standardized plan for placing M9 tape on the vehicles as part of the early warning process. The key to effective protection in a CBRN environment is the tank platoon’s proficiency in automatically and correctly implementing CBRN defense SOPs. The system provides two essential elements of survival: detection of a toxic agent cloud and early warning to troops in the monitored position. and conventional attacks. it must be prepared to protect personnel and equipment from the effects of exposure. Space the available detector units approximately 300 meters apart. The PSG also needs to ensure that normal PMCS is being conducted on the platoons CBRN equipment and corrective action is taken when deficiencies are identified. and temperatures below 40 degrees Fahrenheit (4. and make sure each detector unit is connected to each alarm unit by telephone cable (WD-1). Attempt to do so will cause the M43 alarm not to sound in the event of an attack. and then places available detector units upwind of the nearest position to be protected. The platoon leader decides where to place the chemical alarm. Biological. E-15. he first determines the wind direction. Nuclear (CBRN). should be listed in the SOP. illustrated in Figure E-1. sleet. tropical conditions.15 E-3 . biological. Individual and unit protection against chemical attack or contamination hinges on effective use of the MOPP and on individual proficiency in basic CBRN skills. E-14. Platoons must remember that although the M8A1 could be installed in the platoon hot loop the new M22 cannot. E-13. Many actions contribute to both areas of CBRN defense.Chemical. The type and degree of protection required will be based on the unit’s mission and the hazard. The six levels of MOPP. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. In stationary operations. snow. Soldiers on the integrated battlefield face a combination of nuclear. and Smoke Operations deprive the platoon of its equipment. During movement operations the platoon should place the alarm on the exterior of the CBRN vehicle to give the platoon as much early warning as possible. The optimum distance is 150 meters. E-12. Position the alarm units near radiotelephone communications. The detector unit should be no more than 400 meters upwind from the alarm unit. rain. Note that the line between contamination avoidance and protection is not distinct. Operation of the alarm can be affected by blowing sand or dust.5 degrees Celsius). The automatic alarm system is the primary means of detecting an upwind chemical attack. this makes it easy to alert the unit to an attack. Radiological. If the tank platoon cannot avoid a CBRN hazard.

Eat or drink only food or water that has been stored E-4 FM 3-20. MOPP levels DEFENSIVE ACTIONS DURING AND AFTER AN ATTACK BIOLOGICAL DEFENSE E-18. After a biological attack.Appendix E Figure E-1. Do not eat food or drink water that may be contaminated. crewmen must assume that all surfaces have been exposed to germs.15 22 February 2007 .

Remain down until the blast wave has passed and debris has stopped falling. Refer to the battle drill for reaction to a chemical/biological attack in Chapter 3 of this manual. If the radiation dose rate reaches a hazardous level after fallout has ended. if necessary. Radiation exposure status (RES) will be updated. Keep eyes tightly closed. Once the attack has ended. Mounted Defensive Actions E-20. vehicles should be closed tightly. When operating in or crossing radiologically contaminated areas. Refer to Chapter 3 of this manual for a discussion of the battle drill for reaction to a nuclear attack. secure and organize equipment. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. duffel bags. consume it only after washing and cleaning the outside of the container.15 E-5 . on order. Defense After a Nuclear Attack E-22. Biological. vehicles should keep their speed down to prevent dust and should maintain adequate following distance to stay out of the dust raised by preceding vehicles. If time permits. cargoes should be covered by tarps or tenting. and cargo should be checked for contamination and decontaminated. Dismounted Defensive Actions E-21. Note. be prepared to move. z Point the gun away from the blast. including ballistic shields. Leaders continue to monitor for signs of delayed acting agents. After the unit exits a contaminated area. the platoon should take the following actions: z Position each vehicle behind the best available cover with the front of the vehicle toward the blast. This discussion focuses on defensive measures the platoon must be prepared to take to protect tank crewmen. Mission permitting.Chemical. assist casualties. and begin continuous monitoring. facing away from the fireball. z Take actions to protect the head and eyes. Cover as much exposed skin as possible. Never run for cover! Immediately drop flat on the ground (face down) or to the bottom of a foxhole. improve protection against possible fallout. General Guidelines E-23. check weapons and equipment for damage. and antennas) inside the vehicle. check for injury. equipment. wear helmets and eye protection whenever possible. personnel. As necessary. organize survivors. z Secure all exterior components that could be damaged by the blast (such as water cans. All water must be boiled for at least 15 minutes. Radiological. to a less hazardous area. Crewmen cover their faces with a handkerchief or cloth. z Lock the brakes. and prepare to continue the mission. if appropriate. Stay calm. z Turn off all radios as well as turret and master power. forward a NBC-1 nuclear report. repair and reinforce the BP. NUCLEAR DEFENSE Defense During a Nuclear Attack E-19. z Close and lock all hatches. and Smoke Operations in sealed containers. whether they are in their vehicle or have dismounted. Dose rates will be monitored closely to ensure compliance with the applicable OEG. Nuclear (CBRN). Note. z Secure loose equipment inside the vehicle to prevent injuries and equipment damage.

Before the operation begins. Use this information and the location of the readings to prepare a NBC-4 report. Select two Soldiers. decontamination becomes more important and. platoon members may be required to keep their hatches in the open or open-protected position. Have all unmasked Soldiers put on their protective masks and other MOPP gear. If a charger is not available. The first person to detect the arrival of fallout is usually a member of the radiological survey and monitoring team. any that do not read zero should be turned in for recharging if applicable. in many cases. Tactical and safety considerations (such as observation of the terrain. Designate a point in the platoon area where readings will be taken. Collect readings at least once daily. and note the grid coordinates of that point. z A nuclear burst is seen. Notes.15 22 February 2007 . and forward a NBC-1 chemical report. Depending on the tactical situation and unit SOP. As soon as the recorded dose rate reaches 1 centigray per hour (cGy/hr) or higher. Soldiers should get into a shelter with overhead cover and stay there until given an “ALL CLEAR” signal or until otherwise directed to move. The tank platoon is normally issued two dosimeters. to wear them ideally the TC but at a minimum a loader that is outside the armor to get an accurate reading. Ensure that the operator immediately reports all readings showing the presence of radiation. round to the nearest 10. Supervision of Tactical Dosimetry E-27. and that he uses the device properly. they should place their hatches in the closed position to protect against gross contamination. z An order to monitor is received. perform immediate decontamination as required. Direct the crews of vehicles that are equipped with CBRN overpressurization to turn the system on. that he zeroes the radiacmeter (AN/VDR-2) before taking each reading.Appendix E Fallout Warning E-24. treat casualties. more difficult. Average these readings. in most cases. check all dosimeters. Make sure dosimeter readings are reported accurately. E-26. All personnel should move inside their tanks. CHEMICAL DEFENSE Defense During a Chemical Attack E-28. note the original reading on the dosimeter and adjust subsequent readings accordingly. Supervision of Radiological Monitoring E-25. E-6 FM 3-20. z A fallout warning is received. and report this average to higher headquarters. forward follow-up NBC-1 chemical reports. Refer to Chapter 3 of this manual for a discussion of the battle drill for reaction to a chemical/biological attack. and mark the contaminated area. Have the operator monitor continuously if any of the following conditions occur: z A reading of 1 cGy/hr or more is obtained. Use M256 chemical agent detector kits to determine the type of agent. one from each section. issue a fallout warning. Give the alarm. or reported. If the mission does not allow the unit to take cover. as well as the time of these readings. and the amount of gross contamination that may be spread inside the vehicle) may outweigh the need to keep the tank’s hatches closed. heard. If the mission allows. enemy disposition. z The unit begins to move. Continue these operations until monitoring shows a dose rate of less than 1 cGy/hr or until directed to stop. Continue the mission. As directed by unit SOPs. All personnel hearing the warning relay it to others. Check the monitor operator to make sure that he takes readings at least once each hour from this point. Defense After a Chemical Attack E-29.

The unit SOP should specify nonvocal alarms for CBRN hazards. sound signals by means other than voice may be required. Everyone hearing this alarm must immediately mask. GAS!” to warn unit personnel may be drowned out by the sounds of the battlefield.” VISUAL SIGNALS E-34. The CBRN warning and reporting system (CBRNWRS) and standardized contamination markers contribute to orderly warning procedures. If a CBRN hazard is located. GAS!” as loudly as possible. but these must be specified in unit SOPs. NONVOCAL ALARMS E-33. and shouts “GAS. AUTOMATIC ALARMS E-32. One person yelling “GAS. and yells “GAS. Visual signals may replace sound alarms when the sound may be lost amid battlefield noises or when the situation does not permit the use of sound signals. Colored smoke or flares may also be designated as visual signals for a CBRN hazard. sequence repeated for 2 minutes. and not easily confused with. masks. repeat the alarm. GAS!” This alarm is relayed throughout the unit by vocal and visual signals and radio. This is repeated until other elements react. It may also be necessary to pass the alarm over the radio or telephone.15 E-7 .” z An intermittent warbling siren sound. If an M8/M22 automatic chemical agent alarm sounds or flashes. either to prepare for the hazard or to change plans. Sample SOP entry: “While in convoy. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. therefore. Following are some suggestions: z Rapid and continuous beating together of any two metal objects to produce a loud noise. Signaling is done by extending both arms horizontally to the sides with the fists closed and facing up. The alarm or signal must be simple and unmistakable if it is to produce a quick and correct reaction. The standard hand-and-arm signal for a CBRN hazard is illustrated in Figure E-2. masks. other sounds of combat. Units that are not immediately affected need the information as well.Chemical.” z A succession of short blasts on a vehicle horn or other suitable device. then rapidly moving the fists to the head and back to the horizontal position. To give a vocal alarm for any chemical or biological hazard or attack. When a CBRN attack is recognized. 5 seconds off. Nuclear (CBRN). These signals must produce noise that is louder than. and Smoke Operations ALARMS AND SIGNALS E-30. Biological. and take cover from agent contamination and fragmentation of munitions. Visual signals must supplement vocal alarms. Radiological. Sample SOP entry: “The audible alarm for impending chemical attack is the sounding of the installation siren as follows: 10 seconds on. the contaminated area should be marked. VOCAL ALARMS E-31. everyone must receive the warning and assume the appropriate MOPP level (see Figure E-1). the first person to hear or see it stops breathing. Soldiers in immediate danger need warnings they can see or hear. Sample SOP entry: “The audible warning of a chemical attack is rapid and continuous beating of metal on metal. five short blasts on a vehicle horn is the audible signal for a chemical attack. the person detecting the hazard stops breathing.

Soldiers use buddy-aid procedures to help each other clean exposed skin. then they should remove agents from exposed skin. BIOLOGICAL AGENT CASUALTIES E-36. Soldiers showing symptoms of disease must be isolated to prevent infection from spreading to others. z Bleeding from body openings or blood in urine. there are three degrees of injury: z First-degree burns should heal without special treatment. Thermal radiation injuries. and to request medical assistance. NUCLEAR CASUALTIES E-39. Hand-and-arm signal for CBRN hazard SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT OF CBRN CASUALTIES E-35. E-8 FM 3-20. A wide variety of toxins is available to potential adversaries for use on the modern battlefield. These can be dispensed alone or with other carriers or agents. These symptoms may appear within minutes after the toxin attack. Blast injuries. One indication of a live biological agent attack is large numbers of Soldiers developing an unexplained illness over a short period of time. z Formation of rashes or blisters. z Difficulty in swallowing.15 22 February 2007 . As with other types of burns. the full thickness of the skin is destroyed. and fatigue. depending on the agent. to observe each other for early symptoms of toxic exposure. E-40. the victim should be treated as a burn casualty and evacuated. These can range from minor cuts and broken bones to severe lacerations and critical damage to vital organs. or double or blurred vision. Casualties resulting from live biological agents or toxins require medical treatment as quickly as possible. Appropriate self-aid and buddy-aid measures vary. z Nausea. The basic steps of first aid apply in any combat environment. z Coughing. or sputum (spit). E-37. or they may be delayed several hours. z In third-degree burns. z Fever. E-38. vomiting. The first-aid treatment will be the same as that used for conventional combat casualties suffering similar injuries. they should be treated as a burn to prevent infection. Soldiers should first mask to prevent inhaling or ingesting additional agents. z Second-degree burns resemble severe sunburn with blistering. and there will be no scar formation. Toxin symptoms may include any of the following: z Dizziness. stool. either by washing with soap and water or by using the M291 kit. The intense heat generated by a nuclear detonation can cause burn injuries. Soldiers must be able to recognize CBRN-related symptoms and conduct self-aid and buddy-aid. mental confusion. aching muscles. Symptoms associated with some toxins mimic those of other types of illness or of exposure to chemical agents. z Shock.Appendix E Figure E-2. and/or diarrhea.

which are covered in more detail in FM 4-25. for this reason. Biological.15 E-9 . step in dealing with them effectively is to recognize symptoms so proper treatment can be administered. z Vomiting. Remove a Mark I nerve agent autoinjector kit (NAAK) from the protective mask carrier (see Figure E-3). z Step 6. z Step 3. Nerve Agents E-42. Hold the injector against the thigh for at least 10 seconds. z Severely pinpointed pupils. If symptoms persist or recur. blood. Nuclear (CBRN). Early symptoms usually appear in the following progression: z Runny nose. z Gurgling sounds when breathing. z Muscular twitching in the area of exposed or contaminated skin. Chemical agents fall into four major categories: nerve. if time permits and the overgarment suit is not contaminated. z Nausea. z Step 5. Their primary routes of attack upon the body are through the respiratory system and the skin. Do not 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. and most important. Immediately put on the protective mask. bending each needle to form a hook. Nerve agent poisoning can lead to a quick death.Chemical. Allow 10 to 15 minutes between each set of injections. Inject one thigh with the first injector from the kit (atropine in the small autoinjector).11 (FM 21-11): z Step 1. Radiological. Repeat a third time if needed. E-44. z Step 7. These agents create an especially dangerous situation because they can kill or incapacitate quickly. z Breathing that becomes extremely labored or stops. Hold the injector against the thigh for at least 10 seconds. Massage the injection area. z Convulsions. z Step 4. If Soldiers experience any of the other mild symptoms of nerve agent poisoning. z Loss of bladder and/or bowel control. z Tightness in the chest. wait 10 to 15 minutes and repeat both injections. Immediate self-aid or buddy-aid is needed if most or all symptoms appear. z Sudden headache. z Stomach cramps. and choking. leading to breathing difficulty. Severe nerve agent poisoning is likely when any of the early symptoms are accompanied by all or most of the following symptoms: z Strange or confused behavior. Poisoning Symptoms E-43. z Step 2. z Impaired vision. z Excessive flow of saliva (drooling). The first. z Redness and tearing of the eyes. quick recognition of its symptoms is crucial. Self-Aid Procedures E-45. Immediately inject the thigh with the second injector (pralidoxime chloride in the large injector). they must perform the following self-aid measures. Remove the injector and place each injector needle through the jacket pocket flap of the overgarment. Remove the injector. and Smoke Operations CHEMICAL AGENT CASUALTIES E-41. No effective drug exists to remedy the effects of nerve agents on vision. blister.

administration of more than three sets. Nerve agent autoinjector kit (NAAK) Buddy-Aid Procedures E-46. even pressure until it functions. Administer the back-pressure armlift method of artificial respiration if the casualty’s breathing is labored or has stopped. Using the victim’s NAAK. Hook the expended autoinjectors to the casualty’s overgarment jacket pocket flap. „ Hold the injector in place for at least 10 seconds. „ Grasp the injector with the needle (black) end extending beyond the thumb and two fingers (index plus next finger). Do not wait between injections. another Soldier must perform the following buddy-aid measures. z Step 2. Obtain immediate medical attention for the victim. (CAUTION: Do not touch the black portion. z Step 3. Mask the casualty. Note. z Step 5. z Step 6. z Step 4. Convulsive antidote nerve agent (CANA) injector E-10 FM 3-20.11 (FM 21-11): z Step 1. which is the injector needle.Appendix E administer more than three NAAK sets.15 22 February 2007 . administer the convulsive antidote nerve agent (CANA) injection Diazepam (see Figure E-4). bend each needle to form a hook. Medical support personnel must authorize the Figure E-3. If necessary to stabilize the casualty’s heart rate. This information is covered in task 031-503-1013. Decontaminate Yourself and Individual Equipment Using Chemical Decontamination Kits. pull the safety cap off the injector base to arm the injector.) „ Place the black end of the injector against the casualty’s injection site. administer three sets immediately and in rapid succession in the thigh muscle of either leg. „ Push the needle of each used injector (one at a time) through one of the pocket flaps of the casualty’s protective overgarment and. „ Push the injector into the muscle with firm. being careful not to tear protective gloves or clothing. You could accidentally inject yourself. which are covered in more detail in FM 4-25. Figure E-4. Use the following procedure: „ Tear open the protective plastic packet and remove the injector. „ With the other hand. If a Soldier experiences severe symptoms from nerve agent poisoning and is unable to administer self-aid.

coupled with neglect or delay in masking. Nuclear (CBRN). z Coughing. z Red or pink color change in light-colored skin. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. choking agent symptoms may include the following: z Coughing. Biological. Decontaminate the skin using the M258A1/M291 kit. Symptoms may take several hours or days to appear. the excess fluid in the lungs will absorb back into the body. To remove an agent from the eyes. When hit with blood agent the platoon must mask as soon as possible. z Temporary blindness or. and Smoke Operations Blister Agents E-47. They include the following: z Redness or inflammation of the eyes. flush repeatedly with plain water. Blood Agents E-49. E-48. z Tightness in the chest. z Choking. Casualties resulting from blister agents may not be noticeable immediately. If severe blisters form. During and immediately after exposure. They damage blood vessels in the lung walls. In most cases. Choking Agents E-51. but prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor.15 E-11 . z Welts or. z Vomiting. z Diarrhea. If a blister agent comes in contact with skin or eyes. blisters on the skin. a symptom-free period of 2 to 24 hours is likely. can be fatal. Ordinary field concentrations do not cause death. permanent blindness. E-50. Victims must receive immediate medical attention. seek medical attention as soon as possible. E-52. remove it immediately. z Dizziness or giddiness. There is no self-aid or buddy-aid treatment for blood agent poisoning. z Convulsions. in an advanced state. These agents produce casualties by means of inhaled vapors. z Tearing of the eyes. Blood agent leads to a break down of protective mask filters and leaders must plan actions accordingly. z Headache. or reddening of the skin. Following the early symptoms.Chemical. A seemingly mild case of blood agent poisoning can progress to death within 10 minutes. z Difficult or labored breathing. Radiological. z Hoarseness. z Coma. z Nausea. burning. causing body fluid to slowly fill the lung cavity. Slow recovery will begin approximately 48 hours after exposure. with severe poisoning. z Nausea. z Itching. E-53. z Stomach pain. This will be followed by these signs of fluid collecting in the lungs: z Rapid. shallow breathing. Maximum damage will occur between 12 and 24 hours after exposure. Symptoms include the following: z Rapid or shallow respiration (panting). z Headache.

15 22 February 2007 . they face away from the point of the highest contamination reading. These markers are in the standard CBRN marking set. E-12 FM 3-20. the Soldier should keep warm and seek immediate medical attention and rapid evacuation to an aid station. in hilly or wooded areas. Additional information is written on the front of the sign. they should be placed more frequently. Markers face away from the contamination. When platoon monitoring teams detect or suspect a CBRN hazard. No self-aid or buddy-aid treatment exists for choking agent symptoms. For example. In open terrain. they can be placed 25 to 100 meters apart. clammy skin and rapid heartbeat. Markers are placed along roads and trails and at other likely points of entry. the hazard must still be reported to protect friendly units. the Soldier may continue with normal duties.S. TYPES OF MARKERS E-56. additional markers should be emplaced. MARKING CONTAMINATED AREAS E-55. If this exception is made by the commander. CBRN marking devices MARKING PROCEDURES E-57.Appendix E z z z Painful coughing. The colors and inscriptions on a marker indicate the type of hazard. if markers are placed on the edge of a contaminated area to mark a radiological hot spot. they mark all likely entry points into the area and report the contamination to higher headquarters. The only exception to this policy is if marking the area would help the enemy. If definite symptoms occur. Contamination must be marked so unsuspecting personnel will not be exposed to it. In severe cases. Figure E-5. U. When time and mission permit. E-54. The distance between signs varies. forces use NATO standard markers (illustrated in Figure E-5) to make it easier for allies to recognize the hazards. An observer should be able to stand in front of a marker and see the markers to the left and right of it. Blue lips and fingernails. If only minimum amounts were inhaled.

If an M256/M256A1 detector kit is available. Units discovering a marked contaminated area do not have to conduct elaborate. If the size of the hazard has changed. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. z After 15 seconds. sustained blast on a siren. ALL-CLEAR SIGNAL E-62. if necessary. then clear and reseal their masks. and Smoke Operations E-58. which take approximately 15 minutes. If the hazard is gone. When a reasonable amount of time has passed after the attack. If an M256/M256A1 kit is not available. take two or three breaths. must still be used. they remove the signs. If all tests with the kit (including a check for liquid contamination using M8 detector paper) have been performed and the results are negative.Chemical. request permission from higher headquarters to signal “ALL CLEAR. z The selected Soldiers unmask for 5 minutes. Radiological. or similar device. such as a continuous. z If no symptoms appear. Conduct unmasking using these procedures: z The senior person selects one or two Soldiers. Nuclear (CBRN). use the following procedures: z The senior person should select one or two Soldiers to start the unmasking procedures.” Continue to observe all Soldiers in case delayed symptoms develop. they relocate the signs. proper unmasking procedures. vehicle horn. They take a deep breath and break their mask seals. Time to complete the M256/M256A1 detector kit. Changes are reported to higher headquarters. giving a false symptom. and clear and reseal their masks. and then remask. Use the following procedures to determine if unmasking is safe. the same Soldiers unmask for 5 minutes. Biological. They simply check the extent of contamination and use the information to adjust their plans. If possible. Soldiers should unmask as soon as possible except when a live biological or toxin attack is expected.” z Watch all Soldiers for possible delayed symptoms. Observe them for 10 minutes. takes approximately 20 minutes. keeping their eyes wide open. The kit does not detect all agents. Use M8 paper to check the area for possible liquid contamination. Leaders initiate the signal after testing for contamination proves negative. the unmasking procedures take approximately 35 minutes. When “ALL CLEAR” is announced on the radio. the same Soldiers break the seals. Two kits completed simultaneously along with unmasking procedures with the M256/M256A1 detector kit will take approximately 35 minutes to complete. find a shady area. including using M8 detector paper for liquid.15 E-13 . the receiving unit must authenticate the transmission before complying. bright. UNMASKING PROCEDURES E-59. Units pass the all-clear signal by word of mouth through their chain of command. z If no symptoms appear. request permission from higher headquarters to signal “ALL CLEAR. standard sound signals may be used. they move to a shady place. direct sunlight can cause pupils in the eyes to constrict. If no symptoms appear. Observe them for 10 minutes. z Observe the Soldiers for 10 minutes. If required. time-consuming surveys. the Soldiers clear and reseal their masks. Always have first-aid treatment immediately available in case it is needed. therefore. UNMASKING WITH M256/M256A1 KIT E-60. use it to supplement the unmasking procedures. Note. UNMASKING WITHOUT M256/M256A1 KIT E-61. z If no symptoms appear in 10 minutes. The commander designates the specific all-clear signal and includes it in the unit SOP or the OPORD.

Operator’s spray down of equipment should begin immediately after completion of personal wipe down. The spray down removes or neutralizes contamination on the surfaces operators must touch frequently to perform their mission. using all available assets to the maximum extent possible.5 (FM 3-5) for a more detailed examination of CBRN decontamination procedures. The tank platoon gains maximum benefit from the available time and decontamination resources by observing these considerations: z The platoon should execute decontamination as soon as possible and as far forward as possible. The wipe down removes or neutralizes contamination on the hood. For this reason. These reports inform other affected units of clean areas and possible contamination. Immediate decontamination is a basic Soldier survival skill. Some agents can kill if they remain on the skin for longer than a minute. Soldiers wipe the contamination off with a cloth or simply flush or shake it away. operators can use onboard decontamination apparatuses like the M100 Sorbent Decontamination System (SDS) or the M11/M13. For chemical and biological contamination. decontamination is essential in preventing casualties and severe combat degradation. Each report has a specific purpose and uses standard codes to shorten and simplify the reporting process. E-66. For radiological contamination. z Decontamination should be conducted only to the extent that is necessary to ensure the platoon’s safety and operational readiness.Appendix E WARNING AND REPORTING SYSTEMS E-63. they brush or scrape the contamination away with whatever is at hand or flush it with water and wipe it away. SECTION III – DECONTAMINATION E-65. refer to ST 3-20. E-67.15 22 February 2007 . The CBRNWRS is a rapid means of sending reports of a CBRN attack. Any contact between chemical or toxic agents and bare skin should be treated as an emergency. E-64. E-14 FM 3-20. OPERATOR’S SPRAY DOWN E-71. IMMEDIATE DECONTAMINATION E-68. the tank platoon must develop a thorough SOP covering decontamination methods and priorities. Soldiers use packets from the M280 decontamination kit. For chemical and biological contamination. without waiting for orders. They are also used to provide this information up and down the chain of command and to adjacent units. Refer to FM 3-11. z Decontamination priorities with regard to unit safety and mission accomplishment should be strictly observed. For a detailed outlined of the formats and letter codes for the standard CBRN (NBC) reports. These principles are consistent with doctrine that places the burden of decontamination at battalion or company level. SKIN DECONTAMINATION KIT E-69. gloves. During continuous operations in areas of nuclear or chemical contamination.153. Leaders must ensure that their Soldiers are trained to execute this technique automatically. PERSONAL WIPE DOWN E-70. For radiological contamination. Personal wipe down should begin within 15 minutes of contamination. The best technique for removing or neutralizing these agents is to use the M258A1/M291 skin decontamination kit. mask. and personal weapon.

PROCEDURES E-81. When they complete the decontamination process. It limits the hazard of transferring contamination by removing most of the gross contamination on equipment and nearly all the contamination on individual Soldiers. Put on new overgarment. soapy water for two to three minutes. Nuclear (CBRN). Remove overgarment. z Step 8. It makes use of two decontamination techniques: z Vehicle wash down. Remove overboots and gloves. Soldiers who have removed sources of vapor contamination from their clothing and equipment can use hazard-free areas to unmask temporarily and eat. The company or troop assists the platoon by bringing replacement overgarments and decontaminants to the exchange site. There are two steps in vehicle wash down: z Step 1. THOROUGH DECONTAMINATION E-80. Both Soldiers perform Step 8. Because speed is important. z Step 6. z Step 7. Operational decontamination speeds the weathering process and allows clean areas (people. these detailed procedures reduce the danger of contamination exposure to negligible risk levels. E-74. Executed promptly and correctly. Decontaminate gear and set it aside. z MOPP gear exchange. Contaminated units conduct detailed troop decontamination (DTD) for their crewmen under the supervision of the chemical unit. Biological. drink. Remove only gross contamination. E-79. Just as important. MOPP gear exchange is best performed using the buddy system.Chemical. E-75. z Step 5. Wash down the vehicle and equipment with hot. Put on new overboots and gloves. VEHICLE WASH DOWN E-76. they allow Soldiers to operate equipment safely for extended periods at reduced MOPP levels. Radiological.15 E-15 . Secure gear. then by the other. MOPP GEAR EXCHANGE E-78. Button up the vehicle and secure equipment. Secure hood. do not check vehicles for contamination after the vehicle has been washed down. and rest. Operational decontamination allows a force to continue fighting and sustain momentum after being contaminated. z Step 4. Thorough decontamination operations restore the combat power of maneuver units by removing nearly all contamination from Soldiers and individual equipment. It is most effective if started within one hour after contamination. Operational decontamination is accomplished using assets of the parent unit. These procedures can be performed separately from each other. Vehicle wash down is conducted as far forward as possible and is performed by the battalion decontamination specialist with assistance from the company or troop decontamination team. equipment. Steps 2 through 7 are performed first by one Soldier. When detailed equipment decontamination (DED) operations are 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. and roll up hood. Uncontaminated vehicles and personnel should not go through either technique. E-77. z Step 2. E-73. z Step 3. both are best performed at crew level. Both Soldiers perform Step 1. and terrain) to stay clean. Decontaminate hood and gloves. z Step 2. and Smoke Operations OPERATIONAL DECONTAMINATION E-72. There are eight steps in a MOPP gear exchange: z Step 1.

positioned in a covered and concealed location. removes all externally stowed equipment. Once these procedures are complete. a contaminated unit can conduct a thorough decontamination operation with organic assets. During this movement. they use standard tactical movement techniques (such as bounding overwatch) to cross the contaminated area. and brushy areas as much as possible. the chemical unit usually selects a site. it makes a temporary halt. division. detection teams monitor for the presence of chemical agents. and performs detailed procedures with assistance from the contaminated unit. each tank crew makes preparations to cross. refit equipment. They adopt MOPP level 4 and prepare the vehicle’s overpressure system (if it is available and METT-TC factors permit). the crews continuously monitor the M8A1/M22 and the M9 paper. E-87.Appendix E required. the unit moves into an adjacent assembly area for reconstitution. SECTION IV – MOVEMENT IN A CBRN ENVIRONMENT E-85. sets it up. E-89. Each crew in turn executes operational decontamination of its vehicle and. under a variety of tactical or operational conditions. Thorough decontamination does the most complete job of getting rid of contamination and related hazards. with higher headquarters’ approval. The next best solution is to decontaminate only to the extent necessary to sustain the force and allow it to continue the mission.15 22 February 2007 . it requires large quantities of valuable resources that may not be immediately available. overhanging branches. it will be impossible to execute such a major effort. Once the section’s preparations are complete. so periodic contamination checks must be made following this operation. LIMITATIONS AND ALTERNATIVES E-83. As with other combat elements. Crews mount and test M8A1/M22 alarms and M9 paper. E-82. and time) required for such an extensive process. but as noted. but armor units usually must depend on support from a chemical unit. In some cases. and corps support areas. Once the platoon has successfully crossed the contaminated area. the other section moves to a covered and concealed position and follows the same procedures. A small risk from residual contamination remains. Upon identifying a contaminated area. and replace personnel and equipment. E-84. While the platoon is in the contaminated area. the other section. the platoon continues its mission. During the halt. division. decontaminants. E-16 FM 3-20. CROSSING A CHEMICALLY OR BIOLOGICALLY CONTAMINATED AREA E-86. In addition. E-88. the platoon should follow the procedures outlined in this section. This entails using a combination of immediate and operational decontamination procedures. or corps support area replenish combat stocks. Drivers and TCs take precautions to avoid low ground. one of the basic tactical requirements for the tank platoon is to be able to move through and operate in a contaminated area. The newly reconstituted unit leaves the assembly area fully operational and fit to return to battle. Thorough decontamination is usually conducted as part of an extensive reconstitution effort in brigade. To do so safely. initiates unmasking procedures. After completing thorough decontamination. all personnel observe each other for signs of chemical poisoning. it moves into an overwatch position. support sites at lower levels cannot provide the quantities of decontamination resources (such as water. When both sections have been prepared. While one section provides security. Support elements from the brigade.

smoke is a combat multiplier. If smoke employment is planned and executed correctly. In addition.15 E-17 . or screening. As it prepares for an operation. E-92. deception. As a means of prearranged battlefield communications. they must maintain the correct dust interval. Smoke has four general uses on the battlefield. employment of smoke must be carefully planned and coordinated to prevent interference with friendly units.Chemical. should never depend on smoke for success. Effectively employed. Ensure IM-93/UDR-13 and VDR-2 dosimeters are zeroed (if not zeroed. and friendly positions during CAS operations. this will occur as the enemy reaches the trigger line. It can be used for identification. at the same time. This prevents contaminated dust particles from accumulating on the equipment.) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. supply and evacuation points. as described in the following discussion. the tank platoon should plan to take advantage of smoke from all available sources. One of the key features of the modern battlefield is the extensive use of smoke. The procedures involved in crossing a radiologically contaminated area are similar to those for a chemically or biologically contaminated area. Biological. friendly units retain the ability to engage the enemy using thermal sights and from your sketch card. Employed against an attacking force. In addition. OBSCURATION E-95. Smoke can be fired on enemy positions to degrade the vision of gunners and known or suspected OPs. Conduct continuous monitoring and report the results of dosimeter and radiacmeter surveys to higher headquarters and adjacent units. z Decontamination. USES OF SMOKE E-93. enemy vehicles become silhouetted as they emerge from the smoke. IDENTIFICATION AND SIGNALING E-94. When available. it can be employed to initiate such operations as displacement. nonthermal smoke (white phospherous) can cause confusion and disorientation by degrading the enemy’s command and control capabilities. and Smoke Operations CROSSING A RADIOLOGICALLY CONTAMINATED AREA E-90. Mission accomplishment. preventing them from seeing or tracking targets and thereby reducing their effectiveness. Smoke is used to identify (mark) targets. SECTION V – SMOKE OPERATIONS E-91. obscuration. z Monitoring. z Movement. the platoon must develop alternative plans in case smoke delivery systems are not available. signaling. (Figure E-6 illustrates this use of smoke. Radiological. with the following additional considerations: z Vehicle preparation. Crews may store external equipment in the turret or cover it with a tarp. follow instructions that are included with the equipment to zero). Nuclear (CBRN). During decontamination. Place wet sandbags or other materials on the turret floor to increase the amount of radiation shielding. however. turn on the turret overpressurization system to protect the crew compartment from contaminated dust. At the same time. Vehicles should limit their speed to minimize dust. each crewman should cover his nose and mouth with a handkerchief or cloth to avoid breathing contaminated dust particles.

Smoke can also be employed to conceal a platoon as it conducts a bypass. For example. or assault mission. Using smoke to confuse the enemy and silhouette his vehicles DECEPTION E-96.Appendix E Figure E-6. Smoke can mislead the enemy regarding friendly intentions. SCREENING E-97.15 22 February 2007 . breach. smoke may be fired at a remote location for the sole purpose of attracting attention and confusing the enemy. E-18 FM 3-20. it can be employed on several avenues of approach at once to deceive the enemy as to the direction of the main attack. Smoke is used in friendly areas of operation or in areas between friendly and enemy forces to degrade enemy ground and aerial observation and to defeat or degrade enemy acquisition systems. In the defense. Figures E-7 through E-9 illustrate uses of screening smoke. Screening smoke helps to conceal the platoon as it displaces from a BP or as it conducts tactical movement approaching enemy positions.

Using screening smoke to conceal displacement 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.Chemical. Nuclear (CBRN). Biological. and Smoke Operations Figure E-7. Radiological.15 E-19 .

Using screening smoke to conceal a bypass E-20 FM 3-20.Appendix E Figure E-8.15 22 February 2007 .

Using screening smoke to conceal a breaching operation SOURCES OF SMOKE E-98. MORTARS E-99. Mortar support. FA can place smoke on distant targets. Artillery-delivered smoke is not as responsive as mortar smoke support and may not be available if it is not planned and coordinated well in advance. Mortars use WP rounds. There are a number of sources of smoke on the battlefield. the tank platoon can employ the following smoke delivery systems during tactical operations. and storage facilities. is the most rapid and responsive means of indirect smoke delivery. provided by the CAB mortar platoon or cavalry troop mortar section.Chemical. which can degrade the effectiveness of thermal sights and can also produce casualties to friendly troops.11 (FM 3-11). The tank platoon leader coordinates the planning and execution of mortar smoke missions with the commander and the company or troop FIST. Artillery smoke is made up of hexachloroethane (HC) and has less effect on thermal sights than does WP smoke. Biological. Nuclear (CBRN). 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. FIELD ARTILLERY E-100. and Smoke Operations Figure E-9.15 E-21 . Radiological. Depending on availability. equipment. Refer to FM 3-11. including the residual effects of burning vehicles.

VEHICLE ENGINE EXHAUST SMOKE SYSTEM E-104. and cloud cover are important considerations. This type of smoke normally does not affect thermal sights. This is the only system that floats on water and that can be delivered by hand or vehicle. FACTORS IN SELECTING THE TYPE OF SMOKE EMPLOYED E-107. Colored smoke grenades are primarily used to signal displacement and other critical events or to identify (mark) friendly unit positions and breach and evacuation locations. CAUTION VEESS will be used only when the vehicle is burning diesel fuel. This system consumes fuel at the rate of 1 gallon per minute of operation. Grenade launchers. These can produce white or colored smoke. They can also be used to screen individual vehicle displacement. Wind direction. E-22 FM 3-20. Smoke from vehicle-launched grenades can degrade thermal sights. The tank platoon will normally employ smoke pots to screen displacement or breaching operations. The VEESS injects diesel fuel into the engine exhaust to produce smoke. White smoke grenades are most often used to screen individual vehicles. HAND-HELD SMOKE GRENADES E-102. VEHICLE SMOKE GRENADE LAUNCHERS E-103. These produce a large volume of white or grayish-white smoke that lasts for extended periods. The smoke has minimal effect on thermal sights. TACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN SMOKE OPERATIONS WEATHER E-106.or track-mounted devices are available through the division chemical company. The effectiveness of smoke in tactical situations (including the time required to build the cloud and cloud duration) depends in large measure on the weather. Certain types of smoke will degrade visual. It serves primarily as a self-defense measure for individual vehicles.Appendix E SMOKE POTS E-101. If the wind is strong or blowing in the wrong direction. Smoke clouds build up faster and last longer the higher the humidity and the greater the cloud cover (refer to FM 3-50). Enemy capabilities and the desired effect of the smoke (such as screening or obscuration) will dictate what type is requested. Their use is prescribed at brigade or battalion level. humidity. TACTICAL SMOKE GENERATORS E-105. infrared.15 22 February 2007 . it may be impossible to establish an effective smoke screen. The best time to use smoke is when the ground is cooler than the air. wind speed. Use of VEESS when burning any other type of fuel will cause a fire hazard. and thermal sights. These wheel. are used as a self-defense measure to screen or conceal the vehicle from enemy antitank gunners. Smoke from hand-held grenades has minimal effect on thermal sights. which can produce a limited amount of smoke. but a tank crew can also employ it to screen other friendly vehicles if wind conditions and the direction of vehicle movement allow.

Navigational aids such as POSNAV. while FBCB2 and other digital systems help the platoon leader to maintain situational understanding and control of the platoon. GPS. During an assault. friendly smoke should be shifted in advance of the arrival of the assault element. and Smoke Operations Note. The navigational tools discussed previously enable the platoon leader to maintain command and control during movement and to ensure that the platoon is postured. as it exits the smoke. and thermal sights assist individual vehicles during movement through smoke. the platoon leader must remember that his tanks will be silhouetted as they emerge from the smoke. Whenever the platoon is traveling through smoke. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Biological. The platoon leader also decreases the interval between vehicles to further enhance control of the platoon. The duration of the effects of the smoke should be controlled based on the capability of enemy and friendly units to acquire and engage targets through the smoke and on the ability of friendly units to maintain situational understanding during movement.Chemical. Even types of smoke that do not affect thermal sights may prevent the tank’s laser range finder from computing an accurate ballistic solution. range estimation. whether it is of friendly or enemy origin. One solution is to occupy alternate BPs that conform to the commander’s intent but that are not obscured by smoke (see Figure E-10).15 E-23 . and battlesighting. An attacking enemy may employ smoke on the tank platoon’s positions or in the platoon’s engagement area. MANEUVER Offense E-109. Radiological. The use of multispectral smoke for obscuration must be carefully planned. Under such conditions. As noted. to mass fires against previously unidentified enemy vehicles. The critical consideration is for all vehicles to emerge at the same time. A defending enemy may employ smoke to confuse and disorient the attacker. crewmen must rely on such techniques as range bands. Defense E-111. Nuclear (CBRN). this may not only “blind” thermal sights but also prevent laser range finders from accurately computing ballistic data. E-110. NAVIGATION E-108.

On the M1A2. the choke sight of the CITV enables the TC to estimate and input ranges for a ballistic solution. If multispectral smoke does not disable thermal sights. Tank platoon occupying an alternate battle position that is not obscured by enemy smoke E-112. and TRPs to estimate the target range in the absence of a laser-computed range. E-24 FM 3-20.15 22 February 2007 . range bands.Appendix E Figure E-10. the TC can use sector sketches with grid lines.

Effective combat identification measures and TTPs will be even more important within this context. and the Combat Readiness Center. or neutral/noncombatant. TTPs. BFT does not automatically report enemy or neutral entities. and ROE. F-3.Appendix F Combat Identification Fratricide and collateral damage adversely affect combat operations. it does not identify enemy or neutral entities. Cooperative systems also directly address fratricide avoidance and expedite force sorting for improved combat effectiveness. fratricide remains a significant issue. enemy. and include optics. Accuracy of SA systems and latency is another limitation. Soldiers make the engage/don’t engage decision at the point of engagement and must be fully proficient in all aspects of CID. extended range of operations. Other limitations pertain to how many entities are equipped with a blue force tracker (BFT) or similar device. Identification of unknown entities. Figure F-1 depicts the complete combat identification system. Noncooperative TI does not always work at optimum ranges due to climatic conditions and equipment status. and autonomy exacerbates the challenge of combat identification. enemy. and weapon systems of greatly increased range. is increasingly important as weapon system ranges extend beyond visual recognition in the fog of war and the prospect of commonality of friendly and enemy systems increases.15 F-1 . It is highly unlikely that US Army forces will operate independent of other US ground. CID MEASURES F-1. Combat identification measures must be established early in all operational orders and planning cycles to ensure subordinates fully understand and have opportunity to implement all established measures prior to combat operations. and neutral ID. Combat identification measures must be consistent with ROE and not interfere unduly with unit and individual rights and responsibilities to engage adversary forces. fratricide can have a devastating effect on operational effectiveness and morale. equally support friendly. There is no perfect combat identification system. such as friendly. Operation Enduring Freedom. lethality. The advent of continuous operations of highly mobile forces. friendly forces can be more effective in combat and reduce the potential for fratricide and undesired collateral damage. In addition to the loss of life and materiel. This includes situational awareness and TI systems and understanding of doctrine. Cooperative TI (CTI) only identifies friendly entities that have an operational CTI device. Noncoperative TI systems require no response. F-2. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Based on empirical data from Operation Iraqi Freedom. but by analyzing combat identification requirements from planning to execution. as well as Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Combat operations within Joint Task Force structures will invariably place with US Army units in close proximity to other US and multinational units with potentially dissimilar equipment and uniforms. air or naval forces in future combat operations.

Combat identification is “the process of attaining an accurate characterization of detected objects in the joint battlefield to the extent that high confidence. Phoenix IR lights. and tactical situation and the events occurring on the battlefield. Leader awareness and involvement is particularly important if the infantry unit has had little training with armored vehicles. This limitation is worse during limited visibility and when the hatches are closed.” within their area of operations. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS F-7. The use of JCIMS CID marking systems like the dismounted soldier combat identification marking system (DCIMS) and Phoenix IR lights can help identify and illuminate other friendly vehicles and dismounted infantrymen at night.15 22 February 2007 . JCIMS is used to reduce the risk of fratricide. Combat identification system F-6. neutral. Target identification is “the accurate and timely characterization of a detected object on the battlefield as friend. timely application of military options. or enemy. operational. In these conditions. the crew is focused on the enemy or on potential enemy locations rather than any nearby infantrymen. Tank crewmen are often unable to see dismounted infantry soldiers operating close to their vehicle.Appendix F DEFINITIONS F-4. DCIMS. Figure F-1. F-8. Employment of JCIMS will assist TCs/gunners and allow the driver to assist in positive identification.” F-5. Situational awareness is a “.general knowledge of the dynamic. JCIMS devices include combat identification panels (CIP). Tank and infantry leaders at all levels must be aware of the safety considerations involved in light/heavy operations. and weapons resources can occur. JCIMS marking devices are used in conjunction with forward looking infrared (FLIR) optics and image intensification F-2 FM 3-20. F-9. All personnel in both the light and heavy units must be aware of these considerations to prevent unnecessary casualties. thermal identification panels (TIP).. and IR tape.” TI is shooterfocused for “shoot/don’t shoot” decisions with friendly identification systems like the joint combat identification marking system (JCIMS) that requires no response from either platform observed. This aspect of combat identification is time sensitive and directly supports a combatant’s shoot or don’t-shoot decision for detected objects on the battlefield....

turned on.Combat Identification devices (such as night-vision goggles [NVG]) to assist in identifying friendly vehicles and soldiers at the point of engagement. and visible on friendly vehicles and dismounted soldiers to be effective and operational status in accordance with the unit TACSOP and specifics contained in the OPORD must be included in precombat inspection procedures.15 F-3 . The markings must be installed. Joint CID marking system (JCIMS) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Figure F-2.

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and all other platoon soldiers must know how to use risk management. in performing the steps. enabling them to win the battle quickly and decisively. paying particular attention to the factors of METT-TC. G-2. For additional information on risk management. they must keep in mind the essential tactical and operational factors that make each situation unique. G-5. Tactical hazards deal with hazards imposed upon us by the enemy (such as ATGM positions or untemplated enemy positions on our flanks). Risk management must take place at all levels of the chain of command during each phase of every operation.15 G-1 . to ensure that the mission is executed in the safest possible environment within mission constraints. weather. damage to or loss of equipment and property. There are two types of hazards: tactical and accident. Accident hazards are those hazards imposed upon us due to terrain. It also includes a detailed discussion of the responsibilities of the platoon’s leaders and individual soldiers in implementing a sound risk management program. Risk management must never be an afterthought. A hazard is a source of danger. leaders must begin the process during their troop-leading procedures and continue it throughout the operation. it is an integral part of all tactical planning. Rather. refer to FM 3-100. are always present in every combat and training situation the tank platoon faces. coupled with fratricide reduction measures. Leaders of the tank platoon must always remember that the effectiveness of the process depends on situational understanding. The following lists possible sources of risk that the tank platoon might face during a typical tactical operation. illness. STEP 1 – IDENTIFY HAZARDS G-3. Tactical and training operations pose many types of hazards. G-4. SECTION I – RISK MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES G-1. with minimum losses. The list is organized according to the factors of METT-TC. They should never approach risk management with “one size fits all” solutions to the hazards the platoon will face. The primary objective of risk management is to help units protect their combat power through accident prevention. The tank platoon leader. or death of personnel.14 (FM 100-14). or some other sort of mission degradation. The tank platoon leader must identify the hazards associated with all aspects and phases of the platoon’s mission. It is any existing or potential condition that could entail injury. This appendix outlines the process that leaders can use to identify hazards and implement a plan to address each identified hazard. and/or the potential for risks.Appendix G Risk Management Risk is the chance of injury or death for individuals and damage to or loss of vehicles and equipment. his NCOs. or mission requirements (such as traveling an unimproved road at night in a snow storm). 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. This section outlines the five steps of risk management. Risks.

Appendix G SOURCES OF BATTLEFIELD RISK MISSION • Duration of the operation. • Complexity/clarity of the plan. defined as the result or outcome of a hazardous incident. TROOPS • Equipment status. TERRAIN AND WEATHER • Visibility conditions. steep inclines. • Experience the units conducting the operation have working together. fog. • Extreme heat or cold. • Enemy capabilities. • Degree of acclimatization to environment. and smoke. • Availability of time and resources to conduct reconnaissance. • Additional natural hazards (broken ground. • Impact of new leaders and/or crew members.15 22 February 2007 . Severity. dust. and water obstacles). CIVILIAN CONSIDERATIONS • Applicable ROE and/or ROI. or counterterrorism). • Time available for PCCs/PCIs. Use the following steps: z Determine which hazards can be eliminated or avoided. • Danger areas associated with the platoon’s weapon systems. refugee or disaster assistance. • Soldier/leader proficiency. ENEMY • Knowledge of the enemy situation. is expressed by the degree of injury or illness (including death). loss of or damage to equipment or property. • Soldier/leader rest situation. Hazard assessment is the process of determining the direct impact of each hazard on an operation (in the form of hazardous incidents). or other mission-impairing factors (such as unfavorable publicity or loss of combat power). • Precipitation and its effect on mobility. z Assess the severity of hazards that cannot be eliminated or avoided. environmental damage. G-2 FM 3-20. • Potential stability and/or support operations involving contact with civilians (such as NEOs. STEP 2 – ASSESS HAZARD TO DETERMINE RISKS G-6. • Potential for media contact/inquiries. z Assess each hazard that cannot be eliminated or avoided to determine the probability that the hazard can occur. TIME AVAILABLE • Time available for troop-leading procedures and rehearsals by subordinates. including light. understood?) (Is the plan well developed and easily • Proximity and number of maneuvering units.

Refer to Table G-2 for instructions on completing the worksheet. Risk assessment matrix Probability Severity Frequent Likely Occasional Seldom Unlikely Catastrophic Critical Marginal Negligible E E H M E H M L H H M L H M L L M L L L E – Extremely High Risk H – High Risk M – Moderate Risk L – Low Risk 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. someone will suffer an injury that requires less than 3 months to heal.Risk Management z z Taking into account both the probability and severity of a hazard. severity. as well as the operational factors unique to the situation). moderate. determine the associated risk level (extremely high. MODERATE • More often than not.) LEVELS OF RISK EXTREMELY HIGH • Someone will die or suffer permanent disability. (Note. Self-Help. someone will require first aid or minor medical treatment. DA Pubs and Forms. Composite Risk Management Worksheet. LOW (WORST CASE) • Someone is likely to need first aid or minor medical treatment. Risk levels and impact on mission execution Table G-1. DA Form 7566. Figure G-1 summarizes the four risk levels. Refer to Table G-1 for an outline of the risk assessment matrix used to determine the level of risk. can be found on the AKO website. Figure G-1. and low). high. Based on the factors of hazard assessment (probability. complete the composite risk management worksheet. Figure G-2A and B show an example of a composite risk management worksheet (pages 1 and 2).15 G-3 . and risk level. HIGH • More often than not.

Appendix G Figure G-2A.15 22 February 2007 . Composite Risk Management Worksheet. DA Form 7566. page 1 of 2 pages G-4 FM 3-20.

page 2 of 2 pages 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Composite Risk Management Worksheet.15 G-5 .Risk Management Figure G-2B. DA Form 7566.

not just the hazard by itself. Determine if the controls worked and if they can be improved. The decision-maker (the tank platoon leader. 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 STEP 3 – DEVELOP CONTROLS AND MAKE RISK DECISIONS DEVELOPING CONTROLS G-7. he directs the development of additional controls or alternative controls. Residual Risk Level — Determine the residual risk for each hazard by applying the risk assessment matrix (Table G-1). Enter controls. After assessing each hazard. G-6 FM 3-20.Appendix G Table G-2. why. garrison SOPs.” Review during AAR. experience. experience. Additional factors include historical lessons learned. The commander decides whether the controls are sufficient to accept the level of residual risk. Composite Risk Management Worksheet Item Instruction 1 through 4 5 6 Self explanatory. If he determines the risk is unnecessary. Initial Risk Level — Includes historical lessons learned. develop one or more controls that will either eliminate the hazard or reduce the risk (probability and/or severity) of potential hazardous incidents. intuitive analyses. when. consider the reason for the hazard. He alone decides if the controls are sufficient and acceptable and whether to accept the resulting residual risk. Risk Decision Authority — Signed by the appropriate level of command. Specify who. judgment. equipment characteristics and warnings. Controls — Develop one or more controls for each hazard that will either eliminate the hazard or reduce the risk (probability and/or severity) of a hazardous incident. where. Enter controls. Enter the risk level for each hazard. Hazards — Identify hazards by reviewing METT-TC factors for the mission or task. the commander directs development of additional control or modifies. spot-checks) and reassess hazards as the situation changes. or rejects the COA. When developing controls. This becomes the overall mission or task risk level. equipment characteristics and warnings. A key element in the process of making a risk decision is determining whether accepting the risk is justified or. Determine initial risk for each hazard by applying the risk assessment matrix (Table G-1). rehearsals). safety. is unnecessary. Subtask relating to the mission or task in block 1. How to Supervise (Who) — Plan how each control will be monitored for implementation (continuous supervision. Enter the residual risk level for each hazard. How to Implement — Decide how each control will be put into effect or communicated to the personnel who will make it happen (written or verbal instruction. and environmental considerations. If the risk is too great to continue the mission or task. Instructions for completing DA Form 7566. as another option. changes. Overall Risk Level — Select the highest residual risk level and circle it. or reject the selected COA for the operation. judgment. Pass on lessons learned. MAKING RISK DECISIONS G-8. conversely. if applicable) must compare and balance the risk against mission expectations. what.15 22 February 2007 . he can modify. and environmental considerations. Was Control Effective — Indicate “Yes” or “No. change. tactical. and how for each control.

Implementing controls includes coordination and communication with appropriate superior. z Limit single-vehicle movement. it is imperative for leaders to ensure that risk management controls are properly understood and executed. z Enforce speed limits. and assess new hazards. z Conduct thorough PCCs and PCIs. z Establish recognizable visual signals and markers to distinguish maneuvering units. adjacent. z Allow adequate time for rehearsals at all levels. Leaders must continuously evaluate the unit’s effectiveness in managing risks to gain insight into areas that need improvement. and execution of operations. Leaders must also anticipate. buddy checks. Techniques include spot checks. SECTION II – IMPLEMENTATION RESPONSIBILITIES G-15. During mission execution. Examples of risk management controls include the following: z Thoroughly brief all aspects of the mission. confirmation briefs. SUPERVISION G-12. inspections.15 G-7 . OPORDs. and driver safety. They must ensure that hazards and associated risks are identified and controlled during planning.Risk Management STEP 4 – IMPLEMENT CONTROLS G-9. Whenever possible. G-10. and get as much sleep as possible (at least 4 hours in any 24hour period). The critical check for this step is to ensure that controls are converted into clear. STEP 5 – SUPERVISE AND EVALUATE G-11. and close supervision. In particular. identify. z Drink plenty of water. eat well. The tank platoon leader must ensure that specific controls are integrated into operational plans (OPLAN). Leadership and unit discipline are the keys to ensuring that effective risk management controls are implemented. leaders must continuously monitor risk management controls. enforce. the controls will be easy to implement. All leaders are responsible for supervising mission rehearsals and execution to ensure standards and controls are enforced. If the leaders have conducted a thoughtful risk assessment. NCOs must enforce established safety policies as well as controls developed for a specific operation or task. Leaders should then incorporate lessons learned from the process into unit SOPs and plans for future missions. z Use buddy teams. During mission execution. and subordinate units and with individuals executing the mission. SITREPs. use of seat belts. The tank platoon leader and his senior NCOs must look at both tactical risks and 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. both to determine whether they are effective and to modify them as necessary. Leaders and individuals at all levels are responsible and accountable for managing risk. Implementing controls is the most important part of the risk management process. and rehearsals. and follow. preparation. including related hazards and controls. G-13. SOPs. this is the chain of command’s contribution to the safety of the unit. EVALUATION G-14. They ensure that imminent danger issues are addressed on the spot and that ongoing planning and execution reflect changes in hazard conditions. z Establish marked and protected sleeping areas in assembly areas. z Establish SOPs for the integration of new personnel. the risk management process should also include an after-action review (AAR) to assess unit performance in identifying risks and preventing hazardous situations. simple execution orders understood by all levels. Controls are the procedures and considerations the unit uses to eliminate hazards or reduce their risk. z Enforce the use of ground guides in assembly areas and on dangerous terrain.

The same risk management process is used to manage both types. Such a failure can be the result of several factors. Most important. To fulfill this commitment.Appendix G accident risks. For the platoon leader. his subordinate leaders. feasible risk management policies and goals. z Subordinates not fully understanding the higher commander’s guidance regarding risk decisions. z Keep subordinates informed. z Train the risk management process. NCOs. the risk management process may break down. z Outright failure to recognize a hazard or the level of risk involved. the platoon leader must exercise creative leadership. and individual soldiers alike. he must demonstrate support for the risk management process. z Overconfidence on the part of an individual or the unit in the capability to avoid or recover from a hazardous incident. z Prevent a “zero defects” mindset from creeping into the platoon’s culture. z Listen to subordinates. The tank platoon leader and others in the platoon chain of command can establish a command climate favorable to risk management integration by taking the following actions: z Demonstrate consistent and sustained risk management behavior through leading by example and by stressing active participation throughout the risk management process. and beliefs). Ensure that subordinates understand the “who. Successful preservation of combat power requires him to embed risk management into individual behavior. G-16. Every leader is responsible for obtaining the assets necessary to mitigate risk and for providing them to subordinate leaders. and careful management. z Establish clear. z Accurately evaluate the platoon’s effectiveness. G-8 FM 3-20. G-18. innovative planning. z A soldier who believes that the risk decision is part of his job and does not want to bother his platoon leader or section leader.15 22 February 2007 . sets priorities. Sometimes. G-17. z Provide adequate resources for risk management. as well as subordinates’ execution of risk controls during the mission. z Inform higher headquarters when risk levels exceed established limits. and individual soldiers. establish and then clearly communicate risk decision criteria and guidance. attitudes.” “when. The tank platoon leader gives the platoon direction.” “where. most often. it can be attributed to the following: z The risk denial syndrome in which leaders do not want to know about the risk.” and “why” of managing risk and how these factors apply to their situation and assigned responsibilities. The platoon leader alone determines how and where he is willing to take tactical risks. despite the need to advise higher headquarters of a risk taken or about to be assumed. the platoon leader manages accident risks. and establishes the command climate (values. responsibilities in managing risk include the following: z Make informed risk decisions. as well as their unit’s capabilities. z Allow subordinates to make mistakes and learn from them. With the assistance of his PSG.” “what. z Understand their own and their soldier’s limitations. z Demonstrate full confidence in subordinates’ mastery of their trade and their ability to execute a chosen COA.

SECTION I – THE ROLE OF TRAINING H-1. realistic. H-3. All leaders must know all aspects of the applicable training standard. With the new technology becoming more common at all levels the ability to maintain situational understanding is better enhanced. they must strive to eliminate fratricide risk through tough. rather. He is assisted by all leaders across all operating systems in accomplishing this mission. can keep those soldiers alive to kill the enemy.15 H-1 . In any tactical situation. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. they must anticipate dangerous conditions and take steps to either avoid or mitigate them. every TC must know that he must confirm the target as hostile before issuing and executing any fire command. A key role of the tank platoon training program is to teach crews which targets to engage and when to engage them. Special Note. and synchronize all required operating systems at the critical time and place. They must avoid becoming tentative out of fear of fratricide. but the platoon leader cannot solely depend on this and must have an understanding of how the different units are moving. With this knowledge. At the same time. at all costs. The platoon leader must always be vigilant of changes and developments in the situation that may place his elements in danger. It is critical that leaders know where other friendly elements are operating. for example. particularly the platoon leader. Prior to all missions. The underlying principle of fratricide prevention is simple: Leaders who know where their soldiers are and where they want them to fire. Just as important. Fratricide prevention is the commander’s responsibility. This appendix focuses on actions the tank platoon leader and his subordinate leaders can take with current resources to reduce the risk of fratricide. with the goal of reducing or eliminating the risk of errors occurring in combat. combined arms training in which each soldier and unit achieves the established standard. When he perceives a potential fratricide situation. integrate. including fratricide prevention. Training allows units and soldiers to make mistakes. commanders must ensure that their units conduct detailed planning and rehearsals emphasizing fratricide prevention. crews must learn and practice restraint in what and when to engage. and then make sure their soldiers train to that standard. is critical not only to mission success but also to survival. he must personally use the higher net to coordinate directly with the friendly element involved. Eliminating the risk of fratricide is no less critical as a training standard than are other mission requirements. leaders must avoid. any reluctance to employ. H-2.Appendix H Fratricide Prevention Fratricide is defined as the employment of friendly weapons that results in the unforeseen and unintentional death or injury of friendly personnel or damage to friendly equipment. situational understanding on the part of all crewmen.

units within that range may mistake one another for the enemy. These occur when units do not develop effective fire control plans. z Hesitancy in the conduct of night operations. z Loss of initiative. and become disoriented. morale. requiring close coordination between the platoon and infantry squads. TCs and gunners cannot accurately identify thermal or optical signatures near the maximum range of their systems.Appendix H SECTION II – EFFECTS OF FRATRICIDE H-4. Units at all levels may fail to generate timely. it almost always affects the unit’s ability to survive and function. FAILURES IN REPORTING AND COMMUNICATIONS H-11. INADEQUATE CONTROL MEASURES H-10. and complete reports as locations and tactical situations change. LAND NAVIGATION FAILURES H-8. The following paragraphs discuss the primary causes of fratricide. z Increasing self-doubt among leaders. accurate. sabot rounds should be fired over friendly infantry elements only in extreme emergencies or when the friendly infantry elements are under adequate cover. fire discipline often breaks down upon contact. H-7. z Loss of aggressiveness in maneuver (fire and movement). H-2 FM 3-20. they may also fail to tie control measures to recognizable terrain or events. Much less frequently. and combat power. z Over-supervision of units. In limited visibility. report wrong locations. An example is “staking in” vehicle and individual positions in the defense. they employ fire support weapons from the wrong locations. using pickets to indicate the left and right limits of each position. The tank platoon can use a number of techniques and procedures to help prevent such incidents. An area of particular concern is the additional planning that must go into operations. SECTION III – CAUSES OF FRATRICIDE H-5. Units may fail to disseminate the minimum necessary maneuver fire control measures and fire support coordination measures. Fratricide results in unacceptable losses and increases the risk of mission failure. In either type of situation. z General degradation of unit cohesiveness. FAILURES IN COMBAT IDENTIFICATION H-9. Units experiencing fratricide suffer these consequences: z Loss of confidence in the unit’s leadership. Units may fail to designate target engagement areas or adhere to target priorities. FAILURES IN THE DIRECT-FIRE CONTROL PLAN H-6. z Disrupted operations.15 22 February 2007 . For example. Under such conditions. units that unexpectedly encounter an errant unit may fire their weapons at the friendly force. or they may position their weapons incorrectly. Leaders must identify any of the factors that may affect their units and then strive to eliminate or correct them. z Hesitancy in the employment of supporting combat systems. When this happens. As the battle develops. This distorts the tactical “picture” available at each level and can lead to erroneous clearance of supporting fires. Units often stray out of assigned sectors. because of the danger posed by discarding petals. particularly in the offense. the plan then cannot address obvious branches and sequels as they occur. synchronization fails.

remove. mistakes with explosives and hand grenades. denial areas (minefields/ scatterable mines). 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. To prevent fratricide incidents. and use of incorrect gun data. accidental discharges. commanders and leaders must learn to apply them as appropriate based on the specific situation and METT-TC factors. record. or otherwise anticipate these threats will lead to casualties. ENSURE POSITIVE TARGET IDENTIFICATION H-18. PRINCIPLES OF FRATRICIDE PREVENTION H-15. including their silhouettes and thermal signatures. Make it mandatory for crewmen to ask for clarification of any portion of the fire command that they do not completely understand.Fratricide Prevention WEAPONS ERRORS H-12.) MAINTAIN EFFECTIVE FIRE CONTROL H-19. These guidelines are not directive in nature. booby traps. Identify risks and conduct a risk assessment while developing the estimate of the situation. In many situations. provide the platoon with a guide to actions it can take to reduce and/or prevent fratricide risk. and all TOCs and CPs must carefully track the location of all subordinate elements in relation to all friendly forces. including scatterable mines. and clearly stated. unmarked or unrecorded minefields. SITREPs. ensure that crewmen get in the habit of obtaining target confirmation and permission to fire from their leaders before engaging targets they assume are enemy elements. Refer to the special note at the start of this section. the primary cause of fratricide is the lack of positive target identification. including those listed in the special note above. Failure to mark. and METT-TC factors. At the heart of fratricide reduction and prevention are the five key principles covered in the following discussion. Rather. Explain these risks thoroughly in the OPORD and/or applicable FRAGOs.15 H-3 . all units must accurately report their locations during combat operations. Become familiar with the characteristics of potential friendly and enemy vehicles. contaminated areas. BATTLEFIELD HAZARDS H-13. Focus on such areas as current intelligence. H-14. unit locations/dispositions. such as ICM and CBRN. Stress the importance of the chain of command in the fire control process. These incidents include charge errors. IDENTIFY AND ASSESS POTENTIAL FRATRICIDE RISKS H-16. Know at what ranges and under what conditions positive identification of various vehicles and weapons is possible. In addition. Lapses in individual discipline can result in fratricide. A variety of explosive devices and materiel may create danger on the battlefield: unexploded ordnance. Review vehicle and weapons ID cards. SECTION IV – FRATRICIDE PREVENTION PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Special Note. concise. MAINTAIN SITUATIONAL UNDERSTANDING H-17. (Note. commanders and leaders at all levels must ensure positive target identification before they issue commands to fire. nor are they intended to restrict initiative by the tank platoon’s leaders and crewmen. The measures outlined in this section. Ensure that fire commands are accurate.

z Include a discussion of fratricide incidents in all AARs. z Conduct individual. The following are recommended actions at crew and leader level in the event the platoon.15 22 February 2007 . and crewmen should adhere to the following guidelines. and fire discipline. and collective (unit) training covering fratricide awareness. z Conduct rehearsals whenever the situation allows the platoon adequate time to do so. decisive plan. SECTION V – STOPPING A FRIENDLY FIRE INCIDENT H-22. use SOPs that are consistent with doctrine. z Use common language/vocabulary and doctrinally correct standard terminology and control measures. Use position location/navigation devices (GPS and POSNAV). z Ensure that thorough coordination is conducted at all levels. z Strive to provide maximum planning time for leaders and subordinates. Ensure that leaders maintain constant supervision in the execution of orders and in the performance of all tasks and missions to standard. and synchronize tactical movement. FRATRICIDE PREVENTION MEASURES H-21. z Plan for collocation of CPs whenever it is appropriate to the mission. ACTIONS AS THE VICTIM OF FRIENDLY FIRE H-23. effective action to alleviate stress. z Cease fire. z Designate and employ liaison officers (LO) as appropriate. z As the firing element. zone of engagement. such as fire support coordination line (FSCL). H-4 FM 3-20. right. leaders. This section covers actions that leaders and crewmen must be prepared to take when they encounter a friendly fire incident. z Be in the right place at the right time. and procedures in ensuring fratricide reduction and prevention: z Recognize the signs of battlefield stress. z As an observer intervening in an attack of one friendly element on another. z Develop a simple. z Give complete and concise mission orders. z To simplify mission orders. z Plan for and establish effective communications. Periodically review and update SOPs as needed. know your location and the locations of adjacent units (left. If the platoon or any element becomes lost or disoriented. z Use a visual recognition signal directing the firing unit to cease fire. leading. The tank platoon may become involved in such a situation in one of several ways: z As the victim of the fire. target identification and recognition. section. leader. Commanders. leaders must know how to contact higher headquarters immediately for instructions and assistance. and RFL.Appendix H ESTABLISH AN EFFECTIVE COMMAND CLIMATE H-20. placing special emphasis on the use of doctrine. such as during a passage of lines. z Take immediate actions to protect soldiers and vehicles. z Make sure ROE and ROI are clear. or individual tank falls victim to friendly fires: z React to contact until you recognize friendly fire. considerations. Maintain unit cohesion by taking quick. Enforce fratricide prevention measures at all times. and follow-on).

„ Give the location and direction of the firing vehicles. „ The type of fire. z Provide assistance as needed (when safe to do so). „ The target effects. LEADER RESPONSIBILITIES H-26.15 H-5 . z Report the following on the next higher net: „ Identification of the engaged friendly force (if the unit is unidentified. „ The location of the incident. section. z Use a visual recognition signal to direct the firing unit to cease fire. report number and types of vehicles). report the number and types of vehicles). z Conduct an in-stride risk assessment. „ Direction and distance to the victim and the firing unit. „ Request medical assistance as needed. ACTIONS AS THE FIRING ELEMENT H-24.Fratricide Prevention z Report the following on the next higher unit net: „ Announce that the unit or vehicle is receiving friendly fire. leaders must be prepared to take immediate actions to prevent casualties as well as equipment damage or destruction. In all situations involving the risk of fratricide and friendly fire. „ The type of fire. z Identify and implement controls to prevent the incident from recurring. „ Warn the higher unit not to return fire if the firing unit is positively identified as friendly. z Report the following on the next higher net: „ Identification of the engaged friendly force (if the unit is unidentified. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. or individual vehicle has engaged friendly forces: z Cease fire. or individual vehicle observes a friendly fire incident: z Seek cover and protect all crewmen and vehicles. „ The location of the incident. „ Direction and distance to the engaged force. The following are recommended actions at crew and leader level when the platoon. The following are recommended actions at crew and leader level in the event the platoon. section. ACTIONS AS AN OBSERVER OF FRIENDLY FIRE H-25. Recommended actions in fratricide situations include the following: z Identify the incident and order the parties involved to cease fire. „ The target effects.

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rations. Note. Before exiting station. METT-TC will dictate the actions of the crew in the event of abandon tank. Ruptures heater fuel line. For example. Secures protective mask. and automated network control device (ANCD). 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Places ANCD in breech and receives two thermite grenades from gunner. The following procedures are just a guideline to ensure all sensitive items are properly accounted for and or destroyed. Abandon tank procedures TC Reports crew status. and rations. Crews may deviate from these procedures if the tactical situation allows. Table I-1. the chain of command must make every effort to recover the disabled tank. Removes caliber . Gunner Loader Driver Sets radio to unused frequency. Commands “ABANDON TANK⎯ ASSEMBLE RIGHT (LEFT) REAR. Zeros out the radio to remove fill. individual weapon. Places one thermite grenade in breech and stands by.Appendix I Battle Damaged Tank If the tank sustains a hit making it impossible to move and remaining in the tank will jeopardize the safety of the crew. removes and gives EPLRS to TC (if equipped). and dismounts tank. Passes two thermite grenades to TC and two thermite grenades to loader.” Traverses turret to 3 o’clock position. rations. to include four thermite grenades. secures loader’s machine gun and two boxes of ammunition. Exits through TC’s hatch. Exits through TC’s hatch. Opens breech and removes main gun round. therefore.50 machine gun back plate and places it in breech. individual weapon. individual weapon. M4 rifle. the TC should consider abandoning the tank.15 I-1 . Secures protective mask. and moves to back deck. the crew may want to keep the loader’s machine gun and ammunition. and dismounts tank. Stows round (leaves ammunition door open). The crew cannot totally destroy all parts of a tank. individual weapon. Removes coax machine gun back plate and places it in breech. rations. The procedures in Table I-1 are used to abandon and disable a crippled tank. ammunition. ammunition. Ensures main gun is level. turns on heater. Announces “CLEAR” so the TC knows he is clear and can traverse the turret. Secures protective mask. Secures protective mask. and loader’s mittens. and all grenades. Also the wingman or platoon should assist in security of the crew as they perform these tasks.

• Dust off your uniform after you leave the vehicle or area. Exits through loader’s hatch and dismounts tank. tape. pulls pin on remaining thermite grenade. Moves to location announced by TC and provides security watch. Abandon tank procedures TC Opens right top grille doors to expose fuel cell. DISABLING TANK PROCEDURES I-1. Guidelines for Safe Response to Handling. Crews should follow the three basic principles of hazard avoidance. • Maximize the distance between crew members and the radioactive source. • Cover exposed skin. and closes breech. WARNING Crews should take additional safety measures because of the use of depleted uranium (DU) if they are― • In.Appendix I Table I-1. • Improve the shielding (use cardboard. • Near (within 50 meters) actively burning fires involving DU. and gauges).” Gunner Moves to area announced by TC and establishes security watch. places EPLRS on top of fuel cell. Dismounts tank and conducts personnel accountability. • Routinely entering vehicles with penetrated DU armor or that have been struck by DU munitions. discharge fixed and portable fire extinguishers prior to disabling the vehicle. currently provides operational guidance for incidents involving DU munitions. If thermite grenades are not available to disable the tank. including washing your hands before eating. Commands “PULL PIN. a sledge hammer and other heavy instruments should be used to destroy sensitive equipment (computer. On command. which are: • Minimize the time near the radioactive source. I-2. Observe standard field hygiene. places it in the breech. optical instruments. TB 9-1300-278. and so forth). Loader Driver Moves to area announced by TC and establishes security watch. armor. Pulls pin on one thermite grenade (as loader exits tank) and places both grenades on top of fuel cell. and Transportation Accidents Involving Army Tank Munitions or Armor Which Contain Depleted Uranium. If equipped. If time permits. communication equipment. or near (within 50 meters) a vehicle at the time of impact by DU ammunitions or a DU armored vehicle at the time of impact by munitions. an increase in MOPP is not required. on.15 22 February 2007 . The main gun firing pin and machine gun back plates should be taken from the I-2 FM 3-20. Good safety procedures to take in the event of the occurrences listed above are: • Wear a protective mask as long as it does not degrade your ability to fight or protect yourself. Storage. and battlefield damage.

and other combustible liquid over the TA-50 inside the turret and ignite it by lighting it or using hand grenades. Pour fuel. If enemy contact or capture is imminent. Note. 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. otherwise.15 I-3 . For training purposes. the TC will destroy the ANCD. The crew must download all main gun ammunition to another vehicle if the situation permits. use practice grenades and simulate rupturing heater fuel lines. engine oil. I-3.Battle Damaged Tank tank and destroyed. the ammunition must be destroyed.

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armored combat earthmover (M9) aviation close fires airspace control measure air control point armored cavalry regiment air defense artillery area damage control advanced field artillery tactical data system ammunition automated network control device area of responsibility antipersonnel armored personnel carrier armor-piercing discarding sabot (ammunition) Army Training and Evaluation Program area security all-source analysis system advanced system improvement program (also known as SIP.15 Glossary-1 .Glossary ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Acronym/Term 1SG A A/L AAD ABCS ABF ACE ACF ACM ACP ACR ADA ADC AFATDS ammo ANCD AOR AP APC APDS ARTEP AS ASAS ASIP aslt pos ASR ATCCS ATGM atk pos AVLB AVLM AXP BCT BDA Definition first sergeant alternate (position) administrative/logistical antiarmor defense Army battle command system attack by fire armored combat engineer. system improvement program) assault position alternate supply route Army tactical command and control system antitank guided missile attack position armored vehicle launched bridge armored vehicle launched MICLIC ambulance exchange point brigade combat team battle damage assessment 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.

) central issue facility commander in chief combat identification panel commander’s independent thermal viewer cleared lane mechanical marking system centimeter(s) commanding officer course of action communications security center of sector command post common remotely operated weapon station combat repair team combat support combat trains command post combat vehicle crewman Department of the Army Glossary-2 FM 3-20.15 22 February 2007 .Glossary BFIST BFT BFV BHL BII BIT BMNT BP C2 C2I CA CAB CANA CAS CASEVAC CBRN CBRNWRS cdr CDU CFF CFV cGy/hr CI CID CIF CINC CIP CITV CLAMMS cm CO COA COMSEC COS CP CROWS CRT CS CTCP CVC DA Bradley fire support team blue force tracker Bradley fighting vehicle battle handover line basic issue item built-in test beginning of morning nautical twilight battle position command and control command. Criminal Investigative Division (U. radiological.S. control. biological. and intelligence civil affairs combined arms battalion convulsive antidote nerve agent close air support casualty evacuation chemical. and nuclear CBRN warning and reporting system commander commander’s display unit call-for-fire cavalry fighting vehicle centigray per hour counterinsurgency commander’s integrated display.

15 Glossary-3 . refugee. and evacuee direct support direct support/reinforcing domestic support operations detailed troop decontamination driver’s thermal viewer depleted uranium driver’s vision enhancer engagement area echelons above corps embedded battle command end of evening nautical twilight enemy (graphic overlay abbreviation) enhanced position location reporting system enemy prisoner of war field artillery forward air controller forward arming and refueling point Force XXI battle command brigade and below fire direction center foreign humanitarian assistance fire support team fire support team vehicle fault isolation test forward-looking infrared field manual forward observer final protective fires fragmentary order forward repair system forward support company fire support control measure fire support element 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.Glossary DCIMS DD DED DID DNBI DOA DOD DPICM DPRE DS DS/R DSO DTD DTV DU DVE EA EAC EBC EENT EN EPLRS EPW FA FAC FARP FBCB2 FDC FHA FIST FISTV FIT FLIR FM FO FPF FRAGO FRS FSC FSCM FSE dismounted soldier combat identification marking system Department of Defense detailed equipment decontamination dirver’s integrated display disease and nonbattle injuries direction of attack Department of Defense dual-purpose improved conventional munitions displaced persons.

Glossary GAS GIRS GPS GPSE GS HB HC HE HEAT HE-OR-T HHC HMMWV HOIS HQ HRP IBA ICM ID IED IFV INC INFOSEC IPB I/R IR ISR IVIS IZLID JAAT JP JVMF KIA km KY L&O LBE lbs LD LOA LOGPAC LOM gunner’s auxiliary sight grid index reference system global positioning system gunner’s primary sight extension general support heavy barrel hexachloroethane high explosive high-explosive antitank (ammunition) high explosive obstacle-reducing with tracer (ammunition) headquarters and headquarters company high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle hostile intelligence service headquarters high-risk personnel interceptor body armor improved conventional munitions identification improvised explosive device infantry fighting vehicle Internet controller information security intelligence preparation of the battlefield internment/resettlement (U. and reconnaissance intervehicular information system infrared zoom laser illuminator designator joint air attack team joint publication joint variable message format killed in action kilometer(s) Kentucky law and order load-bearing equipment pound(s) line of departure limit of advance logistics package line of movement Glossary-4 FM 3-20. surveillance.15 22 February 2007 . DOD) infrared. intelligence requirement intelligence.S.

obstacles. time available. maneuver and mobility support military occupational specialty (U. and cover and concealment MGRS MI MICLIC MLC mm MMS MOS MP MPAT MRE MRS MSR MTP MTT MTW MWD NAAK NATO NAV NCO NCS NEO NG NGO NLT NOD NOE NVG OAKOC 22 February 2007 FM 3-20.15 Glossary-5 . troops. key terrain. ready-to-eat muzzle reference system main supply route mission training plan military training teams major theatres of war military working dog nerve agent auto-injector kit North Atlantic Treaty Organization navigation (FBCB2 display push button) noncommissioned officer net control station noncombatant evacuation operations National Guard nongovernmental organizations not later than night observation device nap of the earth night-vision goggle observation and fields of fire.S. and civilian considerations (factors taken into account in situational awareness and in the mission analysis process) military grid reference system military intelligence mine-clearing line charge military load class millimeter(s) mast-mounted sight.S. Army rank) Lieutenant Colonel (U. avenues of approach. enemy. terrain (weather).S.Glossary LP LRF LRP LRU LST LT LTC METL METT-TC listening post laser range finder logistics resupply point line replaceable unit laser spot tracker Lieutenant (U. Army) Military Police multipurpose antitank (ammunition) meals. Army rank) mission-essential task list mission.

and lubricants position navigation passage point platoon sergeant psychological operations private volunteer organization passive-vision system reconnaissance and surveillance rear area combat operations right add. left subtract Reimer Digital Library readiness condition reference point radiation exposure status restrictive fire line rules of engagement rules of interaction refuel on the move rocket-propelled grenade radiotelephone procedures Glossary-6 FM 3-20.15 22 February 2007 . oils.Glossary obj OEG OP OPCON OPORD OPSEC OR OT P Pam PAO PCC PGM PH PK PLGR plt PMCS PME PMM PO POL POSNAV PP PSG PSYOP PVO PVS R&S RACO RALS RDL REDCON ref pt RES RFL ROE ROI ROM RPG RTP objective operational exposure guidance observation post operational control operation order operations security obstacle-reducing (MPAT-OR) observer-target primary (position) pamphlet public affairs office precombat inspection precision guided missile/munition probability of hit probability of kill precision lightweight GPS receiver platoon preventive maintenance checks and services peacetime military engagement preventive medicine measures peace operations petroleum.

S.S.S. and time frame size. time. secure the far side. Army rank) Sergeant (U. activity.S.S. Army rank) single-channel ground/airborne radio system SINCGARS with system improvement program and Internet controller situation report Soldier’s manual signal operation instructions standing operating procedures suppress the enemy. and assault through the obstacle start point smaller-scale contingency Staff Sergeant (U. activity. Army) supply officer (U. Army rank) special text Soldier’s training publication situational understanding tactical command post tactical fire tactical standing operating procedures technical bulletin tank commander tactical combat force theater engagement plan tactical Internet thermal identification panel terrain index reference system thermal imaging system trinitrotoluene (explosive) 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Army) operations officer (U. location. location. reduce the obstacle. type of resource. unit.Glossary S S2 S3 S4 SALTT SALUTE SAPI SAW SBF SDS SDZ SEP SFC SGT SINCGARS SINCGARS SIP INC SITREP SM SOI SOP SOSRA SP SSC SSG ST STP SU TAC CP TACFIRE TACSOP TB TC TCF TEP TI TIP TIRS TIS TNT supplementary (position) security/intelligence officer (U.S. obscure the breach.15 Glossary-7 . equipment small arms protective inserts semiautomatic assault weapon support by fire (M100) sorbent decontamination system surface danger zone system enhancement package Sergeant First Class (U. Army) size.

optically tracked. wire-guided (missile) tactics. UAS UHF UMCP UN UO USAF USMC USN VBIED VEESS VHF VIC VSTOL VT VVS WARNO WIA WMD WP tactical operations center time on target tube-launched. and procedures time to target television United States (of America) unmanned aircraft system ultra high frequency unit maintenance collection point United Nations urban operations United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Navy vehicle-borne improvised explosve device vehicle engine exhaust smoke system very high frequency vehicle internal communications vertical/short takeoff and landing variable time (proximity fuse) vehicle visualization system warning order wounded in action weapons of mass destruction white phosphorus Glossary-8 FM 3-20.Glossary TOC TOT TOW TTP TTT TV U.15 22 February 2007 . techniques.S.

15 October 2002 DA PAMPHLET (DA PAM) DA Pam 750-8. 4 December 1990 w/Change 1.98. 16 July 1991 FM 7-7. Radiological. Army Leadership: Competent. The Army Maintenance Management System (TAMMS) User Manual. Mechanized Infantry Platoon and Squad (Bradley). 20 August 2002 FM 3-34. 23 December 2002 w/Change 1. Tactics. 11 September 1996 FM 3-90.40 (FM 19-40). Operations. 2 December 2002 FM 3-21. and Procedures for Observed Fire. 8 July 1994 JOINT PUBLICATION (JP) JP 3-07. Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield. and Nuclear Decontamination. Combined-Arms Breaching Operations.11.11. Tank Gunnery (Abrams). 17 March 1998 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. 15 July 2004 FM 5-0 (FM 101-5).2. First Aid. 4 April 2006 FM 3-11. 10 March 2003 FM 3-19. 1 August 2001 FM 3-20. and Procedures for Antiterrorism. SOURCES USED These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication. 20 February 2003 FM 3-11. 31 August 2000 w/Change 3. Field Hygiene and Sanitation. Techniques.5. Reconnaissance Platoon. 15 August 2005 FM 3-20.71 (FM 7-7J). Visual Signals.12. ARMY TRAINING AND EVALUATION PROGRAM (ARTEP) ARTEP 17-237-10-MTP. Civil Affairs Operations. are needed in conjunction with this manual. FM 3-06. Mission Training Plan for the Tank Platoon. 11 October 2002 FM 3-50. 20 January 2005 FM 6-22 (FM 22-100). 30 September 1987 FM 34-130.1 (FM 71-1). 21 September 2004 FM 3-0 (FM 100-5). Confident. 15 March 1985 FM 7-20. Chemical. 28 February 2002 FM 3-07. Army Planning and Orders Production. Smoke Operations. The Infantry Battalion. 29 September 2006. Operational Terms and Graphics. 12 October 2006 FM 6-30. 9 December 2002 FM 4-25. The Mechanized Infantry Platoon and Squad (APC). Tank and Mechanized Infantry Company Team.40 (FM 41-10). 14 June 2001 FM 3-05. 22 August 2005 FIELD MANUAL (FM) FM 1-02 (FM 101-5-1). Joint Tactics. Flame.15 References-1 . Military Police Internment/Resettlement Operations. For the latest dates and versions of these references. and/or contain relevant supplemental information. 21 June 2000 FM 21-60. Combined Arms Operations in Urban Terrain.References These sources were quoted or paraphrased in this publication. Stability Operations and Support Operations. 6 April 1992 FM 21-10. 19 August 1996 w/Change 1.2 (FM 90-13-1). refer to DA Pam 25-30 or the Reimer Digital Library (RDL). and Agile. and Herbicide Operations. Techniques. Biological.11. Riot Control.

Tactical Employment of Antiarmor Platoons and Companies. Biological. MOS 19K. and Procedures. Risk Management for Multiservices Tactics. Biological.12. 18 April 2003 FM 1-112.91 (FM 7-91). 30 July 2004 SPECIAL TEXT (ST) ST 3-20.4 (FM 3-4). and Procedures for Nuclear. 4 July 2001 FM 3-90. Abrams Armor Crewman. and Chemical (NBC) Protection. Composite Risk Management Worksheet. 4 December 1990 w/Change 1. 11 June 2003 FM 3-100. The source listed in parenthesis is the superceded manual under the old numbering system.153. Skill Level 1. 1 August 2001 FM 3-21. and Nuclear Contamination Avoidance. 2 April 1997 FM 1-114. 2 February 2006 FM 3-11. and Chemical Reconnaissance. Guidelines for Safe Response to Handling.References SOLDIER’S TRAINING PLAN (STP) STP 17-19K1-SM. Biological. Smoke Operations. 2 January 2004 FM 3-50. 26 November 2002 FM 3-34 (FM 5-100 and FM 5-114). Tank Platoon SOP. M1/M1A1/M1A2/M1A2 SEP. Mission Training Plan for the Tank and Mechanized Infantry Company. and Transportation Accidents Involving Army Tank Munitions or Armor Which Contain Depleted Uranium. 21 July 1996 DOCUMENTS NEEDED These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication.3 (FM 3-3). Storage. and Procedures for Nuclear. Engineer Operations. Multiservice Tactics. READINGS RECOMMENDED These sources contain relevant supplemental information. Casualty Feeder Card. 1 June 2003 FIELD MANUAL (FM) FM 1-05 (FM 16-1). Techniques.2 (FM 71-2). DA Form 7566. Enemy Prisoner of War (EPW) Capture Tag. Attack Helicopter Operations. Tactics. 11 September l996 FM 3-90. Soldier’s Manual. Urban Operations. DA Form 2404. January 2002 TECHNICAL BULLETIN (TB) TB 9-1300-278. Techniques. Equipment Inspection Maintenance Worksheet. Religious Support. DA Form 1156. DD Form 2745. 1 February 2000 FM 3-06 (FM 90-10). ARMY TRAINING AND EVALUATION PROGRAM (ARTEP) ARTEP 71-1-MTP.19 (FM 3-19). Radiological. Military Police Internment/Resettlement Operations. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms. 1 June 2003 FM 3-11. Multi-Service Tactics.40 (FM 19-40). Chemical. 30 June 2004 FM 3-19. 15 February 2001 References-2 FM 3-20. The Tank and Mechanized Infantry Battalion Task Force. 2 June 2003 FM 3-11. Air Cavalry Squadron and Troop Operations. Techniques.15 22 February 2007 . DA Form 2028.

10 June 1985 FM 5-250. The Infantry Rifle Company. and Procedures for Peace Operations.12 (FM 21-10-1). 12 February 1999 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. Explosives and Demolitions. Combat Service Support. Tactical Employment of Mortars. Field Hygiene and Sanitation. 17 December 1968 FM 34-2-1. and Procedures for Observed Fire.15 References-3 . Tactics and Techniques for Combined Arms Heavy Forces: Armored Brigade. 27 October 1997 FM 20-32. 6 April l992 w/Change 1. 21 June 2000 FM 21-60. Techniques. Operations in a Low-Intensity Conflict. Light Infantry). Air Assault. Combat Health Support in Stability Operations and Support Operations. Tactics. Tactics. 24 August 1993 FM 90-4. River Crossing Operations. 29 August 2003 FM 4-25. U. 1 June 1999 FM 71-100. 30 September 1987 FM 22-100. and Procedures for Reconnaissance and Surveillance and Intelligence Support to Counterreconnaissance. Techniques. 5 January 1990 FM 6-30.S. Combined Arms for Air Defense. 1 April 2005 FM 21-10. 18 December 1990 FM 100-25. 30 September 1992 FM 90-3. 11 July 1990 w/Change 1. Military Academy. Countermobility. 13 December 2001 FM 7-98. 28 August 1976 FM 71-123. Desert Operations. 14 March 1985 FM 5-103. Terrain Analysis. Basic Cold Weather Manual. 25 January 2002 FM 5-33. and Procedures for Fire Support for Brigade Operations (Light). 29 May 1998 w/Change 5.References FM 4-0 (FM 100-10). 11 September 1992 FM 5-102. 16 July 1991 FM 7-10. 31 October 2000 FM 7-20. Joint Tactics. Unit Field Sanitation Team. 14 December 1990 w/Change 1. 19 June 1991 FM 44-8. 26 January 1998 FM 90-26. 12 April 1968 w/Change 1. 16 March 1987 FM 90-13. 17 May 1998 FM 6-20-50. and Company Team. Fire Support in the Airland Battle. The Infantry Battalion. Survivability. History Department.3. 19 October 1992 FM 8-42. 30 July 1998 FM 6-20. Techniques. Visual Signals. Army Leadership. Battalion Task Force. 9 October 1992 FM 7-92. Airborne Operations. Air Assault Operations. Division Operations. Tactics. 23 December 1992 w/Change 1. 1984 JOINT PUBLICATION (JP) JP 3-07. 29 December 2000 FM 7-90. Doctrine for Army Special Operations Forces. 31 August 1999 FM 31-70. Mine/Countermine Operations. Techniques. 1 August 1999 Leadership in Combat: An Historical Appraisal. The Infantry Reconnaissance Platoon and Squad (Airborne.

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1-8 platoon leader. 4-1 hasty occupation of a BP. 2-1 control. 3-18 offense. 2-25 use of wire. 6-10 combat identification measures. 3-25 action drill. 7-16 digital communications. 4 8 planning. A-1 capabilities and limitations. 3-33 react to chemical/biological attack drill. 4-12 sector sketch card. 4-13 platoon time line. 4-8 preparing the defense (fire distribution and control). 1-7 reporting initial contact. E-12 MOPP levels. E-5 protection. 4-28 crew responsibilities. 6-15 command. 1-7 actions on contact battle drills. 3-19 examples of. 7-1 combat support (see combined arms operations). C-1 military police assets. 2-41. 3 32 react to nuclear attack drill. 1-7 using fire patterns. 9-12 role of tank platoon. 2-29 cultural awareness. F-2 combat service support (see sustainment). 1-8 loader. 3 25 contact drill. 4-18 priorities of work. 2-2 command and control command. 2 12 time management. 1-7 communications. E-16 nuclear defense. E 13 civil support operations. 1-8 gunner. 2-10 decision-making. 3-18 air and missile defense assets. 2-25 use of pyrotechnics. 2-12 situational understanding. 3-27 actions on contact. 4-3 preparation of BP. 2-25 consolidation and reorganization. 6-13 combat engineers. 4-18 combat identification process. 1-7 platoon sergeant. 4-24 fire distribution and control. 3-35 C CBRN operations. E-3 movement in CBRN environment. 4-17 procedures for. E-1 chemical defense. 2-26 techniques and guidelines for effectiveness. 9-5 close air support. 2-26 driver. E-6 decontamination. 4-17 deliberate occupation of BP. 4-20 coordination for fires. 2-25 use of radio. 6-9 marking friendly positions. 4-11 execution. E-8 unmasking procedures. 3-25 eight forms of contact. 4 11 platoon fire plan. 9 11 considerations for. F-1 situational awareness. 3-25 change of formation drill. 3-18 building the EA.Index A Abrams tank capabilities. 6-14 collective tactical tasks (see platoon tactical tasks). 3-26 react to air attack drill. 6-11 armored cavalry troop organization.15 Index-1 . 2-11 troop-leading procedures (see also troop-leading procedures). 3-35 react to indirect fire drill. 6-1 air and missile defense. 2-12 counterattack. E-3 smoke operations. 4-21 deliberate occupation of BP. 6-1 infantry/armor (see infantry/armor operations). 1-5 Army aviation forces. 2-27 readiness conditions. 2-25 platoon radio net. 2-25 digitization. 1-6 limitations. 2-25 visual. 2-26 use of messengers. A-6 B battle drills. 2-24 company/troop command net. 6-13 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. 6 11 Army aviation. 6-10 fire support. 2-45 priorities of work. E-17 symptoms and treatment of casualties. 3-36 combat engineer assets. 3-46 control fire distribution and control (see also fire distribution and control). 6-1 combined arms operations. A-5 digital vs FM operations. 4-19 fundamentals of. E-7 avoidance. E-1 alarms and signals. 3-21 four steps of. 4-13 detainees handling principles and procedures. E-14 marking contaminated areas. F-2 target identification. 2-12 communications. 2-1 leadership. 2-15 D defensive operations. 9-1. 6-9 close air support. 2-1 contingency plans. A 9 duties and responsibilities. 4-1 actions on contact. 2-26 digital. 2-27 tank commander.

3-39. A-5. 2-23 use of inertial navigation systems. 3-7 fire patterns cross. 2-31 effective distribution of direct fires. 8-8. 2-39 control element for fire control. C-1 limited visibility operations. 2-5 troops. A-9 fratricide prevention. 2-18 support-by-fire position. 2-22 medical treatment and evacuation operations. 2-4 time available. 2-22 use of fires. 2-21 axis of advance. 2-21 assembly area. graphic control measures. 2-20 objective. 2-22 gunner responsibilities. C-9 transporting infantry. 4-30 defensive planning for extreme conditions. 2-17 navigation. 2-23 use of GPS devices. F-1 effects of. 2-20 passage lane. 2-16 use of. B-8 G graphic control measures. 7-16 F FBCB2. 6-8 firing techniques. 3-47 loader responsibilities. 2-40 execution element for fire control. 2-5 enemy. 2-30 depth. 2-15 maps. B-7 sample. 3-7. H-1 causes of. C-3 operational considerations. 3 47 additional considerations for tactical movement and attacks during. 3-16 MOPP levels. 7-11 digitization. 2-40 target description element for fire control. F-2 stopping friendly fire incident. 2-23 use of TIRS/GIRS. 2-32 formations during tactical operations. 1-8 digitization. 2-3 terrain and weather. 2-40 orientation element for fire control. 2-41 in offense. 2-12. 228 control. H-3 safety considerations. 2-38 distribution. 2-17 assault position. 2-18 attack position. 6-3 mortar. 2-19 contact point. H-2 combat identification measures. E-3 H hasty occupation of BP. 2-29 during defensive operations. 6 4 FA. 6-2 fire direction and control. navigation. 2-20 battle position. 2-19 direction of attack. F-2 L light/heavy operations (see infantry/armor operations). 2-16 types of overlays. 4-9 I infantry/armor operations. C-4 role of tank platoon. 7-16 KIA actions. 4-19 in defense. 4-26 methods. C-11 infantry organizations. 4 14. 8 14. 3 47 navigation methods during. 4-28. 7-9 evacuation of damaged vehicle. 3-26. H-5 prevention measures. 2-20 phase line. A-7. 2-18 route. 7-13 detainees. 5-30. A-9 E EPWs (see detainees). 6-1 planning. 2-17 checkpoint. A-1 displacement. C-10 N navigation. C-2 safety considerations. 2-23 Index-2 FM 3-20. 2-19 passage point. 1-8 (gunner on plt ldr tank) maintenance operations. 2-39 alert element for fire control. 3-19 fragmentary orders. H-2 leader responsibilities. A-1 operational considerations. 2-40 weapon or ammunition element for fire control. 5-31. 5-13. 2-29 frontal.Index tactical Internet and FBCB2. 2-5 missions overwatch. 2-30 fire support. 8-6. C-2 liaison activities. F-2 situational awareness. 2-3 mission. 2-22 boundries. 4-20. 4-20 equipment for use during. 7-12 levels of. 6 5 FIST. 3-47. 5 20. H-4 principles of. A-3 fire commands. C-1 considerations when tanks lead. 7-15 METT-TC analysis civilian considerations. 2-15 graphic control measures. 3 11 forms of contact. 2 39 fire distribution and control. 3-48 considerations. overlays. 4-8 initial occupation activities. 1-8 digitization. 4-26 driver responsibilities. A-8 M maintenance operations. 6-1 channels for fire request. 2-19 attack-by-fire position.15 22 February 2007 . 2 17. 4-9 must-have information. 2-41. 3-47 vehicle ID techniques during. 7-11 maps and overlays digital overlays. 2 21 target reference point. H-4 target identification. 5-8.

1-7 actions on contact. 1 6 leadership principles. 7 10 operating with light and mechanized infantry forces. B-1 fragmentary orders. 3-25 battlefield visualization. 4-14 verification of. 1-7 coordinating sustainment assets. 1-3 precombat inspections. 9-7 S sector sketch card. B-3 operational environment cultural awareness. C-4 maintenance operations. 3-40 attack by fire. B-7 operation orders. D-1 orders and reports. 3-3 preparation using war- fighting functions. 3-45 overwatch/support by fire. 2-10 platoon fire plan. 2-27. A-8 executing the defense (defensive fire planning). 2-32 graphics. B-1 organizations armored cavalry troop. 4-15 using FBCB2. 2-8 reporting. 2-27 initial contact. 2-12 22 February 2007 FM 3-20. overlays. 2-10 reporting. 1-5 tank platoon. 2-24 communications guidance. 2-27 rules of engagement. 3-1 general forms of tactical offense. 4-17 platoon leader responsibilities. 2-38 defensive fire planning (fire distribution and control in the defense). 4-14 when gaining an infantry section or losing a tank section. 4-21 fire distribution and control. 2-22 using maps and overlays. 3-36 assault. 2-10 controlling fires. 7-1 digitization. 4 16 infantry/armor operations. 6-1 communications. 2-41 defensive planning. 2-27 WIA evacuation. 4-13 critical elements for development. 1-5 light infantry. 7-19 captured documents and equipment. 3-3 precombat inspections. 1-2 overwatch. 4-16 sample. 3 36 hassty occupation of a platoon battle position (hasty defense). 3-7 offensive operations (technique of movement). 7-13 planning six-point contingency plan. 3-2 operation orders. D-3 offensive operations characteristics. B-2 orders. 7-14 platoon sergeant responsibilities. 3-46 execution (platoon tactical tasks). 2-27 routine. 2-45 rehearsals. 2-11 maintenance operations. 2-27 firing techniques. 4-14 situational understanding. 3-18 execution (consolidation and reorganization). 4-8 phases. 2-15 use of fire commands in fire control. B-1 reports.15 Index-3 . B-8 warning orders. 1-2 tank company. 3-16 P personnel operations. 3-47 planning using war-fighting functions. 4-8 digitization. 3-2 limited visibility. 3-44 preparation of a BP. 2-26 conducting backbrief.Index O observation posts. 2-27 SALUTE format. 7-18 prisoners of war (see detainees). 4-8 prisoners of war captured civilians. 3-38 breaching operations. 7-14 platoon tactical tasks. A-8 infantry/armor operations. maps. 4-24 fire coordination. 2-10 preparing the defense (defensive fire planning). 3-7 operating with infantry and armored forces. 4-1 characteristics of successful combat leader. 216 verifying sketch card. 3-39 reconnaissance by fire. 2-2 understanding operational environment. 2-15 operational security. 3-1 execution (actions on contact). 3-5 war-fighting functions. B-3 sample. B-8 digital traffic. 2-13 reports. 3-18 battle drills. 3-45 bypass. C-4 knowledge of equipment. 2-12 combined arms operations. 2-41 fundamentals. 1-4 WIA evacuation. 7-16 R REDCON levels. 1-3 planning offensive operations. 2-27 troop-leading procedures (see also troop-leading procedures). 2-39 use of terrain (see also navigation). 4-15 contingency plans. 3-42 destroy an inferior force. 3-7 fire distribution and control. 2-46 execution of defensive mission. 1-1. 2-14 characteristics of effective defense. 4-13 sample. 1-3 operating with light and mechanized infantry forces. B-2 five-paragraph format. 3-36 execution (tactical movement). 7 10 offensive fire planning. 4-3 defensive preparation of BP.

8-17 fire support. 1-2 tank platoon (see also split section concept). 7 9 medical treatment and evacuation. 1-1 split section concept. 2-14 communicaitons. 1-2 organization. 1-3 target identification. E-17 sources of. E-22 uses of. 2-24 cultural awareness. 8-13 sustainment. 9-2 considerations for. 1-3 tank platoon tasks actions at a contact point. 1-2 T tactical Internet.Index battlefield visualization. E-21 tactical considerations. 7-1 classes of supply. 7-6 sustainment. 2 11 eight steps of. 7-13 personnel operations. 8-13 war-fighting functions infantry/armor operations. munitions. 8-10 war-fighting functions urban operations. A-1 tactical movement engaging targets. 1-2 OPCON to. 2-2 METT-TC factors to analyze mission (see also METT- TC analysis). 2 28 terrain reference points. 8-10 maneuver. 7-14 tank company organization. 1-3 attached to mechanized infantry section. 5-33 tank sections attached to dismounted infantry squad. 5-8 delay. 7-2 methods of resupply. 4-3 offense. 1-3 wingman concept. 1-3 stability operations. 4-22 war-fighting functions defensive planning considerations. 1-5 tank platoon U urban operations. 7 11 reporting. A-8 maintenance operations. 3-9 use of terrain for cover and concealment. 3-11 overwatch. 5-3 tank commander responsibilities. 5-1 control measures. 3-2 war-fighting functions urban operations. 5-19 perimeter defense. 7-4 techniques of resupply. 9-4 examples of. 2-15 maps. 5-20 convoy escort. 7-13 supply operations. 5-5 relief in place. 8-2 command and control. 2 15 smoke operations. 8-1 armored vehicle fighting positions. 9-5 supply operations. 3-9 tactical road march. 2-27 treatment of WIA. overlays. 8-6 defensive operations. F-2 target reference points use of for directing and controlling direct fires. 5-30 tactical road march.15 22 February 2007 . 8-6 war-fighting functions urban operations. graphic control measures. 5-31 other tactical operations. 7-1 attached to. 8-3 Index-4 FM 3-20. B-1 sample. 2-10 rehearsals. 1-3 tank sections attached to dismounted infantry squad or mechanized infantry section. 5-30 planning and occupying assembly area. 4-9 troop-leading procedures abbreviated procedures. 8-13 vehicles. 2-3 precombat inspections. 3-7 formations. B-2 wingman concept. 8-12 war-fighting functions urban operations. E-17 split section concept principles of employing infantry and armored forces. 8-8 categories of. weapons. navigation. 8-7 offensive operations. 1-7 digitization. 9-1. 5 1 passage of lines. 2-15 operational environment. 5-31 screen. 2-8 W war-fighting functions defensive preparation considerations. 5 8 breaching operations. C-4 warning orders. 7-1 maintenance operations. 3-16 techniques of. 3-8 execution in offensive. 5-2 strip map sample. 9-12 role of tank platoon. 5-1 withdrawal. 8-12 intelligence. 8-7 war-fighting functions urban operations.

Army National Guard. and U. United States Army Chief of Staff Official: JOYCE E.15 22 February 2007 By order of the Secretary of the Army: PETER J.*FM 3-20.S. . SCHOOMAKER General. requirements for FM 3-20. Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number (IDN) 111029. MORROW Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army 0703202 DISTRIBUTION: Active Army.15.

PIN: 079435-000 .

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