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# 5/18/2011

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Fluid Mechanics (EG 575 ME)
Ram C. Poudel
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Pulchowk Campus
Fluid Mechanics
Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids
In motion (fluid dynamics) or
at rest (fluid statics) and
effects of the fluid upon the boundaries(solid surfaces or
interfaces with other fluids).
Both gases and liquids are classified as fluids
Engineering applications is enormous: breathing,
blood flow, swimming, pumps, fans, turbines,
airplanes, ships, rivers, windmills, pipes,
missiles, icebergs, engines, filters, jets, and
sprinklers, to name a few.
Chapter 1: Fluid Properties and
Definitions
Definition of a Fluid
Fluid Viscosity
Newtonian & Non-Newtonian Fluid
Density
Surface Tension
Compressibility
Vapour Pressure
Definition of a Fluid
When a shear stress is applied:
Fluids continuously deform
Solids deform or bend
If a fluid is at rest, there can be no shearing forces acting and therefore all
forces in the fluid must be perpendicular to the planes upon which they act.
Thermodynamic Properties: Fluid
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Fluid Viscosity Viscosity
Newtonian Fluids
Most of the common fluids (water, air, oil, etc.)
Linear fluids
Viscosity
Non-Newtonian Fluids
Special fluids (e.g., most biological fluids,
toothpaste, some paints, etc.)
Non-linear fluids
Viscosity
Non-Newtonian Fluids
Non-Newtonian Fluid: Real
Plastic [e.g sewage sludge]
-Shear stress must reach a certain value before flow commences
Pseudo-plastic [e.g Clay, milk,]
- Dynamic viscosity decrease as rate of shear increase
Dilatant Substances [e.g quicksand]
- Dynamic viscosity increase as rate of shear increase
Thixotropic Substance [e.g Jelley Paint]
- Dynamic viscosity decreases with the time for which shear force are applied
Rheopectic Materials
- Dynamic viscosity decreases with the time for which shear force are applied
Viscoelastic Materials
- Newtonian, but if shear stress changed suddendly behave as if plastic
Viscosity in Gas
Temperature | (gas) |
(gas) \ T (Kinetic Theory of Gas)
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Viscosity in Liquid
Both molecular interchange and
cohesion contribute to shear stress
Temperature | Cohesion+(shear
+) and molecular exchange
|(shear|) (liquid)+
Viscosity: Unit /Temperature
Units Temperature
Measuring Viscosity
Ostwald Viscometer
Density
Quantity of matter contained in unit
volume of the substance
Expressed in three different ways
Mass density/ Specific volume
Specific Weight (w = g)
Relative Density (o = / H2O at 4C)
Surface Tension Surface Tension
Capillary rise, H = 4o cosu/gd
Excess pressure inside bubble
Work done as bubble coalesce and
temperature change
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Compressibility
Bulk modulus = Change in
Pressure/Volumetric strain
modulus (For liquid = 1; (air) = 1.4)

d
dP
dV
dP
V K
Vapour Pressure
Vapor pressure is the pressure at
which a liquid boils and is in
equilibrium with its own vapor
Vapour Pressure
The degree of molecular activity increase
with increasing temperature and therefore,
the vapour pressure will also increase.
Boiling will occur when the vapour
pressure is equal to pressure above the
liquid
By reducing pressure boiling point can be
decreased: Water 0.2 bar Boiling point of
water = 60C
Description and Classification
of Fluid Motions
Methods of Analysis
System
(or Closed System)
Control Volume
(or Open System)
1.11 Uncertainty of Experimental
Data
From: Fluid Mechanics, 4e, Frank M. White
1 numerical from this chapter next
exam. See solved problem!
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Guidline for Problem
In solving the homework assignment, the
following four steps should be followed very
carefully:
Briefly summarize the problem statement.
Provide a schematic diagram of the problem.
Solve the problem showing your work in detail by
stating your assumptions and providing the equations
you used and the numerical values you obtained.
Write a sentence or two discussing your findings.
Failure to follow the aforementioned four steps
will result in points deducted from your
homework assignment.
Thank you!
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