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**Cosmological Casimir effect
**

and beyond

EMILIO ELIZALDE

ICE/CSIC & IEEC, UAB, Barcelona

web: google → emilio elizalde

DSU2006, UAM, Madrid, June 20, 2006

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 1/29

Outline of the talk

Zeta Function ζ

A

(s) and Determinant det

ζ

A

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 2/29

Outline of the talk

Zeta Function ζ

A

(s) and Determinant det

ζ

A

The Wodzicki Residue

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 2/29

Outline of the talk

Zeta Function ζ

A

(s) and Determinant det

ζ

A

The Wodzicki Residue

Multiplicative (or Noncommutative) Anomaly

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 2/29

Outline of the talk

Zeta Function ζ

A

(s) and Determinant det

ζ

A

The Wodzicki Residue

Multiplicative (or Noncommutative) Anomaly

Vacuum Fluctuations and the Cosmol Const

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 2/29

Outline of the talk

Zeta Function ζ

A

(s) and Determinant det

ζ

A

The Wodzicki Residue

Multiplicative (or Noncommutative) Anomaly

Vacuum Fluctuations and the Cosmol Const

New CC Theories & Cosmo-topol Casimir Effect

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 2/29

Outline of the talk

Zeta Function ζ

A

(s) and Determinant det

ζ

A

The Wodzicki Residue

Multiplicative (or Noncommutative) Anomaly

Vacuum Fluctuations and the Cosmol Const

New CC Theories & Cosmo-topol Casimir Effect

A Simple Model with large & small dimensions

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 2/29

Outline of the talk

Zeta Function ζ

A

(s) and Determinant det

ζ

A

The Wodzicki Residue

Multiplicative (or Noncommutative) Anomaly

Vacuum Fluctuations and the Cosmol Const

New CC Theories & Cosmo-topol Casimir Effect

A Simple Model with large & small dimensions

Realistic Models: − dS & AdS Braneworlds

− Supergraviton Theories

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 2/29

Outline of the talk

Zeta Function ζ

A

(s) and Determinant det

ζ

A

The Wodzicki Residue

Multiplicative (or Noncommutative) Anomaly

Vacuum Fluctuations and the Cosmol Const

New CC Theories & Cosmo-topol Casimir Effect

A Simple Model with large & small dimensions

Realistic Models: − dS & AdS Braneworlds

− Supergraviton Theories

Conclusions

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 2/29

Existence of ζ

A

for A a ΨDO

− A a positive-deﬁnite elliptic ΨDO of positive order m ∈ R

− A acts on the space of smooth sections of

− E, n-dim vector bundle over

− M closed n-dim manifold

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 3/29

Existence of ζ

A

for A a ΨDO

− A a positive-deﬁnite elliptic ΨDO of positive order m ∈ R

− A acts on the space of smooth sections of

− E, n-dim vector bundle over

− M closed n-dim manifold

(a) The zeta function is deﬁned as ζ

A

(s) = tr A

−s

=

j

λ

−s

j

, Re s >

n

m

≡ s

0

¦λ

j

¦ ordered spect of A, s

0

= dimM/ord A abscissa of converg of ζ

A

(s)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 3/29

Existence of ζ

A

for A a ΨDO

− A a positive-deﬁnite elliptic ΨDO of positive order m ∈ R

− A acts on the space of smooth sections of

− E, n-dim vector bundle over

− M closed n-dim manifold

(a) The zeta function is deﬁned as ζ

A

(s) = tr A

−s

=

j

λ

−s

j

, Re s >

n

m

≡ s

0

¦λ

j

¦ ordered spect of A, s

0

= dimM/ord A abscissa of converg of ζ

A

(s)

(b) ζ

A

(s) has a meromorphic continuation to the whole complex plane C

(regular at s = 0), provided the principal symbol of A, a

m

(x, ξ), admits a

spectral cut: L

θ

= ¦λ ∈ C[ Arg λ = θ, θ

1

< θ < θ

2

¦, Spec A∩ L

θ

= ∅

(Agmon-Nirenberg condition)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 3/29

Existence of ζ

A

for A a ΨDO

− A a positive-deﬁnite elliptic ΨDO of positive order m ∈ R

− A acts on the space of smooth sections of

− E, n-dim vector bundle over

− M closed n-dim manifold

(a) The zeta function is deﬁned as ζ

A

(s) = tr A

−s

=

j

λ

−s

j

, Re s >

n

m

≡ s

0

¦λ

j

¦ ordered spect of A, s

0

= dimM/ord A abscissa of converg of ζ

A

(s)

(b) ζ

A

(s) has a meromorphic continuation to the whole complex plane C

(regular at s = 0), provided the principal symbol of A, a

m

(x, ξ), admits a

spectral cut: L

θ

= ¦λ ∈ C[ Arg λ = θ, θ

1

< θ < θ

2

¦, Spec A∩ L

θ

= ∅

(Agmon-Nirenberg condition)

(c) The deﬁnition of ζ

A

(s) depends on the position of the cut L

θ

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 3/29

Existence of ζ

A

for A a ΨDO

− A a positive-deﬁnite elliptic ΨDO of positive order m ∈ R

− A acts on the space of smooth sections of

− E, n-dim vector bundle over

− M closed n-dim manifold

(a) The zeta function is deﬁned as ζ

A

(s) = tr A

−s

=

j

λ

−s

j

, Re s >

n

m

≡ s

0

¦λ

j

¦ ordered spect of A, s

0

= dimM/ord A abscissa of converg of ζ

A

(s)

(b) ζ

A

(s) has a meromorphic continuation to the whole complex plane C

(regular at s = 0), provided the principal symbol of A, a

m

(x, ξ), admits a

spectral cut: L

θ

= ¦λ ∈ C[ Arg λ = θ, θ

1

< θ < θ

2

¦, Spec A∩ L

θ

= ∅

(Agmon-Nirenberg condition)

(c) The deﬁnition of ζ

A

(s) depends on the position of the cut L

θ

(d) The only possible singularities of ζ

A

(s) are simple poles at

s

k

= (n −k)/m, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n −1, n + 1, . . .

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 3/29

Deﬁnition of Determinant

H ΨDO operator ¦ϕ

i

, λ

i

¦ spectral decomposition

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 4/29

Deﬁnition of Determinant

H ΨDO operator ¦ϕ

i

, λ

i

¦ spectral decomposition

i∈I

λ

i

?! ln

i∈I

λ

i

=

i∈I

ln λ

i

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 4/29

Deﬁnition of Determinant

H ΨDO operator ¦ϕ

i

, λ

i

¦ spectral decomposition

i∈I

λ

i

?! ln

i∈I

λ

i

=

i∈I

ln λ

i

Riemann zeta func: ζ(s) =

∞

n=1

n

−s

, Re s > 1 (& analytic cont)

=⇒ Deﬁnition: zeta function of H ζ

H

(s) =

i∈I

λ

−s

i

= tr H

−s

As Mellin transform: ζ

H

(s) =

1

Γ(s)

_

∞

0

dt t

s−1

tr e

−tH

, Re s > D/2

Derivative: ζ

′

H

(0) = −

i∈I

lnλ

i

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 4/29

Deﬁnition of Determinant

H ΨDO operator ¦ϕ

i

, λ

i

¦ spectral decomposition

i∈I

λ

i

?! ln

i∈I

λ

i

=

i∈I

ln λ

i

Riemann zeta func: ζ(s) =

∞

n=1

n

−s

, Re s > 1 (& analytic cont)

=⇒ Deﬁnition: zeta function of H ζ

H

(s) =

i∈I

λ

−s

i

= tr H

−s

As Mellin transform: ζ

H

(s) =

1

Γ(s)

_

∞

0

dt t

s−1

tr e

−tH

, Re s > D/2

Derivative: ζ

′

H

(0) = −

i∈I

lnλ

i

=⇒ Determinant: Ray & Singer, ’67

det

ζ

H = exp [−ζ

′

H

(0)]

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 4/29

Deﬁnition of Determinant

H ΨDO operator ¦ϕ

i

, λ

i

¦ spectral decomposition

i∈I

λ

i

?! ln

i∈I

λ

i

=

i∈I

ln λ

i

Riemann zeta func: ζ(s) =

∞

n=1

n

−s

, Re s > 1 (& analytic cont)

=⇒ Deﬁnition: zeta function of H ζ

H

(s) =

i∈I

λ

−s

i

= tr H

−s

As Mellin transform: ζ

H

(s) =

1

Γ(s)

_

∞

0

dt t

s−1

tr e

−tH

, Re s > D/2

Derivative: ζ

′

H

(0) = −

i∈I

lnλ

i

=⇒ Determinant: Ray & Singer, ’67

det

ζ

H = exp [−ζ

′

H

(0)]

Weierstrass deﬁnition: subtract leading behavior of λ

i

in i, as

i → ∞, until the series

i∈I

ln λ

i

converges

=⇒ non-local counterterms !!

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 4/29

Properties

The deﬁnition of the determinant det

ζ

A

only depends on the homotopy class of the cut

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 5/29

Properties

The deﬁnition of the determinant det

ζ

A

only depends on the homotopy class of the cut

A zeta function (and corresponding determinant) with the same

meromorphic structure in the complex s-plane and extending the

ordinary deﬁnition to operators of complex order m ∈ C¸Z (they do

not admit spectral cuts), has been obtained [Kontsevich and Vishik]

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 5/29

Properties

The deﬁnition of the determinant det

ζ

A

only depends on the homotopy class of the cut

A zeta function (and corresponding determinant) with the same

meromorphic structure in the complex s-plane and extending the

ordinary deﬁnition to operators of complex order m ∈ C¸Z (they do

not admit spectral cuts), has been obtained [Kontsevich and Vishik]

Asymptotic expansion for the heat kernel

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 5/29

Properties

The deﬁnition of the determinant det

ζ

A

only depends on the homotopy class of the cut

A zeta function (and corresponding determinant) with the same

meromorphic structure in the complex s-plane and extending the

ordinary deﬁnition to operators of complex order m ∈ C¸Z (they do

not admit spectral cuts), has been obtained [Kontsevich and Vishik]

Asymptotic expansion for the heat kernel

tr e

−tA

=

′

λ∈Spec A

e

−tλ

∼ α

n

(A) +

n=j≥0

α

j

(A)t

−s

j

+

k≥1

β

k

(A)t

k

lnt, t ↓ 0

α

n

(A) = ζ

A

(0), α

j

(A) = Γ(s

j

) Res

s=s

j

ζ

A

(s), s

j

/ ∈ −N

α

j

(A) =

(−1)

k

k!

[PPζ

A

(−k) +ψ(k + 1) Res

s=−k

ζ

A

(s)] ,

s

j

= −k, k ∈ N

β

k

(A) =

(−1)

k+1

k!

Res

s=−k

ζ

A

(s), k ∈ N¸¦0¦

PPφ = lim

s→p

_

φ(s) −

Res

s=p

φ(s)

s−p

_

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 5/29

The Wodzicki Residue

The Wodzicki (or noncommutative) residue is the only extension of

the Dixmier trace to ΨDOs which are not in L

(1,∞)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 6/29

The Wodzicki Residue

The Wodzicki (or noncommutative) residue is the only extension of

the Dixmier trace to ΨDOs which are not in L

(1,∞)

Only trace one can deﬁne in the algebra of ΨDOs (up to multipl const)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 6/29

The Wodzicki Residue

The Wodzicki (or noncommutative) residue is the only extension of

the Dixmier trace to ΨDOs which are not in L

(1,∞)

Only trace one can deﬁne in the algebra of ΨDOs (up to multipl const)

Deﬁnition: res A = 2 Res

s=0

tr (A∆

−s

), ∆ Laplacian

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 6/29

The Wodzicki Residue

The Wodzicki (or noncommutative) residue is the only extension of

the Dixmier trace to ΨDOs which are not in L

(1,∞)

Only trace one can deﬁne in the algebra of ΨDOs (up to multipl const)

Deﬁnition: res A = 2 Res

s=0

tr (A∆

−s

), ∆ Laplacian

Satisﬁes the trace condition: res (AB) = res (BA)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 6/29

The Wodzicki Residue

The Wodzicki (or noncommutative) residue is the only extension of

the Dixmier trace to ΨDOs which are not in L

(1,∞)

Only trace one can deﬁne in the algebra of ΨDOs (up to multipl const)

Deﬁnition: res A = 2 Res

s=0

tr (A∆

−s

), ∆ Laplacian

Satisﬁes the trace condition: res (AB) = res (BA)

Important ! it can be expressed as an integral (local form)

res A =

_

S

∗

M

tr a

n

(x, ξ) dξ

with S

∗

M ⊂ T

∗

M the co-sphere bundle on M (some authors put a

coefﬁcient in front of the integral: Adler-Manin residue)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 6/29

The Wodzicki Residue

The Wodzicki (or noncommutative) residue is the only extension of

the Dixmier trace to ΨDOs which are not in L

(1,∞)

Only trace one can deﬁne in the algebra of ΨDOs (up to multipl const)

Deﬁnition: res A = 2 Res

s=0

tr (A∆

−s

), ∆ Laplacian

Satisﬁes the trace condition: res (AB) = res (BA)

Important ! it can be expressed as an integral (local form)

res A =

_

S

∗

M

tr a

n

(x, ξ) dξ

with S

∗

M ⊂ T

∗

M the co-sphere bundle on M (some authors put a

coefﬁcient in front of the integral: Adler-Manin residue)

If dim M = n = − ord A (M compact Riemann, A elliptic, n ∈ N) it

coincides with the Dixmier trace, and Res

s=1

ζ

A

(s) =

1

n

res A

−1

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 6/29

The Wodzicki Residue

The Wodzicki (or noncommutative) residue is the only extension of

the Dixmier trace to ΨDOs which are not in L

(1,∞)

Only trace one can deﬁne in the algebra of ΨDOs (up to multipl const)

Deﬁnition: res A = 2 Res

s=0

tr (A∆

−s

), ∆ Laplacian

Satisﬁes the trace condition: res (AB) = res (BA)

Important ! it can be expressed as an integral (local form)

res A =

_

S

∗

M

tr a

n

(x, ξ) dξ

with S

∗

M ⊂ T

∗

M the co-sphere bundle on M (some authors put a

coefﬁcient in front of the integral: Adler-Manin residue)

If dim M = n = − ord A (M compact Riemann, A elliptic, n ∈ N) it

coincides with the Dixmier trace, and Res

s=1

ζ

A

(s) =

1

n

res A

−1

The Wodzicki res makes sense for ΨDOs of arbitrary order. Even if

symbols a

j

(x, ξ), j < m, are not coordinate invariant, the integral is,

and deﬁnes a trace

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 6/29

Multiplicative Anomaly (or Defect)

Given A, B, and AB ψDOs, even if ζ

A

, ζ

B

, and ζ

AB

exist,

it turns out that, in general,

det

ζ

(AB) ,= det

ζ

A det

ζ

B

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 7/29

Multiplicative Anomaly (or Defect)

Given A, B, and AB ψDOs, even if ζ

A

, ζ

B

, and ζ

AB

exist,

it turns out that, in general,

det

ζ

(AB) ,= det

ζ

A det

ζ

B

The multiplicative (or noncommutative) anomaly (or

defect) is deﬁned as

δ(A, B) = ln

_

det

ζ

(AB)

det

ζ

A det

ζ

B

_

= −ζ

′

AB

(0) + ζ

′

A

(0) + ζ

′

B

(0)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 7/29

Multiplicative Anomaly (or Defect)

Given A, B, and AB ψDOs, even if ζ

A

, ζ

B

, and ζ

AB

exist,

it turns out that, in general,

det

ζ

(AB) ,= det

ζ

A det

ζ

B

The multiplicative (or noncommutative) anomaly (or

defect) is deﬁned as

δ(A, B) = ln

_

det

ζ

(AB)

det

ζ

A det

ζ

B

_

= −ζ

′

AB

(0) + ζ

′

A

(0) + ζ

′

B

(0)

Wodzicki formula

δ(A, B) =

res

_

[ln σ(A, B)]

2

_

2 ord A ord B (ord A + ord B)

where σ(A, B) = A

ordB

B

−ordA

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 7/29

Consequences of the mult. anom.

L(x) = −

1

2

∂

µ

Φ(x)∂

µ

Φ(x) −

1

2

m

2

1

Φ(x)

2

+V

1

(Φ(x))

−

1

2

∂

µ

Ξ(x)∂

µ

Ξ(x) −

1

2

m

2

2

Ξ(x)

2

+V

2

(Ξ(x)) +V

3

(Ψ(x), Ξ(x))

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 8/29

Consequences of the mult. anom.

L(x) = −

1

2

∂

µ

Φ(x)∂

µ

Φ(x) −

1

2

m

2

1

Φ(x)

2

+V

1

(Φ(x))

−

1

2

∂

µ

Ξ(x)∂

µ

Ξ(x) −

1

2

m

2

2

Ξ(x)

2

+V

2

(Ξ(x)) +V

3

(Ψ(x), Ξ(x))

Partition function

e

−Z

=

_

DΦDΞ exp

_

−

_

d

d+1

x

_

1

2

Φ(−∂

2

+m

2

1

)Φ +

1

2

Ξ(−∂

2

+m

2

2

)Ξ

−V

1

(Φ) −V

2

(Ξ) −V

3

(Φ, Ξ)]¦

where the x-dependence is no more explicitly depicted (for simpliﬁcation)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 8/29

Consequences of the mult. anom.

L(x) = −

1

2

∂

µ

Φ(x)∂

µ

Φ(x) −

1

2

m

2

1

Φ(x)

2

+V

1

(Φ(x))

−

1

2

∂

µ

Ξ(x)∂

µ

Ξ(x) −

1

2

m

2

2

Ξ(x)

2

+V

2

(Ξ(x)) +V

3

(Ψ(x), Ξ(x))

Partition function

e

−Z

=

_

DΦDΞ exp

_

−

_

d

d+1

x

_

1

2

Φ(−∂

2

+m

2

1

)Φ +

1

2

Ξ(−∂

2

+m

2

2

)Ξ

−V

1

(Φ) −V

2

(Ξ) −V

3

(Φ, Ξ)]¦

where the x-dependence is no more explicitly depicted (for simpliﬁcation)

Background quantization: Φ = Φ

0

+ϕ, Ξ = Ξ

0

+χ

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 8/29

Consequences of the mult. anom.

L(x) = −

1

2

∂

µ

Φ(x)∂

µ

Φ(x) −

1

2

m

2

1

Φ(x)

2

+V

1

(Φ(x))

−

1

2

∂

µ

Ξ(x)∂

µ

Ξ(x) −

1

2

m

2

2

Ξ(x)

2

+V

2

(Ξ(x)) +V

3

(Ψ(x), Ξ(x))

Partition function

e

−Z

=

_

DΦDΞ exp

_

−

_

d

d+1

x

_

1

2

Φ(−∂

2

+m

2

1

)Φ +

1

2

Ξ(−∂

2

+m

2

2

)Ξ

−V

1

(Φ) −V

2

(Ξ) −V

3

(Φ, Ξ)]¦

where the x-dependence is no more explicitly depicted (for simpliﬁcation)

Background quantization: Φ = Φ

0

+ϕ, Ξ = Ξ

0

+χ

Gaussian approximation (one loop)

e

−Z

1

=

_

DϕDχ exp

_

_

_

−

_

d

d+1

x

_

_

(ϕ χ)

_

_

A C

C B

_

_

_

_

ϕ

χ

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

det

_

_

A C

C B

_

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

−1/2

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 8/29

with

A ≡ −∂

2

+m

2

1

−V

′′

1

(Φ

0

) −∂

2

1

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

),

B ≡ −∂

2

+m

2

2

−V

′′

2

(Ξ

0

) −∂

2

2

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

),

C ≡ −∂

1

∂

2

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

).

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 9/29

with

A ≡ −∂

2

+m

2

1

−V

′′

1

(Φ

0

) −∂

2

1

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

),

B ≡ −∂

2

+m

2

2

−V

′′

2

(Ξ

0

) −∂

2

2

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

),

C ≡ −∂

1

∂

2

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

).

After some calculations it turns out that the determinant can be

expressed as:

det

_

AB −C

2

_

= det

_

(−∂

2

+α)(−∂

2

+β)

¸

,

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 9/29

with

A ≡ −∂

2

+m

2

1

−V

′′

1

(Φ

0

) −∂

2

1

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

),

B ≡ −∂

2

+m

2

2

−V

′′

2

(Ξ

0

) −∂

2

2

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

),

C ≡ −∂

1

∂

2

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

).

After some calculations it turns out that the determinant can be

expressed as:

det

_

AB −C

2

_

= det

_

(−∂

2

+α)(−∂

2

+β)

¸

,

with

α ≡ a −

_

b

2

+c

2

, β ≡ a +

_

b

2

+c

2

,

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 9/29

with

A ≡ −∂

2

+m

2

1

−V

′′

1

(Φ

0

) −∂

2

1

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

),

B ≡ −∂

2

+m

2

2

−V

′′

2

(Ξ

0

) −∂

2

2

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

),

C ≡ −∂

1

∂

2

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

).

After some calculations it turns out that the determinant can be

expressed as:

det

_

AB −C

2

_

= det

_

(−∂

2

+α)(−∂

2

+β)

¸

,

with

α ≡ a −

_

b

2

+c

2

, β ≡ a +

_

b

2

+c

2

,

and

a ≡

c

1

+c

2

2

, b ≡

c

1

−c

2

2

,

c

1

≡ m

2

1

−V

′′

1

(Φ

0

) −∂

2

1

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

), c

2

≡ m

2

2

−V

′′

2

(Ξ

0

) −∂

2

2

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

),

c ≡ −∂

1

∂

2

V

3

(Φ

0

, Ξ

0

).

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 9/29

This situation has been considered by us before, in much detail.

It gives rise to the multiplicative (or non-commutative) anomaly

(or defect), namely the fact that, generically,

det

_

(−∂

2

+α)(−∂

2

+β)

¸

,= det(−∂

2

+α) det(−∂

2

+β)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 10/29

This situation has been considered by us before, in much detail.

It gives rise to the multiplicative (or non-commutative) anomaly

(or defect), namely the fact that, generically,

det

_

(−∂

2

+α)(−∂

2

+β)

¸

,= det(−∂

2

+α) det(−∂

2

+β)

The anomaly δ (logarithm of the quotient) is expressed as a

perturbative series of the difference α −β = −2

√

b

2

+c

2

δ =

n

a

n

(α −β)

n

=

n

(−2)

n

a

n

(b

2

+c

2

)

n/2

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 10/29

This situation has been considered by us before, in much detail.

It gives rise to the multiplicative (or non-commutative) anomaly

(or defect), namely the fact that, generically,

det

_

(−∂

2

+α)(−∂

2

+β)

¸

,= det(−∂

2

+α) det(−∂

2

+β)

The anomaly δ (logarithm of the quotient) is expressed as a

perturbative series of the difference α −β = −2

√

b

2

+c

2

δ =

n

a

n

(α −β)

n

=

n

(−2)

n

a

n

(b

2

+c

2

)

n/2

=⇒ Note that b depends on the mass difference, the difference in

the second derivatives (at the background) of the individual

potentials and on the difference between the two partial, second-

order derivatives of the double potential, while c is given by the

cross derivative of this potential.

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 10/29

This situation has been considered by us before, in much detail.

It gives rise to the multiplicative (or non-commutative) anomaly

(or defect), namely the fact that, generically,

det

_

(−∂

2

+α)(−∂

2

+β)

¸

,= det(−∂

2

+α) det(−∂

2

+β)

The anomaly δ (logarithm of the quotient) is expressed as a

perturbative series of the difference α −β = −2

√

b

2

+c

2

δ =

n

a

n

(α −β)

n

=

n

(−2)

n

a

n

(b

2

+c

2

)

n/2

=⇒ Note that b depends on the mass difference, the difference in

the second derivatives (at the background) of the individual

potentials and on the difference between the two partial, second-

order derivatives of the double potential, while c is given by the

cross derivative of this potential.

=⇒ In some cases the anomaly proves to be genuine: it persists

after renormalization is performed.

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 10/29

Zero point energy

QFT vacuum to vacuum transition: ¸0[H[0)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 11/29

Zero point energy

QFT vacuum to vacuum transition: ¸0[H[0)

Spectrum, normal ordering:

H =

_

n +

1

2

_

λ

n

a

n

a

†

n

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 11/29

Zero point energy

QFT vacuum to vacuum transition: ¸0[H[0)

Spectrum, normal ordering:

H =

_

n +

1

2

_

λ

n

a

n

a

†

n

¸0[H[0) =

(c)

2

n

λ

n

=

1

2

tr H

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 11/29

Zero point energy

QFT vacuum to vacuum transition: ¸0[H[0)

Spectrum, normal ordering:

H =

_

n +

1

2

_

λ

n

a

n

a

†

n

¸0[H[0) =

(c)

2

n

λ

n

=

1

2

tr H

gives ∞ physical meaning?

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 11/29

Zero point energy

QFT vacuum to vacuum transition: ¸0[H[0)

Spectrum, normal ordering:

H =

_

n +

1

2

_

λ

n

a

n

a

†

n

¸0[H[0) =

(c)

2

n

λ

n

=

1

2

tr H

gives ∞ physical meaning?

Regularization + Renormalization ( cut-off, dim, ζ )

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 11/29

Zero point energy

QFT vacuum to vacuum transition: ¸0[H[0)

Spectrum, normal ordering:

H =

_

n +

1

2

_

λ

n

a

n

a

†

n

¸0[H[0) =

(c)

2

n

λ

n

=

1

2

tr H

gives ∞ physical meaning?

Regularization + Renormalization ( cut-off, dim, ζ )

Even then: Has the ﬁnal value any meaning??

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 11/29

The Casimir Effect

vacuum

BC

F

CasimirEffect

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 12/29

The Casimir Effect

vacuum

BC

F

CasimirEffect

BC e.g. periodic

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 12/29

The Casimir Effect

vacuum

BC

F

CasimirEffect

BC e.g. periodic

=⇒ all kind of ﬁelds

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 12/29

The Casimir Effect

vacuum

BC

F

CasimirEffect

BC e.g. periodic

=⇒ all kind of ﬁelds

=⇒ curvature or topology

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 12/29

The Casimir Effect

vacuum

BC

F

CasimirEffect

BC e.g. periodic

=⇒ all kind of ﬁelds

=⇒ curvature or topology

Universal process:

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 12/29

The Casimir Effect

vacuum

BC

F

CasimirEffect

BC e.g. periodic

=⇒ all kind of ﬁelds

=⇒ curvature or topology

Universal process:

Sonoluminiscence (Schwinger)

Cond. matter (wetting

3

He alc.)

Optical cavities

Direct experim. conﬁrmation

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 12/29

The Casimir Effect

vacuum

BC

F

CasimirEffect

BC e.g. periodic

=⇒ all kind of ﬁelds

=⇒ curvature or topology

Universal process:

Sonoluminiscence (Schwinger)

Cond. matter (wetting

3

He alc.)

Optical cavities

Direct experim. conﬁrmation

Van der Waals, Lipschitz theory

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 12/29

The Casimir Effect

vacuum

BC

F

CasimirEffect

BC e.g. periodic

=⇒ all kind of ﬁelds

=⇒ curvature or topology

Universal process:

Sonoluminiscence (Schwinger)

Cond. matter (wetting

3

He alc.)

Optical cavities

Direct experim. conﬁrmation

Van der Waals, Lipschitz theory

Dynamical CE

Lateral CE

Extract energy from vacuum

CE and the cosmological constant

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 12/29

Vacuum energy density and the CC

The main issue:

energy ALWAYS gravitates, therefore the energy density of the

vacuum, more precisely, the vacuum expectation value of the

stress-energy tensor ¸T

µν

) ≡ −cg

µν

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 13/29

Vacuum energy density and the CC

The main issue:

energy ALWAYS gravitates, therefore the energy density of the

vacuum, more precisely, the vacuum expectation value of the

stress-energy tensor ¸T

µν

) ≡ −cg

µν

Appears on the rhs of Einstein’s equations:

R

µν

−

1

2

g

µν

R = −8πG(

˜

T

µν

−cg

µν

)

It affects cosmology:

˜

T

µν

excitations above the vacuum

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 13/29

Vacuum energy density and the CC

The main issue:

energy ALWAYS gravitates, therefore the energy density of the

vacuum, more precisely, the vacuum expectation value of the

stress-energy tensor ¸T

µν

) ≡ −cg

µν

Appears on the rhs of Einstein’s equations:

R

µν

−

1

2

g

µν

R = −8πG(

˜

T

µν

−cg

µν

)

It affects cosmology:

˜

T

µν

excitations above the vacuum

Equivalent to a cosmological constant λ = 8πGc

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 13/29

Vacuum energy density and the CC

The main issue:

energy ALWAYS gravitates, therefore the energy density of the

vacuum, more precisely, the vacuum expectation value of the

stress-energy tensor ¸T

µν

) ≡ −cg

µν

Appears on the rhs of Einstein’s equations:

R

µν

−

1

2

g

µν

R = −8πG(

˜

T

µν

−cg

µν

)

It affects cosmology:

˜

T

µν

excitations above the vacuum

Equivalent to a cosmological constant λ = 8πGc

Recent observations: M. Tegmark et al. [SDSS Collab.] PRD 2004

λ = (2.14 ±0.13 10

−3

eV)

4

∼ 4.32 10

−9

erg/cm

3

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 13/29

Vacuum energy density and the CC

The main issue:

energy ALWAYS gravitates, therefore the energy density of the

vacuum, more precisely, the vacuum expectation value of the

stress-energy tensor ¸T

µν

) ≡ −cg

µν

Appears on the rhs of Einstein’s equations:

R

µν

−

1

2

g

µν

R = −8πG(

˜

T

µν

−cg

µν

)

It affects cosmology:

˜

T

µν

excitations above the vacuum

Equivalent to a cosmological constant λ = 8πGc

Recent observations: M. Tegmark et al. [SDSS Collab.] PRD 2004

λ = (2.14 ±0.13 10

−3

eV)

4

∼ 4.32 10

−9

erg/cm

3

Idea: zero point ﬂuctuations do contribute to the

cosmological constant

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 13/29

Cosmo-Topological Casimir Effect (I)

Zeta techniques used in calcul the contribution of the vacuum energy

of quantum ﬁelds pervading the universe to the cosmolog const [cc]

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 14/29

Cosmo-Topological Casimir Effect (I)

Zeta techniques used in calcul the contribution of the vacuum energy

of quantum ﬁelds pervading the universe to the cosmolog const [cc]

Direct calculations of the absolute contributions of the known ﬁelds

(all couple to gravity) lead to a value which is off by roughly

120 orders of magnitude [ρ

obs

Λ

/(ρ

Pl

)

4

∼ 10

−120

]

=⇒ kind of a modern (and very thick!) aether

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 14/29

Cosmo-Topological Casimir Effect (I)

Zeta techniques used in calcul the contribution of the vacuum energy

of quantum ﬁelds pervading the universe to the cosmolog const [cc]

Direct calculations of the absolute contributions of the known ﬁelds

(all couple to gravity) lead to a value which is off by roughly

120 orders of magnitude [ρ

obs

Λ

/(ρ

Pl

)

4

∼ 10

−120

]

=⇒ kind of a modern (and very thick!) aether

Observational tests see nothing (or very little) of it:

=⇒ (new) cosmological constant problem.

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 14/29

Cosmo-Topological Casimir Effect (I)

Zeta techniques used in calcul the contribution of the vacuum energy

of quantum ﬁelds pervading the universe to the cosmolog const [cc]

Direct calculations of the absolute contributions of the known ﬁelds

(all couple to gravity) lead to a value which is off by roughly

120 orders of magnitude [ρ

obs

Λ

/(ρ

Pl

)

4

∼ 10

−120

]

=⇒ kind of a modern (and very thick!) aether

Observational tests see nothing (or very little) of it:

=⇒ (new) cosmological constant problem.

Very difﬁcult to solve and we do not address this question directly

[Baum, Hawking, Coleman, Polchinsky, Weinberg,...]

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 14/29

Cosmo-Topological Casimir Effect (I)

Zeta techniques used in calcul the contribution of the vacuum energy

of quantum ﬁelds pervading the universe to the cosmolog const [cc]

Direct calculations of the absolute contributions of the known ﬁelds

(all couple to gravity) lead to a value which is off by roughly

120 orders of magnitude [ρ

obs

Λ

/(ρ

Pl

)

4

∼ 10

−120

]

=⇒ kind of a modern (and very thick!) aether

Observational tests see nothing (or very little) of it:

=⇒ (new) cosmological constant problem.

Very difﬁcult to solve and we do not address this question directly

[Baum, Hawking, Coleman, Polchinsky, Weinberg,...]

What we do consider —with relative success in some different

approaches— is the additional contribution to the cc coming from the

non-trivial topology of space or from speciﬁc boundary conditions

imposed on braneworld models:

=⇒ kind of cosmological Casimir effect

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 14/29

Cosmo-Topological Casimir Effect (II)

Assuming one will be able to prove (in the future) that the ground

value of the cc is zero (as many had suspected until recently), we will

be left with this incremental value coming from the topology or BCs

* L. Parker & A. Raval, VCDM, vacuum energy density

* C.P. Burgess, hep-th/0606020 & 0510123: Susy Large Extra Dims

(SLED), two 10

−2

µm dims, bulk vs brane Susy breaking scales

* T. Padmanabhan, gr-qc/0606061: Holographic Perspective, CC is an

intg const, no response of gravity to changes in bulk vac energy dens

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 15/29

Cosmo-Topological Casimir Effect (II)

Assuming one will be able to prove (in the future) that the ground

value of the cc is zero (as many had suspected until recently), we will

be left with this incremental value coming from the topology or BCs

* L. Parker & A. Raval, VCDM, vacuum energy density

* C.P. Burgess, hep-th/0606020 & 0510123: Susy Large Extra Dims

(SLED), two 10

−2

µm dims, bulk vs brane Susy breaking scales

* T. Padmanabhan, gr-qc/0606061: Holographic Perspective, CC is an

intg const, no response of gravity to changes in bulk vac energy dens

We show (with different examples) that this value acquires

the correct order of magnitude —corresponding to the one

coming from the observed acceleration in the expansion of

our universe— in some reasonable models involving:

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 15/29

Cosmo-Topological Casimir Effect (II)

Assuming one will be able to prove (in the future) that the ground

value of the cc is zero (as many had suspected until recently), we will

be left with this incremental value coming from the topology or BCs

* L. Parker & A. Raval, VCDM, vacuum energy density

* C.P. Burgess, hep-th/0606020 & 0510123: Susy Large Extra Dims

(SLED), two 10

−2

µm dims, bulk vs brane Susy breaking scales

* T. Padmanabhan, gr-qc/0606061: Holographic Perspective, CC is an

intg const, no response of gravity to changes in bulk vac energy dens

We show (with different examples) that this value acquires

the correct order of magnitude —corresponding to the one

coming from the observed acceleration in the expansion of

our universe— in some reasonable models involving:

(a) small and large compactiﬁed scales

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 15/29

Cosmo-Topological Casimir Effect (II)

Assuming one will be able to prove (in the future) that the ground

value of the cc is zero (as many had suspected until recently), we will

be left with this incremental value coming from the topology or BCs

* L. Parker & A. Raval, VCDM, vacuum energy density

* C.P. Burgess, hep-th/0606020 & 0510123: Susy Large Extra Dims

(SLED), two 10

−2

µm dims, bulk vs brane Susy breaking scales

* T. Padmanabhan, gr-qc/0606061: Holographic Perspective, CC is an

intg const, no response of gravity to changes in bulk vac energy dens

We show (with different examples) that this value acquires

the correct order of magnitude —corresponding to the one

coming from the observed acceleration in the expansion of

our universe— in some reasonable models involving:

(a) small and large compactiﬁed scales

(b) dS & AdS worldbranes

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 15/29

Cosmo-Topological Casimir Effect (II)

Assuming one will be able to prove (in the future) that the ground

value of the cc is zero (as many had suspected until recently), we will

be left with this incremental value coming from the topology or BCs

* L. Parker & A. Raval, VCDM, vacuum energy density

* C.P. Burgess, hep-th/0606020 & 0510123: Susy Large Extra Dims

(SLED), two 10

−2

µm dims, bulk vs brane Susy breaking scales

* T. Padmanabhan, gr-qc/0606061: Holographic Perspective, CC is an

intg const, no response of gravity to changes in bulk vac energy dens

We show (with different examples) that this value acquires

the correct order of magnitude —corresponding to the one

coming from the observed acceleration in the expansion of

our universe— in some reasonable models involving:

(a) small and large compactiﬁed scales

(b) dS & AdS worldbranes

(c) supergraviton theories (discret dims, deconstr)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 15/29

A. Simple model: large & small dim’s

Space-time:

R

d+1

T

p

T

q

, R

d+1

T

p

S

q

,

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 16/29

A. Simple model: large & small dim’s

Space-time:

R

d+1

T

p

T

q

, R

d+1

T

p

S

q

,

Scalar ﬁeld, φ, pervading the universe

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 16/29

A. Simple model: large & small dim’s

Space-time:

R

d+1

T

p

T

q

, R

d+1

T

p

S

q

,

Scalar ﬁeld, φ, pervading the universe

ρ

φ

contribution to ρ

V

from this ﬁeld

ρ

φ

=

1

2

i

λ

i

=

1

2

k

1

µ

_

k

2

+M

2

_

1/2

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 16/29

A. Simple model: large & small dim’s

Space-time:

R

d+1

T

p

T

q

, R

d+1

T

p

S

q

,

Scalar ﬁeld, φ, pervading the universe

ρ

φ

contribution to ρ

V

from this ﬁeld

ρ

φ

=

1

2

i

λ

i

=

1

2

k

1

µ

_

k

2

+M

2

_

1/2

i

and

k

are generalized sums, µ mass-dim parameter,

= c = 1

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 16/29

A. Simple model: large & small dim’s

Space-time:

R

d+1

T

p

T

q

, R

d+1

T

p

S

q

,

Scalar ﬁeld, φ, pervading the universe

ρ

φ

contribution to ρ

V

from this ﬁeld

ρ

φ

=

1

2

i

λ

i

=

1

2

k

1

µ

_

k

2

+M

2

_

1/2

i

and

k

are generalized sums, µ mass-dim parameter,

= c = 1

M mass of the ﬁeld arbitrarily small

(a tiny mass for the ﬁeld can never be excluded); see

L. Parker & A. Raval, PRL86 749 (2001); PRD62 083503 (2000)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 16/29

For d–open, (p, q)–toroidal universe:

ρ

φ

=

π

−d/2

2

d

Γ(d/2)

p

j=1

a

j

q

h=1

b

h

_

∞

0

dk k

d−1

∞

n

p

=−∞

∞

m

q

=−∞

_

_

p

j=1

_

2πn

j

a

j

_

2

+

q

h=1

_

2πm

h

b

h

_

2

+k

2

d

+M

2

_

_

1/2

≃

1

a

p

b

q

∞

n

p

,m

q

=−∞

_

_

1

a

2

p

j=1

n

2

j

+

1

b

2

q

h=1

m

2

h

+M

2

_

_

d+1

2

+1

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 17/29

For d–open, (p, q)–toroidal universe:

ρ

φ

=

π

−d/2

2

d

Γ(d/2)

p

j=1

a

j

q

h=1

b

h

_

∞

0

dk k

d−1

∞

n

p

=−∞

∞

m

q

=−∞

_

_

p

j=1

_

2πn

j

a

j

_

2

+

q

h=1

_

2πm

h

b

h

_

2

+k

2

d

+M

2

_

_

1/2

≃

1

a

p

b

q

∞

n

p

,m

q

=−∞

_

_

1

a

2

p

j=1

n

2

j

+

1

b

2

q

h=1

m

2

h

+M

2

_

_

d+1

2

+1

For d–open, (p–toroidal, q–spherical) universe:

ρ

φ

=

π

−d/2

2

d

Γ(d/2)

p

j=1

a

j

b

q

_

∞

0

dk k

d−1

∞

n

p

=−∞

∞

l=1

P

q−1

(l)

_

_

p

j=1

_

2πn

j

a

j

_

2

+

Q

2

(l)

b

2

+k

2

d

+M

2

_

_

1/2

[P

q−1

(l) poly in l deg q −1]

≃

1

a

p

b

q

∞

n

p

=−∞

∞

l=1

P

q−1

(l)

_

_

4π

2

a

2

p

j=1

n

2

j

+

l(l +q)

b

2

+

M

2

4π

2

_

_

d+1

2

+1

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 17/29

Regularize: zeta function

ζ(s) =

1

2

i

λ

−s

i

=

1

2

k

_

k

2

+M

2

µ

2

_

−s/2

=⇒ ρ

φ

= ζ(−1)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 18/29

Regularize: zeta function

ζ(s) =

1

2

i

λ

−s

i

=

1

2

k

_

k

2

+M

2

µ

2

_

−s/2

=⇒ ρ

φ

= ζ(−1)

No further subtraction or renormalization needed here

[E.E., J. Math. Phys. 35, 3308, 6100 (1994)]

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 18/29

Regularize: zeta function

ζ(s) =

1

2

i

λ

−s

i

=

1

2

k

_

k

2

+M

2

µ

2

_

−s/2

=⇒ ρ

φ

= ζ(−1)

No further subtraction or renormalization needed here

[E.E., J. Math. Phys. 35, 3308, 6100 (1994)]

Here spectrum of the Hamiltonian op. known explicitly.

Corresponds to generalized Chowla-Selberg expression

[E.E., Commun. Math. Phys. 198, 83 (1998)

E.E., J. Phys. A30, 2735 (1997)]

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 18/29

Regularize: zeta function

ζ(s) =

1

2

i

λ

−s

i

=

1

2

k

_

k

2

+M

2

µ

2

_

−s/2

=⇒ ρ

φ

= ζ(−1)

No further subtraction or renormalization needed here

[E.E., J. Math. Phys. 35, 3308, 6100 (1994)]

Here spectrum of the Hamiltonian op. known explicitly.

Corresponds to generalized Chowla-Selberg expression

[E.E., Commun. Math. Phys. 198, 83 (1998)

E.E., J. Phys. A30, 2735 (1997)]

For the zeta function (Re s > p/2):

ζ

A,c,q

(s) =

n∈Z

p

′

_

1

2

(n +c)

T

A(n +c) +q

_

−s

≡

n∈Z

p

′

[Q(n +c) +q]

−s

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 18/29

Prime means that point n =

**0 is excluded from sum (not important)
**

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 19/29

Prime means that point n =

**0 is excluded from sum (not important)
**

Gives (analyt cont of) multidim zeta function in terms of an

exponentially convergent multiseries, valid in the whole complex plane

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 19/29

Prime means that point n =

**0 is excluded from sum (not important)
**

Gives (analyt cont of) multidim zeta function in terms of an

exponentially convergent multiseries, valid in the whole complex plane

Exhibits singularities (simple poles) of meromorphic continuation

—with corresponding residua— explicitly

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 19/29

Prime means that point n =

**0 is excluded from sum (not important)
**

Gives (analyt cont of) multidim zeta function in terms of an

exponentially convergent multiseries, valid in the whole complex plane

Exhibits singularities (simple poles) of meromorphic continuation

—with corresponding residua— explicitly

Only condition on matrix A: corresponds to (non negative) quadratic

form, Q. Vector c arbitrary, while q (for the moment) positive constant

ζ

A,c,q

(s) =

(2π)

p/2

q

p/2−s

√

det A

Γ(s −p/2)

Γ(s)

+

2

s/2+p/4+2

π

s

q

−s/2+p/4

√

det A Γ(s)

m∈Z

p

1/2

′

cos(2π m c)

_

m

T

A

−1

m

_

s/2−p/4

K

p/2−s

_

2π

_

2q m

T

A

−1

m

_

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 19/29

Prime means that point n =

**0 is excluded from sum (not important)
**

Gives (analyt cont of) multidim zeta function in terms of an

exponentially convergent multiseries, valid in the whole complex plane

Exhibits singularities (simple poles) of meromorphic continuation

—with corresponding residua— explicitly

Only condition on matrix A: corresponds to (non negative) quadratic

form, Q. Vector c arbitrary, while q (for the moment) positive constant

ζ

A,c,q

(s) =

(2π)

p/2

q

p/2−s

√

det A

Γ(s −p/2)

Γ(s)

+

2

s/2+p/4+2

π

s

q

−s/2+p/4

√

det A Γ(s)

m∈Z

p

1/2

′

cos(2π m c)

_

m

T

A

−1

m

_

s/2−p/4

K

p/2−s

_

2π

_

2q m

T

A

−1

m

_

K

ν

modiﬁed Bessel function of the second kind and the subindex 1/2

in Z

p

1/2

means that only half of the vectors m ∈ Z

p

are summed over.

That is, if we take an m ∈ Z

p

we must then exclude − m (as simple

criterion one can, for instance, select those vectors in Z

p

¸¦

0¦ whose

ﬁrst non-zero component is positive).

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 19/29

Calcul. of vacuum energy density

Analytic continuation of the zeta function:

ζ(s) =

2π

s/2+1

a

p−(s+1)/2

b

q−(s−1)/2

Γ(s/2)

∞

m

q

=−∞

p

h=0

_

p

h

_

2

h

∞

n

h

=1

_

h

j=1

n

2

j

q

k=1

m

2

k

+M

2

_

s−1

4

K

(s−1)/2

_

¸

_

2πa

b

_

_

h

j=1

n

2

j

_

_

1/2

_

q

k=1

m

2

k

+M

2

_

1/2

_

¸

_

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 20/29

Calcul. of vacuum energy density

Analytic continuation of the zeta function:

ζ(s) =

2π

s/2+1

a

p−(s+1)/2

b

q−(s−1)/2

Γ(s/2)

∞

m

q

=−∞

p

h=0

_

p

h

_

2

h

∞

n

h

=1

_

h

j=1

n

2

j

q

k=1

m

2

k

+M

2

_

s−1

4

K

(s−1)/2

_

¸

_

2πa

b

_

_

h

j=1

n

2

j

_

_

1/2

_

q

k=1

m

2

k

+M

2

_

1/2

_

¸

_

Yields the vacuum energy density:

ρ

φ

= −

1

a

p

b

q+1

p

h=0

_

p

h

_

2

h

∞

n

h

=1

∞

m

q

=−∞

¸

¸

¸

_

q

k=1

m

2

k

+M

2

h

j=1

n

2

j

K

1

_

¸

_

2πa

b

_

_

h

j=1

n

2

j

_

_

1/2

_

q

k=1

m

2

k

+M

2

_

1/2

_

¸

_

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 20/29

Now, from K

ν

(z) ∼

1

2

Γ(ν)(z/2)

−ν

, z → 0

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 21/29

Now, from K

ν

(z) ∼

1

2

Γ(ν)(z/2)

−ν

, z → 0

when M is very small

ρ

φ

= −

1

a

p

b

q+1

_

M K

1

_

2πa

b

M

_

+

p

h=0

_

p

h

_

2

h

∞

n

h

=1

M

_

h

j=1

n

2

j

K

1

_

_

2πa

b

M

¸

¸

¸

_

h

j=1

n

2

j

_

_

+ O

_

q

_

1 +M

2

K

1

_

2πa

b

_

1 +M

2

___

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 21/29

Now, from K

ν

(z) ∼

1

2

Γ(ν)(z/2)

−ν

, z → 0

when M is very small

ρ

φ

= −

1

a

p

b

q+1

_

M K

1

_

2πa

b

M

_

+

p

h=0

_

p

h

_

2

h

∞

n

h

=1

M

_

h

j=1

n

2

j

K

1

_

_

2πa

b

M

¸

¸

¸

_

h

j=1

n

2

j

_

_

+ O

_

q

_

1 +M

2

K

1

_

2πa

b

_

1 +M

2

___

Inserting the and c factors

ρ

φ

= −

c

2πa

p+1

b

q

_

1 +

p

h=0

_

p

h

_

2

h

α

_

+O

_

qK

1

_

2πa

b

__

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 21/29

Now, from K

ν

(z) ∼

1

2

Γ(ν)(z/2)

−ν

, z → 0

when M is very small

ρ

φ

= −

1

a

p

b

q+1

_

M K

1

_

2πa

b

M

_

+

p

h=0

_

p

h

_

2

h

∞

n

h

=1

M

_

h

j=1

n

2

j

K

1

_

_

2πa

b

M

¸

¸

¸

_

h

j=1

n

2

j

_

_

+ O

_

q

_

1 +M

2

K

1

_

2πa

b

_

1 +M

2

___

Inserting the and c factors

ρ

φ

= −

c

2πa

p+1

b

q

_

1 +

p

h=0

_

p

h

_

2

h

α

_

+O

_

qK

1

_

2πa

b

__

α some ﬁnite constant (explicit geometrical sum in the limit M → 0)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 21/29

Now, from K

ν

(z) ∼

1

2

Γ(ν)(z/2)

−ν

, z → 0

when M is very small

ρ

φ

= −

1

a

p

b

q+1

_

M K

1

_

2πa

b

M

_

+

p

h=0

_

p

h

_

2

h

∞

n

h

=1

M

_

h

j=1

n

2

j

K

1

_

_

2πa

b

M

¸

¸

¸

_

h

j=1

n

2

j

_

_

+ O

_

q

_

1 +M

2

K

1

_

2πa

b

_

1 +M

2

___

Inserting the and c factors

ρ

φ

= −

c

2πa

p+1

b

q

_

1 +

p

h=0

_

p

h

_

2

h

α

_

+O

_

qK

1

_

2πa

b

__

α some ﬁnite constant (explicit geometrical sum in the limit M → 0)

=⇒ Sign may change with BC (e.g., Dirichlet): a problem

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 21/29

Matching the obs. results for the CC

b ∼ l

P(lanck)

a ∼ R

U(niverse)

a/b ∼ 10

60

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 22/29

Matching the obs. results for the CC

b ∼ l

P(lanck)

a ∼ R

U(niverse)

a/b ∼ 10

60

ρ

φ

p = 0 p = 1 p = 2 p = 3

b = l

P

10

−13

10

−6

1 10

5

b = 10l

P

10

−14

[10

−8

] 10

−3

10

b = 10

2

l

P

10

−15

(10

−10

) 10

−6

10

−3

b = 10

3

l

P

10

−16

10

−12

[10

−9

] (10

−7

)

b = 10

4

l

P

10

−17

10

−14

10

−12

10

−11

b = 10

5

l

P

10

−18

10

−16

10

−15

10

−15

Table 2: Vacuum energy density in units of erg/cm

3

, for p large com-

pactiﬁed dimensions a, and q = p + 1 small compactiﬁed dimensions b,

p = 0, . . . , 3, for different values of b, proportional to the Planck length l

P

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 22/29

Results of this simple model

* Precise (in absolute value) coincidence with the observational

value for the cosmological constant with

ρ

φ

−→ [ ]

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 23/29

Results of this simple model

* Precise (in absolute value) coincidence with the observational

value for the cosmological constant with

ρ

φ

−→ [ ]

* Approximate coincidence −→ ( )

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 23/29

Results of this simple model

* Precise (in absolute value) coincidence with the observational

value for the cosmological constant with

ρ

φ

−→ [ ]

* Approximate coincidence −→ ( )

* b ∼ 10 to 1000 times the Planck length l

P

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 23/29

Results of this simple model

* Precise (in absolute value) coincidence with the observational

value for the cosmological constant with

ρ

φ

−→ [ ]

* Approximate coincidence −→ ( )

* b ∼ 10 to 1000 times the Planck length l

P

* q = p + 1: (1,2) and (2,3) compactiﬁed dimensions,

respectively

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 23/29

Results of this simple model

* Precise (in absolute value) coincidence with the observational

value for the cosmological constant with

ρ

φ

−→ [ ]

* Approximate coincidence −→ ( )

* b ∼ 10 to 1000 times the Planck length l

P

* q = p + 1: (1,2) and (2,3) compactiﬁed dimensions,

respectively

* Everything dictated by two basic lengths:

Planck value and radius of observable Universe

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 23/29

Results of this simple model

* Precise (in absolute value) coincidence with the observational

value for the cosmological constant with

ρ

φ

−→ [ ]

* Approximate coincidence −→ ( )

* b ∼ 10 to 1000 times the Planck length l

P

* q = p + 1: (1,2) and (2,3) compactiﬁed dimensions,

respectively

* Everything dictated by two basic lengths:

Planck value and radius of observable Universe

* Both situations correspond to a marginally closed universe

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 23/29

Results of this simple model

* Precise (in absolute value) coincidence with the observational

value for the cosmological constant with

ρ

φ

−→ [ ]

* Approximate coincidence −→ ( )

* b ∼ 10 to 1000 times the Planck length l

P

* q = p + 1: (1,2) and (2,3) compactiﬁed dimensions,

respectively

* Everything dictated by two basic lengths:

Planck value and radius of observable Universe

* Both situations correspond to a marginally closed universe

=⇒ To examine → couplings in GR

→ alternative theories

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 23/29

B. Realistic models: dS & AdS BW

Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, PRD70 (2004) 043539

Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, Ogushi, PRD67 (2003) 063515

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 24/29

B. Realistic models: dS & AdS BW

Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, PRD70 (2004) 043539

Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, Ogushi, PRD67 (2003) 063515

Bulk Casimir effect may play a role in radion stabilization of BW

Bulk Casimir effect (eff. pot.) for a conformal or massive scalar ﬁeld

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 24/29

B. Realistic models: dS & AdS BW

Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, PRD70 (2004) 043539

Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, Ogushi, PRD67 (2003) 063515

Bulk Casimir effect may play a role in radion stabilization of BW

Bulk Casimir effect (eff. pot.) for a conformal or massive scalar ﬁeld

Bulk: 5-dim AdS or dS space with 2/1 4-dim dS brane (our universe)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 24/29

B. Realistic models: dS & AdS BW

Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, PRD70 (2004) 043539

Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, Ogushi, PRD67 (2003) 063515

Bulk Casimir effect may play a role in radion stabilization of BW

Bulk Casimir effect (eff. pot.) for a conformal or massive scalar ﬁeld

Bulk: 5-dim AdS or dS space with 2/1 4-dim dS brane (our universe)

Consistent with observational data even for large extra dimension

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 24/29

B. Realistic models: dS & AdS BW

Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, PRD70 (2004) 043539

Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, Ogushi, PRD67 (2003) 063515

Bulk Casimir effect may play a role in radion stabilization of BW

Bulk Casimir effect (eff. pot.) for a conformal or massive scalar ﬁeld

Bulk: 5-dim AdS or dS space with 2/1 4-dim dS brane (our universe)

Consistent with observational data even for large extra dimension

Two dS

4

branes in dS

5

background; becomes a one-brane as L → ∞

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 24/29

B. Realistic models: dS & AdS BW

Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, PRD70 (2004) 043539

Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, Ogushi, PRD67 (2003) 063515

Bulk Casimir effect may play a role in radion stabilization of BW

Bulk Casimir effect (eff. pot.) for a conformal or massive scalar ﬁeld

Bulk: 5-dim AdS or dS space with 2/1 4-dim dS brane (our universe)

Consistent with observational data even for large extra dimension

Two dS

4

branes in dS

5

background; becomes a one-brane as L → ∞

=⇒ Casimir energy density and effective potential for a de Sitter (dS)

brane in a ﬁve-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) background

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 24/29

B. Realistic models: dS & AdS BW

Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, PRD70 (2004) 043539

Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, Ogushi, PRD67 (2003) 063515

Bulk Casimir effect may play a role in radion stabilization of BW

Bulk Casimir effect (eff. pot.) for a conformal or massive scalar ﬁeld

Bulk: 5-dim AdS or dS space with 2/1 4-dim dS brane (our universe)

Consistent with observational data even for large extra dimension

Two dS

4

branes in dS

5

background; becomes a one-brane as L → ∞

=⇒ Casimir energy density and effective potential for a de Sitter (dS)

brane in a ﬁve-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) background

=⇒ Action for conformally inv massless scalar with scalar-gravit coupling

o =

1

2

_

d

5

x

√

g

_

−g

µν

∂

µ

φ∂

ν

φ +ξ

5

R

(5)

φ

2

_

ξ

5

= −3/16 R

(5)

5-dim scalar curvature

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 24/29

=⇒ Euclidean metric of the 5-dim AdS bulk

ds

2

= g

µν

dx

µ

dx

ν

=

α

2

sinh

2

z

_

dz

2

+dΩ

2

4

_

dΩ

2

4

= dξ

2

+ sin

2

ξdΩ

2

3

α is the AdS radius, related to cc of AdS bulk

dΩ

3

metric on the 3-sphere

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 25/29

=⇒ Euclidean metric of the 5-dim AdS bulk

ds

2

= g

µν

dx

µ

dx

ν

=

α

2

sinh

2

z

_

dz

2

+dΩ

2

4

_

dΩ

2

4

= dξ

2

+ sin

2

ξdΩ

2

3

α is the AdS radius, related to cc of AdS bulk

dΩ

3

metric on the 3-sphere

CASIMIR ENERGY

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 25/29

=⇒ Euclidean metric of the 5-dim AdS bulk

ds

2

= g

µν

dx

µ

dx

ν

=

α

2

sinh

2

z

_

dz

2

+dΩ

2

4

_

dΩ

2

4

= dξ

2

+ sin

2

ξdΩ

2

3

α is the AdS radius, related to cc of AdS bulk

dΩ

3

metric on the 3-sphere

CASIMIR ENERGY

(a) One-brane Casimir energy = 0

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 25/29

=⇒ Euclidean metric of the 5-dim AdS bulk

ds

2

= g

µν

dx

µ

dx

ν

=

α

2

sinh

2

z

_

dz

2

+dΩ

2

4

_

dΩ

2

4

= dξ

2

+ sin

2

ξdΩ

2

3

α is the AdS radius, related to cc of AdS bulk

dΩ

3

metric on the 3-sphere

CASIMIR ENERGY

(a) One-brane Casimir energy = 0

(b) Bulk Casimir energy (L brane separation, 1 brane radius)

ζ(s[L

5

) =

µ

−2s

6

∞

n,l=1

(l + 1)(l + 2)(2l + 3)

_

_

πn

L

_

2

+1

−2

_

l

2

+ 3l +

9

4

__

−s

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 25/29

=⇒ Euclidean metric of the 5-dim AdS bulk

ds

2

= g

µν

dx

µ

dx

ν

=

α

2

sinh

2

z

_

dz

2

+dΩ

2

4

_

dΩ

2

4

= dξ

2

+ sin

2

ξdΩ

2

3

α is the AdS radius, related to cc of AdS bulk

dΩ

3

metric on the 3-sphere

CASIMIR ENERGY

(a) One-brane Casimir energy = 0

(b) Bulk Casimir energy (L brane separation, 1 brane radius)

ζ(s[L

5

) =

µ

−2s

6

∞

n,l=1

(l + 1)(l + 2)(2l + 3)

_

_

πn

L

_

2

+1

−2

_

l

2

+ 3l +

9

4

__

−s

The Casimir energy density (pressure) follows (non-trivially!)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 25/29

=⇒ Euclidean metric of the 5-dim AdS bulk

ds

2

= g

µν

dx

µ

dx

ν

=

α

2

sinh

2

z

_

dz

2

+dΩ

2

4

_

dΩ

2

4

= dξ

2

+ sin

2

ξdΩ

2

3

α is the AdS radius, related to cc of AdS bulk

dΩ

3

metric on the 3-sphere

CASIMIR ENERGY

(a) One-brane Casimir energy = 0

(b) Bulk Casimir energy (L brane separation, 1 brane radius)

ζ(s[L

5

) =

µ

−2s

6

∞

n,l=1

(l + 1)(l + 2)(2l + 3)

_

_

πn

L

_

2

+1

−2

_

l

2

+ 3l +

9

4

__

−s

The Casimir energy density (pressure) follows (non-trivially!)

c

Cas

=

c

2L1

4

ζ

_

−

1

2

[L

5

_

= −

cπ

3

36L

6

_

π

2

315

−

1

240

_

L

1

_

2

+O

_

L

1

_

4

_

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 25/29

C. Supergraviton Theories

=⇒ Cognola, Elizalde, Zerbini, PLB624 (2005) 70

=⇒ Cognola, Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, Zerbini, MPLA19 (2004) 1435

=⇒ Boulanger, Damour, Gualtieri, Henneaux, NPB597 (2001) 127

=⇒ Sugamoto, Grav. Cosmol. 9 (2003) 91

=⇒ Arkani-Hamed, Cohen, Georgi, PRL86 (2001) 4757

=⇒ Arkani-Hamed, Georgi, Schwartz, Ann. Phys. (NY) 305 (2003) 96

=⇒ Hill, Pokorski, Wang; Damour, Kogan, Papazoglou; Deffayet, Mourad

Effective potential for a multi-graviton model with

supersymmetry (discretized dim’s, deconstruction)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 26/29

C. Supergraviton Theories

=⇒ Cognola, Elizalde, Zerbini, PLB624 (2005) 70

=⇒ Cognola, Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, Zerbini, MPLA19 (2004) 1435

=⇒ Boulanger, Damour, Gualtieri, Henneaux, NPB597 (2001) 127

=⇒ Sugamoto, Grav. Cosmol. 9 (2003) 91

=⇒ Arkani-Hamed, Cohen, Georgi, PRL86 (2001) 4757

=⇒ Arkani-Hamed, Georgi, Schwartz, Ann. Phys. (NY) 305 (2003) 96

=⇒ Hill, Pokorski, Wang; Damour, Kogan, Papazoglou; Deffayet, Mourad

Effective potential for a multi-graviton model with

supersymmetry (discretized dim’s, deconstruction)

The bulk is a ﬂat manifold with torus topology R T

3

=⇒ shown the induced cosmological constant could be

positive due to topological contributions

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 26/29

C. Supergraviton Theories

=⇒ Cognola, Elizalde, Zerbini, PLB624 (2005) 70

=⇒ Cognola, Elizalde, Nojiri, Odintsov, Zerbini, MPLA19 (2004) 1435

=⇒ Boulanger, Damour, Gualtieri, Henneaux, NPB597 (2001) 127

=⇒ Sugamoto, Grav. Cosmol. 9 (2003) 91

=⇒ Arkani-Hamed, Cohen, Georgi, PRL86 (2001) 4757

=⇒ Arkani-Hamed, Georgi, Schwartz, Ann. Phys. (NY) 305 (2003) 96

=⇒ Hill, Pokorski, Wang; Damour, Kogan, Papazoglou; Deffayet, Mourad

Effective potential for a multi-graviton model with

supersymmetry (discretized dim’s, deconstruction)

The bulk is a ﬂat manifold with torus topology R T

3

=⇒ shown the induced cosmological constant could be

positive due to topological contributions

Previously considered in R

4

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 26/29

=⇒ Allow for non-nearest-neighbor couplings

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 27/29

=⇒ Allow for non-nearest-neighbor couplings

=⇒ Multi-graviton model deﬁned by taking N−copies of ﬁelds, with

graviton h

nµν

and Stückelberg ﬁelds A

nµ

, ϕ

n

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 27/29

=⇒ Allow for non-nearest-neighbor couplings

=⇒ Multi-graviton model deﬁned by taking N−copies of ﬁelds, with

graviton h

nµν

and Stückelberg ﬁelds A

nµ

, ϕ

n

=⇒ Lagrangian of theory generalization of Kan-Shiraishi

L =

N−1

n=0

_

−

1

2

∂

λ

h

nµν

∂

λ

h

µν

n

+∂

λ

h

λ

nµ

∂

ν

h

µν

n

−∂

µ

h

µν

n

∂

ν

h

n

+

1

2

∂

λ

h

n

∂

λ

h

n

−

1

2

_

m

2

∆h

nµν

∆h

µν

n

−(∆h

n

)

2

_

−2

_

m∆

†

A

µ

n

+∂

µ

ϕ

n

_

(∂

ν

h

nµν

−∂

µ

h

n

)

−

1

2

(∂

µ

A

nν

−∂

ν

A

nµ

) (∂

µ

A

ν

n

−∂

ν

A

µ

n

)

_

∆, ∆

†

difference operators

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 27/29

=⇒ Allow for non-nearest-neighbor couplings

=⇒ Multi-graviton model deﬁned by taking N−copies of ﬁelds, with

graviton h

nµν

and Stückelberg ﬁelds A

nµ

, ϕ

n

=⇒ Lagrangian of theory generalization of Kan-Shiraishi

L =

N−1

n=0

_

−

1

2

∂

λ

h

nµν

∂

λ

h

µν

n

+∂

λ

h

λ

nµ

∂

ν

h

µν

n

−∂

µ

h

µν

n

∂

ν

h

n

+

1

2

∂

λ

h

n

∂

λ

h

n

−

1

2

_

m

2

∆h

nµν

∆h

µν

n

−(∆h

n

)

2

_

−2

_

m∆

†

A

µ

n

+∂

µ

ϕ

n

_

(∂

ν

h

nµν

−∂

µ

h

n

)

−

1

2

(∂

µ

A

nν

−∂

ν

A

nµ

) (∂

µ

A

ν

n

−∂

ν

A

µ

n

)

_

∆, ∆

†

difference operators

operate on the indices n as

∆φ

n

≡

N−1

k=0

a

k

φ

n+k

, ∆

†

φ

n

≡

N−1

k=0

a

k

φ

n−k

,

N−1

k=0

a

k

= 0,

a

k

are N constants and φ

n

can be identiﬁed with periodic ﬁelds on a lattice

with N sites if periodic boundary conditions, φ

n+N

= φ

n

, are imposed

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 27/29

=⇒ Allow for non-nearest-neighbor couplings

=⇒ Multi-graviton model deﬁned by taking N−copies of ﬁelds, with

graviton h

nµν

and Stückelberg ﬁelds A

nµ

, ϕ

n

=⇒ Lagrangian of theory generalization of Kan-Shiraishi

L =

N−1

n=0

_

−

1

2

∂

λ

h

nµν

∂

λ

h

µν

n

+∂

λ

h

λ

nµ

∂

ν

h

µν

n

−∂

µ

h

µν

n

∂

ν

h

n

+

1

2

∂

λ

h

n

∂

λ

h

n

−

1

2

_

m

2

∆h

nµν

∆h

µν

n

−(∆h

n

)

2

_

−2

_

m∆

†

A

µ

n

+∂

µ

ϕ

n

_

(∂

ν

h

nµν

−∂

µ

h

n

)

−

1

2

(∂

µ

A

nν

−∂

ν

A

nµ

) (∂

µ

A

ν

n

−∂

ν

A

µ

n

)

_

∆, ∆

†

difference operators

operate on the indices n as

∆φ

n

≡

N−1

k=0

a

k

φ

n+k

, ∆

†

φ

n

≡

N−1

k=0

a

k

φ

n−k

,

N−1

k=0

a

k

= 0,

a

k

are N constants and φ

n

can be identiﬁed with periodic ﬁelds on a lattice

with N sites if periodic boundary conditions, φ

n+N

= φ

n

, are imposed

(∆ becomes usual differentiation operator in properly deﬁned continuum limit)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 27/29

In the multi-graviton model the induced cosmological constant can be

positive only if # of massive gravitons is sufﬁciently large

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 28/29

In the multi-graviton model the induced cosmological constant can be

positive only if # of massive gravitons is sufﬁciently large

In the supersymmetric case the cosmological constant can be positive

if one imposes anti-periodic BC in the fermionic sector

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 28/29

In the multi-graviton model the induced cosmological constant can be

positive only if # of massive gravitons is sufﬁciently large

In the supersymmetric case the cosmological constant can be positive

if one imposes anti-periodic BC in the fermionic sector

Topological effects discussed may also be relevant in the study of

electroweak symmetry breaking in models with a similar type of

non-nearest-neighbour couplings, for the deconstruction issue

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 28/29

In the multi-graviton model the induced cosmological constant can be

positive only if # of massive gravitons is sufﬁciently large

In the supersymmetric case the cosmological constant can be positive

if one imposes anti-periodic BC in the fermionic sector

Topological effects discussed may also be relevant in the study of

electroweak symmetry breaking in models with a similar type of

non-nearest-neighbour couplings, for the deconstruction issue

Case of the torus topology: top. contributions to the eff. potential have

always a ﬁxed sign, depending on the BC one imposes

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 28/29

In the multi-graviton model the induced cosmological constant can be

positive only if # of massive gravitons is sufﬁciently large

In the supersymmetric case the cosmological constant can be positive

if one imposes anti-periodic BC in the fermionic sector

Topological effects discussed may also be relevant in the study of

electroweak symmetry breaking in models with a similar type of

non-nearest-neighbour couplings, for the deconstruction issue

Case of the torus topology: top. contributions to the eff. potential have

always a ﬁxed sign, depending on the BC one imposes

They are negative for periodic ﬁelds

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 28/29

In the multi-graviton model the induced cosmological constant can be

positive only if # of massive gravitons is sufﬁciently large

In the supersymmetric case the cosmological constant can be positive

if one imposes anti-periodic BC in the fermionic sector

Topological effects discussed may also be relevant in the study of

electroweak symmetry breaking in models with a similar type of

non-nearest-neighbour couplings, for the deconstruction issue

Case of the torus topology: top. contributions to the eff. potential have

always a ﬁxed sign, depending on the BC one imposes

They are negative for periodic ﬁelds

They are positive for anti-periodic ﬁelds.

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 28/29

In the multi-graviton model the induced cosmological constant can be

positive only if # of massive gravitons is sufﬁciently large

In the supersymmetric case the cosmological constant can be positive

if one imposes anti-periodic BC in the fermionic sector

Topological effects discussed may also be relevant in the study of

electroweak symmetry breaking in models with a similar type of

non-nearest-neighbour couplings, for the deconstruction issue

Case of the torus topology: top. contributions to the eff. potential have

always a ﬁxed sign, depending on the BC one imposes

They are negative for periodic ﬁelds

They are positive for anti-periodic ﬁelds.

Topology provides a natural mechanism which permits to have a

positive cc in the multi-supergravity model with anti-periodic fermions

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 28/29

In the multi-graviton model the induced cosmological constant can be

positive only if # of massive gravitons is sufﬁciently large

In the supersymmetric case the cosmological constant can be positive

if one imposes anti-periodic BC in the fermionic sector

Topological effects discussed may also be relevant in the study of

electroweak symmetry breaking in models with a similar type of

non-nearest-neighbour couplings, for the deconstruction issue

Case of the torus topology: top. contributions to the eff. potential have

always a ﬁxed sign, depending on the BC one imposes

They are negative for periodic ﬁelds

They are positive for anti-periodic ﬁelds.

Topology provides a natural mechanism which permits to have a

positive cc in the multi-supergravity model with anti-periodic fermions

The value of the cc is regulated by the corresponding size of the torus

(one can most naturally use the minimum number, N = 3, of copies of

bosons and fermions), and are not far from observational values

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 28/29

Conclusions

At terrestrial scales, vacuum energy

ﬂuctuations are becoming important

(MEMs, NEMs, nanotubes)

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 29/29

Conclusions

At terrestrial scales, vacuum energy

ﬂuctuations are becoming important

(MEMs, NEMs, nanotubes)

Topology + Vacuum energy may prove

to be a fundamental driving force at

cosmological scale

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 29/29

Conclusions

At terrestrial scales, vacuum energy

ﬂuctuations are becoming important

(MEMs, NEMs, nanotubes)

Topology + Vacuum energy may prove

to be a fundamental driving force at

cosmological scale

Zeta functions provide a ﬁne, precise, and

powerful tool to perform the calculations

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 29/29

Conclusions

At terrestrial scales, vacuum energy

ﬂuctuations are becoming important

(MEMs, NEMs, nanotubes)

Topology + Vacuum energy may prove

to be a fundamental driving force at

cosmological scale

Zeta functions provide a ﬁne, precise, and

powerful tool to perform the calculations

Thank You !

5thICMMP, CBPF, Rio, April 2006 – p. 29/29

- Myriam Mondragon and George Zoupanos- Unified Gauge Theories and Reduction of Couplings
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- Constantinos Papageorgakis- On Matrix D-Brane Dynamics and Fuzzy Spheres
- A. Perez-Lorenzana- An introduction to the brane world
- Michael Dine, Assaf Shomer and Zheng Sun- On Witten’s instability and winding tachyons
- R. Obousy and G. Cleaver- Casimir Energy and Brane Stability
- Richard K. Obousy- Investigation into Compactied Dimensions
- Luiz C. de Albuquerque and R. M. Cavalcanti- Comment on "Casimir force in compact non-commutative extra dimensions and radius stabilization"
- Benedict Carter- Higher Dimensional Gravity, Black Holes and Brane Worlds
- Chapter 16
- Borun D. Chowdhury- The Dynamics of Non-Extremal Black Holes
- Chapter 13
- M.J. Bergvelt and J.M. Rabin- Supercurves, Their Jacobians, and Super KP Equations
- Gianluca Grignani- Testing AdS/CFT at string loops
- Juan Maldacena- Lectures on Strings in Flat Space and Plane Waves from N=4 Super Yang Mills
- Umut Giirsoy- Aspects of the PP wave/CFT Correspondence
- David Berenstein, Juan Maldacena and Horatiu Nastase- Strings in flat space and pp waves from N = 4 Super Yang Mills
- Yolanda Lozano- pp-Wave Matrix Models from Point-Like Gravitons
- Ari Pankiewicz- Strings in plane wave backgrounds
- Nakwoo Kim et al- Superstring on PP-Wave Orbifold from Large-N Quiver Gauge Theory
- Peter Lee and Jongwon Park- Open strings in a pp-wave background from defect conformal field theory
- Chong-Sun Chu, Pei-Ming Ho and Feng-Li Lin- Cubic string field theory in pp-wave background and background independent Moyal structure
- Parsa Bonderson- Decay modes of unstable strings in plane-wave string field theory
- A. Coley et al- Generalizations of pp-wave spacetimes in higher dimensions

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