Beer has been used over the centuries to:
• • • • quench a thirst, add flavor to a barbecue, add body when you wash your hair, and to forget about one's worries for awhile.

In the early seventeenth century people consumed beer with a different purpose than people do today.
• Records from the seventeenth century show that on average an individual consumed about three quarts of beer per day. • Beer was so important to the residents of New York City that they paved Wall Street in 1630 to ease the delivery of beer in the muddy season

In the early seventeenth century people consumed beer with a different purpose than people do today.
• Beer was a form of nourishment • A dietary staple for the Pilgrims from infants to the aged. • The Mayflower carried three times more beer than water • Beer practically replaced drinking water in the Pilgrims daily lives.

Civilization and Beer
Hypothesis 1
• science of brewing beer gave birth to all sciences and possibly civilization itself. • formerly nomadic people settled in Mesopotamia because they found it impossible to travel and maintain a steady supply of alcohol or the grain from which to make it. • Agriculture and civilization grew out of the desire to quench a certain kind of thirst.


• The first batch of beer is thought to have been accidentally made by some individual who left a bowl of barley out in the rain. 2 . • The first use of hops is generally attributed to the monasteries of Northern Gaul.C. . Persians.C.C. and herbs was perhaps the first stimulating beverage. . Phoenicians and Egyptians all had this drink. brewing was done in households by women. a fermented drink of water and honey mixed with malt. • In the middle ages. • By 1800 B. • Brewing has been documented off the western Coast of Scotland on the island of Rhum as far back as 4. 6th century A. . Beer Who discovered beer? • Mead. into Gaul and Britain.D. where Gaulish monks applied the Celtic word beor to their concoction.000 years. the Babylonians were brewing beer. Saint Arnold. Beer • The earliest chemical evidence of beer was found at a Sumerian outpost called Godin Tepe in Iran.Similar findings have been made in 3.18/11/2010 Beer Civilization and Beer Hypothesis 2 • civilization began with the purposeful cultivation of the earliest farmed grains--wheat and barely. • Beer then flowed north with Julius Caesar’s legions about 55 B. • The first recipe for "wine of grain" was inscribed on stone tablets in Mesopotamia about seven thousand years B. • it is believed that beer was discovered accidentally following settled civilization and the cultivation of barley.000 year old Egyptian storage vessels.C.This piece of pottery is over 5. • Beer in China was called kiu in the 23 century B.A yellowish residue was found on a piece of pottery and was chemically identified as being an oxalate salt. yeast. Beer in Europe • Beer came to Europe by way of the ancient Greeks through forays into then brew-active Egypt. was apparently the first person to introduce hops. The Medes.000 years old. such as found on the insides of today's brewing tanks.

the availability of alcohol was limited due to the 18th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. Beer • In America. . politics played an interesting role in the development of breweries. .D. . • During Prohibition. • In Belgium.It is easy to see why Belgium claims to be the beer paradise of the world..A predictable countermove by a rival was to open his own brewery. .Thomas Chittenden (Vermont's first governor) . was established in Freising Germany. Prohibition people like Al Capone. and each brewer produced at least five different beers. • In 1635 the first commercial brewery was established near Boston and some think it may have been linked to Harvard. . • Fortunately the 21st Amendment repealed the 18th in 1933.and George Washington (who was thought to have written the first recorded recipe for homebrew in North America. Legs Diamond and other "family members" got into the beer business during the 1920's Prohibition.Samuel Adams (father of the Revolution).Harvard has a long history concerning beer brewing and actually owned three breweries in the 1600 and 1700s. . the Weihenstepan Brewery. that the first commercial brewery.Catholics and Liberals were competing both locally and nationally for political seats and the local brewer was often the mayor. Peter Minuit opened the first public brewery on Manhattan Island. • William Penn erected the first brewery in Pennsylvania in 1638 followed by: .18/11/2010 Beer First Commercial Brewery • It wasn't until 1040 A.Consequently. by the end of the 19th century most villages had two breweries--one Catholic-owned. 3 . They produce 900 different beers of 250 different kinds and each week a new beer is introduced onto the Belgian market.the first president of Harvard was dismissed for a lack of producing adequate amounts of beer. Beer First Commercial Brewery . one Liberalowned.

so the consumer has to mix the two separate ingredients with water and add it to the keg. • It is illegal to sell homebrew. • Miller produces 41 million barrels. All ingredients are bought or grown separately and are added together at specific times. More concerned with taste and brew their beers naturally without artificial flavor or carbonation • Much fresher with no preservatives • Incorporate bold flavors and boutique and specialty beers 4 .$20-25 per batch • 4. • 2. Homebrewing from scratch--used by experienced homebrewers. • 3. $100 to start. and $20 for additional starter batches. Pressure canister--the ingredients come in two separate containers. Home brewing Once the initial equipment is produced. • It is still illegal to make homebrew in eleven states. Since the beer is put together by the ingredients and doesn't come pre-packaged in a bag or a can.18/11/2010 Commercial production of beer Superbreweries • Anheuser Busch produces at least 70 million barrels of beer per year. Similar to #2 except that instead of a refrigerator-keg storage technique. the price per batch is much lower than commercial beer Many want to explore the possibility of brewing exotic tasting beers The government made it legal for citizens to make their own beer • can make one hundred gallons per adult individual per household. bottling is involved. the choices of what to make are infinite. Typically artificially carbonate their beer because they have to make it quickly and efficiently Many use preservatives to enhance shelf-life and long-distance transportation Commercial production of beer Microbreweries • Microbreweries are defined as producing less than 15.000 barrels of beer a year. just like a cooking recipe. Four ways of making homebrew • 1. Commercially available bag and water sold by Popular Mechanics--all the ingredients for the mixture are already in the bag so all the consumer has to do is add water and wait. About $45.

special consideration is given to how the water tastes before it goes into the brew kettle • i. crispier beer.18/11/2010 Beer making Ingredients • • • • malted barley. . contributing to a lighter. used with similar ingredients will produce a different flavored beer. with a lesser O2 requirement. Beer making Yeast--an important ingredient of the beer. the Rocky Mountain Spring water used in Coors. • Hops add a bitter flavor to beer and help to preserve it. • There is a current German law from the 14th Century that forbids one to urinate in the river systems on Tuesday because of water diverted for brewing on Wednesday. This is usually Saccharomyces uvarum (formerly known as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis). This is usually Saccharomyces cerevisiae.5. .0 and 5. soluble starch and starch-to-sugar enzymes which are necessary for fermentation to take place. • Occasionally minerals like gypsum or salts are added to provide a pH buffer and to enhance flavors. usually top fermenting with a greater O2 requirement. more bitter beer. hops.e. yeast and water. Beer making Hops--the ripe. Barley--a grain and the base ingredient of beer. Humulus lupulus in the mulberry family. • Us. Typically the yeasts favor a pH between 5. usually bottom fermenting. any water that is good enough to drink is good enough to brew with.Lager yeasts--favor temperatures 35-50˚ F. • This is a single celled fungus that plays the central role in converting sugars into carbon dioxide and alcohol during fermentation. 5 . • Different forms--dark brown or black contributing to a darker. • Two main varieties of yeast and several hundred strains. The barley is what provides the sugars.Ale yeast--favor temperatures between 60-75 ˚ F. dried blossoms of a perennial vine. Each strain. • Noble hops--the most sought after they were found in Germany and Bohemia and now Australia Beer making Water--since beer is at least ninety percent water. • Lighter.

they improvised.18/11/2010 Beer making Other ingredients When hard times hit the Pilgrims.Sterilize the equipment • Clorox and hot water. pine. pressure cooker. walnut and sassafras to add seasoning to their beer. pumpkins. birch. both bacteria and fungi. When hops couldn't be found. artichokes. Beer making Equipment • • • • • • • • • • • Boiling kettle Long handled spoon A thermometer Cooling coil A hydrometer 7-8 gallon bucket with a sealing lid a 7 gallon carboy siphoning tube a fermentation lock bottling caps. bottles and a capper or Pressure canister Beer making 1. bran and oats for the usual barley. • If the equipment isn't sterilized a number of contaminating organisms. they substituted things like corn. 6 . persimmons. and ruin the beer. using spruce.

with draining and new water added every 8 hours. Beer making 5.are allowed to soak in water for about 40 hours.Once the barley grains reach 40-45% moisture the barely is allowed to germinate around 60˚ F. The yeast is "pitched" either as a freeze-dried powder or as an actively growing liquid. They convert the starches from the barley into simple sugars. Beer making 3. Otherwise the quickly dissolved oils get steamed out of the wort. 221 ˚ F for ale malts).18/11/2010 Beer making 2. . The wort must be boiled for 30-90 minutes depending on the recipe. Beer making Hops are added at different times during the boiling phase. 7 . • After the solids are strained out the dark. become most active around 150-160 degrees F. . the alcohol is made and the carbonation is allowed to escape through the fermentation lock.Germination of the grain allows for plant enzymes to convert carbohydrates into more simple sugars like glucose. • Hops that are added for their aromatic flavoring are added within the last few minutes of the boil. . so the yeasts to be added next don't die. This process is known as mashing. The wort is cooled." • 4.Once the epicotyl forms. • This is done quickly either with a cooling coil hooked up to the cold water tap or by • "splarging" where the hot wort is poured into a sterilized container containing cold water. Malting • The appropriate variety of barley (some are more suitable to the production of malt whiskey or food rather than beer). Each has its advantages. • Hops have tiny oil glands that contain oils and resin that contribute to the aromatic flavor and bouquet of the beer. the grains are dried with a gradual rise in temperature (122 ˚ F for lagers. Mashing • the barley has to be cracked open so that water can get inside and activate the enzymes. The yeast is allowed to ferment the wort for up to 10 days. . sweet liquid is called "wort. • Hops contributing to the bitterness of the beer are added early in the boil so the resins have time to dissolve into the wort. 7. During this phase. • These enzymes called diastases. 6. depending on the type of beer.

8 .Fermentation--the conversion of sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide. The yeast obtains it's energy for fermentation and sedimentation during this phase.Respiration--the yeast converts simple sugars to carbon dioxide and water. At its peek. Some yeast is needed to do the secondary fermentation. Beer making 8. but precisely measured amount of sugar is dissolved. which is also the start of sedimentation. . A small. there is a second siphoning step or even a filtration step to remove the remainder of the yeast before bottling.18/11/2010 Beer making . Sedimentation last for 2-3 days. • Typically the beer is carefully siphoned off into a second sterile container to eliminate as much of the sedimented yeast as possible.Sedimentation--the yeast cells settle to the bottom of the fermentation vessel because most of the sugars have been converted and utilized for respiration. • Most homebrewers leave their beer sit three or four weeks before the first bottle is opened. • "Green beer" can be drunk at one week after bottling. Aging. Beer making 10. It is the longest of the three phases. • Frequently. The bottles are then set aside in a cool. the yeast has a density of 50 million cells per milliliter. and allow the yeast one final fermentation cycle to produce the carbonation in the bottles. the yeast's density is less than 1 million cells per milliliter. • If not the yeas forms a thick scum on the bottom of the bottle. dark place and left untouched until ready to drink. At the peak of alcohol production (measured with a hydrometer) the beer is ready to bottle. At the time the beer appears clear. and added to the brew. 9. • This is known as secondary fermentation. and the begin to prepare for dormancy. .

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