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This project is implemented for the monitoring and control system of multiple machines based on programmable logic controller (PLC) technology. Also, the implementation of the hardware and software for speed control and operating timing of machines obtained from the tests on performance are also provided. The PLC correlates the operational parameters to the speed requested by the user and monitors the system during normal operation and under trip conditions. Tests of the multiple machines system driven by inverter and controlled by PLC prove higher accuracy in speed regulation as compared to a conventional V/f control system. The efficiency of PLC control is increased at high speeds up to 95% for the speed control and switching of multiple machines . Thus, PLC proves themselves as a very versatile and effective tool in industrial control of electric drives.

A multi-machine control (MMC) system for automatic control of the speed control and time operated systems has been executed on a recently delivered sixth-generation. The MMC allows full automatic control of these systems from one operator using one PLC. This article will discuss the control system and machine hardware and software and how the development process has taken this technology from concept to a multiple machines that adds value, efficiency and safety. MMC is a software tool designed to improve trip-in and trip-out operations, focusing mainly on safety and efficiency. There are other advantages, such as less wear and tear and more constant tripping speeds. By allowing the PLC to carry out speed control and controlling all the machines simultaneously, one operator can perform tripping faster and safer than what three operators could previously do. A fixed sequence is also more predictable, thus increasing safety on the machines. When they are familiarized with the sequence, they will know what each machine will do next. In contrast, with several operators controlling different machines, there is an uncertainty as to how the machines will move next.

Wear and tear on the machines is reduced because MMC operates each piece of equipment in an optimal manner. More constant and predictable speeds are achieved because MMC does not tire out, nor is it very susceptible to the variety of operator experience. As long as the operator is

maintaining the speed, acknowledging certain stages in the tripping operation, MMC will handle the machine in the exact same way every time. Handing over pipe between two machines is where MMC has one of the biggest impacts on time savings. Several newer rig designs have moved setbacks off drill floor, effectively lowering upwards of 1,000 metric tons 20 m down. This increases both stability and variable deck load (VDL), but the consequence is the need for additional machines. Depending on how many additional machines are required and on layout, MMC will help to maintain a good tripping speed. Design of the MMC is based on a modular principle, allowing it to be applied to a variety of drillfloor designs. The speed, or time-saving factor, is determined by the number of machines, how fast each machine can do its part of the job and how fast interaction between them can be carried out. This article will look at the development of the system from concept to a fully working automated drill floor. It will look at the control system principle and both hardware and software design. When performance is discussed, it will use a recently delivered sixth-generation semisubmersible, where the setback area has been moved off the drill floor, as an example. The paper will also look at how implementation and testing have been carried out in order to finetune the system for maximum performance.

The main purpose of the MMC is to increase tripping speeds without compromising any other safety devices . Increased tripping speeds are achieved in two ways: By maintaining a more constant speed throughout a trip-in or trip-out operation; By optimizing machine interactions, . The main design philosophy is based on a modular design using existing machine controls to achieve full automation. This will allow the system to be implemented on any machine. The first MMC system was implemented on a semisubmersible but can just as easily be implemented on various machine


A primary design feature of the MMC is that it normally requires no additional hardware in the field. A PLC connected to same network as the other machine controllers is all that is required. If additional feedback, i.e. new hardware, is required, this is added to the machine controller in question. For software, the design is based on a modular principle. Each machine in the sequence is represented by a module (blocks of machine code), which in turn is divided into sequence controls for trip in and trip out, command mapping toward the actual machine controller and common controls for all the machines in the MMC setup. In addition, there is an overall control to monitor the sequence. This is used to select the appropriate camera for the CCTV system. It

will also maintain the other features of the system, such as initialization, setup, operator messages and machine registration.



A programmable logic controller is a solid-state system designed to perform the logic functions previously accomplished by components such as electromechanical relays, drum switches, mechanical timers/counters, etc., for the control and operation of manufacturing process and machinery Even though the electromechanical relay (control relays, pneumatic timer relays, etc.) has served well for many generations, often, under adverse conditions, the ever-increasing sophistication and complexity of modern processing equipment requires faster acting, more reliable control functions than electromechanical relays and/or timing devices can offer. Relays have to be hardwired to perform a specific function, and when the system requirements change, the relay wiring has to be changed or modified. In extreme cases, such as in auto industry, complete control panels had to be replaced since it was not economically feasible to rewire the old panels with each model changeover. It was, in fact, the requirements of the auto industry and other highly sophisticated, high-speed manufacturing processes that created a demand for smaller, faster acting, and more reliable control devices. The electrical/electronics industry responded with modular-designed, solid-state electronic devices. These early devices, while offering solid-state reliability, low power consumption, expandability, and elimination of much of the hard-wiring, also brought with them a new language. The language consisted of AND gates, OR gates, NOT gates, OFF RETURN MEMORY, J-K flip flops, and so on.

What happened to simple relay logic and ladder diagrams? That is the question the plant engineers and maintenance electricians asked the solid-state device manufacturers. The reluctance of the end user to learn a new language and the advent of the microprocessor gave the industry what is now known as the Programmable logic controller (PLC). The first programmable logic controller was invented in 1969 by Richard (Dick) E. Morley, who was the founder of Modicon Corporation.

The National Electrical Manufacturing Association (NEMA) defines a programmable controller as follows: A programmable controller is a digital electronic apparatus with a programmable memory for storing instructions to implement specific functions, such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic to control machines and processes.

PLCs are designed to be operated by plant engineers and maintenance personnel with limited knowledge of computers. Like a computer, which has an internal memory for its operation and storage of a programme, the PLC also has memory for storing the user programme, or LOGIC, as well as a memory for controlling the operation of a process machine or driven equipment. But unlike a computer the PLC is programmed in RELAY LADDER LOGIC, not one of the computer languages. It should be stated, however, that some PLCs will use a form of Boolean Algebra to enter the RELAY LADDER LOGIC.

The PLC is also designed to operate in the industrial environment with wide ranges of ambient temperature, vibration, and humidity, and not usually affected by the electrical noise that is inherent in most industrial locations.

2.2Components of PLC :
A typical PLC can be divided into four components each of which has a unique job in its operation. 1. 2. 3.

Processor unit Input/Output section Programming terminal

Power supply

2.2.1. Processor Unit

The processor or CPU unit houses the processor which is the decision-maker, or brain of the system. The brain is a microprocessor-based system that replaces control relays, counters, timers, sequencers, and so forth, and is designed so that the user can enter the desired programme in RELAY LADDER LOGIC. The processor then makes all the decisions necessary to carry out the user programme, based on the status of the inputs and outputs for control of a machine or process. It can also perform arithmetic functions, data manipulations, and communications between the local input/output section, remotely located I/O sections, and/or other networked PLC systems.

2.2.2.Input / Output section

The input/output section consists of input modules and output modules. The number of input and output modules necessary is dictated by the requirements of the equipment that is to be controlled by a PLC. Input and output modules, referred to as the I/O (I for input and O for output) are where the real-world devices are connected. The real-world input (I) devices can be push button, limit switches, analog sensors, thumbwheels, selector switches, etc., while the real world output devices (O) can be hard-wired coils, solenoid valves, indicator lights, positioning valves, and the like. The term real world is used to separate actual devices that exist and must be physically wired as compared to the internal functions of the PLC system that duplicate the function of relays, timers, counters, and so on. Real- world input and output devices are of two types: discrete and analog. Discrete I/O devices are either ON or OFF, open or closed, while analog devices have an infinite number of possible values. Examples of analog input devices are temperature probes, and pressure indicators. The input an analog input devices (varying voltage or current) is converted by way of an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC). The conversion value is proportional to the analog input signal and is stored in memory for later use of comparison. Limit switches, push buttons, and the like, are examples of discrete input devices.

2.2.3. Programming Terminal

The programming device is used to enter the desired programme or sequence of operation into the PLC memory. The programme is entered using RELAY LADDER LOGIC, and it is this programme that determines the sequence of operation and ultimate control of the process equipment or driven machinery. The programming device can be any one of three types; hand-held; dedicated; or personal computer. The personal computer, or PC, is the most common Programming device. The hand-held programmers are small, lightweight, and convenient to use in the field. The small size, however, limits the display capabilities, which in turn limits its effectiveness for reviewing the programme or using the programmer for troubleshooting.

2.2.4. Power Supply

The power supply is necessary to convert 120 or 240 volts AC voltages to the low voltage DC required for the logic circuits of the processor, and for the internal power required for the I/O modules. The power supply can be a separate unit or one, depending on the manufacturer, that is an integral part of the processor. Note: The power supply does not supply power for the actual input or output devices themselves; it only provides the power needed for the internal circuitry of the input and output modules. DC power for the input and output devices if required, must be provided from a separate source. The size or ampere rating of the power supply is based on on the size, number, and type of I/O modules that are to be used. Power supplies are normally available with output current ratings of 3 20 amps.

2.3.Input module

Field Wiring for Ac Input Module

Input module serves as the link between field devices and the PLCs CPU. Each input module has a terminal block for attaching input wiring from each individual field input device. Typical input modules have either 8, 16 or 32 input terminals.
The main function of an input module is to take the field device input signal, convert it to a signal level that the CPU can work with electrically isolate it, and send the signal by way of the back plane board, to the CPU

when the input device is closed 120V ac is applied to the bridge rectifier through resistance R1 and R2. this produces a low-level direct current (dc) voltage, which is applied across the LED of the optical isolator. The zener diode (Zp) voltage rating sets the minimum level of voltage that can be detected. When light from the LED strikes the photo transistor, it switches into conduction and status of the input device is communicated in logic or low-level dc voltage to the processor. The optical isolator not only separates the higher ac input voltage from the logic circuits, but also prevents damage to the processor due to line voltage transients. Optical isolation also helps reduce the effects of electrical noise, common in the industrial environment which can cause erratic operation of the processor. Coupling and isolation can also be accomplished by use of a pulse transformer.

2.3.2Output module

Figure 1-5
Field Wiring for AC Output Module

Output modules serve as the link between the PLCs microprocessor and hardware field device. Each output module has a terminal block for attaching output wiring to go to each individual field output device. Typical output modules have either 8, 16 or 32 output terminals. The output signal, once received from the CPU, must be stored before being sent to each output modules output screw terminals. The main function of an output module is to take the CPUs control signal (sent by way of the backplane), electrically isolate it and energise or de-energise the modules switch in device to turn on (or turn off) the output field device. The output module provides a connection to a motor starter for CPU control as a result of interaction with the user program.

2.4Analog I/O Modules

Analog input modules are used to convert analog signals from analog devices that sense such variables as temperature, light intensity, speed, pressure, and position to 12-Bit Binary or to 3-digit Binary-Coded Decimal (BCD), depending on the manufacturer, for use by the processor. The conversion from analog to digital is accomplished with an Analog-to-Digital Converter, or ADC. The analog output module changes the 12-Bit Binary or 3-digit BCD value used by the processor into analog signals using a Digital-to-Analog Converter, or DAC. These analog signals can be used for speed controllers, signal amplifiers, or valve positioners.

Figure 1-8
Analog Input Module

Another type of analog input module is the Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) Input module. The module senses RTD signals at its inputs and converts them to corresponding temperature or ohmic values in 4-digit BCD or 12-bit binary format. Figure 1-9 shows typical wiring for an RTD device. Note that one end of the shielded cable has been grounded.

NOTE: PLC manufacturers are introducing new and special application modules almost daily. A few modules have been discussed here only for basic understanding. The local PLC representatives should be contacted for a full and complete list(s) of modules that are available. There are basically three characteristics that need to be considered when selecting an analog input. They are 1. Unipolar (positive only) or Bipolar (plus and minus) 2. Input Range, 3. Number of Bits of Resolution.

2.5Sourcing and Sinking

The terms sourcing and sinking refer to the manner in which DC devices are wired. To properly interface DC devices with the outside world, the difference between sourcing and sinking must be understood. Figure 1.10 is an example of a sourcing application. The positive potential is connected to the input module and the negative is connected to the input device. Using conventional current flow (+ or -), it is said that the input module is the source of supply for the real-world input device. Stated simply, the input device receives current from the input module. In electronics if a device (input module) provides current, it is said to be sourcing.

2.6.Operation of PLC (Signal Flow)

The PLC is controlled by a microprocessor which is basically a digital computer. In order to effectively program or troubleshoot a PLC we must understand the basics of the inner workings of the PLC, how and where data is stored and the format in which it is stored. The PLCs memory is comprised of two sections, system memory and application memory. System memory is the read-only, personality portion of memory. Without the executive or personality, programmed into memory, the PLC will not know how to operate follow user instructions or accept or process inputs or outputs.

Application memory consists of two areas. The first is reserved exclusively for the user ladder program. In the second area, data files are divided into separate files, each of which stores specific information. Data memory has separate files for input status output status bits words, timer and counter data control words and PLC internal status information. Input signals are wired to input modules screw terminals each of which is assigned a specific address. Address assignment is determined not only by the screw terminal number identified on the module but also by the position of the module in the PLC chasis. The entire operation of the PLC can be described in six steps. The input signal is seen by the input module. The input module isolates and converts the input signal to a low-voltage signals with which the PLC can work. The ON or OFF signal from the input section is sent via the backplane to the input status file where it is stored. The processor will look at each inputs ON or OFF level as it solves the user program. The resulting ON or OFF action as a result of solving each rung is sent to the output status file for storage. During the output update portion of the scan the processor will send the ON or OFF signal from each bit in the output status file to the associated output screw terminal by way of the output module.

Individual ladder programming symbols are represented as instructions in the CPU section. The notations I:0/1, I:0/2 and 0:0/1 represent the instructions and their address. When programming the PLC, these instructions are entered one-by one

and stored sequentially in the user program portion of the processors memory. When the PLC is in run mode, these instructions are combined to arrive the resulting ON or OFF state of each rungs output.

2.7.PLC Scan Function

The processor in any PLC is designed to perform specific duties in a specific sequence and then continuously repeat the sequence. The operating cycle is also called the processor scan or sweep. A scan consists of a series of sequential operations that include house keeping data input, program execution, data output, servicing or updating the programming device, system communications and diagnostics. Each of these steps will be described in further detail. This scan cycle is performed sequentially and repeatedly when the processor is in run mode. The processor could be in run mode for hours days, weeks, even months.

The user program will execute from the top or rung zero straight through to the last rung continuously unless altered by an instruction specifically designed to alter the flow of the programme.

2.7.1. Input Scan

During the input scan, the CPU scans each input module for the ON or OFF states of each of the associated input points. The ON and OFF input states are stored in the input status file.

2.7.2. Program scan

After the inputs are read and stored in the input status file, the processor will use this information to solve user ladder program, the processor scans the user program starting at rung zero at the left power rail working left to right and evaluating one instruction at a time until the output instruction is reached. The output status is the logical resultant of the solved input logic for that rung. The

logical one or zero output status is placed in the output status file. When the rung zero is completed, the processor goes on to rung one, rung two, rung three and so on. Sequentially up to the last rung. After the last rung of the ladder logic is executed, there is one additional rung in the programme, this last rung is automatically inserted by the software. The last rung is the end rung the end rung alerts the CPU that it has reached the end of the ladder programme. After the inputs are read and stored in the input status file, the user program is solved, the processor sends (writes) the resulting logical ON or OFF state for each output to the output status file and the output scan is executed.

2.7.3. Output scan

The output scan is the function where the CPU writes the ON or OFF status, one word at a time to the associated output module. Each output status word is comprised of ON or OFF electrical signals; there is one ON or OFF signal for each output point. Each module output point latches its ON or OFF signal into its electronic hardware to keep the output in the proper status until the next output scan sends an update. The time it takes to read an input, solve the user program and turn on or off the corresponding output is called the system throughput.

2.7.4.Service communications
The servicing of communications includes updating the handheld or personal computers monitor screen and sending communications to other PLCs on a network or operator interface devices.

The processor memory module
The processor memory module that forms the major part of the CPU housing is the brain of the programmable controller. This module contains the microprocessor, memory chips, circuits that store and retrieve information from the memory and communications circuits required for the processor to interface with the programming device.

2.8.1Memory design
Memory is where the control plans or program is held or stored in the controller. The information stored in the memory relates to how the input and output data should be processed. The complexity of the program determines the amount of memory required. Memory elements store individual pieces of information called bits ( for binary digits) the amount of memory capacity is specific in increments of 1000 or in K increments where 1 K is 1024 bytes of memory storage (a byte is 8 bits) Although there are many types memory, memory can be placed into two categories, volatile and non volatile. Volatile memory will lose its stored information if all operating power is lose its stored information if all operating power is lost or removed. Volatile memory is easily altered and quite suitable for most applications when supported by battery back up. Non volatile memory has the ability to retain stored information when power is removed accidentally or intentionally. Although nonvolatile memory generally is unalterable, there are special types used in which the stored information can be changed.

Memory types
2.8.2 Read only memory (ROM)
Read only memory (ROM) is designed so that information stored in memory can only be read and under ordinary circumstances cannot be changed. Information found in the Rom is placed there by the manufacturer for the internal use and operation of the PLC. Read only memories are non volatile they retain their information when power is lost and do not require battery back up.

2.8.3 Random access memory (RAM or R/W)

Random access memory often refers to as read write (R/W) memory is designed so that information can be written into or read from the memory. There are two types of RAM. The volatile RAM and the non volatile RAM.

Todays controllers for the most part use the CMOS. RAM with battery support for user program memory. Random access memory provides an excellent means for easily creating and altering a program. The CMOS RAM is becoming very popular because if has a very low current drain (15 A range) when not being accessed and the information stored in its memory can be retained by as little as 2V dc.

2.8.3 Programmable Read only Memory (PROM)

The programmable read only memory (PROM) is a special type of ROM. Programmable read only memory allows initial and or additional information to be written into the chip programmable read memory may be written into only once after being received from the manufacturer. Programming is accomplished by pulses of current that melt fusible links in the chips, preventing it from being programmed. Very few controllers use PROM for program memory since any program change would require a new set of PROM chips.

2.8.4 Erasable Programmable read only memory (EPROM)

The erasable programmable read only memory is a specially designed PROM that can be reprogrammed after being entirely erased with the use of an ultraviolet light source. The EPROM chip has a quartz window over a silicon material that contains the integrated circuits. This window is normally covered by an opaque material. When the opaque material is removed and the circuitry exposed to ultraviolet light for approximately 20 min. The memory content can be erased. Once erased the EPROM chip can be reprogrammed using the programming device.

2.8.5 Electrically Alterable Read - Only Memory (EAROM)

Electrically alterable read-only memories are similar to EPROMS, but do not require an ultraviolet light source to erase them. Instead, an erasing voltage is applied to the proper pin connections of the EAROM chip to wipe it clean. Once erased, the chip can be reprogrammed.

2.8.6 Electrically Erasable Memory (EEPROM)



Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory is a non volatile memory that offers the same programming flexibility as does RAM. Several small and medium size controllers use EEPROM as the only memory for the system. It provides permanent storage of the program and can be easily changed using standard programming devices.

2.9 Memory Organisation

Each PLC manufacturer uses a slightly different method of organizing the information which is stored in the memory of the machine. Although all PLCs have similarities in their memory structure, such as RAM and ROM chips, the locations where the bits of information are stored and the method the CPU uses to read these data can vary quite substantially. Memory organization takes into account the way a PLC divides the available memory into different sections. Because ROM memory contains information that is not alterable, this portion of memory is a fixed quantity. However, application memory is usually quite flexible in terms of how many bytes of information are allocated for any particular function. For example, if you are programming a PLC system which requires a large number of counters and timers, it is possible on some PLCs the size of the memory allotted for these instructions. The entire processor memory of a typical PLC is divided into three major parts: data table, user programme, and message storage data. These sections store information about the status of an input or output device, and are also used to store programme instructions and messages.

2.10 Programming a Programmable Controller

The PLC can do nothing without someone developing a program and loading this user program into the CPUs memory. Once the CPU has the program in memory and has been put into run mode, it can look at inputs and as a result of solving the user program ladder logic instructions, it can control the outputs and their associated field devices.

There are multiple ways to program a PLC:

One of the oldest methods of programming a PLC is by pressing buttons on a hand-held programming terminal to enter a user program. The most popular method of PLC programming is using a personal desktop computer and either a DOS or Windows operating system to run the manufacturers software.

PLC programming can be accomplished using a notebook personal computer and a personal computer memory card International Association (PCMCIA) interface card, or in some cases a direct connection between the personal computer serial port and the PLC CPU. Using an industrial computer and the PLC manufacturers programme software.

Using third party Open Software and running a personal computer as the PLCs CPU. This chapter will explain the various methods available for programming a PLC and the advantages and disadvantages of each

2.10.1Handheld Programming Terminals

One of the oldest methods entering programming instructions into a PLCs CPU is to use the manufactures handheld programming terminal. A handheld programmer (HHP) or handheld terminal (HHT) is a compact, portable, easy-touse unit containing multi-colored, multifunction keys and a display screen. Instructions entry using a handheld programmer is as simple as pressing a series of buttons on the programmer. The typical handheld programmer has keys that are grouped and color coded by function (function keys). There are usually keys for instruction entering and editing, navigation keys for moving around the program and trouble shooting keys. Figure 1-17 illustrates an Allen- Bradley SLC 500 handheld programming terminal.

The Allen-Bradley Micrologix 1000 Handheld Programmer (HHP)

The programmer is connected to the CPU either via a cable or in some cases by connecting the programming directly to the front of the PLC and thus to the CPU. Each handheld programming terminal will only work with the manufacturers PLC for which it was designed. The HHP display will also vary depending on the particular HHP you may be using some displays will only display the last instruction that has been programmed while other units displays will display from two to four rungs of ladder logic. Figure 1-18 is a sample display from SLC 500 handheld programmer showing a typical rung of logic, illustrates two rungs of logic on the handheld programmer display. Notice the cursor positioning (with the arrow Keys)

2.11 PCs and PLC Programming

Even though the handhold programmer can be used to program a PLC, the most common use of the handheld programmer is as a troubleshooting tool. Today, a personal computer is used to develop and edit most PLC programs. A standard IBM. Compatible personal computer is used to run PLC programming software purchased as part your PLC hardware and software package. PLC software is specially designed to program a certain family of PLCs from a specific manufacturer. Most PLC program development software packages will not allow

you to develop programs on another manufactures PLCs. In some cases, a single manufacturers a single manufacturer will have multiple PLC families, each of which will require its own software to program. PLC program development software is used to create, edit, document, store and monitor PLC user programs. Printed hard-copy reports, containing ladder diagrams, system configurations, documentation and the contents of each data file are available from most software package. Printouts are generated in the software and printed on your personal computers printer. In addition, PLC software packages provide troubleshooting assistance through monitoring a PLC program while it is running. Built-in search functions and forcing I/O features can streamline troubleshooting. Editing a PLC ladder program with a software package is as easy as the cut and paste function used when you need to duplicate cut or move a ladder rung.

Most software instructions are based on graphical symbol derived from the old, familiar ladder diagrams. For the most part maintenance or electrical personnel with a good understanding of standard relay diagrams will have few problems developing or troubleshooting basic PLC ladder diagrams using software development software packages have many advantages over handheld programmers.

2.12.Advantages of software Programming

Personal computer monitors can display multiple rungs of logic. Personal computer monitors allow maintenance personnel to monitor multiple program rungs for troubleshooting purposes. Scrolling through a program rung by ring is as simple as pressing either the up or down arrow key. Programs can be stored on the computers hard drive. Programs can be transferred from the hard drive to a floppy drive or CD-ROM. Programs transferred to a floppy drive can be easily transported. Ladder programs can be transferred to back up tape cartridges either installed inside the personal computer or in the form of external tape drives. Rung comments, instruction comments or symbols can easily be added to any rung. Personal computer software offers cut and paste features for easy editing. Rung comments, symbols and other related text can be displayed with the associated rung. Data tables can be easily monitored.

Connecting from a personal computer serially to a PLC

The simplest way to connect a personal computer to a PLC processor with a serial port for software upload, download or monitoring is through a serial cable connection. The serial cable is connected to the personal computers COM1 COM2 port and the PLC CPUs serial Communication port. The proper serial cable must be used for connection between the personal computer and the PLC.

Serial Connection Between a Desktop Personal Computer And an Allen-Bradley SLC 5/04 Processor

A 1747-CP3 cable is available from Allen-Bradley for connection between the desktop computer and the processors serial communication port, channel zero. A null modem cable, which can be purchased at any computer store can also be used for this type of connection.

2.13.The IEC 1131-3 Programming Standard.

Standard IEC 1131-3 defines a consistent set of programming languages for programmable controllers. The specification consists of four traditional languages and one higher level programming language. The languages are broken down into two graphical languages, Ladder diagram and function block diagram and two text based languages, Instruction list and structured text along with flow chart type programming called sequential function chart programming. The five programming languages are defined as follows.

2.13.1. Ladder Diagram (LD)

Ladder diagram programming is similar to relay ladder logic. When most people in North America think of PLC programming they associate ladder rungs and ladder programming with PLCs under the IEC 1131 3 standard. Individuals familiar with relay ladder diagrams of PLC ladder programming can continue to program with relay ladder logic.

Allen-Bradleys IEC-1131 Standard Ladder Logic Programme

Figure illustrates Allen-Bradleys windows programming software for its micrologix and SLC series PLCs. The RSLogix 500 programming software has been developed to improve programming productivity by incorporating the IEC 1131-3 standard. IEC 1131-3 programming languages such as Ladder,
Instructions List Function Block Diagrams and Sequential Function Chart as

well as user defined functions are incorporated into this software package.

2.13.2. Functional Block diagram (FBD)

Function block diagram programming is based on a graphical language widely used in Europe. Process flow applications can be depicted graphically as function blocks that are wired together much like circuit diagrams. Function blocks are standard blocks are controlled by external parameters shown in

Function Block Diagramed Programming

2.13.3. Instruction List (IL)

Instruction List is a low level assembly type language. Instructions are organized into a list like format. Instruction list programming allows only one operation to be performed per line. As an example sorting a value in a memory location would be a single operation. Instruction list programming is usually used in smaller applications.

Instruction List Programming

XIC I:0.0/0 XIO T4:0/DN TON T4:0 1.0 4 0

2.13.4. Structured Text (ST)

Structured text is an English-like programming language that resembles BASIC programming, Structured text programming can be used to perform most of the tasks currently done with ladder logic. Figure illustrates a simple ladder rung. The structured text programme equivalent follows.

Ladder Logic to be Represented as a Structured Text Programme

Load I1 And And Out . I2 I3 Q1

2.13.5. Sequential Function Chart (SFC)

Programming with a sequential function chart lets you develop segmental programming. Rather than developing one long ladder program, the program can be divided up into several sequences or steps shown. There is a transition between each step. The advantage to sequential function charts is that only the logic in the active step is scanned until it is time to transition to the next step. Compare this to scanning the entire ladder program when only a few rungs are active.

IEC-1131 Standard Sequential Function Chart Programming

Each step corresponds to a control task, for example, turning on a mixer for a specified time. As a result sequential function chart programs are good for batch sequencing. Each step is comprised of rungs of ladder logic contained in step one of

Three-Step Sequential Function Chart with Transition Points Identified

The logic in the current step runs continuously from rung one to the last rung. When the last rung of a step is scanned the processor will look at the transition to see if the processor is to go on to the next step. The transition is the logic condition that directs the processor to progress to the next step. The transition

can be as simple as one rung of logic. When the transition logic is true, the processor will scan step 2 repeatedly until its transition is true. The PLC processor checks the current steps transition at the end of scanning each rung of the sep. If the transition is true, the processor goes on to scan the logic in the next step. If the transition is false the current steps logic is rescanned see Figure 1-30

Entire Sequential Function Chart Programme with Logic Rungs Visible

Step 1 which is comprised of rungs one, two and three is continuously scanned until all ingredients are added. The transition rung will be true when all ingredients have been added. With transition 1 true, the processor leaves step1 and begins scanning step2. Step 2 is the mixing sequence. This step will be continuously scanned until the mixing time has elapsed. The timer will make the rung in transition 2 true, the processor will stop scanning step 2 and move on to step 3. Step 3 will execute until the transition is true at which time the sequence will stop. The PLC processor will now look at step 1 for a start signal to begin the sequence over again



The various types of machines used in the control by using PLCs are

Stepper Motor Synchronous Motor Induction Motor Reluctance Motor


A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless, electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. The motor's position can be controlled precisely without any feedback mechanism (see Open-loop controller), as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application. Stepper motors are similar to switched reluctance motors (which are very large stepping motors with a reduced pole count, and generally are closed-loop

3.3 Fundamentals of operation:

Stepper motors operate differently from DC brush motors, which rotate when voltage is applied to their terminals. Stepper motors, on the other hand, effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit, such as a microcontroller. To make the motor shaft turn, first, one electromagnet is given power, which makes the gear's teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet's teeth. When the gear's teeth are aligned to the first electromagnet, they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one, and from there the process is repeated. Each of those slight rotations is called a "step", with an integer number of steps making a full rotation. In that way, the motor can be turned by a precise angle.

3.4. DIAGRAM :

3.5. Stepper motor characteristics:

1. Stepper motors are constant power devices.

2. As motor speed increases, torque decreases. (most motors exhibit maximum torque when stationary, however the torque of a motor when stationary (holding torque) defines the ability of the motor to maintain a desired position while under external load). 3. The torque curve may be extended by using current limiting drivers and increasing the driving voltage (sometimes referred to as a 'chopper' circuit; there are several off the shelf driver chips capable of doing this in a simple manner).

4. Steppers exhibit more vibration than other motor types, as the discrete step tends to snap the rotor from one position to another (called a detent). The vibration makes stepper motors noisier than DC motors. 5. This vibration can become very bad at some speeds and can cause the motor to lose torque or lose direction. This is because the rotor is being held in a magnetic field which behaves like a spring. On each step the rotor overshoots and bounces back and forth, "ringing" at its resonant frequency. If the stepping frequency matches the resonant frequency then the ringing increases and the motor comes out of synchronism, resulting in positional error or a change in direction. At worst there is a total loss of control and holding torque so the motor is easily overcome by the load and spins almost freely. 6. The effect can be mitigated by accelerating quickly through the problem speeds range, physically damping (frictional damping) the system, or using a micro-stepping driver. 7. Motors with a greater number of phases also exhibit smoother operation than those with fewer phases (this can also be achieved through the use of a micro-stepping driver)

3.6.Stepper motor ratings and specifications:

Stepper motors nameplates typically give only the winding current and occasionally the voltage and winding resistance. The rated voltage will produce the rated winding current at DC: but this is mostly a meaningless rating, as all modern drivers are current limiting and the drive voltages greatly exceed the motor rated voltage. A stepper's low speed torque will vary directly with current. How quickly the torque falls off at faster speeds depends on the winding inductance and the drive circuitry it is attached to, especially the driving voltage. Steppers should be sized according to published torque curve, which is specified by the manufacturer at particular drive voltages or using their own drive circuitry.


A synchronous electric motor is an AC motor distinguished by a rotor spinning with coils passing magnets at the same rate as the power supply frequency and resulting rotating magnetic field which drives it. Another way of saying this is that it does not rely on slip under usual operating conditions and as a result, produces torque at synchronous speed. Synchronous motors can be contrasted with an induction motor, which must slip in order to produce torque. They operate synchronously with line frequency. As with squirrel-cage induction motors, speed is determined by the number of pairs of poles and the line frequency. Synchronous motors are available in sub-fractional self-excited sizes to high-horsepower directcurrent excited industrial sizes. In the fractional horsepower range, most synchronous motors are used where precise constant speed is required. In high-horsepower industrial sizes, the synchronous motor provides two important functions. First, it is a highly efficient means of converting ac energy to work. Second, it can operate at leading or unity power factor and thereby provide power-factor correction.

4.2 Synchronous speed:

The "synchronous speed" of a synchronous motor is determined by the following formula:

where v is the speed of the rotor (in rpm), f is the frequency of the AC supply (in Hz) and n is the number of magnetic poles. Different from all other synchronous motors, the synchronous brushless wound-rotor doubly fed electric machine operates from sub-synchronous to supersynchronous speeds or twice synchronous speed.

4.3Operation :
The operation of a synchronous motor is simple to imagine. The armature winding, when excited by a poly-phase (usually 3-phase) supply, creates a rotating magnetic field inside

the motor. The field winding, which acts as a permanent magnet, simply locks in with the rotating magnetic field and rotates along with it. During operation, as the field locks in with the rotating magnetic field, the motor is said to be in synchronization. Once the motor is in operation, the speed of the motor is dependent only on the supply frequency. When the motor load is increased beyond the breakdown load, the motor falls out of synchronization i.e., the applied load is large enough to pull out the field winding from following the rotating magnetic field. The motor immediately stalls after it falls out of synchronization.

4.4 Starting methods:

Synchronous motors are not self-starting motors. The following techniques are employed to start a synchronous motor: A separate motor (called pony motor) is used to drive the rotor before it locks in into synchronization. The field winding is shunted or induction motor like arrangements are made so that the synchronous motor starts as an induction motor and locks in to synchronization once it reaches speeds near its synchronous speed. Reducing the input electrical frequency to get the motor starting slowly, variable-frequency drives can be used here which have rectifier-inverter circuits or cycloconverter circuits.




An induction or asynchronous motor is a type of AC motor where power is supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction. These motors are widely used in industrial drives, particularly polyphase induction motors, because they are robust and have no brushes. Their speed can be controlled with a variable frequency drive. 5.2.OPERATION : In a synchronous AC motor, the rotating magnetic field of the stator imposes a torque on the magnetic field of the rotor, causing it to rotate steadily. It is called synchronous because at steady state, the speed of the rotor matches the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator. By contrast, an induction motor has a current induced in the rotor; to do this, stator windings are arranged so that when energised with a polyphase supply they create a rotating magnetic field that induces current in the rotor conductors. These currents interact with the rotating magnetic field, causing rotational motion of the rotor. For these currents to be induced, the speed of the physical rotor must be lower than that of the stator's rotating magnetic field (ns), or the magnetic field would not be moving relative to the rotor conductors and no currents would be induced. If this happens while the motor is operating, the rotor slightly slows down, and consequently a current is induced again. The ratio between the speed of the magnetic field as seen by the rotor (slip speed) and the speed of the stator's rotating field is unitless and it is called slip. For this reason, induction motors are sometimes referred to as asynchronous motors. An induction motor can be used as induction generator, or it can be unrolled to form the linear induction motor which can directly generate linear motion.

5.3 Speed control :

Typical torque curves for different line frequencies. By varying the line frequency with an inverter, induction motors can be kept on the stable part of the torque curve above the peak over a wide range of rotation speeds. However, the inverters can be expensive, and fixed line frequencies and other start up schemes are often employed instead.

The theoretical unloaded speed (with slip approaching zero) of the induction motor is controlled by the number of pole pairs and the frequency of the supply voltage. When driven from a fixed line frequency, loading the motor reduces the rotation speed. When used in this way, induction motors are usually run so that in operation the shaft rotation speed is kept above the peak torque point; then the motor will tend to run at reasonably constant speed. Below this point, the speed tends to be unstable and the motor may stall or run at reduced shaft speed, depending on the nature of the mechanical load. Before the development of semiconductor power electronics, it was difficult to vary the frequency, and induction motors were mainly used in fixed speed applications. However, many older DC motors have now been replaced with induction motors and accompanying inverters in industrial applications. 5.4.TORQUE-SPEED CHARECTERISTICS:


A reluctance motor is a type of electric motor that induces non-permanent magnetic poles on the ferromagnetic rotor. Torque is generated through the phenomenon of magnetic reluctance. Reluctance motors can have very high power density at low-cost, making them ideal for many applications. Disadvantages are high torque ripple when operated at low speed, and noise caused by torque ripple. Until recently, their use has been limited by the complexity inherent in both designing the motors and controlling them. These challenges are being overcome by advances in the theory, by the use of sophisticated computer design tools, and by the use of low-cost embedded systems for motor control. These control systems are typically based on microcontrollers using control algorithms and real-time computing to tailor drive waveforms according to rotor position and current or voltage feedback.


6.3OPERATION : The stator consists of multiple salient (i.e., projecting) electromagnet poles, similar to a wound field brushed DC motor. The rotor consists of soft magnetic material, such as laminated silicon steel, which has multiple projections acting as salient magnetic poles through magnetic reluctance. The number of rotor poles is typically less than the number of stator poles, which minimizes torque ripple and prevents the poles from all aligning simultaneouslya position which can not generate torque. When a rotor pole is equidistant from the two adjacent stator poles, the rotor pole is said to be in the "fully unaligned position". This is the position of maximum magnetic reluctance for the rotor pole. In the "aligned position", two (or more) rotor poles are fully aligned with two (or more) stator poles, (which means the rotor poles completely face the stator poles) and is a position of minimum reluctance. When a stator pole is energized, the rotor torque is in the direction that will reduce reluctance. Thus the nearest rotor pole is pulled from the unaligned position into alignment with the stator field (a position of less reluctance). (This is the same effect used by a solenoid, or when picking up ferromagnetic metal with a magnet.) In order to sustain rotation, the stator field must rotate in advance of the rotor poles, thus constantly "pulling" the rotor along. Some motor variants will run on 3-phase AC power (see the synchronous reluctance variant below). Most modern designs are of the switched reluctance type, because electronic commutation gives significant control advantages for motor starting, speed control, and smooth operation (low torque ripple). 6.4.CHARECTERISTICS:


This project will look at the development of the system from concept to a fully working automated control of MMC using PLC and DCS. It will look at the control system principle and both hardware and software design. When performance is discussed, it will use a recently delivered sixth-generation semisubmersible, where the setback area has been moved off , . The speed and switching time will also gives us the implementation and testing in order to finetune the system for maximum performance.



The various features of using the MMC are MMC reduces the number of operators needed to perform tripping operations MMC increases efficiency by optimizing interactions between machines Knowledge of how each machine in the MMC sequence works is still needed to achieve maximum efficiency MMC reduces wear and tear on the machines by ensuring correct operation MMC increases safety by giving control to the PLC, omitting fatigue as a risk factor



, the multiple machines can be used for many projects important for humanitarian and economic development in developing countries:
Agriculture: Building and repairing irrigation pumps and farm implements Water supplies: Making and repairing water pumps and water-well drilling rigs. Food supplies: Building steel-rolling-and-bending machines for making fuel efficient cook stoves and other cooking equipment

Transportation: Anything from making cart axles to rebuilding vehicle clutch, brake, and other parts. Education: Building simple pipe-and-bar-bending machines to make school furniture, providing "hands on" training on student-built multiple machines that they take with them when they leave school. Job creation: A group of specialized but easily built multiple machines can be combined to form a small, very low cost, metal working factory which could also serve as a trade school. Students could be taught a single skill on a specialized machine and be paid as a worker while learning other skills that they could take elsewhere.


Thus the control of speed and switching in a multi machines by an fully automated source gives a great ease of control over various machines once at a time in a same place The current field tests of the monitoring equipment will yield information as to actual operating environment characteristics of the system.