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Introduction

A satisfactory and economic of a

concrete structure rarely depends on a complex theoretical analysis. Wherever possible the analysis should be kept simple, yet it should be based on the observed and tested behavior of reinforced concrete members.

2

Assumption

The flexural strength at the ultimate limit state is

determined assuming the following conditions as given in clause 3.4.4.1 BS8110 Part 1: Plane sections remain plane. The compressive stresses in the concrete may be derived from the stress-strain curve in Figure 2.1 The stresses in the reinforcement are derived from the stress-strain curve in Figure 2.2. The tensile strength of the concrete is ignored.

3

Table 1 : Span /effective depth ratio for initial design

Support Condition Cantilever Span/Effective Depth 6

Simply supported

Continuous

12

15

Example 1 A simply supported beam has an effective span 8 m and supported characteristic dead (gk) and live (qk) loads of 15 kN/m and 10 kN/m respectively. Determine suitable dimensions for the effective depth and width of the beam.

Solution Ratio= Span/ Depth = 12 d = 8000/12 = 666.67 mm Take d = 670 mm Total ultimate load = (1.4 gk + 1.6 qk) 8 = 296 kN Design shear force (V) = 296/2 = 148 kN

Solution Design shear stress v = V/bd = 148 x 103/(670 x b) Assuming v is equal to 1.2 N/mm2 , gives width of beam,b,of Check shear stress in beam b =V/dv = 148 x 103/(670 x 1.2) 185 mm

7

RECTANGULAR SECTIONS

Singly Reinforced Sections

cu=0.0035 0.9x PN d

(0.67/m)fcu 0.45x Fc

C

h

Z=d-0.45x Fs

T

s

As

b h

x

As d cu s

9

fcu

= breadth Fc = total compressive force in concrete = overall depth Fs = total tensile force in steel = depth of neutral axis = area of tension reinforcement = effective depth = max concrete strain = max steel strain = characteristic strength of concrete

Mnisha2004

1.

Consider the moment of the compressive force about the line of action of Ft:

Ultimate concrete moment, M = FcZ = [0.45fcub(0.9x)]Z = 0.405fcubxZ from the stress block: Z = d-0.45x then, M = 0.405fcubx(d-0.45x) M = {0.405[x/d]}{1-0.45[x/d]}fcubd2 -------------(1) M = kfcubd2 @ k = M/fcubd2

2.

To enable balance failure to occur (other failures occur without warning), x is limited to 0.5d, then equation 1 becomes:

Mu

Mnisha2004

10

3.

Equation 2 represents the moment capacity of the section based on the concrete area in compression.

The value of 0.156 is the limiting value of k and is given the symbol k. To obtain the required area of reinforcement, As : Consider the moment of the tensile force about the line of action of Fc : M = FsZ M = 0.95fyAsZ As = M/0.95fyZ

4. 5.

11

Mnisha2004

6.

where k M = M/fcubd2 = max design moment

12

Mnisha2004

13

Mnisha2004

Example 2

d = 440

b = 260

Design moment 185kNm. Determine As. Given fy = 460N/mm2 and fcu = 30N/mm2.

14

Mnisha2004

Solution

k = M/bd2fcu = 185x106/(260x4402x30) = 0.122

= M/0.95fyz = 185x106/(0.95x460x369)

= 369mm = 1147.3mm2

As

design

15

Mnisha2004

Example 3

qk = 8 kN/m gk = 12 kN/m

d = 450

7m

b = 275

A simply supported rectangular beam of 7 m carries characteristics dead (including self weight of beam), gk and imposed, qk, loads of 12 kN/m and 8 kN/m respectively. The beam dimensions are breadth, b, 275 mm and effective depth, d, 450 mm. Assuming the following material strengths, calculate the area of reinforcement required. Given fy = 460N/mm2 and fcu = 30N/mm2.

16

Mnisha2004

Solution

Ultimate load (w) = 1.4 gk + 1.6 qk = 1.4 x 12 + 1.6 x 8 =29.6 kN/m Design moment (M) = wl2/8 = (29.6 x 72)/8 = 181.3 kNm Ultimate moment of resistance (Mu) = 0.156fcubd2 = 0.156 x 30 x 275 x 4502 x 10-6 = 260.6 kNm Since Mu > M design as a singly reinforced beam k z = M/fcubd2 = 181.3 x106/(30x275x4502) = d{0.5 + [0.25 (k/0.9)]} = 450{0.5+[0.25-(0.1085/0.9)]} = 386.8 mm 0.95 d (= 427.5) OK

Mnisha2004

= 0.1085

17

Solution

As = M/0.95fyz = 1073 mm2 = 181.3 x 106/(0.95 x 460 x 386.8)

design

Hence provide 4T20 (T refers to high yield steel bars, fy =460 N/mm2)

18

Mnisha2004

19

Mnisha2004

Happens when the applied design bending moments exceeds the concrete capacity.

b d As cu=0.0035 s 0.9x

(0.67/m)fcu

C

h

Fs 0.45x Fc

PN

d

T

s

d-d

Z=d-0.45x Fs

As

Stress Block

Strain Block

s = strain in the compression reinforcement Fs = force in the compression reinforcement d = depth from the compression face of the concrete to the centroid 20 of the compression reinforcement.

Mnisha2004

Consider the moment of the compressive forces about the line of action of Ft:

= FcZ + Fs(d-d) = 0.45fcub(0.9x)(d-0.45x) + 0.95fyAs(d-d) consider balance failure, x/d=0.5 M = 0.156fcubd2 + 0.95fyAs(d-d) the equation can be rewritten as: As = (M-0.156fcubd2)/0.95fy(d-d)

The required area of tension reinforcement can be determined by equating the

Fs = Fc + Fs

21

= (0.20fcubd/0.95fy) + As = (0.156fcubd2/0.95fyZ) + As

Mnisha2004

Example 4

qk = 5 kN/m gk = 4 kN/m

h = 370

9m

b = 230

The reinforced concrete beam shown in Figure above has an effective span of 9 m carries uniformly distributed dead (including self weight of beam), gk and imposed, qk, loads of 4 kN/m and 5 kN/m respectively. Design the bending reinforcement assuming the following: fy = 460N/mm2 and fcu = 30N/mm2. Cover to main steel = 40 mm

22

Mnisha2004

Solution:

l) Design Moment, M Ultimate design load (W) = (1.4 gk + 1.6 qk) span = (1.4 x 4 + 1.6 x 5) 9 = 122.4 kN = Wl/8 = (122.4 x 9)/8 = 137.7 kNm II) Ultimate moment of resistance, Mu Effective depth, d Assume diameter of tension bars() = 25 mm d = h- /2 cover = 370 25/2 40 = 317 mm

23

Mnisha2004

Solution:

Ultimate moment resistance Mu = 0.156fcubd2 Mu = 0.156 x 30x 230x 3172) = 108.2 x 106 Nmm = 108.2 kNm Since M > Mu compression reinforcement is required III) Compression Reinforcement Assume diameter of compression bars () = 16 mm d = cover + /2 = 40 + 16/2 = 48 mm As = M - Mu/ 0.95fy(d-d) = (137.7 108.2)(106) /0.95(460)(317 - 48) = 251 mm2 Provide 2T 16 ( As = 402 mm2)

24

Mnisha2004

As

= 108.2 x 106)/0.9 5(460)(246) + 251 = 1258 mm2

d = 48 mm

d = 317 mm

2 T 16

3 T 25

Mnisha2004

25

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