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**Geodesics and Symmetries
**

Summary

Geodesics and Symmetries of

Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

or how exact solutions aren’t always as unpleasant as they

look

Mark Durkee

DAMTP

University of Cambridge

Based on arXiv:0812.0235 [gr-qc]

GR Lunchtime Seminar

Friday 6th February 2009

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Outline

Introduction

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Geodesics and Symmetries

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Summary

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Outline

Introduction

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Geodesics and Symmetries

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Summary

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

What’s new in d > 4?

**Most strikingly, can have black holes horizons of
**

non-spherical topology; black rings.

Black hole uniqueness is violated.

**Lots of new solutions with disconnected event horizons
**

too:black saturn etc...

**In d = 5 there are good solution generating methods, lots
**

of progress towards knowing all BHs with connected event

horizons.

**Possible solutions for d > 5 largely unknown. Lots more
**

allowed horizon topologies.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Outline

Introduction

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Geodesics and Symmetries

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Summary

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Black Rings

**A black ring is a stationary black hole spacetime with a
**

‘ring-like’ event horizon of topology S

1

×S

2

.

[Emparan and Reall(2002)]

**Black ring solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations are
**

known only in d = 5, though there are numerical results to

suggest that they exist in higher dimensions.

**Only known analytically in asymptotically ﬂat case, would
**

be very interesting to ﬁnd an AdS solution...

**Black rings must rotate about the S
**

1

in order to be regular.

**The minimum angular momentum is greater than the
**

maximum angular momentum of an MP BH, so

uniqueness violated.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Black Ring Metric

For black rings with no S

2

rotation, this leaves a family of regular

solutions, taking the form

ds

2

= −

H(y)

H(x)

(dt + Ω

ψ

(y)dψ)

2

+

R

2

H(x)

(x −y)

2

_

dx

2

G(x)

+

G(x)

H(x)

dφ

2

−

dy

2

G(y)

−

G(y)

H(y)

dψ

2

_

for some known polynomials G(ξ) = (1 −ξ

2

)(1 + λξ),

H(ξ) = 1 + λ

2

+ 2λξ.

Event horizon at y = y

h

, where G(y

h

) = 0.

R sets the lengthscale, λ sets shape of the ring.

**−∞< t < ∞, −1 ≤ x ≤ 1, −∞< y ≤ −1, 0 ≤ φ < 2π and
**

0 ≤ ψ < 2π.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

[Pomeransky and Sen’kov(2006)] generalized the black ring to

include rotation around the S

2

as well. Their solution is

moderately compact compared to some other exact solutions in

d = 5, but still a bit of a mess...

ds

2

= −

H(y, x)

H(x, y)

(dt + Ω)

2

+

R

2

H(x, y)

(x −y)

2

(1 −ν)

2

_

dx

2

G(x)

−

dy

2

G(y)

+

A(y, x)dφ

2

−2L(x, y)dφdψ −A(x, y)dψ

2

H(x, y)H(y, x)

_

.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Metric functions (1)

Don’t bother reading this slide

The functions given in the metric are all moderately

complicated polynomials, looking like this:

G(x) = (1−x

2

)(1+λx+νx

2

),

H(x,y) = 1+λ

2

−ν

2

+2λν(1−x

2

)y+2xλ(1−y

2

ν

2

)+x

2

y

2

ν(1−λ

2

−ν

2

),

L(x,y) = λ

√

ν(x−y)(1−x

2

)(1−y

2

)

[

1+λ

2

−ν

2

+2(x+y)λν−xyν(1−λ

2

−ν

2

)

]

,

A(x,y) = G(x)(1−y

2

)

[

((1−ν)

2

−λ

2

)(1+ν)+yλ(1−λ

2

+2ν−3ν

2

)

]

+G(y)

[

2λ

2

+xλ((1−ν)

2

+λ

2

)+x

2

((1−ν)

2

−λ

2

)(1+ν)

+x

3

λ(1−λ

2

−3ν

2

+2ν

3

)+x

4

ν(1−ν)(1−λ

2

−ν

2

)

]

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Metric functions (2)

Nor this one...

The rotation is described by the 1-form Ω = Ω

ψ

dψ + Ω

φ

dφ,

where

Ω

ψ

= −

Rλ

√

2((1+ν)

2

−λ

2

)

H(y,x)

1+y

1−λ+ν

(1 + λ −ν+

x

2

yν(1 −λ −ν) + 2νx(1 −y)

_

and

Ω

φ

= −

Rλ

_

2((1 + ν)

2

−λ

2

)

H(y, x)

(1 −x

2

)y

√

ν.

Note that it is dependent on a mixture of x and y.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Comments

**Asymptotically ﬂat, regular solution of the vacuum Einstein
**

equations.

**Probably the most general regular solution with S
**

1

×S

2

horizon.

**The ‘unbalanced’ generalization is really unpleasant, but
**

known analytically.

[Morisawa et al.(2008)Morisawa, Tomizawa and Yasui]

Parameter space (M, J

1

, J

2

) overlaps with that of doubly

spinning Myers-Perry, but only in moderately small region,

so uniqueness violated as in singly spinning.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

The Ergoregion

What is an ergoregion?

**In rotating black hole spacetimes, there is often a region
**

outside the black hole horizon where ‘frame dragging’

occurs.

**Corresponds to a region where the asymptotically timelike
**

Killing vector ∂/∂t becomes spacelike.

The Kerr metric is the standard example of this.

**The ‘ergosurface’ is the outer boundary of the ergoregion.
**

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

The Ergoregion

The Black Ring Ergoregion

**Singly spinning black ring has an ergosurface of topology
**

S

1

×S

2

surrounding the horizon.

**It turns out to be more complicated in the doubly spinning
**

case, depending on the exact shape of the ring, the

horizon can have differing topologies:

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Parameter Space

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Outline

Introduction

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Geodesics and Symmetries

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Summary

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

The Hamilton-Jacobi Equation

**Geodesic motion in a spacetime can be described by
**

solutions to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

∂S

∂τ

+H

_

x

a

,

∂S

∂x

b

_

= 0. (1)

(τ is an afﬁne parameter along a geodesic x

a

(τ)).

**This is really the mass shell condition in disguise:
**

1

2

g

ab

p

a

p

b

= −

1

2

µ

2

.

**We look for a Hamilton Principal Function S(τ; t, x, y, ψ, φ)
**

that solves (1); realistically we’ve only got a chance of

ﬁnding separable solutions, so we take this approach here.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Can we separate the HJ equation for the black ring?

At ﬁrst glance, trying to make any analytic progress looks

hopeless, but...

**We have three Killing vectors, and hence three conserved
**

momenta (Noether’s Theorem), so take a separable ansatz

S(τ, t, x, y, ψ, φ) =

1

2

µ

2

τ −Et + Φφ + Ψψ + S

x

(x) + S

y

(y).

**More remarkably, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation has
**

separable solutions if we set E = 0 and µ = 0, that is look

for zero-energy, null geodesics.

**These can exist in the ergoregion, where
**

∂

∂t

is spacelike.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

The Separated HJ equation

Introducing a separation constant c, we get:

(1 −ν)

2

G(x)p

2

x

−

1

G(x)

(−β(x)Φ

2

−2γ(x)ΦΨ + α(x)Ψ

2

) = c

(1 −ν)

2

G(y)p

2

y

−

1

G(y)

(α(y)Φ

2

−2γ(y)ΦΨ−β(y)Ψ

2

) = c

where

A(x, y) = G(x)α(y) + G(y)β(x)

L(x, y) = G(x)γ(y) −G(y)γ(x)

Note the choices of α, β, γ are not unique, can add multiples of

G, giving different separation constant.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Zero-energy, null geodesics

What are the geodesic paths?

**Described by ‘effective potential’ type equations:
**

R

4

H(x, y)

2

(x −y)

4

(1 −ν)

2

˙ x

2

+ U(x) = 0

and

R

4

H(x, y)

2

(x −y)

4

(1 −ν)

2

˙ y

2

+ V(y) = 0

where

U(x) = −

_

−β(x)Φ

2

−2γ(x)ΦΨ + α(x)Ψ

2

+ cG(x)

¸

and

V(y) = −

_

α(y)Φ

2

−2γ(y)ΦΨ−β(y)Ψ

2

+ cG(y)

¸

.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Geodesic Paths

**Can do some detailed analysis on allowed values of the
**

different parameters, but the qualitative motion is always

the same.

**The particle comes out of the white hole horizon, moves
**

outwards towards the ergosurface, and then falls back into

the black hole.

**The parameter c described how close to the ergosurface a
**

given geodesic gets.

**Rotation in the φ direction is optional. If Φ = 0 then the
**

geodesics cover the event horizon.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Aside:Axis geodesics

**The black ring has two ‘axes of symmetry’, actually
**

2-dimensional surfaces.

**Fixed point sets of Killing vectors ∂/∂ψ and ∂/∂φ, given by
**

y = −1 and x = ±1 respectively.

**They are totally geodesic submanifolds, ie a geodesic lying
**

tangent to the surface at some point is restricted to the

surface.

**Can therefore eliminate one of x or y, and studying
**

geodesics on these surfaces reduces to ODEs.

**[Hoskisson(2007)] does this in detail for the singly spinning
**

ring, will not mention it again here.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Outline

Introduction

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Geodesics and Symmetries

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Summary

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Why do we need new coordinates?

**Standard black ring coordinates break down at the event
**

horizon, to understand what lies across it we need to

construct some new coords. (cf Eddington-Finkelstein

coords for Schwarzchild)

**Might want to construct maximal analytic extension (cf
**

Kruskal extension for Schwarzchild); this has been done

recently in the singly spinning case.

[Chrusciel and Cortier(2008)]

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Known coordinate systems

In singly-spinning case there is a fairly straightforward

coordinate change already known:

dv = dt −

CR(1 + y)

G(y)

_

−H(y)

dy, d

˜

ψ = dψ +

_

−H(y)

G(y)

dy, d

˜

φ = dφ.

In doubly spinning case, [Elvang and Rodriguez(2008)] made

an ‘order by order’ change in coordinates of the form

d

¯

φ = dφ −

A

y −y

h

dy, d

¯

ψ = dψ −

B

y −y

h

dy, d

¯

t = dt −

C

y −y

h

dy.

Can be used to show that horizon is regular, but hard to write

down resulting metric in manfestly regular form. The extremal

case also needs second order terms.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Using geodesics to construct new coordinates (1)

**We know a family of null geodesics that cross the horizon,
**

and cover it (in the sense that for any point on the horizon,

one of these geodesics passes through it).

**This suggests a set of coordinates that must be regular as
**

we cross the horizon; choose 4 of our coordinates to be

constant along a given geodesic, and the 5th to be an

afﬁne parameter along it.

**Must be well-deﬁned, but a bit of a mess in practice...look
**

to reﬁne it a bit by preserving more symmetry.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Using geodesics to construct new coordinates (2)

**There is a nice (sort of) symmetry between (x, φ) and (y, ψ)
**

in the original coordinates, probably nice to preserve this in

the new coordinates.

**Also want to leave the Killing vectors unchanged, ie to have
**

∂

∂v

=

∂

∂t

,

∂

∂

˜

φ

=

∂

∂φ

and

∂

∂

˜

ψ

=

∂

∂ψ

.

**Most general coordinate change compatible with this is
**

v = t −η

t

(x, y),

˜

φ = φ −η

φ

(x, y),

˜

ψ = ψ −η

ψ

(x, y).

**We choose just 3 new coords that are constant along
**

geodesics, to do this need to solve

˙

t −

∂η

t

∂x

˙ x −

∂η

t

∂y

˙ y =

˙

φ −

∂η

φ

∂x

˙ x −

∂η

φ

∂y

˙ y =

˙

ψ −

∂η

ψ

∂x

˙ x −

∂η

ψ

∂y

˙ y = 0.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Using geodesics to construct new coordinates (3)

We have explicit expressions for ˙ x

a

along the geodesics (from

separated HJ equation):

˙ x = ±

(x−y)

2

(1−ν)

2

R

2

H(x,y)

√

−U(x)

˙ y = −

(x−y)

2

(1−ν)

2

R

2

H(x,y)

√

−V(y)

˙

φ =

(x−y)

2

R

2

H(x,y)G(x)G(y)

[A(x,y)Φ−L(x,y)Ψ]

˙

ψ =

(x−y)

2

R

2

H(x,y)G(x)G(y)

[−L(x,y)Φ−A(y,x)Ψ]

˙

t = −Ω

ψ

˙

ψ−Ω

φ

˙

φ

=

(x−y)

2

λ

√

2(1+ν−λ)(1+ν+λ)

RH(x,y)H(y,x)G(x)G(y)

_

1+y

1−λ+ν

(1+λ−ν+x

2

yν(1−λ−ν)+

2νx(1−y))[−L(x,y)Φ−A(y,x)Ψ]+(1−x

2

)y

√

ν[A(x,y)Φ−L(x,y)Ψ]

_

,

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Singly-spinning case

In singly-spinning case, the 3 PDEs have explicit separable

solutions, resulting in coordinate changes of the form

dv=dt−

CR(1+y)Ψ

G(y)

√

−V(y)

dy, d

˜

ψ=dψ−

ΨH(y)

G(y)

√

−V(y)

dy, d

˜

φ=dφ∓

ΦH(x)

G(x)

√

−U(x)

dx,

with resulting metric

ds

2

=−

H(y)

H(x)

(dv+Ω

ψ

d

˜

ψ)

2

+

R

2

H(x)

(x−y)

2

_

cdx

2

cG(x)−Φ

2

H(x)

−

cdy

2

cG(y)−Ψ

2

H(y)

±

2Φd

˜

φdx

√

cG(x)−Φ

2

H(x)

−

2Ψd

˜

ψdy

√

cG(y)−Ψ

2

H(y)

+

G(x)

H(x)

d

˜

φ

2

−

G(y)

H(y)

d

˜

ψ

2

_

.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Doubly-spinning case (1)

The PDEs for φ and ψ have explicit separable solutions, though

more complicated than before with both x and y dependence in

both. The PDE for t does not have a straightforward solution.

Can we set dη

t

= −Ω

ψ

dη

ψ

−Ω

φ

dη

φ

to get dt + Ω = dv +

˜

Ω?

No; it’s not a total derivative so not a coordinate change.

**Can we ﬁnd explicit, non-separable solution to the PDE?
**

Yes (method of characteristics) but not much practical help.

**It seems that we have to lower our aims; just look to make
**

˙ v =

˙

t −

∂η

t

∂x

˙ x −

∂η

t

∂y

˙ y < ∞.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Doubly-spinning case (2)

The ﬁniteness condition can be solved using the results of

[Elvang and Rodriguez(2008)], but made easier by already

having explicit expressions for the φ, ψ changes.

Resulting coordinate change is:

dv = dt−

D(γ(y)Φ + β(y)Ψ)

(1 −ν)G(y)

_

−V(y)

dy where D = R

¸

2

_

1 + ν + λ

1 + ν −λ

_

,

d

˜

φ = dφ ∓

β(x)Φ + γ(x)Ψ

(1 −ν)G(x)

_

−U(x)

dx −

−α(y)Φ + γ(y)Ψ

(1 −ν)G(y)

_

−V(y)

dy

d

˜

ψ = dψ ∓

γ(x)Φ −α(x)Ψ

(1 −ν)G(x)

_

−U(x)

dx −

γ(y)Φ + β(y)Ψ

(1 −ν)G(y)

_

−V(y)

dy

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Doubly-spinning case (3)

The result is a metric that is regular at the horizon, and the

regularity is almost manifest (the only place it’s not immediately

by inspection is in the

˜

Ω part).

It’s too complicated to display here but:

**Is the ﬁrst explicit form of the metric in the literature to be
**

regular at the event horizon.

**There are three free parameters in it; any two are
**

independent.

**Covers the entire horizon when Φ = 0, except it retains
**

x = ±1 ‘polar coordinate’ singularity.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Outline

Introduction

Higher-Dimensional Black Holes

Black Rings

Geodesics and Symmetries

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Summary

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Hidden Symmetries

**Things were simpler than we expected. Did we miss some
**

symmetry?

**Yes, but not easy to see this from the metric (unlike Killing
**

vectors).

**In 5 dimensions, expect to need 5 conserved quantities to
**

completely integrate geodesic motion.

What conserved quantities do we have?

Φ, Ψ, E: Associated with the 3 Killing vectors.

µ

2

= −g

ab

p

a

p

b

: Associated with the metric itself.

**c: From separation of the HJ equation, can it be linked to a
**

tensor?

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Review of Kerr metric

**The Kerr black hole in 4-dimensions is fairly complicated,
**

but remarkably the HJ equation is separable for all

geodesics. [Carter(1968)]

**[Walker and Penrose(1970)] showed that this is due to the
**

existence of a Killing tensor K

ab

, satisfying the generalised

Killing equation

∇

(a

K

bc)

= 0.

**Can read it off explicitly from the separated HJ equation
**

p

2

θ

+

_

ap

t

sin θ +

p

φ

sin θ

_

2

+ a

2

µ

2

cos

2

θ = K = K

ab

p

a

p

b

∆p

2

r

+ 2

_

(r

2

+ a

2

)p

t

−ap

φ

¸

p

r

−r

2

µ

2

= −K = −K

ab

p

a

p

b

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Hidden symmetries of the Black Ring

**We look to see whether the weaker separability of the HJ
**

equation for the black ring (singly or doubly spinning) can

be linked to a similar Killing tensor structure.

**Obviously answer is yes or I wouldn’t be talking about it,
**

but it’s not so simple here...

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Null, zero-energy condition

We only have separability in the null (µ = 0), zero energy

(E = 0) case. Expanding the conserved quantity

g

ab

p

a

p

b

= −µ

2

in this special case gives

g

ij

p

i

p

j

−2g

0i

Ep

i

+ g

00

E

2

= 0 ⇒g

ij

p

i

p

j

= 0.

This means:

Only the g

ij

components seem to matter.

**The separability is a conformally invariant property.
**

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Kaluza-Klein reduction

**To deal with the ﬁrst condition, we perform a dimensional
**

reduction of the geometry along ∂/∂t, which is spacelike in

the ergoregion.

**This results in a 4-dim spacetime of the form
**

ds

2

4

= h

ij

dx

i

dx

j

= Λ

2

(x, y)

_

dx

2

G(x)

−

dy

2

G(y)

+

A(y, x)dφ

2

−2L(x, y)dφdψ −A(x, y)dψ

2

H(x, y)H(y, x)

_

where Λ

2

(x, y) is some (fairly complicated) conformal factor

that is ﬁxed by the KK reduction, but not overly important in

what follows.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

KK reduced geodesics

In 5D, we know all of the null geodesics with zero Noether

charge along the KK direction.

Under dimensional reduction:

**Noether charge along KK direction in 5D →EM charge of
**

orbit in 4D.

**Null geodesics with zero Noether charge along KK
**

reduction →Null geodesics in 4D.

As a result, we know all null geodesics; this is a conformally

invariant statement.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Conformal Killing Tensors (1)

Conformal generalization of the Killing equation:

∇

(a

K

bc)

= ω

(a

g

bc)

We hope that our dimensionally reduced spacetime will

possess a conformal Killing tensor; can read this off from the

separated HJ equation which takes the form

K

ij

(1)

p

i

p

j

= K

ij

(2)

p

i

p

j

= c, or explicitly:

(1 −ν)

2

G(x)p

2

x

−

1

G(x)

(−β(x)p

2

φ

−2γ(x)p

φ

p

ψ

+ α(x)p

2

ψ

) = c

(1 −ν)

2

G(y)p

2

y

−

1

G(y)

(α(y)p

2

φ

−2γ(y)p

φ

p

ψ

−β(y)p

2

ψ

) = c.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Conformal Killing Tensors (2)

Pick ‘most symmetric’ CK tensor:

K ≡ K

(1)

+ K

(2)

(note K

(1)

−K

(2)

= (1 −ν)

2

h)

This satisﬁes the conformal Killing equation. It is a Killing

tensor (ie not just conformal) in spacetime with Λ = const (not

what we get directly by KK reduction).

We always have freedom to add on

**Arbitrary multiples of the metric. (ie f (x)h
**

ij

for any smooth

function f )

**Constant linear combinations of symmetrized products of
**

Killing vectors.

without affecting the conformal Killing tensor property.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Explicit form of inverse metric and CK Tensor

h

−1

Λ

2

=

_

_

_

_

_

_

G(x) 0 0 0

0

1

(1−ν)

2

_

β(x)

G(x)

+

α(y)

G(y)

_

0

1

(1−ν)

2

_

γ(x)

G(x)

−

γ(y)

G(y)

_

0 0 −G(y) 0

0

1

(1−ν)

2

_

γ(x)

G(x)

−

γ(y)

G(y)

_

0 −

1

(1−ν)

2

_

β(y)

G(y)

+

α(x)

G(x)

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

K =

_

_

_

_

_

_

G(x) 0 0 0

0

1

(1−ν)

2

_

β(x)

G(x)

−

α(y)

G(y)

_

0

1

(1−ν)

2

_

γ(x)

G(x)

+

γ(y)

G(y)

_

0 0 G(y) 0

0

1

(1−ν)

2

_

γ(x)

G(x)

+

γ(y)

G(y)

_

0

1

(1−ν)

2

_

β(y)

G(y)

−

α(x)

G(x)

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Conformal Killing-Yano tensors

Can we explore this symmetry further?

**Recall David Kubizˇ nák’s talk last term; sometimes CK
**

tensors have a ‘square root’, which is in some sense more

fundamental.

**These conformal Killing-Yano (CKY) tensors are 2-forms
**

solving the conformal Killing-Yano equation

∇

(a

k

b)c

= g

ab

ξ

c

−ξ

(a

g

b)c

where ξ

b

=

1

d −1

∇

a

k

ab

,

with K

ab

≡ k

ac

k

c

b

consequentially a CK tensor.

**There is particular interest in closed CKY tensors, it turns
**

out Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetimes possess these tensors in

all dimensions.

**It’s natural to ask whether our dimensionally reduced
**

spacetime has this structure...

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Existence of a CKY tensor

Singly-spinning case

To explore this we can try to solve K

ij

≡ k

ik

k

k

j

directly.

In the singly-spinning case this rapidly yields a solution

k = Λ

3

_

1

_

H(x)

dx ∧ dφ −

1

_

−H(y)

dy ∧ dψ

_

which does satisfy the CKY equation. Note that k is also a

solution.

We could have chosen a different CK tensor to ‘square root‘ (eg

K

(1)

), this is a nice choice since resulting CKY 2-form is

non-degenerate.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Geodesics

New Coordinates

Hidden Symmetries

Existence of a CKY tensor

Doubly-spinning case

No CKY tensor exists for any doubly-spinning black ring.

**Proof is conceptually straightforward: prove that K
**

ij

≡ k

ik

k

k

j

has no solutions.

**Subtlety is that we have allow for adding on multiples of
**

metric/Killing vectors.

**End result: The 4d spacetime obtained by KK reducing a
**

black ring possesses a CKY tensor if and only if the

associated ring is singly-spinning.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Summary

We have shown

**The ergosurface topology of the doubly spinning black ring
**

can be either S

1

×S

2

or S

3

∪ S

3

.

**Null, zero energy geodesics can be described analytically
**

for the doubly spinning black ring.

**These geodesics cross the horizon, and can hence be
**

used to construct new coordinates that are regular at the

horizon.

**The extra symmetry allowing for this separation can be
**

related to the existence of a conformal Killing tensor in a

related 4-dimensional space.

Other questions

What happens in the unbalanced case?

Klein-Gordon equation?

**Maximal analytic extension?
**

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

The end

.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Carter, B. (1968).

Global Structure of the Kerr Family of Gravitational Fields.

Phys. Rev. 174, 1559–71.

Chrusciel, P. T. and Cortier, J. (2008).

On the geometry of Emparan-Reall black rings .

Elvang, H. and Rodriguez, M. J. (2008).

Bicycling Black Rings.

JHEP 04, 045.

Emparan, R. and Reall, H. S. (2002).

A rotating black ring in ﬁve dimensions.

Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 101101.

Hoskisson, J. (2007).

Particle Motion in the Rotating Black Ring Metric .

Morisawa, Y., Tomizawa, S. and Yasui, Y. (2008).

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

Introduction

Geodesics and Symmetries

Summary

Boundary Value Problem for Black Rings.

Phys. Rev. D77, 064019.

Pomeransky, A. A. and Sen’kov, R. A. (2006).

Black ring with two angular momenta .

Walker, M. and Penrose, R. (1970).

On Quadratic First Integrals of the Geodesic Equations for

Type [22] Spacetimes.

Commun. Math. Phys. 18, 265–274.

Mark Durkee Geodesics and Symmetries of Doubly-Spinning Black Rings

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