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Table of contents:

Title Abstract Introduction Objective Theory Nomenclature Apparatus Experiment procedure Data and results Discussion Conclusion reference

Title:
Centrifugal pump

Abstract:
In this experiment we study and observe the different characteristics and properties for a centrifugal Pump and Study the performance characteristics of the rotary dynamic centrifugal pump. Also to get familiarized with the centrifugal pumps and how they operate

Introduction:
By definition, a centrifugal pump is a machine. More specifically, it is a machine that imparts energy to a fluid. This energy infusion can cause a liquid to flow, rise to a higher level, or both. The centrifugal pump is an extremely simple machine. It is a member of a family known as rotary machines and consists of two basic parts: 1) the rotary element or impeller and 2) the stationary element or casing (volute). The figure at the top of the following page is a cross section of a centrifugal pump and shows the two basic parts. The use of pumps in our everyday life has become crucial. Home, appliances, schools and factories all depend upon the use of pumps to moves fluids either for cooling or heat processes or for water supply or industrial process. In this experiment we are going to focus on the rotary dynamic centrifugal pump as shown in the figure one determining the efficiency and capacity of the pump will aid us in studying the performances of the pumps under certain conditions.

The centrifugal pump s function is as simple as its design. It is filled with liquid and the impeller is rotated. Rotation imparts energy to the liquid causing it to exit the impeller s vanes at a greater velocity than it

possessed when it entered. This outward flow reduces the pressure at the impeller eye, allowing more liquid to enter. The liquid that exits the impeller is collected in the casing (volute) where its velocity is converted to pressure before it leaves the pump s discharge.

Objective:
The objective of this experiment is to determine the performance characteristics of a centrifugal pump. This is accomplished by deter mining the capacity and efficiency of a centrifugal pump when operating under the assigned conditions.

Theory:
In operation, a centrifugal pump slings liquid out of the impeller via centrifugal force. Now centrifugal force, itself, is a topic of debate. Although I will not go into detail here, it is considered by many, including myself, to be a false force. For our purposes here, we will assume that it is a real force. Refer to the False Force Puzzler for more information, a centrifugal pump operates by the spinning action of impellers which divulge Kinetic energy to the fluid this increase in the KE at the district of the impellers is converted into pressure energy in the outlet diffuser. There are four essential characteristics for a pump, Capacity, power, efficiency and Head.

Nomenclature:

Symbol

Unit

H p :discharge pressure

bar bar cm Kg/ m 3

H s :suction pressure
(H V : rho

T : pi
Wm :mechanical work L p :efficiency

Q: flow rate P: pressure F: Force N: speed

(m 3 / hr )

bar N rpm

Apparatus:

It is a Pipe connected from the water tank to the inlet of the pump and a pressure gage located before the inlet to help us measure suction pressure at the inlet which is also connected to a discharge pipe (to measure the discharge pressure), plus that there is Ac electric motor to drive the pump at a mechanical variable speed.

Experiment Procedures:

-Check if all the pressure gages, manometer filled to the zero mark, brake torque force is balanced -Close all valves -Select the generator mode and start the supply pump -Slowly open the 3rd valve so that the supply pump discharge is fed back into the tank then close valve 3 -Open the vent valve and make sure all air is vented out -Switch the generation mode to motor operation set the diffuser vanes fully open -Turn the control knob till you get a 1800rpm (revolution per minute) -Use the pump discharge valve as a controlling element and get
H p , H s , P1 , P2 , P3 , P4 , P5 , P6 , P7 , (H , Q, F

-Repeat the steps for fully opened vane.

Data and results For fully open vanes.

Run

P1 (bar)

P2

P3 (bar)

P4 (bar)

P5 (bar)

P6 (bar)

P7 (bar)

(bar) 1 2 3 4 5 -0.3 -0.2 -0.19 -0.11 -0.09 0 0 0.1 0.15 0.25 0.26 0.32 0.4 0.5 0.9 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.19 0.3 0.5 0.7 1 0 0.2 0.49 0.7 0.95 1 1 1 1 1

Run 1 2 3 4 5

Hp

Hs

(H

Q (m 3 / hr ) 50 46 37 32 17

F(N) 26 26.5 26.5 26 23

0.2 0.32 0.6 0.75 1

-0.4 -0.09 -0.06 -0.05 -0.03

200 170 120 90 35

Sample calculations: H=Hs-Hp = (-0.08-0.250)= -0.33 (we will take the magnitude)
Lp ! 9.8(1000)(44)(0.30) 9.8 VQ(H ! 0.0295 v 100% = 3600(1214) 3600Wm

T = R * F = 0.248 * 26 = 6.448 N .m
Wm ! 2TNT 2(3.14)(1800)(6.448) ! ! 1215.42W 60 60

Run 1 2 3 4 5

(H

L p (%)

Wm

0.6 0.41 0.66 0.8 1.03

6.7192 4.1445 5.3663 5.7337 4.4333

1215.42 1238.79 1238.79 1215.42 1075.18

pump head vs flow rate (fully open)


2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 20 40 60 pump head vs flow rate (fully open)

(Figure 1)

hydraulic efficiency vs flow rate(fully open)


0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 20 40 60 hydraulic efficiency vs flow rate(fully open)

(Figure 2)

For half way open vanes


Run 1 2 3 4 5
P1 (bar) P2 (bar) P3 (bar) P4 (bar) P5 (bar) P6 (bar) P7 (bar)

-0.9 -0.13 -0.14 -0.16 -0.16

0.1 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.8

0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8

-0.3 0 0.1 0.5 1

0 0 0 0.1 0.9

0 0 0 0 0

Run 1

Hp

Hs

(H

Q (m 3 / hr ) 35

F(N) 26.5

-0.04

100

2 3 4 5

0.2 0.3 0.6 1

-0.04 -0.04 -0.04 -0.02

100 100 90 30

35 35 32 14

26.5 26.5 25.5 23

Run 1 2 3 4 5

(H

L p (%)

Wm

0.04 0.24 0.34 0.64 1.02

0.3077 1.846 2.615 4.677 3.616

1238.783 1238.783 1238.783 1192.046 1075.179

Sample calculation: H=Hs-Hp = (- 0.04-0=-0.04) (take magnitude)


Lp ! 9.8(1000)(35)(0.04) 9.8 VQ(H v 1000 =0.3077 v 100 = 3600(1238.79) 3600Wm

T = R * F = 0.248 * 26.5 = 6.572 N .m


Wm ! 2TNT 2(3.14)(1800)(6.572) ! ! 1238.79W 60 60

pump head vs flow rate (half open)


1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 20 40 60 pump head vs flow rate (half open)

(Figure3)

hydraulic efficiency vs flow rate(half open)


0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 20 40 60

hydraulic efficiency vs flow rate(half open)

(Figure 4)

Discussion:
From the experiment we ran the pump at different characteristics and determined there graphs these characteristics are important in determining the performance of the pump, it's well known that size and shape can't determine the efficiency and pumps performances. We studied the variation of head with flow rate and noticed that the head

and flow rate are inversely proportional increasing the flow rate will decrease the head and vice versa. Head is the energy supplied by the liquid to the pump it's independent of the liquid being pumped and is expressed in meters, the shape of the pumps curve is determined from the geometry of the impellers. the maximum flow rate can be obtained when the net heat is zero this flow rate is called pump free delivery achieved due to restriction on the inlet and outlet .there are errors that can occur from cavitations (which is the formation of water vapor at the point where the pressure is les than the atmospheric pressure) when there is non uniform flow and viscosity will change out results if we change the fluid used in the experiment.

Conclusion:
1-The use of pressure gages and manometer that is less effected by vibrations would improve our results 2-in a half opened vane the efficiency was best in the 5th run 3.616% with (H ! 1.02 ,in fully opened vane the efficiency was best in the 5th run 4.4333% when (H ! 1.03 . 3-Pumps efficiency is not greater than 6% 4-If we use the pump in reverse it will become a turbine (generator)

5- We conclude that from the experiment for half open guide vane we also see the power input tends to decrease as the flow rate decreases and the power output tends to increase when the flow rate decreases until it will be the max value opened then it start to decrease so the efficiency on the other hand tends to increase to the maximum value then it starts to decrease to zero.

6- By comparing between the two systems we note that the flow rate is approximate half the value in fully open vane . but

the power input is nearly the same into the system while the power output is less half open vane then it will be in the second part fully opened system.

References
http://www.sdrl.uc.edu/academic-courseinfo/docs/ucme571/pump_test_lab.pdf

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/centrifugal-pumps-d_54.html

http://www.thomasnet.com/products/centrifugal-pumps-643224071.html