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This is the print version of Introduction_to_Sociology You won't see this message or any elements not part of the book's content when y ou print or preview this page. Note: current version of this book can be found at http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/ Introduction_to_Sociology Remember to click "refresh" to view this version. [edit]Table of contents Authors Introduction Sociological Methods General Sociological Theory Social Life Society Culture Socialization Groups Demography Deviance and Norms Social Inequality Race and Ethnicity Gender Stratification Family Religion Education Health and Medicine Social Change Collective Behavior Social Movements [edit]Authors Rcragun Ryan T. Cragun, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of Tampa Contribution: Initial book layout and the development of most of the first 15 ch apters Deborahcragun Deborah Cragun, MS Human Genetics Contribution: Developed the chapters on health care and medicine and race and et hnicity. Piotrus Piotr Konieczny, PhD student in sociology, University of Pittsburgh Contributions: various small changes, videos, slides and downloadable tools [edit]Introduction Sociology is the study of human social life. Sociology has many sub-sections of study, ranging from the analysis of conversations to the development of theories to try to understand how the entire world works. This chapter will introduce yo u to sociology and explain why it is important, how it can change your perspecti ve of the world around you, and give a brief history of the discipline. [edit]What is Sociology?

Emile Durkheim, one of the founders of Sociology. Sociology is a branch of the social sciences that uses systematic methods of emp irical investigation and critical analysis to develop and refine a body of knowl edge about human social structure and activity, sometimes with the goal of apply

ing such knowledge to the pursuit of government policies designed to benefit the general social welfare. Its subject matter ranges from the micro level to the m acro level. Microsociology involves the study of people in face-to-face interact ions. Macrosociology involves the study of widespread social processes. Sociology is a broad discipline in terms of both methodology and subject matter. Its traditional focuses have included social relations, social stratification, social interaction, culture and deviance, and its approaches have included both qualitative and quantitative research techniques. As much of what humans do fits under the category of social structure or social activity, sociology has gradua lly expanded its focus to such far-flung subjects as the study of economic activ ity, health disparities, and even the role of social activity in the creation of scientific knowledge.[1] The range of social scientific methods has also been b roadly expanded. The "cultural turn" of the 1970s and 1980s brought more humanis tic interpretive approaches to the study of culture in sociology. Conversely, th e same decades saw the rise of new mathematically rigorous approaches, such as s ocial network analysis. The social world is changing. Some argue it is growing; others say it is shrinki ng.[2] The important point to grasp is: society does not remain unchanged over t ime. As will be discussed in more detail below, sociology has its roots in signi ficant societal changes (e.g., the industrial revolution, the creation of empire s, and the age of enlightenment of scientific reasoning). Early practitioners de veloped the discipline as an attempt to understand societal changes. Some early sociological theorists (e.g., Marx, Weber, and Durkheim) were disturb ed by the social processes they believed to be driving the change, such as the q uest for solidarity, the attainment of social goals, and the rise and fall of cl asses, to name a few examples. The founders of sociology were some of the earlie st individuals to employ what C. Wright Mills (a prominent mid-20th century Amer ican sociologist) labeled the sociological imagination: the ability to situate p ersonal troubles within an informed framework of social issues.[3] Mills propose d that: "What people need... is a quality of mind that will help them to use information and to develop reason in order to achieve lucid summations of what is going on in the world and of what may be happening within themselves. The sociological im agination enables its possessor to understand the larger historical scene in ter ms of its meaning for the inner life and the external career of a variety of ind ividuals."[3] As Mills saw it, the sociological imagination could help individuals cope with t he social world by helping them to step outside of their personal, self-centric view of the world. In employing the sociological imagination, people are able to see the events and social structures that influence behavior, attitudes, and cu lture. The sociological imagination goes beyond armchair sociology or common sense. Man y people believe they understand the world and the events taking place within it , even though they have not actually engaged in a systematic attempt to understa nding the social world, as sociologists do. Humans like to attribute causes to e vents and attempt to understand what is taking place around them.[4] This is why individuals have been using religious ceremonies for centuries to invoke the wi ll of the gods - because they believed the gods controlled certain elements of t he natural world (e.g., the weather). Just as sacrificing two goats to ensure th e safe operation of a Boeing 757 (and propitiate Akash Bhairab, the Hindu sky go d) is an attempt to influence the natural world without first trying to understa nd how it works,[5] armchair sociology is an attempt to understand how the socia l world works without employing scientific methods. It would be inaccurate to say sociologists never sit around (even sometimes in c omfy armchairs) trying to figure out how the world works. But induction is just a first step in understanding the social world. In order to test their theories, sociologists get up from their armchairs and enter the social world. They gathe r data and evaluate their theories in light of the data they collect (a.k.a. ded uction). Sociologists do not just propose theories about how the social world wo rks. Sociologists test their theories about how the world works using the scient

ific method. Sociologists, like all humans, have values, beliefs, and even pre-conceived noti ons of what they might find in doing their research. But, as Peter Berger, a wel l-known sociologist, has argued, what distinguishes the sociologist from non-sci entific researchers is that "[the] sociologist tries to see what is there. He ma y have hopes or fears concerning what he may find. But he will try to see, regar dless of his hopes or fears. It is thus an act of pure perception..."[6] Sociology, then, is an attempt to understand the social world by situating socia l events in their corresponding environment (i.e., social structure, culture, hi story) and trying to understand social phenomena by collecting and analyzing emp irical data. [edit]History Sociology is a relatively new academic discipline. It emerged in the early 19th century in response to the challenges of modernity. Increasing mobility and tech nological advances resulted in the increasing exposure of people to cultures and societies different from their own. The impact of this exposure was varied, but for some people included the breakdown of traditional norms and customs and war ranted a revised understanding of how the world works. Sociologists responded to these changes by trying to understand what holds social groups together and als o exploring possible solutions to the breakdown of social solidarity. [edit]Auguste Comte and Other Founders Auguste Comte, who coined the term sociology The term sociology was coined by Auguste Comte (1798-1857) in 1838 from the Lati n term socius (companion, associate) and the Greek term logia (study of, speech) . Comte hoped to unify all the sciences under sociology; he believed sociology h eld the potential to improve society and direct human activity, including the ot her sciences. While it is no longer a theory employed in Sociology, Comte argued for an unders tanding of society he labeled The Law of Three Stages. Comte, not unlike other e nlightenment thinkers, believed society developed in stages. The first was the t heological stage where people took a religious view of society. The second was t he metaphysical stage where people understood society as natural (not supernatur al). Comte's final stage was the scientific or positivist stage, which he believ ed to be the pinnacle of social development. In the scientific stage, society wo uld be governed by reliable knowledge and would be understood in light of the kn owledge produced by science, primarily sociology. While vague connections betwee n Comte's Law and human history can be seen, it is generally understood in Socio logy today that Comte's approach is a highly simplified and ill-founded approach to understand social development (see instead demographic transition theory and Ecological-Evolutionary Theory). Other classical theorists of sociology from the late 19th and early 20th centuri es include Karl Marx, Ferdinand Toennies, Emile Durkheim, Vilfredo Pareto, and M ax Weber. As pioneers in Sociology, most of the early sociological thinkers were trained in other academic disciplines, including history, philosophy, and econo mics. The diversity of their trainings is reflected in the topics they researche d, including religion, education, economics, psychology, ethics, philosophy, and theology. Perhaps with the exception of Marx, their most enduring influence has been on sociology, and it is in this field that their theories are still consid ered most applicable. [edit]The Development of the Discipline The first book with the term sociology in its title was written in the mid-19th century by the English philosopher Herbert Spencer. In the United States, the fi rst Sociology course was taught at the University of Kansas, Lawrence in 1890 un der the title Elements of Sociology (the oldest continuing sociology course in A merica). The first full fledged university department of sociology in the United States was established in 1892 at the University of Chicago by Albion W. Small, who in 1895 founded the American Journal of Sociology. The first European depar

etc. jour nals. Drawing a hard and fast distinction between quantitative and qualitative sociolo gy is a bit misleading. In 1905 the American So ciological Association. The effect of employing the scientific method and stressing empirici sm was the distinction of sociology from theology." While some might consider this label d erogatory. But in the case of sociology.g. li ke the natural sciences. it is often a more subjective process. led to positivism. Surveys with large numbe rs of participants are aggregated into data sets and analyzed using statistics. the world's largest association of professional sociolog ists. Outside observers of a culture relate to an indigenous people on both the obs erver's and the observeds' own terms in order to comprehend the cultural conditi ons. in a sense it can be seen as an admission of the remarkable complexit y of humans as social animals. The goal of predicting human behavior was quickly realized to be a bit lofty. In 1919 a sociology department was established in Germany at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich by Max We ber and in 1920 in Poland by Florian Znaniecki. a meth odological approach based on sociological naturalism. Any animal as complex as humans is bound to be di fficult to fully comprehend. an additional goal was proposed for sociology . like physics or biology. or analysis of content sources (books. focus groups. While there are some individual . What's more. and human cultu re are all constantly changing. founder of L'Année Sociologique (1896). was founded. respectively. As a result. wolves.) as the data source. Max Weber[7] and Wilhelm Dilthey[8] introduced the concept of verstehen. is prediction. The first step in all sciences is the development of a t heory and the generation of testable hypotheses. Sc ientists like Wilhelm Dilthey and Heinrich Rickert argued that the natural world differs from the social world. etc. The inability of sociology and other social sciences to perfectly predict the be havior of humans or to fully comprehend a different culture has led to the socia l sciences being labeled "soft sciences. This also resulted in sociology being recognized as an empirical science. unlike the societi es of most other animals (e. philosophy.. International cooperation in sociology began in 1893 when Rene Worms founded the small Institut International de Sociologie that was eclipsed by the much larger International Sociologist Association starting in 1949. As a result. as human society has culture. The qualitative approach uses in-depth interviews.tment of sociology was founded in 1895 at the University of Bordeaux by Emile Du rkheim. humans. is primarily based on genetic instructions and is not passed from generation to generation th rough socialization). it is pred iction of human behavior. While arriving at a verstehen-like understanding of a culture employs syste matic methodologies like the positivistic approach of predicting human behavior. Quantitative sociology is generall y a numerical approach to understanding human behavior. which is a complicated proposition. human society. Qualitative Sociology The contrast between positivist sociology and the verstehen approach has been re formulated in modern sociology as a distinction between quantitative and qualita tive methodological approaches. The goal of positivism. and metaphysics. supported by August Comte. the behavior of ants.[9] Th e goal of verstehen is less to predict behavior than it is to understand behavio r. These sources are then analyzed system atically to discern patterns and to arrive at a better understanding of human be havior. Qualitative sociolog y generally opts for depth over breadth. Karl Marx [edit]Early Sociological Studies Early sociological studies considered the field to be similar to the natural sci ences. The first sociology departments in the United Kingdom were founded after the Second World War. This e arly sociological approach. which means the social sciences will constantly be works in progress. TV shows. magazines. allowing researchers to discern patterns in human behavior. [edit]Quantitative vs. many researchers argued that the me thodology used in the natural sciences was perfectly suited for use in the socia l sciences.

including biology). a wave of change came to science. in the time of Thoma s Hobbes. called Laws after the usage of the time (see philosophy of science) became the model that other disci plines would emulate. Such relationships. this created a pressure to express ideas in t he form of mathematical relationships. the famous wager. This unity of science as descriptive remained.g. the intervention of angels to guide the planets. Plato mixed geometrical proo fs with his demonstration on the state of intrinsic knowledge. communication studies the flow of discourse via various media. attempts to apply equations to s tatements about human behavior became increasingly common. In Pascal's case.. there was no difference between the liberal arts of mathe matics and the study of history.s who begin analyzing data without a theoretical orientation to guide their anal ysis. The goal of both approaches is to answer a question and/or test a theory . The first thinkers to attempt to combine scientific inquiry with the exploration of human relationships were Emile Durkheim in France and William James in the U nited States. Gottfried Leibniz and Johann es Kepler. changed the basic framew ork by which individuals understood what was scientific. the important di stinction is that for Newton the mathematical flowed from a presumed reality ind ependent of the observer and it worked by its own rules. Thus. Qualita tive sociology focuses on the ideas found within the discourse and rhetoric of t he research subjects (e. This is really where th e two approaches differ. political scien ce studies the governing of groups and countries. and for Kepler. when measured in hours?[11]). In the early 20th century. resulting in the widespread use of statistics in the social sciences (they are also widely used in most other sciences as well. Psychology studies the human mind and micro-l evel (or individual) behavior. For philosophers of the same period. Aristotle studied planetary motion and poetry with the same methods. economics concerns itself with the production a nd allocation of wealth in society. The second step is the collection of data. For examples see Blaise Pascal. Among the first were the Laws of philology. Social sciences diverge from the humanities in that many in the social sciences emphasize the scientific method or other rigor ous standards of evidence in the study of humanity. which attempted to map the change overtime of sounds in a language. His book. [edit]Sociology and Other Social Sciences The social sciences comprise the application of scientific methods to the study of the human aspects of the world.. was a scientific description of a political commo nwealth. Quantitative sociology focuses on numerical representat ions of the research subjects (e. Leviathan. mathematical expression of philosophical ideals were taken to be s ymbolic of natural human relationships as well: the same laws moved physical and spiritual reality. each of whom took mathematical examples as models for human behavior directly. sociology examines human society. the invention of bina ry computation. Only with the development o f mathematical proof did there gradually arise a perceived difference between sc ientific disciplines and the humanities or liberal arts. In the realm of other disciplines. While Newton was merely the archetype of an accelerating trend. Within decades of Hobbes' work a revolution took place in what constitu ted science. for example. Do conservative Christian fathers spend mor e time in child care than secular fathers. by r evolutionizing what was then called natural philosophy. particularly with the work of Isaac Newton in physics.[10] most begin with a theoretical idea or question and gather data to test that theory.g. Statisti cs and probability theory were sufficiently developed be considered "scientific" . poetry or politics. One of the most persuasive advocates for the view of scientific treatment of phi . Newton. and social work is the application of social scientific knowledge in society. [edit]The Development of Social Science In ancient philosophy. for Leibniz. What is the narrative homosexual men use to explain their continued participation in religions that condemn their sexual orientation ?[12]). who argued that deductive reasoning from axioms created a scientific f ramework. Durkheim's sociological theories and James' work on experimental p sychology had an enormous impact on those who followed. In the late 19th century.

a nd institutions such as the family. 2008. and Jennifer Glass. and d ivorce.. John. The next two chapters in this book will introduce the reader to more extensive d iscussions of the methods and theory employed in sociology. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. 2008. 40th ed. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. C. The remaining chapte rs are examinations of current areas of research in the discipline. Free Press. 2005. 2008). Simon & Schuster. May 7 http://www. and the Politics of the Military. for example in his Psycholo gy of 1887. and James C. sociologists study a broad range of topics.php (Accessed August 17. Other sociologists study social processes th at represent the breakdown of macro-structures. in an attempt to weld Hegelian idealism and logic to experimental science. 2008. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber. ? Glass. 1963. 2000. as Marx did. the stage was set for the division of the study of humanity into the humanities and the social sciences. Kelly. He began. sociological research focused on the organization of complex. Today. However. ? Denzin.. 1st ed. including deviance. Peter L. and Yvonna S. Electronic Journal of Sociology.losophy is John Dewey (1859-1952). social class. 1978. The Sociological Imagination. Sage Publications. Religion Explained. have realized the Wes tern emphasis of the discipline. ? Boyer.. In response. Pascal. 2002. Springer. With Insurance. Norman K. ? Dilthey. crime. It should also be noted t hat recent sociologists. that was not to be the future of sociol ogy. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. [edit]Sociology Today Although sociology emerged from Comte's vision of a discipline that would subsum e all other areas of scientific inquiry. where the typical response is inadequate isolation of data or subject matter reflective. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics. [edit]References ? Moore. The International Heral d Tribune. Appeasing the Gods. ? Tierney. 1st ed.. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. Princeton University Press. Robert D. 2001. 1997. ? Loseke. Disrupting Science: Social Movements. John E. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. many sociology departments around the world are now encouraging multi-cultural research. Third Edition. Lincoln. which is tested empirically With the rise of the idea of quantitative measurement in the physical sciences ( see. W. Nicole H. indus trial societies and their influence on individuals. Wright. ? a b Mills. Donileen R. Visceral Verstehen. Cavendish. Oxford Univ ersity Press. some sociologists research macro-structures that organize society. Far from replacing the other sciences. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. 1st ed. it is when he abandoned Hegelian constructs and joined the movement in America called Pragmatism that he began to formulate his basic doctr ine on the three phases of the process of inquiry: problematic situation. Inc. 2001. USA. ? Civettini.iht. For instance. Max. American Scientists. such as race or ethnicity.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. In the past. gender roles. taking cues from anthropologists. ? Berger. Basic Books. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. some sociologists study micro-processes such as interperso nal interactions and the socialization of individuals. ? Putnam. Anchor. Additionally. Gender & Society 22:172-193. sociology has taken its place as a p articular perspective for investigating human social life. for example Lord Rutherford's famous maxim that any knowledge that one cann ot measure numerically "is a poor sort of knowledge"). 1945-1975. 2007. W. [edit]External links American Sociological Association .

William James was one of the first Americans to explore human relations scientif ically. This unity of science as descriptive remained. In the late 19th century. the invention of bina ry computation. Freud's theory of the functioning of the mind and James' work on e . and for Kepler. called Laws after the usage of the time (see philosophy of science) became the model that other disci plines would emulate. While Newton was merely the archetype of an accelerating trend. Within decades of Hobbes' work a revolution took place in what constitut ed science. was a scientific description of a political common wealth. his book. and Plato mixed geometrical proofs with his demonstration on the state of intrinsic knowledge. Such relationships. Comprehensive Guide to Sociology Social Science Virtual Library An online reference for Sociology [edit]Sociological methods [edit]Introduction The goal of this chapter is to introduce the methods employed by sociologists in their study of social life. Gottfried Leibniz and Johann es Kepler. each of whom took mathematical examples as models for human behavior directly. In ancient philosophy. the famous wager. For examples see Blaise Pascal. this created a pressure to express ideas in t he form of mathematical relationships. a wave of change came to science that saw statistical study sufficiently mathematical to be science. for Leibniz. in the time of Thoma s Hobbes who argued that deductive reasoning from axioms created a scientific fr amework. For philosophers of the same period. The first thinkers to attempt to combine scientific inquiry with the exploration of human relationships were Sigmund Freud in Austria and William James in the U nited States. the intervention of angels to guide the planets. [edit]The Development of Social Science Sigmund Freud. Newton. poetry or politics . This is not a chapter on statistics nor does it det ail specific methods in sociological investigation. the important di stinction is that for Newton the mathematical flowed from a presumed reality ind ependent of the observer and it worked by its own rules. changed the basic framewo rk by which individuals understood what was scientific. Aristotle studie d planetary motion and poetry with the same methods. Leviathan. The primary aim is to illust rate how sociologists go beyond common sense understandings in trying to explain or understand social phenomena. In the realm of other disciplines. particularly with the work of Isaac Newton in physics. Thus. In Pascal's case. In the early 20th century. by Alan Sica (Adobe Acrobat PDF file) International Sociological Association The Sociolog.only with the development of mathematical proof did there gradually arise a perceived difference between s cientific disciplines and the humanities or liberal arts. by re volutionizing what was then called natural philosophy. for example. Among the first were the Laws of philology. attempts to apply equations to s tatements about human behavior became increasingly common. mathematical expression of philosophical ideals were taken to be s ymbolic of natural human relationships as well: the same laws moved physical and spiritual reality.Analysing and Overcoming the Sociological Fragmentation in Europe: European Virt ual Library of Sociology A Century of Sociology at University of Kansas. there was no difference between the liberal arts of mathe matics and the study of history. which attempted to map the change over time of sounds in a language. one of the first people to explore human relationships scientific ally.

. or voltmeters. Sociologists use observations. true experiments a re often replaced with a different form of data analysis that will be discussed in more detail below) [edit]Characterization A scientific method depends upon a careful characterization of the subject of th e investigation.). While seeking the pertinent properties of the subject. often employing a quan titative approach. If not. etc.k. this car eful thought may also entail some definitions and observations. This approach to doing science is often termed positivism (though perha ps more accurately should be called empiricism). such as correlation and regre ssion. or mapped. p ropose hypotheses. the theory survives. physics. The positivist approach to soci al science seeks to explain and predict social phenomena. hypothetical explanation of the observations and meas urements) Prediction (logical deduction from the hypothesis) Experiment (test of all of the above. Science is essentially an extremely cautious means of building a supportable. Measurements demand the use of operational definitions of relevant quantities (a . sociologists can be and often are intere sted in predicting outcomes given knowledge of the variables and relationships i nvolved. observation and measurem ent) Hypothesis (a theoretical. the theory is modified or discarded. evidenced understanding of our natural world. and test their hypotheses in the formulation of theories. and statistical manipulations. such as a laboratory. such as chemistry. inexact or idealized def inition. The operational definition of a thing often relies on comparisons with standards: the operational definition of mass ultimately relies on the use of an . That is. With the rise of the idea of quantitative measurement in the physical sciences ( see. sociologists explore the social world with several different purposes in mind. or made on more or less inaccessible or unmanipulatable objects such as human populations. In this approach the goal is to understand a culture or phenomenon on its own terms rather than trying to develop a theory that allow for prediction. a nd a science. the observation often demands careful measurement and/or counting. performed on them. which is German for understandin g. careful collection of measurements or counts of relevant quantit ies is often the critical difference between pseudo-sciences. The method is commonly taken as the underl ying logic of scientific practice. in the social sciences. In add ition to employing the scientific method in their research. chemistry. the stage was set for the conception of the humanities as being precursors to social science. graphed. But unlike the physical sciences. Like the physical sci ences (i. a scientific quantity is described or define d by how it is measured. Predictions from these theories a re tested. The measurements often require specialized sc ientific instruments such as thermometers.a. The essential elements of a scientific method are iterations and recursions of t he following four steps: Characterization (operationalization or quantification. for example Lord Rutherford's famous maxim that any knowledge that one cann ot measure numerically "is a poor sort of knowledge"). spectroscopes. such as alchemy. Both ap proaches employ a scientific method as they make observations and gather data. The measurements might be made in a controlled setting . like anthropology) also often seek simply to understand social phenom ena. The se steps are outlined in more detail below. as opposed to some more vague. sociology (and other social sciences.e. Scientific measurements are usually tabulated. [edit]The Scientific Method A scientific method or process is considered fundamental to the scientific inves tigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon verifiable evidence. and the progress of a scientific field is usually intimately tied to their invention an d development. operationalization). If a prediction turns out to be correct. The systematic. hypotheses and deductions to propose explanations for social phenomena in the form of theories. Max Weber labeled this approach Verstehen.xperimental psychology had an enormous impact on those who followed.

g. The scientific definition of a term sometimes differs substantially from its nat ural language usage. If results confirm the predictions.to upper-class). this assumes that there is an actual relationship between t he two variables. and providing evidence of the e ffectiveness and integrity of the procedure. sex and gender are often used interchangeably in common discourse. How this is done is very important a s it should be done with enough precision that independent researchers should be able to use your description of your measurement and repeat it. changes in the society and is measured). to imagine possible explanations for a phen omenon under study. It will generally provide a causal explanation or propose some association between two variables. ideas from other fields. The uncertainty is often estimated by making repeated measuremen ts of the desired quantity. systematic guessing. An independent variable is a variable whose value is manipulated by the experimenter (or. class status c an range from lower. If the hypothesis is a causal explanation. Change in promotion is hypothesized to be dependent on gender. to aid in reco rding and reporting on the experimental results. A prediction (of an unknown) differ s from a consequence (which can already be known). with an uncertainty that depends up on the sampling method used and the number of samples taken (see the central lim it theorem). the independent variable would be gender/sex. . to operationalize a variable means creating an operational definitio n for a concept someone intends to measure. Co unts of things. Promotion would be the de pendent variable. Scientists assume an attitude of openness and accountability on the part of thos e conducting an experiment. [edit]Experiment Once a prediction is made. Uncertainties may also be calculated by consideratio n of the uncertainties of the individual underlying quantities that are used. [edit]Hypothesis Development A hypothesis includes a suggested explanation of the subject. Scientific quantit ies are often characterized by their units of measure which can later be describ ed in terms of conventional physical units when communicating the work. Of course. which then motivated them to look for evid ence to support or refute their idea. the value of a dependent variable depends on the value of the independent variable. The experiment may seek either confirmation or falsification of the hypothesis.. Variables are measurable phenomena whose values can change (e. or a hunch. m ay also have an uncertainty due to limitations of the method used. then the hypothesis might be correct but is still subject to further testing. then the hypoth esis under examination is incorrect or incomplete and requires either revision o r abandonment. that can be experimentally assessed. Detailed record keeping is essential. etc. A dependent variable is a variable whose v alues are presumed to change as a result of the independent variable.artifact. Predictions refer to experiment al designs with a currently unknown outcome. If there is no relationship. an experiment is designed to test it. In a study of the influence of gender on pr omotion. Counts may on ly represent a sample of desired quantities. The history of science is filled with stories of scientists claimin g a flash of inspiration. For example. in t he case of non-experimental analysis. They will also assist in reproducin g the experimental results. [edit]Prediction A useful hypothesis will enable predictions. it will involve at least one dependen t variable and one independent variable. such as the number of people in a nation at a particular time. Measurements in scientific work are also usually accompanied by estimates of the ir uncertainty. then the value of the dependent v ariable does not depend on the value of the independent variable. Scientists use whatever they can induction. If results contradict the predictions. their own creativity. but have distinct meanings in sociology. In other w ords. P erhaps an example will help clarify. by deductive reasoning. such as a certain kilogram of platinum kept in a laboratory in France . In short. There are no definitive guidelines for the production of new hypotheses.

sociologists may control for the effects of social class as this variable will likely influence the relat ionship. while usually des . Thus.the experimenter ofte n will attempt to publish the results so that others (in theory) may reproduce t he same experimental results. sociologists often turn to other methods for testin g hypotheses. [edit]Evaluation and Iteration The scientific process is iterative. one of w hich receives the drug and one of which receives a placebo. helps to cut dow n on obvious errors. The reproducibility or replication of scientific observations. The experiment's integrity should be ascertained by the introduction of a contro l. Sometimes peer review inhibits the circulati on of unorthodox work. then one returns to the failed hypothesis and r e-iterates the process . and generally otherwise improves the quality of the scienti fic literature. It is contrasted with alternative forms below. An experiment is not an absolute requirement. publication with s uggested modifications. soci ologists employ statistical techniques (e. For example in testing a drug it is important to carefully test that the supposed e ffect of the drug is produced only by the drug. This serv es to keep the scientific literature free of unscientific work. sometimes.i. failure of a hypothesis to produce interesting and testable predictions may lead to reconsideration of the hypothesis or of the definition of the subje ct. especially because it is the best method for derivi ng causal relationships. and at other times may be too permissive. If the experimental conclusions fail to m atch the predictions/hypothesis. It is also important to note that science is a social enterprise. but has been very widely adopted by the scien tific community.e. Unlike a true experiment where these variables are held constant in a l aboratory setting. sociologists use statistical methods to hold constant social class (or.g.modifying one's theory or developing a new one. for at any time new evidence could be presented that contradicts a long-held hypothesis. Two virtually identical experiments are run. a researcher determines whether the results (or data) gathered are what was predicted. in which scien tists' manuscripts are submitted by editors of scientific journals to (usually o ne to three) fellow (usually anonymous) scientists familiar with the field for e valuation. and scientific work will become accepted by the community only if it can be verified. All scientific knowledge is in a state of flux. If the experiment appears successful . At any stage it is possible that some consi deration will lead the scientist to repeat an earlier part of the process. regression) that allow them to con trol the variables in the analysis rather than in the data collection. or. The peer review process is not always successful. This serves to further isolate any causal phenomena. In lieu of holding variables constant in laboratory settings. scientific journals use a process of peer review. In observation based fields of sci ence actual experiments must be designed differently than for the classical labo ratory based sciences. Cruciall y. fits the hypothesis . Neither the patients nor the doctor know who is getting the real drug. other methods of hypothesis testing are commonly employ ed in the social sciences. For insta nce.[1] Work announced in the popular press before going through this process is generally frowned upon. Doctors may do this with a doubl e-blind study: two virtually identical groups of patients are compared. in examining the effects of gender on promotions. better stated. This t ype of experiment is often referred to as a true experiment because of its desig n. Once an experiment is complete. The referees may or may not recommend publication. For i nstance. F or this reason.This is a diagram of the famous Milgram Experiment which explored obedience and authority in light of the crimes committed by the Nazis in World War II. Due to ethical concerns and the sheer cost of manipulatin g large segments of society. partial out the variance accounted for by social class ) so they can see the relationship between gender and promotions without the int erference of social class. isolating its effects. while the true experiment is ideally suited for the performance of science.. in only one of which the factor being tested is varied. publication in another journal. verifying the findings in the process. experimental and theoretical results must be reproduced by others within the scientific community.

it must meet t he following three criteria: the variables must be correlated change in the independent variable must precede change in the dependent variable in time it must be shown that a different (third) variable is not causing the change in the two variables of interest (a. They may be rare. A correlation can be positive/direct or negative/inverse. while these two vari ables are correlated. ice cream consumption) the other va riable also increases (e. It is often the case that correlations between variables are found but the relat ionship turns out to be spurious. Clearly understanding the relationship between variables is an important element of the scientific process. and is in reality often not done.a. Thus. A positive correlation means that as one variable increases (e. In the scientific pursuit of prediction and explanation.. [edit]Correlation and Causation This diagram illustrates the difference between correlation and causation. can be divided into different groups . It is at this p oint that a simple yet noteworthy phrase should be introduced: correlation is no t causation. Reproducibility of observations and replica tion of experiments is not a guarantee that they are correct or properly underst ood.. there is often a distinction drawn between two types of sociological investigat ion: quantitative and qualitative. serves as a very eff ective deterrent for most scientists.k. [edit]Quantitative and Qualitative Like the distinction drawn between positivist sociology and Verstehen sociology. Referees and editors often reject papers p urporting only to reproduce some observations as being unoriginal and not contai ning anything new. however. the other variable dec reases (e. Both variables increase due to the increasing temperatures during the summer mon ths.. as one variable increases (e. is actually seldom report ed.g. The real explanation of this relationship is the introduction of a third variable: temperature. the correlation between ice cream consumption and crime is spurious. Occasionally reports of a failure to reproduce results are pu blished . Ice cream consumption is positively correlated with incidents of crime. crime). Ice cream con sumption and crime increase during the summer months. who will usually replicate their own data several times before attempting to publish. or even unique events. If you look back at the three criteria of causation above.mostly in cases where controversy exists or a suspicion of fraud devel ops. It is important to not confound a correlation with a cause/effect relationship. ice cream consumption does not cause crime or vice versa. infant mortality rates). following the quantitative approach. Correlation refers t o a relationship between two (or more) variables in which they change together. social c lass. Quantitative methods of sociological research approach social phenomena from the perspective that they can be measured and/or quantified. socioeconomic status). For instance. Causation refers to a relationship between two (or more) variables where one var iable causes the other.g. the reader should immediately qu estion this relationship and attempt to discover an explanation. Employing the scientific method outlined above.. but both are dependent on temperat ure. two relationships betwe en variables are often confused: correlation and causation. A negative correlation is just the opposite . Sometimes useful observations or phenomena themselves cannot be reproduced. Thus. spurious correlation) An example may help explain the difference. you will notice that the relationship between ice cream consumption and crime meets only one of the three criteria (they change together). Errors can all too often creep into more than one laboratory. In order for a variable to cause another.. as ic e cream consumption is correlated with crime. The threat of failure to replicate by others.g.g.cribed as being very important in a scientific method.

Weber did a rgue that it was okay for social scientists to express their opinions outside of the classroom and advocated for social scientists to be involved in politics an d other social activism. Because ethical considerations are of so m uch importance. Weber recognized that social scientists have opinions.people. Quantitative sociologists tend to use specific methods of data colle ction and hypothesis testing.g.).in order to reach a depth in analysis of the phenomenon studied. They view quantitative and qualitative approaches as complementary. Results from one approach can fill gaps in the other approach. quantitative methods could describe large or general patterns in society while qualitative approaches could help to explain how individuals understand those patterns. Qualitative methods of sociological research tend to approach social phenomena f rom the Verstehen perspective. many sociologists see benefits in combining the approaches. Because sociologists are no t immune to the desire to change the world. etc. They are used to develop a deeper understanding o f a particular phenomenon... Research on adults also requires informed consent and participants are n ever forced to participate. sociologists adhere to a rigorous set of ethical guidelines. but argue d against the expression of non-professional or non-scientific opinions in the c lassroom. and lower-class . Confidentiality and anonymity are two additional pra ctices that ensure the safety of participants when sensitive information is prov ided (e. black feminist thought). Even so. middle-. two approaches to sociological inves tigation have emerged. Some sociological journals focus on critical sociology and some sociological approaches are inherently critical ( e. The most important ethical consideration of sociological research is that participa nts in sociological investigation are not harmed. [edit]Objective vs. power. which has its r oots in Karl Marx's work on economic structures. beliefs. including: experimental designs. have values. educational attainment. content analysis and historical compariso n. most universities maintain an institutional review board (IRB) that reviews studies . and even pre-conceived noti ons of what they might find in doing their research. focus groups. For example. surveys. secondar y data analysis. They also often deliberately give up on quantity . and statistical analysis. Marx disliked capitalism and his analysis of that economic system include d the call for change..and can be measured using any of a number o f variables or a combination thereof: income. but the primary one o utlined in his discussion of Science as Vocation is that he believed it is not r ight for a person in a position of authority (a professor) to force his/her stud ents to accept his/her opinions in order for them to pass the class. To ensure the safety of participants. The objective approach is contrasted with the critical approach. like all humans. income. While there are sociologists who employ and encourage the use of only one or the other method.ne cessary for statistical analysis . [edit]Ethics Ethical considerations are of particular importance to sociologists because of t he subject of investigation . Qualitatively oriented sociologists tend to employ diff erent methods of data collection and hypothesis testing.upper-. For instance. By far the most common is the objective approach advocate d by Max Weber. there are several universally recognized conside rations. This approach to sociology is often referred to today as critical sociology (see also action research). qualitative methods can be used to propose relation ships between variables. etc. feminism. interviews. Anyone familiar with Marxist th eory will recognize that Marx went beyond describing society to advocating for c hange.[2] Weber took this position for several reasons. sexuality. prestige. including: participant observation. research on children and youth always requires parental c onsent.g. While exactly what this entail s can vary from study to study. Critical Sociologists. The objective approach to social science remains popula r in sociological research and refereed journals because it refuses to engage so cial issues at the level of opinions and instead focuses intently on data and th eories.

Conflicts of interest are also frowned upon.difficult or even impossible the presence of researchers can affect the phenomenon being studied (Hawthorne E ffect) society is constantly changing. Appeasing the Gods. sociology's con tributions to our understanding of society have been significant and continue to provide useful theories and tools for understanding humans as social beings. when bro ught to light. Openoffice. analysis. . led to the introduction of ethical principles guiding human subje cts research and Institutional Review Boards to ensure compliance with those pri nciples. 1945-1975. Anchor. [edit]What Can Sociology Tell Us? Having discussed the sociological approach to understanding society. C. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. including the Tuskegee syphilis experiment. sociologists testified in the Brown v. ? Putnam. A recent paper by Susan M. A comprehensive explanation of sociological guidelines is provided on the website of the American Sociological Association. Obviously ho nesty in research.g. Free Press. Because of the subject of investigation (s ociety). Linux. It has not always been the case that scientists interested in studying humans ha ve followed ethical principles in their research. making prediction .org). 2002.iht.especially at the individual leve l . it is worth noting the limitations of sociology. Several studies that. Sociologists who mani pulate their data are ostracized and will have their memberships in professional organizations revoked. in which 399 impoverished black men with syphilis were left untreated to track the progre ss of the disease and Nazi experimentation on humans. Pascal. May 7 http://www. Max. Boar d of Education decision to integrate schools) it is difficult for sociologists to remain objective when the phenomena they stu dy is also part of their social life While it is important to recognize the limitations of sociology. Robert D. 1978. Simon & Schuster. 2000. Basic Books. ? a b Mills. sociology runs into a number of problems that have significant implicat ions for this field of inquiry: human behavior is complex. [edit]References ? Moore. are worth noting. Wright. 2008). ? Boyer. ? Tierney. USA. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. 40th ed. Kelly. John. ? Berger.php (Accessed August 17. Reverby [3] found that such unethical experiments were more widespread than jus t the widely known Tuskegee study and that the US Government funded a study in w hich thousands of Guatemalan prisoners were infected with syphilis to determine whether they could be cured with penicillin. ? Dilthey. making it difficult for sociologists to maintain current understandings. 2008. 1997. in fact. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber. The International Heral d Tribune. W. 1963. Peter L. Oxford Univ ersity Press.that include human participants and ensures ethical rigor.. Religion Explained. 2008. Princeton University Press. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. Disrupting Science: Social Movements. For example. and the Politics of the Military. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. American Scientists. society might even change as a result of socio logical investigation (for instance. Ethical oversight in science is des igned to prevent such egregious violations of human rights today. if Microsoft wer e to fund a sociologist to investigate whether users of Microsoft's product user s are happier than users of open source software (e. and publication is important. the sociologist would need to disclose the source of the funding as it presents a significant conflict of interest. Springer. 1st ed. The Sociological Imagination. 2001. 1st ed. Sociologists also have professional ethical principles they follow. With Insurance. A conflict of interest can occur when a sociologist is given funding to conduct research on an issue that relates to the source of the funds. 1st ed.

. Sage Publications.) has declined over the last 40 to 60 years. Visceral Verstehen. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. This chapter also draws on the following Wikipedia articles: common sense scientific method Induction (philosophy) Deductive reasoning qualitative method hypothesis independent variable dependent variable Philosophy of science [edit]External links Resources for program evaluation and methods in social research Science as Vocation [edit]General sociological theory [edit]Introduction Sociologists develop theories to explain social phenomena. Data alone are not particularly informative. What's more. 2005. the concepts are civic engagement and television watching. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics. we may not have realized t hat television viewing does. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. There are many middle -range and micro-range theories in sociology. The relationship is an inverse one . So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. ? Loseke. in fact. ranging from grand theory t o highly contextualized and specific micro-range theories. Because such theories are dependen t on context and specific to certain situations. In this c ase. In other words. Nicole H. and James C. and Yvonna S. the other goes down. the astute reader will notice that the theory incl udes two components: The data. 2008. If Putnam had not proposed a relationship between the two elements of social life. ? Denzin. 2007.. Cavendish. Sociological theory is developed at multiple levels. A theory is a propose d relationship between two or more concepts. Norman K. Putnam's theory proposes: The more television people watch.g. the lower their involvement in civic life will be. [edit]Importance of Theory In the theory proposed above. Third Edition. Electronic Journal of Sociology. This element of Putnam's theory clearly illustrates the basic purpose of sociolo gical theory: it proposes a relationship between two or more concepts. An example of a sociological theory is the wor k of Robert Putnam on the decline of civic engagement. W. Inc. one of the prominent factors is the increased consumption of te levision as a form entertainment. and Jennifer Glass.. Putnam's theory clearly encapsulates the key ideas of a sociological theory. that t he increase in television viewing has contributed to the decline in civic engage ment. community organizations. John E. and the proposed relationship. Gender & Society 22:172-193. In short. ? Civettini. voting..[4] Putnam found that Amer icans involvement in civic life (e. 2001. it is an explanation of one phenomenon with another: part of the reason why civic engagem ent has declined over the last several decades is because people are watching mo re television. reduce people's desire to and time for par .as one goes up. a theory is explana tion for why a phenomenon occurs. Donileen R. etc. While t here are a number of factors that contribute to this decline (Putnam's theory is quite complex). The purpose of this chapter is to introd uce some of the more well-known and most commonly used grand and middle-range th eories in sociology. in this case the findings that civic engagement h as declined and TV watching has increased. Lincoln. r eligious participation..? Glass. it is beyond the scope of this text to explore each of those theories. clubs.

being c omposed of equivalent parts that are held together by shared values. Durkheim argued that modern complex societies are held together by organic solidarity (think interdependent organs). or systems of exchanges. Or . In more "primitive" societies i t was mechanical solidarity. suicide. It was when Durkheim introduced the ideas of a nomie and social solidarity that he began to explain the difference in suicide r ates. At this point. In his now cl assic work. all of the theories a re correct in the sense that they offer compelling explanations for social pheno mena. just because things are different doesn't mean one is better than another. One theory may explain one element of society better than another. and employed both data and theory to offer an explanation. Durkheim found that Protestants were more li kely to commit suicide than were Catholics. Durkheim argued that the looser social ties found in Protestant religions lead to weaker social cohesion and reduced social solidarity. it is probably more useful and informative to view these theories as comp lementary. [edit]Prominent Sociological Theories As noted above. Suicide. Durkheim proposed that such societies tend to be segmentary. his study is a classic exa mple of the use of theory to explain the relationship between two concepts. In order to understand the social world around us. there are several broad theoretical perspectives that are prominent in the field (they are arguab ly paradigms). However. it is necessary to employ theory to draw the connections between seemingly disparat e concepts. Another example of sociological theorizing illustrates this point. Durk heim's work also illustrates the importance of theory: without theories to expla in the relationship between concepts. In short. And to find the cause and effect relatio nship is the major component of the sociological theory. Base d on the metaphor of an organism in which many parts function together to sustai n the whole. Durkheim was able to disc ern patterns in suicide rates and connect those patterns with another concept (o r variable): religious affiliation. there are many theories in sociology.[6] Durkheim was concerned with the question of how societies maintain internal stability and survive over time. The central concern of structural-functionalism is a continuation of the Durkhei mian task of explaining the apparent stability and internal cohesion of societie s that are necessary to ensure their continued existence over time. The higher suicide rates were the result of weakening social bonds among Protestants.[5] Emile Durkheim was interested in explaining a social phe nomenon. These theories are prominent because they are quite good at expla ining social life. Structural-functionalism draws its inspiration primarily from the ideas of Emile Durkheim. By aggregating data for large groups of people in Europe. He sought to explain social cohesion and stability through the concept of solidarity. everyone performing similar tasks. Many functio nalists argue that social institutions are functionally integrated to form a sta ble system and that a change in one institution will precipitate a change in oth . both may be useful for explaining social life. While Durkheim's findings have since been criticized. he had not proposed an explanation for the different suicide rates of the two groups.ticipating in civic life. you might be inclined to ask. In modern. complex societies members perform very different tasks. we would not be able to understand cause a nd effect relationships in social life. "Which of these theories is the best?" As is often the case in sociolog y. Durkheim's analysis w as still in the data stage. resulting in a strong interdependence between individuals. Later it came to focus on the ways social in stitutions meet social needs (structural-functionalism). They are not without their problems. [edit]Structural-Functionalism Structural-Functionalism is a sociological theory that originally attempted to e xplain social institutions as collective means to meet individual biological nee ds (originally just functionalism). that held societ y together. In fact. As the dominant theories in sociology are discussed below. common symb ols. but these theories remai n widely used and cited precisely because they have withstood a great deal of cr iticism.

with individuals merely being transien t occupants of comparatively stable social roles. in the late 19th Century. Durkheim's strongly sociological perspective of society was continued by Radclif fe-Brown. Also occurring in the 19th Century (though begun in the 18th) was the indust rial revolution. Explanations of social phenomena therefore had to be constructed within this social level. . structural-functionalism could. in fact. and ev en if society does have needs they need not be met. " What is the function of this institution?" A function. while one might argue that re ligion has certain functions in British society. of the social structure. in structural-functional ist thought.er institutions. As structural-functionalism think s about elements of social life in relation to their present function and not th eir past functions. but one obvious answer is that education prepares individuals to enter the wor kforce.[12] Thus. bringing social life back into equilibrium. The various parts of society are assumed to work in an unconscious. one can ask the question. education did not always serve the function of preparing individuals for the labor force (with the exception of the ministry and the elite). The idea that society has ne eds like humans do is not a tenable position because society is only alive in th e sense that it is made up of living individuals.[8][9] By delineating the functions of elements of society. The social structure is therefore a network of statuses connected by associated role s.the economy and production .[7] Thus. Technological advan ces and advanced industry both required more educated workforces. this article on the history of education) . it is becoming apparent that it is not necessary for British society to function. just because a society has some elem ent in it at the present that does not mean that it must necessarily have that e lement. religious service attendance has de clined precipitously over the last 100 years. I n other words.[11] Structural-functionalism was the dominant perspective of sociology between World War II and the Vietnam War. for instance. Radcliffe-Brown believed that the social constituted a separate level of reality distinct from both the biological and th e inorganic (here non-living). What's more. Another philosophical problem with the structural-functional approach is the ont ological argument that society does not have needs as a human being does. H owever.[8][9] In other words. is the con tribution made by a phenomenon to a larger system of which the phenomenon is a p art.[10] Following Auguste Comte. Today. quasi-automatic fashion towar ds the maintenance of the overall social equilibrium. Thus. society cannot have want s and/or needs like humans do. Th ese components are then primarily analysed in terms of the function they play. bounded and fundamentally relat ional constructs that function like organisms. Thus. one can ask of education. All social and cultural ph enomena are therefore seen as being functional in the sense of working together to achieve this state and are effectively deemed to have a life of their own. For instance. in this sense. For instance. individuals are not significant in and of themselves but only in te rms of their social status: their position in patterns of social relations. facilitated by capitalism. was incre asingly demanding technological advances to increase profit. Thus. we can better understand social life. to understand a component of society. higher education transitioned from a training center for clergy and the elite to a center for the conduct of scien ce and the general education of the masses. structural-functionalism has a difficult time explaining why a function of some element of society might change or how such change occurs. as one a spect of society changed . offer an explanation in this ca se. with their various parts (social institutions) working together to maintain and reproduce them. [edit]Limitations Structural-functionalism has been criticized for being unable to account for soc ial change because it focuses so intently on social order and equilibrium in soc iety. less than 1 in 10 British a ttend religious service in a given week. Societies are seen as coherent.it required a comparable change in the educational system. in the United Kingdom. "What is the function of education for society?" The answer is actually quite complex and requires a detailed analysis of the hi story of education (see. The industrial revolution.

. Thus. a significant problem in the structural-functional a pproach. Thinking about educatio n this way helps illustrate why both structural-functionalist and conflict theor ies are helpful in understanding how society works. [edit]Manifest and Latent Functions Merton (1957) proposed a distinction between manifest and latent functions.) reflect the competition for resources in their inherent inequalities. favori ng one group (the wealthy) over other groups (the poor). Broader social structures and organizations (e. Individua ls and groups that benefit from any particular structure strive to see it mainta ined.S. leisure.Another criticism often leveled at structural-functionalist theory is that it su pports the status quo. and in Germany by . structural-functionalism pai nts conflict and challenge to the status quo as harmful to society. money. while education's manifest functi on is to empower all individuals to contribute to the workforce and society. According to some opponents. it also limits some people by creating boundaries of entry into occupations. of course. An example of manifest and latent functions is education. government.S. The structural-functionalist approach argued that society tends toward equilibrium. is not free. Change is often abrupt and revolutionary rather than evolution ary. etc.. it also has built into it an element of conflict and inequality. The following are three primary assumptions of modern conflict theory: Competition over scarce resources is at the heart of all social relationships.[13] Manifest functions are the intended functions of a phenomenon in a social system . the educational system often screens out p oorer individuals not because they are unable to compete academically but becaus e they cannot afford to pay for their education. This can easily translate into a vici ous cycle of poverty. focusing on stability at the expense of social change. etc. C ompetition rather than consensus is characteristic of human relationships. Change occurs as a result of conflict between competing interests rather than th rough adaptation. "Who benefits from this element of society?" Using the same example as we did above. [edit]Conflict Theory A prominent sociological theory that is often contrasted with structural-functio nalism is conflict theory. The most l earned are often also the most affluent. some people and organizations have more resources (i. A latent function of the publ ic education system is the development of a hierarchy of the learned.). g.?" The answer. while the function of education is to educate the wo rkforce. Because the poor are unable to obtain higher education. is the wealthy. Thus. religions. The manifest purpo se of public education is to increase the knowledge and abilities of the citizen ry to prepare them to contribute in the workforce. A heuristic device to help you think about society from a conflict perspective i s to ask. Thus. this means they are also generally unable to get higher paying jobs which means they remain poor. sexual partners. Why? Because higher edu cation in the U. This is contrasted with the conflict approach.e. One of the primary contributions conflict theory presents over the structural-functional approach is that it is ideally suited fo r explaining social change. Conflict theory was elaborated in the United Kingdom by Max Gluckman and John Re x. and therefor e tends to be the prominent view among conservative thinkers.g. Latent functions are the unintended functions of a phenomenon in a social syst em. "Who benefits from the current higher educational sys tem in the U. Conflict theory argues that society is not best under stood as a complex system striving for equilibrium but rather as a competition. Inequalities in power and reward are built into all social structures. power and influence) and use those resources to maintain their positions of powe r in society. in the United States by Lewis A. Coser and Randall Collins. we can ask. which argues that society is constant ly in conflict over resources. Society is made up of individuals competing for limited resources (e. Conflict theory was developed in part to illustrate the limitations of structura l-functionalism..

As noted above.e.[14] Hu man society. Some people may not think much about how others will think about their clothing choices. Humans. there are components of the human brain that govern social int eraction. This understanding should not be taken to indicate that humans ne ver behave in a strict stimulus -> response fashion. Symbolic Interactionism is a theoretical approach to un derstanding the relationship between humans and society. the two approaches offer a broader and more comprehensive view of society.. much of the change is minor.[16] These parts of the brain begin developing in early childhood (the preschool years) and aid humans in understanding how other people think. [edit]Symbolic Interactionism In contrast to the rather broad approach toward society of structural-functional ism and conflict theory. but others can spend quite a bit of time considering wh at they are going to wear. however.[16] In symbolic interactionism. Neurological evidence based on EEGs supports the idea that humans have a "social brain. is a social product. This is particularly true of structural-functionalism and social-conflict theories. Acc ording to Symbolic Interactionism. In this approach. can. And while they are deciding. therefore. this is known as "reflected appraisals" or "the looking glass self" and refers to our ability to think about how other people will thin k about us. Instead. sociological theory is often complementary.e. Georg Simmel. and other founding fathers of European sociology. and individuals may influence the many meanings that form their society. the dialogue that is tak ing place inside their mind is usually a dialogue between their "self" (that por tion of their identity that calls itself "I") and that person's internalized und . infrahumans are unable to conceive of alternative responses to gestures. Ludwig Gumplovicz. Structural-funct ionalism focuses on equilibrium and solidarity. but rather that humans have the capability of not responding in that fashion (and do so much of the time). the objective world has no reality for humans. humans are portrayed as acting as opposed to being acted upon. stimulus -> cognition -> response). Meanings are not entities that are bestowed on humans and learned by habituatio n. all of whom were influenced by Karl Marx. Many of the broader elements of soc ieties remain remarkably stable over time. meanings can be altered through the creative capabilities of humans. humans are distinct from infrahumans (lower a nimals) because infrahumans simply respond to their environment (i. While societies are in a constant s tate of change. The basic notion of sym bolic interactionism is that human action and interaction are understandable onl y through the exchange of meaningful communication or symbols. According to symbolic interactionism. Additionally.[14] The main principles of symbolic interactionism are:[15] human beings act toward things on the basis of the meanings that things have for them these meanings arise of out of social interaction social action results from a fitting together of individual lines of action This approach stands in contrast to the strict behaviorism of psychological theo ries prevalent at the time it was first formulated (in the 1920s and 1930s).. a stimulu s evokes a response or stimulus -> response) whereas humans have the ability to interrupt that process (i. when combine d." that is. V ilfredo Pareto. [edit]Limitations Not surprisingly. This perspective is also rooted in phenomenological thought (see social construc tionism and phenomenology). This drawing illustrates the idea of the "looking-glass self" by illustrating th at we can internalize how other people view us and then reflect upon those exter nal appraisals without having to actually converse with others. Keep in mind that neither is better than the other. conflict-theory focuses on chang e and conflict. A good example of this is when people try on clothes before going ou t with friends. indicating the structural-functional perspective has a great deal of merit. only subjectively-defined objects have meaning.Ralf Dahrendorf. the primary limitation of the social-conflict perspective is t hat it overlooks the stability of societies.

and what perform ances are required in a given scenario or situation. Role theory holds that a su bstantial proportion of observable. For instance. Because they see meaning as the fundamental component of human and soci ety interaction.[17] Role theory posits that human behavior is guided by expectations held both by the individua l and by other people. Such an individual has incorporated the "social" int o the "self. predictive. a significant portion of the behavior of th e persons occupying that position can be predicted. sister. The expectations correspond to different roles individual s perform or enact in their daily lives. Roles. filing paperwork. norm s. such as secretary. or friend.. Thus. culture) as a result of focusing on micro-level interactions. [edit]Role Theory Another more micro-oriented approach to understanding social life that also inco rporates the more structural elements of society is Role Theory. which is a set of functions performed by the person for the group groups often formalize role expectations as norms or even codified rules. making and managing appointm ents. roles influence beliefs and attitudes. individ uals will change their beliefs and attitudes to correspond with their roles. fireman. Many role theorists see Role Theory as one of the most compelling theories bridg ing individual behavior and social structure. however. An indicator of mature socialization is when an individual quite accurately predicts how other people think about him/her. The individual." It should also be noted that symbolic interactionists advocate a particular meth odology.g. influences the norms. What's more. in fact. F or instance. Roles consist of a set of rule s or norms that function as plans or blueprints to guide behavior. expectations. In addition to heavily influencing behavior. studying human and society interaction requires getting at that meaning. which might include: answering phones. and typing memos. These role expectations would not be e xpected of a professional soccer player. symbolic interactionists tend to employ more qualitative rather than quantitative methods in their research. roles correspond to behaviors and vice versa.. Role Theory includes the following propositions: people spend much of their lives participating as members of groups and organiza tions within these groups.which is now commonplace . would counter that if role theory (see below) is incorp orated into symbolic interactionism . and b ehaviors associated with roles. most people hold pre-conceived notions of the role expectations of a secretary. prostitute). which are in part dictated by social structure and in part by social interactions. day-to-day social behavior is simply persons carrying out their roles. much as actors carry out their roles on the stage or ballplayers theirs on the field. guide the behavior of th e individual. Role theory is. people occupy distinct positions each of these positions entails a role. It implies that if we have information about the role expectations for a specified status (e. role theory also argues that in order to change behavior it is nece ssary to change roles. [edit]Limitations The most significant limitation of the symbolic-interactionist perspective relat es to its primary contribution: it overlooks macro social structures (e. Some symbolic i nteractionists. Roles specify what goals should be pursued. Individuals generally have and manage many roles. what tasks must be accomplished. in turn. which include what rewards will result when roles are successfully performed and what punishments will result when roles are not successfully performed individuals usually carry out their roles and perform in accordance with prevail .g. The understanding is reciprocal.this criticism is addressed. someone over-looked for a promotion to a managerial position in a com pany may change their beliefs about the benefits of management by convincing him /herself that they didn't want the additional responsibility that would have acc ompanied the position. father.erstanding of their friends and society (a "generalized other").

the anticipation that others will apply sanctions ensures rol e performance [edit]Limitations Role theory has a hard time explaining social deviance when it does not correspo nd to a pre-specified role. the basis for which is rooted in either our psyche (Freud) or man's need t o see some purpose in life or worship a higher presence. But if a bank teller simply begins handing out cash to random people. actors manage their behavior so as to create specif ic impressions in the minds of the audience. Plato s poke of the "great stage of human life" and Shakespeare noted that "All the worl d is a stage. in other words. Role theory has no explanation for why it is expected of male soldiers to cut their hair short. For instance. some sociologists have been taking a different approach to sociologica l theory by employing an integrationist approach . role theory does not explain when and how role expectati ons change. cast the idea in a dramaturgical framework. Erving Goffman (1959). following Sigmund Freud[21 ] and Émile Durkheim. impression management is both a theory and process. explored this concept extensively in his book. the secretary m ay also be a Marxist-Communist who believes the means of production should belon g to the masses and not the bourgeoisie).combining micro. reality is re -produced by people acting on their interpretations of what they perceive to be the world external to them. The Sacred Canopy. Social constructionism focuses on the d escription of institutions and actions and not on analyzing cause and effect. Additionally. Another limitation of role theory is that it does not and cannot explain how rol e expectations came to be what they are. A clear example of social constructionist thought is.and macro-le vel theories to provide a comprehensive understanding of human social behavior. but it could predict wi th a high degree of accuracy that if someone is a male soldier they will have sh ort hair.that is that no reality exists outside what is produced and reproduced in social interactions. The theory argues that people are constantly engaged in controlling how others perceive them. The process refers to the goal-directed conscious or unconscious effort to influence the perceptions of other people by regulating and controllin g information in social interaction. One of the key theorist s of social constructionism.she will rob banks.[23] Social constructionism is often seen as a source of the postmodern movement.ing norms. Peter Berger. [edit]Social Constructionism Social constructionism is a school of thought introduced into sociology by Peter L. the person most often credited with formally developing i mpression management theory.[18][19] The basic idea is that individuals in face-to-face situations are like actors o n a stage performing roles (see role theory above).[22] religion. role theory assumes that people are primarily conform ists who try to live up to the norms that accompany their roles group members check each individual's performance to determine whether it confor ms with the norms. Religion is seen as a socially constructed con cept.[20] Social constructionism aims to discover the ways that individuals an d groups create their perceived reality. [edit]Impression Management An extension of role theory. Berger and Thomas Luckmann with their 1966 book The Social Construction of R eality. If a person tries to influence the percepti on of her or his own image. Strategic interpersonal behavior to shape or influence impressions formed by an audience is not a new idea. Berger and Luckmann argue that social construction d escribes both subjective and objective reality . this activity is called self-presentation. Aware of how they are being perceived by their audience. [edit]Integration Theory Recently. and all the men and women merely players". . role theory would be unable to explain why (though role conflict could be one possible answer. the behavior of someone who adopts the role of bank robber can be predicted . and has been influential in the field of cultural studies. So cially constructed reality is seen as an on-going dynamic process.

Numerous models could be presented in this vein. George Ritzer's[24] Integration Model is a good example. Ritzer proposes four highly interdependent elements in his sociological model: a macro-objective component (e.g., society, law, bureaucracy), a micro-objective component (e.g., patterns of behavior and human interaction), a macro-subjective component (e.g., culture, norms, and values), and a micro-subjective component (e.g., perceptions, beliefs). This model is of particular use in understanding s ociety because it uses two axes: one ranging from objective (society) to subject ive (culture and cultural interpretation); the other ranging from the macro-leve l (norms) to the micro-level (individual level beliefs). The integration approach is particularly useful for explaining social phenomenon because it shows how the different components of social life work together to i nfluence society and behavior. If used for understanding a specific cultural phenomenon, like the displaying of abstract art in one's home,[25] the integration model depicts the different inf luences on the decision. For instance, the model depicts that cultural norms can influence individual behavior. The model also shows that individual level value s, beliefs, and behaviors influence macro-level culture. This is, in fact, part of what David Halle finds: while there are art consumption differences based on class, they are not predicted solely by class. Displayers of abstract art tend n ot only to belong to the upper-class, but also are employed in art-production oc cupations. This would indicate that there are multiple levels of influence invol ved in art tastes both broad cultural norms and smaller level occupational norms in addition to personal preferences. [edit]References ? Moore, Kelly. 2008. Disrupting Science: Social Movements, American Scientists, and the Politics of the Military, 1945-1975. Princeton University Press. ? Putnam, Robert D. 2001. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. 1st ed. Simon & Schuster. ? a b Mills, C. Wright. 2000. The Sociological Imagination. 40th ed. Oxford Univ ersity Press, USA. ? Boyer, Pascal. 2002. Religion Explained. Basic Books. ? Tierney, John. 2008. Appeasing the Gods, With Insurance. The International Heral d Tribune, May 7 http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier.php (Accessed August 17, 2008). ? Berger, Peter L. 1963. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. 1st ed. Anchor. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber, Max. 1997. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. Free Press. ? Dilthey, W. 1978. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. 1st ed. Springer. ? Glass, John E. 2005. Visceral Verstehen. Electronic Journal of Sociology. ? Denzin, Norman K., and Yvonna S. Lincoln. 2007. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. Third Edition. Sage Publications, Inc. ? Civettini, Nicole H. W., and Jennifer Glass. 2008. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. Gender & Society 22:172-193. ? Loseke, Donileen R., and James C. Cavendish. 2001. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics.. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. This chapter draws on the following Wikipedia articles: structural-functionalism conflict theory solidarity self role [edit]External links Dramaturgy

Social Psychology social constructionism [edit]Society [edit]Introduction

The large, polygamist family of Joseph F. Smith, a former leader of the Mormon r eligion. What it means to be a husband in a polygamist culture is different from what it means to be a husband in a monogamous homosexual or heterosexual cultur e. The simplest definition of society is a group of people who share a defined terr itory and a culture. In sociology, we take that definition a little further by a rguing that society is also the social structure and interactions of that group of people. Social structure is the relatively enduring patterns of behavior and relationships within a society.[26] Thus, a society is not only the group of peo ple and their culture, but the relationships between the people and the institut ions within that group. In sociology, a distinction is made between society and culture. Culture refers to the norms, values, beliefs, behaviors, and meanings given to symbols in a soc iety.[27] Culture is distinct from society in that it adds meanings to relations hips. For instance, what it means to be a "husband" to a gay couple in Boston is very different from what it means to be a husband to a polygamist man in rural southern Utah. Thus, while the relationship exists in both (i.e., they both have social structure), what the relationship means differs by culture. All human societies have a culture and culture can only exist where there is a s ociety. Sociologists distinguish between society and culture despite their close interconnectedness primarily for analytical purposes: It allows sociologists to think about societal development independent of culture and cultural change (wh ich are discussed in the next chapter in greater detail) even though societal ch ange and development are contingent upon culture. This chapter presents a brief overview of some of the types of human societies t hat have existed and continue to exist. It will then present some classic approa ches to understanding society and what changing social structure can mean for in dividuals. [edit]Societal Development The sociological understanding of societal development relies heavily upon the w ork of Gerhard Lenski.[28] Lenski outlined some of the more commonly seen organi zational structures in human societies. Classifications of human societies can b e based on two factors: (1) the primary means of subsistence and (2) the politic al structure. This chapter focuses on the subsistence systems of societies rathe r than their political structures. While it is a bit far-reaching to argue that all societies will develop through the stages outlined below, it does appear that most societies follow such a rout e. Human groups begin as hunter-gatherers, move toward pastoralism and/or hortic ulturalism, develop toward an agrarian society, and ultimately end up undergoing a period of industrialization (with the potential for developing a service indu stry following industrialization).[29] Not all societies pass through every stag e. Some societies have stopped at the pastoral or horticultural stage (e.g., Bed ouin nomads), though these may be temporary pauses due to economic niches that w ill likely disappear over time. Some societies may also jump stages as a result of the introduction of technology from other societies. It is also worth noting that these categories aren't really distinct groups as there is often overlap in the subsistence systems used in a society. Some pastoralist societies also enga ge in some measure of horticultural food production and most industrial and post -industrial societies still have agriculture, just in a reduced capacity. [edit]Hunter-Gatherer The hunter-gatherer way of life is based on the exploitation of wild plants and

animals. Consequently, hunter-gatherers are relatively mobile, and groups of hun ter-gatherers have fluid boundaries and composition. Typically in hunter-gathere r societies men hunt larger wild animals and women gather fruits, nuts, roots, a nd other edible plant-based food and hunt smaller animals. Hunter-gatherers use materials available in the wild to construct shelters or rely on naturally occur ring shelters like overhangs. Their shelters give them protection from predators and the elements. Ancient hunter. The majority of hunter-gatherer societies are nomadic. It is difficult to be set tled under such a subsistence system as the resources of one region can quickly become exhausted. Hunter-gatherer societies also tend to have very low populatio n densities as a result of their subsistence system. Agricultural subsistence sy stems can support population densities 60 to 100 times greater than land left un cultivated, resulting in denser populations. Hunter-gatherer societies also tend to have non-hierarchical social structures, though this is not always the case. Because hunter-gatherers tend to be nomadic, they generally do not have the possibility to store surplus food. As a result, full-time leaders, bureaucrats, or artisans are rarely supported by hunter-gathe rer societies. The hierarchical egalitarianism in hunter-gatherer societies tend s to extend to gender-based egalitarianism as well. Although disputed, many anth ropologists believe gender egalitarianism in hunter-gatherer societies stems fro m the lack of control over food production, lack of food surplus (which can be u sed for control), and an equal gender contribution to kin and cultural survival. Archeological evidence to date suggests that prior to 13,000BCE, all human being s were hunter-gatherers. While declining in number, there are still some huntergatherer groups in existence today. Such groups are found in the Arctic, tropica l rainforests, and deserts where other forms of subsistence production are impos sible or too costly. In most cases these groups do not have a continuous history of hunting and gathering; in many cases their ancestors were agriculturalists w ho were pushed into marginal areas as a result of migrations and wars. Examples of hunter-gatherer groups still in existence include: Sentinelese of the Andaman Islands (near India) The line between agricultural and hunter-gatherer societies is not clear cut. Ma ny hunter-gatherers consciously manipulate the landscape through cutting or burn ing useless (to them) plants to encourage the growth and success of those they c onsume. Most agricultural people also tend to do some hunting and gathering. Som e agricultural groups farm during the temperate months and hunt during the winte r. [edit]Pastoralist Iranian nomads in 2006. A pastoralist society is a society in which the primary means of subsistence is domesticated livestock. It is often the case that, like hunter-gatherers, pastor alists are nomadic, moving seasonally in search of fresh pastures and water for their animals. Employment of a pastoralist subsistence system often results in g reater population densities and the development of both social hierarchies and d ivisions in labor as it is more likely there will be a surplus of food. Pastoralist societies still exist. For instance, in Australia, the vast semi-ari d areas in the interior of the country contain pastoral runs called sheep statio ns. These areas may be thousands of square kilometers in size. The number of liv estock allowed in these areas is regulated in order to reliably sustain them, pr oviding enough feed and water for the stock. Other examples of pastoralists soci eties still in existence include: the Maasai of Kenya the Borana Oromo of southern Ethiopia the Turkana of Kenya the Bedouin of Northern Africa

Some people in developed nations are dr iven into such primitive methods by poverty. in Central and Sou th America (maize and squash). in the Fertile Crescent region of the Midd le East. The ability of farmers to feed large numb ers of people whose activities have nothing to do with material production was t he crucial factor in the rise of surplus. Most certainly there was a gradual transitio n from hunter-gatherer to agricultural economies after a lengthy period when som e crops were deliberately planted and other foods were gathered from the wild. the cu ltivation of crops increases population densities and. Subsisten ce agriculture is a simple. Farmers obtain their financial income fro m the cultivation of land to yield crops or the commercial raising of animals (a nimal husbandry). Agriculture can refer to subsistence agriculture o r industrial agriculture. system using saved seed native to the ecoregion combined with crop rotation or other relatively simple techniques to maximize yield. later. Agrarian societies are societies in which the primary means of subsistence is th e cultivation of crops using a mixture of human and non-human means (i. In developed nations. activity of this type would be seen more as a hobby than a profession. Horticulture differs from agriculture in that agriculture employs animals.e. In developed nations a person using such simple techniques on small patches of l and would generally be referred to as a gardener. Agriculture is the process of producing food. advanced technology.[29 ] Full dependency on domestic crops and animals (i. or.000 B. Those who provide only labor but not management and d o not have ownership are often called farmhands. machi nery. as sharecroppers. as a result of food surpl uses. agriculture appe ared by at least 6.E. fiber.000 and 8.[30][31] The reasons for the development of horticulture and agriculture are debated but may have included climate change and the accumulation of food s urplus for competitive gift-giving. or both. if they supervise a leased strip of land growing only one crop. Subsistence agriculture is agriculture carried out for the production of enough food to meet just the needs of the agriculturalist and his/her family. anima ls and/or machinery).C.C. or some other non-human means to facilitate the cultivation of crops while horticulture relies solely on humans for crop cultivation. feed.E. It is also worth noting that large scale organic farming is on the rise as a result of a renewed interest in non-ge netically modified and pesticide free foods. inequality.[29] [edit]Development of Horticulture and Agriculture Horticulture and agriculture as types of subsistence developed among humans some where between 10. when wild resources contribu . in East Asia (rice) and.800 B.. Historically most farmers were engaged in subsistence agricultur e and this is still the case in many developing nations. Agriculture allows a much greater density of population than can be supported by hunting and gathering and allows for the accumulation of excess product to keep for winter use or to sell for profit. and other desired products by the cultivation of plants and the raising of dome sticated animals (livestock). A pineapple farmer in Ghana. allows for a division of labor in society. h ierarchical social structures. [edit]Agrarian A tractor ploughing an alfalfa field circa 1921. specialization.[edit]Horticulturalist Horticulturalist societies are societies in which the primary means of subsisten ce is the cultivation of crops using hand tools. Like pastoral societies. and standing armies. Small scale agriculture also likely arose indepen dently in early Neolithic contexts in India (rice) and Southeast Asia (taro). I n addition to the emergence of farming in the Fertile Crescent. often organic. a farmer or industrial agriculturalist is usually defined as someone with an ownership interest in crops or livestock. and who provides la bor or management in their production.e.

An industrial society is a society in which the primary means of subsistence is industry. espec ially in the form of the tractor. capital. industrial societies increase food surpluses . Sourc e: US Census 2000. harvesting.S. organised irrigation. and use o f a specialized labor force. [edit]Industrial A brick factory in the Netherlands is an example of industry. industrial society brings people with similar occupations together. starting around 5. reduced the necessity of humans performing the demanding tasks of sowing. If the operative definition of agriculture includes large scale int ensive cultivation of land. a single worker can produce substantially more goods in the same amount of time today than they used to be able to produce. especially in the largely virgin land s of North and South America. yet it only accounts for four percen t of the world's GDP. mono-cropping. these tasks could be performed with a speed and on a scale barely imaginable before. As the pie chart below indicates. industry makes up only a relatively small percentage of highly developed countries' workforce (see the pie chart above).ted a nutritionally insignificant component to the diet) did not occur until the Bronze Age. By the early 1800s agricultural practices. Today. particularly careful selection of har dy strains and cultivars.500 B. [edit]Agriculture Today In the world. Percent of the U. less than 2% of A mericans are employed in agriculture today and produce sufficient food to feed t he other 98% of Americans. These advances have resulted in a substantial increase in the yield of agricultu ral techniques that have also translated into a decline in the percentage of pop ulations in developed countries that are required to work in agriculture to feed the rest of the population. better management of soil nutrients. The rapid rise of mechanization in the 20th century. The use of machines and robots to facilitate manufacturing reduces the number of people required to work in industry by increasing their efficiency . Industry is a system of production focused on mechanized manufacturing of goods. the title "inventors of agriculture" would fall to the Sumerians. in large part due to advanced me chanization. and threshing. having less of the latest science. What is some times referred to as The Second Industrial Revolution describes later. This has also resulte . The division of labor in industrial societies is often one of the most notable e lements of the society and can even function to re-organize the development of r elationships. At the same time. the use of mechanization has decreased labor input.C. The Industrial Revolution refers to the first known industrial revolution. With mechanization.e. Many developing nations began in dustrialisation under the influence of either the United States or the USSR duri ng the Cold War.. More people in the world are involved in agriculture as their p rimary economic activity than in any other. which took place in Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries.[32] When capitalised. resulting in more developed hierarchies and significantly more division of lab or. i. population employed in agriculture by Census District. somewhat less dramatic changes resulting from the widespread availability of ele ctric power and the internal-combustion engine. and technology base. and improved weed control have greatly increased yields per unit area. often leading to the formation of friendships through one's work. the use of crop breeding. The developing world g enerally produces lower yields. Whereas relationships in pre-industrial societies were more likely to develop through contact at one's place of worship or through proximity of ho using. had so improved that yield per land unit was many time s that seen in the Middle Ages and before.E. Like agrarian societies. As a result.

but it is important to note that as soon as there is surplus. This frees up those people not engage d in food production to specialize in other areas. Inequality will be discussed in much greater detail later in this book. One additional outcome of surplus that is included in the diagram is inequality. like clothing or housing prod uction. That specialization leads to rapid increases in technology as people are freed from having to spend the majority of their time finding or growing their food and can then spend their time improving at their s peciality. [edit]The Implications of Societal Development The stages of societal development. As noted throughout the above discussion of societal development. we rarely consider just how important that extra food is. specialization not only results from a griculture but also from denser populations and surplus and helps spur industry. as opposed to agriculture or industry. and creativity are seen as the new raw materials of the economy Most highly developed countries are now post-industrial in that the majority of their workforce works in service-oriented industries. they also develop a surplus in food stuffs. healthcare. While it is common for people in the developed world today to h ave lots of surplus food.et voilà. For instance. these are interdependent aspects of societal development that co-evolve. knowledge. Post-industrial societies are often marked by: an increase in the size of the service sector or jobs that perform services rath er than creating goods (industry) either the outsourcing of or extensive use of mechanization in manufacturing an increase in the amount of information technology. rather than in industry or agriculture. smaller percentages of the population are required to produc e the food for the rest of the population.. soc ial inequality is born. that means more of their chi ldren will survive into adulthood. there will be greater sur plus for some people. or sales. changes in the social structure of a society . once a society has surplus food. This is illustrated in the diagram to the right. however. To begin with. as food yields increase in agri cultural societies. The point being. individual s and communities are viewing abandoned factories as sites for new housing and s hopping. Post-industrial society is occasionally used critically by individuals seeking t o restore or return to industrial development.d in a transition in most highly developed countries into a post-industrial or s ervice-oriented economy. often leading to an Informa tion Age information. This results in specialists: some people become experts in growing crops or raising livestock while others become experts in clothing production. Additionally. as depicted in the pie chart above. Capitalists are also realizing the recreational and commercial developm ent opportunities such locations offer. it is difficult to name a phe nomenon while it is occurring. The diagram shows societal deve lopment along the top and the implications of societal development along the bot tom. Those with more surplus have an economic advantage relativ e to those with less surplus as they have greater bargaining power . The arrows running between the two rows illustrate the fact that these rela tionships are very complex.S. . This is the case in the U.in this case the primary means of subsistence also affect other aspects of society.[3 3] It is important to note here that the term post-industrial is still debated i n part because it is the current state of society. as hunters and gatherers ma ke the transition into pastoralism and horticulture. but surplus is clearly the forerunner of technological development. education. metalworking. like finance. The relationship between surplus and technology may not seem obvious. For instance. etc. initially. [edit]Post-Industrial A post-industrial society is a society in which the primary means of subsistence is derived from service-oriented work. home construction. Increasingly.

particularly during the industrial revolution of the late 19th century in which he lived. Weber viewed this as a bleak outcome that would affect individuals' happiness as they would b e forced to function in a highly rational society with rigid rules and norms wit hout the possibility to change it. as Weber understood it.the exception being temporary l apses into non-bureaucracy spurred by charismatic leaders . As Weber did not see any alternative to bureaucracy. The capitalists or bourgeoisie employ the proletariat for a living wage. not the fruits of their labors (i. Because Weber could not envision other forces influencing the ultimate direction of society . however. But in addition to engaging in meaningful work. selfactualized individuals must also own the products of their labors and have the o ption of doing what they will with those products. Thus. the results of production). Included in that form. society was being driven by the passage of rational ideas into cultur e which. the proletariat is alienated from the fruits of its labor they do not own the products they produce . In a capitalist society (which was co-evolved with the Industrial Revolution). Bureaucracy is a comple x means of managing life in social institutions that includes rules and regulati ons. they would be alienated from the results of the . S ociety. rooted in legal-rational authority. Marx saw capitalism as leading toward i ncreasingly unhappy individuals. species being (or happiness) is the pinnacle of human nature. Bureaucracy is a type of organizational or institutional management that is.[34] As Weber understood society. bureaucracy simplifies th e process of paying one's taxes by putting the process into a formulaic structur e. would become almost synonymous with bureaucracy. r ather than owning the fruits of their labors. the iron cage. does not have a solution. are countless rules and laws the dict ate what can and can't be tied into one's taxes. According t o Marx.they require specific information and procedures to fill them out. some people worr ied about the impacts such changes would have on society and individuals. only their labor power. Species be ing is understood to be a type of self-realization or self-actualization brought about by meaningful work. transformed society into an increasingly bureaucratic entity. As a result. he believed it would ultima tely lead to an iron cage: there would be no way to get out of it. Weber did believe bureaucracy was the most rational form of inst itutional governance. he believed bureaucracy would increase until it ruled society.[35] In order to understand Marx's perspective. Marx.he saw no cure for t he iron cage of rationality. [edit]Weber and Rationalization Max Weber was particularly concerned about the rationalization and bureaucratiza tion of society stemming from the Industrial Revolution and how these two change s would affect humanity's agency and happiness. the proletariat or working class o wns only their labor power. Because Marx believed species being to be the goal and ideal of human nature and that species being could only be realized when indivi duals owned the results of their labors. and Durkheim. Three early sociologists.[edit]Classical Views on Social Change As Western societies transitioned from pre-industrial economies based primarily on agriculture to industrialized societies in the 19th century. for Weber. perceived different impacts of th e Industrial Revolution on the individual and society and described those impact s in their work. Weber.e. in turn. Weber was unable to envision a solution to his iron cage of bureaucracy dilemma. [edit]Marx and Alienation Karl Marx took a different perspective on the impact of the Industrial Revolutio n on society and the individual. patterns and procedures that both are designed to simplify the functioning of complex organizations. An example of bureaucracy would be the forms used to p ay one's income taxes . ac cording to Weber. it is necessary to understand how Marx perceived happiness. Since a completely rational society was inevitable and bureaucracy was the most rational form of societal management. but then keep the products of the labor. but simultaneously complicates it by adding rules and regulations that govern the procedure. Society would become a large bureaucracy that would govern people's lives.. however. but because Weber viewed rationalization as the driving fo rce of society.

Most people were ge neralists in their work they farmed and created their own tools and clothing. [edit]Durkheim and Solidarity Durkheim's view of society and the changes it was undergoing as a result of indu strialization also led him to believe unhappiness was a possible outcome. Marx b elieved capitalism. Capitalists alienate the proletariat from each other by forcing them to compete for limited job opportunities. In addition to the alienation from the results of production. which Durkheim saw as an important component of happiness. In another work. while Marx was highly critical of capitalism.[5] Dur kheim argued that one of the root causes of suicide was a decrease in social sol idarity termed anomie (French for chaos) by Durkheim. capitalists would have to meet the wage demands of their workers. which also fostered a sense of solidarity. workers are aliena ted from each other.ir production and therefore would not be self-realized. First. This form of gove rnment would be based on communally owned and highly developed means of producti on and self-governance. But the alienation from the results of their production is just one component of the alienation Marx proposed.was not the communism envisioned by Marx. In addition to their similarity in occupations. in in dustrialized societies. the economic systems that deve loped in The Soviet Union and China . While Marx did have a solution to the problem of alienation. Durkheim recognized the inevitability of specializ ation. In industrializing societies. Marx's proposed solution was for the proletariat to unite and thr ough protests or revolution (or legislation in democratic nations) overthrow the bourgeoisie and institute a new form of government communism. they were also more likely to share a sense of community. Whereas social solidarity was maintained in pre-industrial societies through a mechanistic sens e of similarity and dependence along with communal religious affiliations. religion would become just one aspect of lives that were increasi ngly divided into compartments home. Because they are forced to compete with other members of the proletariat. Second. the proletariat is also alienated from each other under capitalism. Two additional comments are in order here. In industr ial societies. In his classic study. species being woul d be realized and happiness would be returned. By definition. specialization means that individuals are going to have di ssimilar occupations. The Division of Labor in Society. compounding the unhappiness of the proletariat. By re-connecting the individual with the fruits of their labor and empowering them toward true self-governance. which resulted in higher suicide rates among Protestants. was necessary to advance the means of production to a stage where communism (as he envisioned it) could be r ealized. The means of production would be developed through capit alism to the point that everyone in society would have sufficient 'free' time to allow them to participate in whatever governmental decisions needed to be made for the community as a whole. Suicide. This specialization would also affect religion. many individuals belonged to the same religious groups. social solidarity would be maintained by the interdepend ence of specialists on one another. Rather.as well as other parts of the world . Durkheim believed there were two components that would alleviate the decreasing social solidarity in industrializing societies: organic solidarity and conscient ious attempts to find camaraderie through one's place of employ. they would not have time to raise crops or otherwise produce f . they had achieved a form of social ism. Be cause they were alike in their generality. what Marx called the stage between capitalism and communism. family. Job opportunities are limited under capitalism i n order for capitalists to keep wages down. recreation. religion. he seldom discussed it in detail. If one individual specialized in treating th e injured or ill. Durkhe im believed that an important component of social life was social solidarity. he also recognized its utility in developing the means of production.[32] Durkheim proposed that pr e-industrial societies maintained their social solidarity through a mechanistic sense of community and through their religious affiliations. etc. Durkheim also argued that the increasing emphasis on individualism found in Protestant religions in contra st to Catholicism contributed to an increase in anomie. work. Thus. without a pool of extraneous workers . while harmful to species being. wh ich is understood as a sense of community.

ood. Springer. 2005. Peter L. 2001. illustrated with many late 19th century photographs. Pascal. ? Berger.The impacts of industrialization in Canada . ? Dilthey. 2008. and Yvonna S. Kelly. co-workers would be able to develop strong bonds of s ocial solidarity through their occupations. FAO of the United Nations Current World Production. 1945-1975. for Durkheim. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. Religion Explained. Oxford Univ ersity Press. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials.. Max. 2001. 1978. 2008. With Insurance. Nicole H. Visceral Verstehen. W. ? Civettini. 1997.S.. The Sociological Imagination. ? Denzin. Neil J. This would force a type of o rganic solidarity organic in the sense that the parts were interdependent like t he organs of an animal are interdependent for their survival. Princeton University Press. Gender & Society 22:172-193. 1992. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber. ? Tierney. [edit]References ? Moore. Berkeley: University of California Press. This chapter also draws on the following Wikipedia articles: society hunter-gatherer agriculture farming pastoralist [edit]External links Haferkamp. Editors. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. and Smelser. 2007. W. 2002. Department of Agr iculture's Foreign Agricultural Service Winds of Change: Reforms and Unions . like members of the same religious congregations in pre-industrial societies. ? Loseke. Wikipedia has related information at cultural evolution [edit]Culture . USA. American Scientists.. The International Heral d Tribune. Anchor. ? a b Mills. Simon & Schuster. Third Edition.iht. 40th ed. Specialized individuals would have a great deal in commo n with their co-workers and. Lincoln. and Jennifer Glass. 2000. Market and Trade Reports of the U. the answer to th e decrease in mechanistic solidarity and the increasing anomie was organic solid arity and solidarity pursued within one's speciality occupation. May 7 http://www. Sage Publications. Free Press. Wright. 2008). Robert D. Norman K. ? Putnam. Cavendish. Doctors would become dependent on farmers for their food while farmers woul d become dependent on doctors for their healthcare. 1st ed. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. 1963.php (Accessed August 17. John. ? Glass. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. Disrupting Science: Social Movements. Hans. John E. Basic Books. Donileen R. and the Politics of the Military. Durkheim believed that a conscientious effort to develop and foster friendshi ps would transition from a religious brotherhood to friendships developed at one 's place of employment. Thus.. Appeasing the Gods. 1st ed. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. Electronic Journal of Sociology. ? Boyer. C. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. 2008. Social Change and Modernity . Inc. In addition to the inevitable interdependence a specialized society would warran t. 1st ed. and James C.

the following elements of social life are considered to be r epresentative of human culture: "stories. Culture al so includes. basically anything that is learn ed by humans is part of culture. The cut of the avatar's top and pants suggest a particular time period the late 1960s or early 1970s. But our biological nature does not exclusively determine who we are.in the specific pattern they are in (stars and str ipes) suggests this avatar is in some way associated with the United States of A merica. there is very little about this avatar that reflects culture (the exceptions are his shorts and hair stylings. One is simply a refle ction of his biology. Many people today think of culture in the way that it was thought of in Europe d . beliefs. The two avatars to the right help illustrate this idea. and beliefs themselves. which do. This second avatar is reflective of a particular culture. values. The form of the av atar reveals several things about this person. (p. traditionally considered high culture. values. The other is a reflection of his biology and his culture. For instance.[38] Culture is in flux. xvi). in fact. the fact that he has lighter colored skin suggests he has Caucasian ancestry. the meaning given to thos e objects and symbols. the avatar's h airstyle. [edit]'High' Culture Ballet. culture is not necessarily rigid and to tally uniform. reflect culture). but that is biological. with the words Rock the Vote scraw led across it. also suggest something about this second avatar as dreadlo cks are prominent only in certain sub-cultures. culture is rela tively stable (thus it is functional in the structural-functionalist sense) but at the same time contested (in the conflict sense). culture is more than the object or behavior. Additionally. Because of our biology and genetics. and expressive symbols are representations. not social. and beliefs that pervade social li fe.These two avatars illustrate the basic concept of culture. or expressive symbols. r eligious practices. 43)[37] Keep in mind that. The colors of the vest . but they are not necessarily tied to a specific culture. beliefs. he is human and belongs to a cultural group. the first avatar is mo stly a-cultural or lacking in culture while the second avatar is heavily enmeshe d in culture.red. and common sense" (p. Roughly. we have a particular form and we have certain abilities. values. Generally speaking. norms are the way people behave in a given society. in themselves. Culture is the non-biological or social aspects of human life. espe cially in our modern world in which different cultures are in constant contact w ith each other.that which different iates one group or society from others and the concept of acquired or learned be havior". we need culture. examples of culture do not. fashions. The avatar wearing nothi ng but shorts comes close to representing nothing but nature. ideas. The avata r wearing the colorful vest and pants stands in stark contrast to the other avat ar. also suggest something about the avatar . culture encompasses objects and symbols. beliefs are how they think the universe operates. rituals. present a clear understanding of the concept of culture. media. (p. For that. As is the case with most elements of social life. Otherwis e. "The definition is understood to include two elements . white. he is human.perhaps that he is a mu sician participating in the Rock the Vote movement. values are what they hold dear. In short. works of art. in any given society. 3)[36] To summarize. often r epresentations of social norms. The backdrop. and the norms. [edit]Introduction The simplest way to think about culture is to think about the distinction betwee n nature (our biology and genetics) and nurture (our environment and surrounding s that also shape our identities).[36] Yet. specialized knowledge. norms. and blue . dreadlocks.

Social scient ists recognize that non-elites are as cultured as elites (and that non-Westerner s are just as civilized). someone who used culture in this sense might argue that classical music is more refined than music by working-class people. anthropologists assumed that all human bei ngs are equally evolved. they simply have a different culture. or way of doing somet . developed a more inclusive notion of culture as worldview. For example. For instance. human beings evolved a universal human capacity to classify experiences. They believ e that there are not distinct cultures. e ach ethnic group is characterized by a distinct and incommensurable world view. From this perspective. value. and the fact that all humans have cultures must in some way be a result of human evolution. [edit]The Changing Concept of Culture During the Romantic Era. they are understood as being uncultured. Anthropologists believed biolo gical evolution produced an inclusive notion of culture. a culture tradition quite distinct from European Opera. and beliefs of a particular group of people. symbols. some coun tries are more civilized than others. High culture simply refers to the obje cts. They argued that through the course of their evolu tion. Thus people who differ from those who believe themselves to be cultured in this sense are not usually understood as having a different culture. scholars in Germany. racism. norms. Attentive to the theory of evolution. Most social scientists today reject the cultured vs.uring the 18th and early 19th centuries. According to this understanding of culture. Since these symbolic systems were l earned and taught. and beliefs that pervade social life. they began to develop independently of biological evolution ( in other words. social scientists accept and advocate the definition of culture out lined above as being the "nurture" component of human social life. high fashion or haute couture. and some people are more cultured than oth ers. culture is closely tied to cultivation. This unde rstanding of culture equates culture with civilization and contrasts both with n ature or non-civilization. the high culture of elites is now contrasted with popula r or pop culture. values. Although more inclusive. but rather only a single standard of refinement to which all groups are h eld accountable. or legitimized forms of. popula r culture does the same. the meaning given to those objects an d symbols. values. That is. a nd encode and communicate them symbolically. In this sense. [edit]The Origins of Culture Chinese Opera.an approach that eithe r was a form of.objects and symbols. a concept that anthropo logists could apply equally to non-literate and literate societies. ultimately resulting in the concept of cul ture outlined above . high culture no longer refers to the idea of be ing cultured. culture referred to elite goods and activities such as haute cuisin e. The wo rd cultured referred to people who knew about and took part in these activities. or to nomadi c and to sedentary societies. which is the progressive refinement of human behavior. This new perspective has also removed the evaluative element of the concept of c ulture and instead proposes distinctions rather than rankings between different cultures. especially those concerned with na tionalism. This concept of culture reflected inequ alities within European societies and their colonies around the world. as all people are cultured. and the norms. 6). They were also wary of using biological evo lution to explain differences between specific cultures . such as jazz or the in digenous music traditions of aboriginal peoples. each with their own internal logic and v alues. By the late 19th century. People who use culture in this way tend not to use it in the plural. uncultured concept of cultu re. anthropologists had changed the concept of culture to include a wider variety of societies. Instead. In practice. Theorists like Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) believed that culture is simply t hat which is created by "the best that has been thought and said in the world" ( p. one human being can learn a belief. museum-caliber art and classical music.[39] Anything that doesn't fit into this category is labeled as chaos or a narchy. this approach to culture still allowed for distinctions between civilized and primitive or tribal cultures.

There are only people who work. which came to dominate anthropology between World War I an d World War II. although arbitrary.[41] One well-known illustration of this is the rapid spread of genetic instructions that left on a gene that produc es a protein that allows humans to digest lactose. Humans do not experience culture in a separate or distinct way from society. Culture is dynamic and can be taught and learned. The result is a belief in cultural relativism..drinking milk from other mamm als . not only because each reflects different kinds of human activity. making it a potentially rapid form of adaptation to changes in physical conditio ns. Griswold emphasizes that culture is distinct from society bu t affirms that this distinction is.hing from another. a coin that makes up social life. which took concrete form in a variety of artifacts suc h as myths and rituals. [edit]Level of Abstraction Another element of culture that is important for a clear understanding of the co ncept is level of abstraction. That this capacit y for symbolic thinking and social learning is a product of human evolution conf ounds older arguments about nature versus nurture. implied that each culture was bounded and had to be understood a s a whole. To speak of culture as one thing and society as another is to make an analytical distinction between two different aspects of human experience.. love.[41] This adaptation spread ra pidly in Europe around 4. Culture a nd society are truly two-sides of a coin. the understanding of a work of art) to micro-level interpersonal interac tions (e. As Griswold puts it. (p.g. and behave in a wide variety of ways. led anthropologists to conceive of different cultures as de fined by distinct patterns (or structures) of enduring. that can b e used to justify the exportation of democracy a lá the Iraq War). Thus. Prior to this adaptation. which is now acting back on genetics. One way to think of the distinction is that culture designate s the expressive aspect of human existence. the socialization of a child by his/her parents) to a macro-level i nfluence on entire societies (e. Thus." This view of culture argues that people living apart from one another develop un ique cultures. Anthropologists view culture as not only a product of biological evolution b ut as a supplement to it. tools. There is no such thing as culture or society out there in the real world. Yet . whereas society designates the relat ional (and often practical) aspect. like all classifications.000 BCE with the domestication of mammals. just different cultur es. and Middleton (1990:17 n. However. elements of different cultures can easily spread from on e group of people to another. This view of culture. Genetics has. Clifford Geertz[40] arg ued that human physiology and neurology developed in conjunction with the first cultural activities. even if they are not biologically related).g. the gene th at produces a protein allowing for the digestion of lactose was switched after c hildren were weaned. Anthropologists thus distinguish between material culture and symbolic cultu re. Culture ranges from the concrete..g. Recent research suggests that human culture has reversed the causal direction su ggested above and influence human evolution. 4)[36] In the above quote. resu lted in culture. which varies from place to place. the design of housing.S.[42] It is impor tant when trying to understand the concept of culture to keep in mind that the c oncept can have multiple levels of meaning. the Puritanical roots of the U. the change in culture . [edit]The Artificiality of Cultural Categorization One of the more important points to understand about culture is that it is an ar tificial categorization of elements of social life. as humans be gan harvesting their milk for consumption.eventually led to changes in human genetics. it can be seen as the main means of human adaptation t o the natural world. joke. fight. but also b ecause they constitute different kinds of data that require different methodolog ies to study.27) concluded that human "instinct s were culturally formed. therefore. and the planning of villag es. worship. conv entional sets of meaning. raise children. This view of culture as a symbolic system with adaptive functions. on its own terms. whic h suggests that there are no "better" or "worse" cultures. think. cultural object (e. artificial.

A culture often contains numerous subcultures."[45] Ethnocentrism often enta ils the belief that one's own race or ethnic group is the most important and/or that some or all aspects of its culture are superior to those of other groups. Cultural relativism is the belief that the concepts and values of a culture cann ot be fully translated into. For instance. and religion. ethnocentrism may be something that all cultures have in common. could include: the hippie movement of the 1960s. the distinction between culture and society is of particular use when exploring how norms and values are transmitted from generation to gene ration and answering the question of cultural conflict between people of differe nt cultural backgrounds (say.the distinction between the two. A subculture is a culture shared and actively participated in by a minority of p eople within a broader culture. making members part of a countercultural group (polygamy is illegal in the United States). [edit]Subcultures & Countercultures Trekkies (or fans of Star Trek) are a subculture. a ritual) has to be understood in terms of the lar . i ronically. or a combination of factors. A counterculture is a subculture with the addition that some of its beliefs. Members of a subculture often signal their membership through a distinc tive and symbolic use of style. behav iour.g.[43] Examples of countercultures in the U. which includes fashions. customs. mannerisms. S ubcultures incorporate large parts of the broader cultures of which they are par t.[44] Subcultures can b e distinctive because of the age. but in specifics they may differ radically. The qualities that determine a subculture as distinct may be linguis tic. and devotion to the in-group. geographical. religious.S. W ithin this ideology. while artificial. polygamists. military culture. "The sen timent of cohesion. Sociologists study ethnocentrism because of its role in various elements of soci al life. the Japanese and Americans). The woman and children in this photo are members of The Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (or FLDS). the green movement. or norms challenge or even contradict those of the main culture of which it is part. and and feminist groups. aesthetic. ethnicity. individuals will judge other groups in relation to their ow n particular ethnic group or culture. class. which advocates the practice polyg amy. or fully understood in. they share specific understand ings and meanings that those outside their subculture may not understand. a social evolutionist and professo r of Political and Social Science at Yale University. It also involves an incapacity to acknowledge that cultural differentiation does not imply inferiority of those groups who are ethn ically distinct from one's own. especially with concern to language. location. ranging from politics to terrorism. Subcultures bring together like-minded individuals who feel neglected by societa l standards and allow them to develop a sense of identity. which ca rries with it a sense of superiority to any out-group and readiness to defend th e interests of the in-group against the out-group. and argot. that a spe cific cultural artifact (e. He defined it as. Some subcultures achieve such a s tatus that they acquire a name of their own. Many claim that ethnocentrism occurs in every society. political.[46] This is also an area where soci ologists often become advocates as they attempt to reveal ethnocentric biases to those who hold them with the aim of helping people realize that such biases are seldom beneficial to social solidarity and peaceful human relations.[ 44] [edit]Ethnocentrism & Cultural Relativism Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspectiv e of one's own culture. and/or gender of t he members. The term was coined by William Graham Sumner. val ues. Examples of subcultures could inclu de: bikers. internal comradeship. sexual. other languages. is useful for a number of rea sons. and Star Trek fans (trekkers or trekkies).

[edit]Theories of Culture While there are numerous theoretical approaches employed to understand 'culture' . and culture fulfills this n eed. the wor d tranquilo in Spanish translates directly to 'calm' in English. According t o Griswold. including pagans. beliefs. Displayers of abstract art tend not only to belong to the upper-class. law.g..g. For instance. and directs behavior toward certain lines of action and away from others. can change."[36] In other words. patterns of behavior and human interaction).[47] Ritzer p roposes four highly interdependent elements in his sociological model: a macro-o bjective component (e. This model also posits that individual level values. p erceptions. and the integration and interdependence of cultural traits. norms. Resistance can come from habit. a micro-objective componen t (e. this chapter uses just one model to illustrate how sociologists understand the concept. and a micro-subjective component (e. Tranquilo can be a command or suggestion encouraging another to calm down..g. society.. in fact. for example. a macro-subjective compone nt (e. they are not unique to class. part of what David Halle finds: while there are certainly cultural differences based on class. I'm calm). and be haviors can. and values). culture. [edit]The Function of Culture Culture can also be seen to play a specific function in social life.. "Groups and societies need collective representations of themselve s to inspire sentiments of unity and mutual support. and in order to fully comprehend its many possible uses a cultural relativist would argue that it would be necessary to fully immerse on eself in cultures where the word is used. the seas are calm). as a r . while the o ther sex may be resistant to that change (possibly in order to maintain a power imbalance in their favor).g. "The sociological analysis of culture begins at the premise that cul ture provides orientation. it can be used in many more ways than just as an adjective (e. One sex might de sire changes that affect the other.g. although bounded. bureaucracy). culture can have a certain utilitarian function the ma intenance of order as the result of shared understandings and meanings. An example of cultural relativism might include slang words from specific langua ges (and even from particular dialects within a language). in turn. men and women have complementary roles in many cultures.. However. If used for understanding a specific cultural phenomenon. like the displaying of abstract art. This is. This would indicate that there are multiple levels of influence involved in both broad cultural norms and smaller level occupational norms in add art tastes ition to personal preferences.[49] For ex ample. the other ranging from the macro-level (norms) to the micr o-level (individual level beliefs). the women's movement).g. There is not a clear English t ranslation of the word. religion. but also are employed in art-production occupatio ns..[48] this model depicts how cultural norms can influence individua l behavior.ger symbolic system of which it is a part. [edit]Cultural Change The belief that culture is symbolically coded and can thus be taught from one pe rson to another means that cultures. everyone relax) or to indi cate a degree of self-composure (e. Cultures are both predisposed to change and resistant to it. but the sym bol diffused over time and was adopted by other groups.g. The model is an integrationist model advocated by Ritzer."[36] Griswold reiterates this point by exp laining that. influence the macro-level culture. The symbol of the ankh has its roots in Egyptian religious practice. It ca n also be used to ease tensions in an argument (e. wards off chaos. beliefs). as happened in the second half of the 20th c entury in western cultures (see.. This model is of particular use in understanding the role of culture in sociological research because it presents two axes for understandi ng culture: one ranging from objective (society) to subjective (culture and cult ural interpretation).

women w ere at a high risk of pregnancy as a result of sex. Culture. collective. Many Native Americans were acculturat ed into European cultural norms. 53) Griswold suggests. friend). Acculturation has dif ferent meanings. lover. The logic is a bit c ircular.[51] Culture as a super-phenomenon has no real beginning except in the sense that humans (homo sapiens) have a begi it has exis nning. Prior to the introduction of the birth control pill. This alternative posits that culture and cultural works are collective. (p. Related processes on an individual level are assimilation and transculturation. but not its meaning. "there was no culture and then.[36] Griswold points out that it may seem as though culture comes from individuals. but there is also the larger. [edit]Cultural Sociology: Researching Culture How do sociologists study culture? One approach to studying culture falls under the label 'cultural sociology'. which combines the study of culture with cultura l understandings of phenomena. the form of something moves from one culture to another . It's original meaning may have been lo st. brother. inventions.[4] Several understandings of how cultures change come from Anthropology. then. the ankh symbol originated in Egyptian cultu re but has diffused to numerous cultures. increasing their will ingness to engage in sexual activity outside of wedlock. After the introduction of th e pill.[29] An invention that substantially changed culture was the development of the birth control pill. . fundamentally social in their genesis. macro-level culture influences th e individual who. Griswold outlined another sociological approach to cultural change. For example. For instan ce. but it is now used by many practitioners of New Age Religion as an arcane sy mbol of power or life forces. It is. just like society. in diffusion theory. important to recognize here that Griswold is talking about cul tural change and not the actual origins of culture (as in. Cultural change can have many causes. creations. and long-lasting culture that cannot have been the creation of single individuals as it predates and post-dates individual huma ns and contributors to culture. Contact between cultures can also result in acculturation. in turn. can influence that same culture. For example. from religion to how to raise children. makes the question of the origins of culture moot ted as long as we have. the intro duction of the television substantially reduced American involvement in civic li fe.. there was"). We can best understand specific cultural objects. suddenly.[50] Likewise. This is neither accurate nor a clear representation of sociological thought on this issue. such as what happened with many Native American I ndians as Europeans took over their lands. the end of the last ice age helped l ead to the invention of agriculture. The author presents a sociological perspective t o address this conflict. n ot individual. an d contact with other cultures. then. which changed women's at titudes toward sex. but it illustrates how culture can change over time yet remain somewhat constant. by seeing them not as unique to their creators but as the fruits of collective pro duction.eligious symbol. but in this context refers to replacement of the traits of one culture with those of another. including: the environment. This. Griswold explains how cultural sociologists appro ach their research. both of which refer to adoption of a different culture by an individual. it may app ear as though Griswold is arguing here for the origins of culture and situating these origins in society.g. Because Griswold does not explicitly distingui sh between the origins of cultural change and the origins of culture.. that culture changes through the contextually dependent and socially situated actions of individuals. their risk of pregnancy was substantially reduced. of course. has existed sin ce the beginning of humanity (humans being social and cultural beings). Society and culture co-exist because humans have social relations and meanings tied to t hose relations (e. Sociology suggests an alternative to both the unsatisfying it has always been th at way view at one extreme and the unsociological individual genius view at the other. and will likely exist as long as we do.

? a b Mills. but also the selfrepresentation that is provided by cultural expressions (clothing. cultural conflict is an optima l scenario for the exploration of culture and cultural interaction. Fi rst. Anderson gained a familiarity with these elemen ts of culture that allowed him to understand how they interacted. Anderson s goal is to develop a sort of typology of streetwise individ uals: people who can manage awkward and uncomfortable interpersonal interactions on the street in such a fashion that they emerge from the interactions unharmed .. Through years of observation.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. 1st ed.e. The sociologist can come at this collective representation process from the othe r direction. 1st ed. if we w ere to try to understand a cultural object. from the analysis of a particular cultural object. While he does develop a loose description of these types of individuals. USA. but two cultural comp onents stand out. Wright. beliefs. 59)[36] Cultural sociologists look for how people make meaning in their lives out of the different cultural elements that surround them. 2008). The Sociological Imagination. 40th ed. 2008. (p. Basic Books. 2001. American Scientists. socialization. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective.php (Accessed August 17. it makes it much easier for the sociologi st to tease out culture. Anderson s methodology is a combination of participant observation and interviews. this research site provides numerous opportunities for the exploration of culture. With Insurance. ? Boyer. ? Tierney. Anderson observed both the transmission o f culture from generation to generation (i. etc ). Not surprisingly. as well. Religion Explained.. Additionally. And erson regularly describes the individuals he interviews and observes in light of their clothing.. As he interacts wit h more and more individuals. ? Berger. Robert D.[52] Anderson is interested in a number of things in his book. [edit]References ? Moore. Another example of cultural s ignificance of clothing is older black men who intentionally wear button-up shir ts and ties because of the cultural symbolism of that particular outfit: it sign ifies to the cultural outsider that the wearer is refined and distinct from the athletic-suit-wearing drug dealers who control numerous Northton corners. 1997. ? Putnam. especially when individuals from the Village (middle to upper-middle class and predominantly white) are forced to interact with members of the Northton area (lower class and poor blacks). John. Ultimately. behavior. he found a cultural border that presented cultural conflict. When individua ls have to negotiate meaning publicly. Simon & Schuster. we would look for how it is used by some group as representing that group. . Anderson is interested in how individuals in these neighborhoods negotiate int erpersonal interactions. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. Kelly. Specifically. attitudes. Free Press. The International Heral d Tribune. the i mportant part to understand here is how he explores these aspects of culture. C.iht. A particularly clear example of cultural sociology is the study of the Village-Northton by Elijah Anderson. Appeasing the Gods. But when viewed in light of the quote above by Griswold. patterns begin to develop. one would look fo r the expressive forms through which they represent themselves to themselves. For instance. First. 1945-1975. Anchor. 2000.. Princeton University Press. Additionally . 2008.. Peter L.if one were to try to understand a certain group of people. Pascal. and the Politics of the Military. those dressed in business attire (even when walking their dogs) the yuppies have particular p erspectives on the future of the Village: they are interested in increasing prop erty values in order to maximize their investment. 2002. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. May 7 http://www. Because these two neighborhoods are distinct yet share a border. and opinions. behavior.. Max. it becomes apparent th at Anderson s focus in these interviews and observations is self-presentation. Anderson is looking at the border of two culturally and socio-economically distinct neighborhoods. 1963. Disrupting Science: Social Movements. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber. Oxford Univ ersity Press. individual s dressed in certain outfits behave in similar ways.

or what is important. Donileen R. arguing that the basic or core identity of the individual develops during primary socialization. and to be l ived for In short. may. not every a spect of human behavior is learned. ? Civettini. [edit]Goals of Socialization A kindergarten in Afghanistan. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. Cavendish. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics. with m ore specific changes occurring later . both as a child and as one encounters new groups that require additional socia lization. Socialization. Visceral Verstehen. be biologically determined. Electronic Journal of Sociology. the elements ou tlined below should help clarify what is meant by socialization. bec ause it is the adoption of culture. and Jennifer Glass. Norman K. or even how to define some of the elements of socialization. ? Denzin. but is generally divided into two parts: Primar y socialization takes place early in life. S ocialization. 2001. in fact. Gender & Society 22:172-193.. 2007. Arnett. an d roles in institutions such as marriage and parenthood the cultivation of sources of meaning. while socialization is a key sociological process in the development of individuals who can function in human society. This chapter drew on the following Wikipedia articles: culture ethnocentrism cultural relativism [edit]External links [edit]Socialization [edit]Elements of Socialization Socialization is a fundamental sociological concept. like empathy and morals. 1st ed. as both process or an outcome. 1978. 2008. is going to be different in every culture. most social scientists tend to combine the two.[53] in presenting a new theoretical understanding of socialization (see below). Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. some aspects of human behavior that one might believe are l earned. and James C.[54] Thus. ? Glass. While there are scholars who argue that only one or the other of these occurs. It should be re-iterated here that socialization is culturally relative . Inc. Sage Publications.. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. comprising a number of elem ents. including occupational roles. Secondary socialization refers to the socialization that takes place throughout one's life .secondary socialization . Springer. gender roles. Nicole H. To wh at extent human behavior is biologically determined vs. Third Edition. For instance. valued.. W.in response to . 2005. Lincoln. [edit]Primary and Secondary Socialization Socialization is a life process.. W. is not better or worse in any parti cular culture. It should also be noted that. outlined what he believes to be the three goals of socialization: impulse control and the development of a conscience role preparation and performance.people in different cultures are socialized differently. This distinction does not and should not inherently force an evaluative judgement. While not every sociologist will agree which elements are the most importa nt.? Dilthey. as a child and adolescent. John E. socialization is the process that prepares humans to function in socia l life. ? Loseke. and Yvonna S. learned is still an open question in the study of human behavior. there is evidence that most ch ildren have innate empathy for individuals who are wilfully injured and consider it wrong. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials.

it is dubbed broad because this type of socialization has the poten tial of resulting in a broad range of outcomes narrow socialization is intended to promote obedience and conformity. the author argues that so cialization can be broad or narrow within each of the seven socializing forces h e outlines (e. the range of what is customary and acceptable for him acc ording to the standards of his group Arnett explains that his understanding of socialization should not be understood as having just two options.. much socialization oc curs after the socializee has assumed full incumbency of the adult role. adults can leav e or terminate the process at any time.). highly emotional.g. Instead. and co-workers. Some of the more significant contributors to the socialization p rocess are: parents. can take place in multiple contexts and as a result of contact with n umerous groups.Socialization in childhood is thought to be concerned with the regulat ion of biological drives. The need for later life socialization may stem from the increas ing complexity of society with its corresponding increase in varied roles and re sponsibilities. broad or narrow. In adulthood. or the peer group. as noted in the distinction between primary and secondary.e. socialization involves more overt and specific norms and behaviors. prisons and mental he . Also. Where these differences exist. relationships in the earlier period are more likely to be affectively charged. Each of these g roups include a culture that must be learned and to some degree appropriated by the socializee in order to gain admittance to the group. Finally. As such. F irst. socialization is concerned with the de velopment of overarching values and the self-image.[53] Arnett distinguishes between broad and narrow socialization: broad socialization is intended to promote independence. friends. schools. etc. Arnett notes two examples where his distinction is relevant. it is dubb ed narrow because there is a narrow range of outcomes These distinctions correspond to Arnett's definition of socialization.. i. [edit]Total Institutions A painting of a prison. of course. Arnett argues th at this may account for the lower crime rates in Japan. a social process.[55] Mortimer and Simmons outline three specific ways these two parts of socializatio n differ:[55] content . response . siblings. such as those related to t he work role as well as more superficial personality features. socialization tends to be narrowe r for women than for men.g. Arnett also argues that Japanese socialization is narr ow as there is more pressure toward conformity in that culture. it involves interactions between people. the socializee (the person being socialized) more clearly assumes the status of learner within the context of the family of orient ation. Arnett argues that there are often differences in socialization by gender.. there is a wide variety of possible broad/narrow socialization combi nations. context .the acquisition of new group memberships and roles and differently structured so cial situations. family. In adolescence. much adult socialization is self-initiated and voluntary. argues Arnett. which moderates down the affective component. and self -expression. work environment). There ar e components of society designed specifically to resocialize individuals who wer e not successfully socialized to begin with. For instance. individualism. Because each force can be either broad or narrow. There i s also a greater likelihood of more formal relationships due to situational cont exts (e. Socialization.In earlier periods. the school. [edit]Broad and Narrow Socialization Arnett proposed an interesting though seldom used distinction in types of social ization. Socialization is. Not all socialization is voluntary nor is all socialization successful.The child and adolescent may be more easily malleable than the adult. is led to develop actual behavior which is confined with a much narrower range. though the socializee takes the role of student at times. In adulthood. which is: the whole process by which an individual born with behavioral potentialities of enormously wide range. friends. Also.

The impaired ability to l earn language after having been isolated for so many years is often attributed t o the existence of a critical period for language learning.[56] [edit]Theoretical Understandings of Socialization Socialization. It is very difficult to socialize a child who became isolated at a very young age into a relatively normal member of society and such individuals often need close care throughout their lives. When th e goal of an institution is resocialization of deviants. Mortimer and Simmons note a difference in socialization methodologies in differe nt types of institutions. Others are alleged to have been brought up by animals.[55] When the goal of an institution is socialization ( primary or secondary). They often seem mentally impaired and have al most insurmountable trouble learning a human language. they may be unable to learn to use a toilet . as a result. there have been quite a variety of definitions and theories of socialization. some are said to have lived in the wild on their own. unfortunately. Feral children may have experienced severe child abuse or trauma be fore being abandoned or running away. and military boot camps. the institution tends to use normative pressures. coercion is frequently involved. Such children are called "feral" or wild. who was found in a Plant City. and taken as evidenc e in favor of the Critical Period Hypothesis. misfortune. socialization is highly dependent on the situations in which the ac tor finds him/herself. [edit]The Importance of Socialization One of the most common methods used to illustrate the importance of socializatio n is to draw upon the few unfortunate cases of children who were. For example.[57][55][58] Symbolic Interactionism . a number of examples of such children that have been w ell-documented. such a s its fear of or indifference to humans. though there are numerous other institutions that cou ld be considered total institutions as well. lifelong process Role Theory . When complete ly brought up by non-human animals. Some feral children have been con fined by people (usually their own parents). all treated alike all daily activities (over a 24-hour period) are tightly scheduled there is a sharp split between supervisors and lower participants information about the member's fate is withheld The most common examples of total institutions include mental hospitals. through neglec t. There are. this approach also argues that socialization is a continu ous. Feral children lack the basic social skills which are normally learned in the pr ocess of socialization.socialization is seen as a process of acquisition of appropriate n . Erving Go ffman gives the following characteristics of total institutions:[19] all aspects of life are conducted in the same place under the same authority the individual is a member of a large cohort. prisons . have trouble learning to walk upright and display a complete lack of interest in the human activity around them. not socialized by adults while they were growing up. In his classic study of total institutions. The goal of total institutions is t o facilitate a complete break with one's old life in order for the institution t o resocialize the individual into a new life. the feral child exhibits behaviors (within p hysical limits) almost entirely like those of the particular care-animal. including: Genie Traian Caldarar Danielle Crockett. as a concept in social scientific research. has evolved over time . or wilful abuse.the self develops as a result of social interactions. Florida home in 2005.alth institutions are designed to resocialize people who are deemed to have not been successfully socialized. some of these institutions are l abeled total institutions. in some cases this child abandonmen t was due to the parents' rejection of a child's severe intellectual or physical impairment. While the basic idea outlined above has been a component of most understanding s of socialization. Some of these approaches are presented here as definitional va riety is often informative. Depending on the degree of isolation and resociali zation that takes place in a given institution.

orms, attitudes, self-images, values, and role behaviors that enable acceptance in the group and effective performance of new roles; in this framework, socializ ation is seen as a conservative force, permitting the perpetuation of the social organization in spite of the turn-over of individual members through time Reinforcement Theory - the self develops as a result of cognitive evaluations of costs and benefits; this understanding assumes that the socializee, in approach ing new roles, is an independent and active negotiator for advantages in relatio nships with role partners and membership groups Internalization Theory - socialization is a series of stages in which the indivi dual learns to participate in various levels of organization of society; this th eory contends that the child internalizes a cognitive frame of reference for int erpersonal relations and a common system of expressive symbolism in addition to a moral conscience; this approach was advocated by Talcott Parsons Recent research[59] suggests that human children are hard-wired to exactly imita te the roles of adults, including actions that are not pragmatic. This is referr ed to as "overimitation" and, while seemingly maladaptive from an evolutionary p erspective, it is possible that this is one of the characteristics of humans tha t facilitates the transmission of culture from generation to generation.[59] [edit]Socialization as Joining Groups The concept of socialization has traditionally addressed the problem of individu al adjustment to society. In all of the approaches outlined above, socialization has, in one way or another, referred to the idea that society shapes its member s toward compliance and cooperation with societal requirements. In order to redu ce confusion, develop a research methodology for measuring socialization, and po tentially lead to the comparability of research findings from different studies, Long and Hadden proposed a revised understanding of socialization.[58] Rather t han referring to a vague adoption or learning of culture, Long and Hadden refram ed socialization as "the medium for transforming newcomers into bona fide member s of a group." Before discussing some of the specifics of this approach, it may be useful to outline some of the critiques Long and Hadden present of earlier ap proaches to socialization. According to Long and Hadden, many earlier approaches to socialization extended socialization to every part of human social life. As a result, everyone becomes both a socializing agent (socializer) and a novice (socializee) in all encounter s with others. This conceptualization leaves socialization without a social home ; it is all around but no place in particular. Another criticism of previous app roaches is that they allowed socialization to include anything, and anything whi ch is part of the process at one time may be excluded at another. With this conc eptualization, any phenomenon may shift its status in the socialization process without changing its own composition or expression. In other words, socializatio n includes virtually everything, excludes almost nothing, and shifts with circum stance and outcomes. Additionally, previous approaches to socialization lacked s pecificity about the nature of socialization activity. Defining socialization by its outcomes made it unnecessary to stipulate the nature of the process concept ually. Socialization could be attributed to this or that but in order to truly u nderstand what is taking place it is necessary to go beyond just pointing to soc ializing agents and specify what it is about those agents that is doing the soci alizing. Another serious drawback of earlier approaches is that they disregard t he process component of socialization. Doing so limits the socialization concept to employment primarily as a post hoc interpretive category that is used to len d significance to findings defined and developed in other terms. As a result of these criticisms, Long and Hadden found themselves presented with a two-fold task:[58] locate socialization and its social boundaries more precisely specify the distinctive properties which distinguish it from related phenomena To accomplish this, Long and Hadden developed a new understanding of socializati on, "socialization is the process of creating and incorporating new members of a group from a pool of newcomers, carried out by members and their allies". Under this understanding, the principal agents of socialization are certified and pra cticing members of the group to which novices are being socialized. It should be

noted that certified here is only a shortened way of saying "a socially approve d member of the group." Thus, Long and Hadden's revised understanding of sociali zation sees it as both the process and outcome of joining groups. [edit]Research Examples Numerous examples of research on socialization could be presented in this sectio n. One important area of socialization research involves differences in gender s ocialization, but much of that research is summarized in the chapter on gender. The following three research examples are interesting in that they explore both primary and secondary socialization and do so from varying perspectives. [edit]Socialization and Social Class Ellis, Lee, and Peterson,[60] developing a research agenda begun by Melvin L. Ko hn,[61] explored differences in how parents raise their children relative to the ir social class. Kohn found that lower class parents were more likely to emphasi ze conformity in their children whereas middle-class parents were more likely to emphasize creativity and self-reliance.[61] Ellis et. al. proposed and found th at parents value conformity over self-reliance in children to the extent that co nformity superseded self-reliance as a criterion for success in their own endeav ors. In other words, Ellis et. al. verified that the reason lower-class parents emphasize conformity in their children is because they experience conformity in their day-to-day activities. For example, factory work is far more about conform ing than innovation. Another study in this same area explored a slightly different component of this relationship. Erlanger was interested in a correlation between social class and physical violence.[5] While he did not find a strong correlation indicating lowe r class individuals were more likely to employ physical violence in punishing th eir children, he did present evidence concerning several outdated propositions. Erlanger's findings include: physical punishment does not lead to working class authoritarianism childhood punishment experiences do not explain the greater probability that wor king class adults, as opposed to middle class adults, will commit homicide general use of corporal punishment is not a precursor to child abuse use of corporal punishment is not part of a subcultural positive evaluation of v iolence It should be noted that this is an older study and that more recent findings may have shed more light on these issues. It should also be noted that Erlanger rea dily points out when his findings are strongly supported or weakly supported by his data. It behooves the interested party to read his paper directly rather tha n rely on the summary above for the specific nuances. [edit]Socialization and Death Preparation Marshall interviewed a number of retirement home residents to explore how their environment influenced their thinking about death.[62] In essence, Marshall was examining secondary socialization concerning mortality. Marshall found that a co mbination of relationships, behavioral changes, and retirement home culture cont ributed to a conception of death that was both accepting and courageous. Residents of this particular retirement home found themselves with more time on their hands - to think about death - because they no longer had to care for thei r own homes. Additionally, they found themselves surrounded by people in a situa tion similar to their own: they were basically moving into the retirement home t o prepare for death. The prevalence of elderly people facilitated discussions of death, which also helped socialize the residents into their acceptance of morta lity. Finally, the retirement home community encouraged a culture of life and fu lfilment in part to counter-act the frequency of death. Some residents calculate d there was one death per week in the retirement home. In light of such bad numb ers, it was important to the success of the community to maintain a positive cul ture that embraced life yet accepted death. In summary, Marshall found that nume rous factors contributed to the socialization of residents into a positive lifes tyle that was also accepting of and preparatory for their impending deaths. [edit]Do College Preparation Classes Make a Difference? Rosenbaum was interested in the effects of high school tracks on IQ.[63] High sc

hool tracks are the different levels or types of courses students can take; for instance, many high schools now include college preparation tracks and general e ducation tracks. Rosenbaum's hypothesis was that students who followed the lower tracks (non college-preparation) would score lower on IQ tests over time than w ould students who followed the higher tracks (college-preparation). Considering that school is one of the primary contributors to socialization, it makes sense that participation in a given track can also result in the adoption of the norms , values, beliefs, skills, and behaviors that correspond to that track. In other words, tracks can turn into a type of self-fulfilling prophecy: you may start o ut at the same level as someone in a higher track, but by the time you have comp leted the lower track you will have become like the other students in your track . To reduce confounding variables and ensure notable test effects, Rosenbaum selec ted a homogeneous, white, working class public school with five different, highl y stratified classes. Rosenbaum then compared IQ scores for individuals in the d ifferent tracks at two time points. As it turns out, tracking does have a signif icant effect on IQ. People in lower tracks can actually see a decline in IQ comp ared to a possible increase among those in the upper track. In other words, trac ks socialize their students into their corresponding roles. [edit]References ? Moore, Kelly. 2008. Disrupting Science: Social Movements, American Scientists, and the Politics of the Military, 1945-1975. Princeton University Press. ? Putnam, Robert D. 2001. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. 1st ed. Simon & Schuster. ? a b Mills, C. Wright. 2000. The Sociological Imagination. 40th ed. Oxford Univ ersity Press, USA. ? Boyer, Pascal. 2002. Religion Explained. Basic Books. ? Tierney, John. 2008. Appeasing the Gods, With Insurance. The International Heral d Tribune, May 7 http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier.php (Accessed August 17, 2008). ? Berger, Peter L. 1963. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. 1st ed. Anchor. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber, Max. 1997. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. Free Press. ? Dilthey, W. 1978. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. 1st ed. Springer. ? Glass, John E. 2005. Visceral Verstehen. Electronic Journal of Sociology. ? Denzin, Norman K., and Yvonna S. Lincoln. 2007. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. Third Edition. Sage Publications, Inc. ? Civettini, Nicole H. W., and Jennifer Glass. 2008. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. Gender & Society 22:172-193. ? Loseke, Donileen R., and James C. Cavendish. 2001. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics.. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. [edit]History This page is adapted 9 April 2005 from the Wikipedia article, socialization. [edit]External links [edit]Groups [edit]Introduction In sociology, a group is usually defined as a number of people who identify and interact with one another. This is a very broad definition, as it includes group s of all sizes, from dyads to whole societies. While an aggregate comprises mere ly a number of individuals, a group in sociology exhibits cohesiveness to a larg er degree. Aspects that members in the group may share include: interests, value s, ethnic/linguistic background, roles and kinship. One way of determining if a collection of people can be considered a group is if individuals who belong to t

Ac cording to Tajfel and Turner. soldiers. examples include: police. You roll dow n your window and the individuals asks you for your "license and registration. Without an understanding of pe ople's groups and categories. why they are wearing a unif orm. There are some rather obvious ones. but you can only do this if you can tell who belongs to your group. and food production. and local religious congregations. we find out things about ourselves by knowing what categori es we belong to. or why they pulled you over (you may ask why t hey pulled you over. But social cate gorization of people into groups and categories also facilitates behavior and ac tion. Examples of groups include: families. If we can assign people to a categ ory then that tells us things about those people. As developed by Tajfel . Similarly." Because groups and categories help facilitate social behavior. However." using "we" to refer to a coll ection of people often implies that the collection thinks of itself as a group. in a very similar way we cate gorize people (including ourselves) in order to understand the social environmen t. Such collections are referred to as categories of p eople rather than groups.. so you do. Muslim. white. adopting shared attitudes to outsiders. millionaires. After waiting for a mi nute or two. In all likelihood. social identities are composed of three elements. So cial categorization of people into groups and categories is a heuristic device t hat makes social interaction easier. you know that the red lights mean you should pull over. trade. social groups. law enfor cement officials who all work in the same station and regularly meet to plan the ir day and work together would be considered part of a group. you can enter this interactio n with a body of knowledge that will help guide your behavior. Collections of people that do not use the self-referent pronoun "we" but share c ertain characteristics (e. Identification . We use social categories like black. [edit]Categorization We categorize objects in order to understand them. because you recognize that the individual driving the car belongs to a specific social category (or group). Australian. and busdriver because they are useful. clubs. we would have a very difficult time functioning in society. Because you have been socialized into society. etc. [edit]Identification We identify with groups that we perceive ourselves to belong to. We define appropriate behaviour by reference to the norms of gr oups we belong to. social functions. but doing so often increases the likelihood they'll give yo u a ticket). like reproduction.hat collection use the self-referent pronoun "we. Christian. not a group.[64] An example may help explain this idea: Suppose you are driving somewhere in a car when you notice red lights flashing i n your rearview mirror. wome n.g. [edit]Social Identity Theory Social identity is a theory developed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner to underst and the psychological basis of intergroup discrimination. etc. circles of friends. an individual in a uniform walks toward your car door. and behave as part of. Individuals form groups for a variety of reasons.) are different from groups in that they usually do not regularly interact with each other nor share similar interests or values. why they are carrying a gun. loca l chapters of fraternities and sororities. Social Identity Theory is thus conc erned both with the psychological and sociological aspects of group behavior. It is also co ncerned with what difference it makes when encounters between individuals are pe rceived as encounters between group members. Social Identity Theory is a diffuse but interrelated group of social psycholog ical theories concerned with when and why individuals identify with. protection. In short. roles. st udent. companies. A law enforcement official is a social category. you do not have to question this individual as to w hy they are driving a special car with lights on it. You do not have t o learn how to interact in that situation every single time you encounter it. you know who this individual is: a member of a law enforcement category like the police or highwa y patrol.

slightly more prestigious group so one's own group tends to be seen more favorably (i. Intriguingly. group membership is not someth ing foreign which is tacked onto the person. Th at is. depending upon the circumstan ces. positive distinctivene ss). when we say that we are the same.carries two meanings. The prestige of a group is also often created throu gh comparisons that positively reflect on the group. In other words. What is crucial for our purposes is that thinking of yourself as a group me mber and thinking of yourself as a unique individual are both parts of your self -concept. people from some Middle Eastern Islamic countries might regard their coun try as inferior to the West in terms of economic and technological advancement b ut might regard their way of life as being morally superior. people are motivated to see their own group as re latively better than similar (but inferior) groups (i. people in g roups choose to compare their groups with other groups in ways that reflect posi tively on themselves. or identical to other people.[65 ] This makes sense when framed as a status issue: the superior group has more to lose if it is defeated by an inferior team while the inferior team. In sociology we distinguish between two types of groups based upon their charact eristics. the notion that inferior or "underdog" groups are hyper-motivated to succeed against superior groups turns out not to be true. in some sense. In other words. "him o r her". sometimes we think of ourselves as group members and at other times we think of ourselves as unique individuals. [edit]Primary and Secondary Groups This family from the 1970s would be an example of a primary group. particularly if we can claim member ship in a prestigious group. it is a real. The other meaning implied by the concept of identity is the idea that we are. Part of who we are is made up of our group memberships. has not lost anything but rather has affirmed the existing social order. "they". members of higher status groups work harder when competing against lower status groups. Treating people this way allows us to jus tify otherwise unjustifiable behavior. The first is referred to as social identity. sometimes we think of ourselves as "us" vs.e. A Primary group is typically a small social group whose members share . if it loses . the same. There is pretty good evidence that to deal effectively with the world we need to feel goo d about ourselves. so that we can be more or less a group member. the latter is referred to as personal identity.. Inversely.which is made up of distinct individuals. We often gain self-esteem by c omparing ourselves with others in our group. the member s of the opposite group . [edit]Comparison A positive self-concept is a part of normal psychological functioning.are treated as identical and completely different to the those people in your group . Thinking about individuals in one's outgroup in such a fa shion allows the individual to believe that the enemy is deserving of death by d ehumanizing them (more on this below). In fact. Groups choose dimensions for comparison in order to maximize the positivity of t heir own group. Groups which perceive themselves to be of high status on particu lar dimensions will choose those as the basis of comparison.the outgroup . The idea of social comparison is that in order to evaluate ou rselves we compare ourselves with similar others. Groups of low statu s will minimize differences on those dimensions or choose new dimensions. an d at other times we think of ourselves as "I" vs. Our groups make up part of who we are. generally. Thus. we mean that for some purposes we trea t members of our groups as being similar to ourselves in some relevant way. negative distinctiveness). For ex ample. This varies situational ly. In social identity theory. Members of a group or team will actually work harder when they are competing against a l ower ranked group than when they are competing against a higher-ranked group. "he or she" or "me" vs. To t ake the most extreme example..e.the ingroup . people in a group may minimize differences between their group a nd another. "them" or "we" vs. This should not be misinter preted. in some violent conflict such as a war. true and vital part o f the person.

However. Subjects were required to select the comparison line that corresponded in length to the reference line . This seems like a relatively straightforward task. People in a secondary group interact on a less personal lev el than in a primary group. as a . shared activities and culture. people s roles are more interchangeable. and long periods of time spent toget her. Secondary groups are large groups whose relationships are impersonal and goal-or iented. Some secondary groups may last for many years. beliefs. it's likely that you experienced conformity. and/or b ehaviors were influenced by other people. Since secondary groups are established to per form functions. The goal of primary groups is actually the relationships themselves rather than achieving some other purpose. athletic teams. These groups are marked by concern for one another. Secondary groups generally develop later i n life and are much less likely to be influential on one's identity. He labeled groups as "primary" because people often exper ience such groups early in their life and such groups play an important role in the development of personal identity. One of the most well-known illustratio ns of conformity is Solomon Asch's conformity experiments.[68] Participants in their research remained aware of the risks. when Asch has the confederates choose the wrong answer. personal. but their brains exhibited heightened sensitivity to the benefits of succeeding. and co-workers. [edit]Social Facilitation People often perform their best when competing with others. though most are short ter m. participants also chose the wrong lin e 37% of the time.[66][67] How do you think you would respond in such a situatio n? Jason Chein and Laurence Steinberg have illustrated why people in groups are mor e likely to take risks (one form of conforming) using functional magnetic resona nce imaging: the presence of peers heightens the benefits that result from risky decisions. Thus. Following are some of the many ways group s shape individual level behavior. Such groups also begin and end with very little significance in the lives of the people involved. these groups generally come together to accomplish a specific purpose. meaning they were actually helping with the resear ch). Examples of secondary gro ups include: classmates in a college course. The experiment was se t up as follows: Research participants would enter a room and sit at a table with several other p eople (who were confederates.close. your attitudes. [edit]Group Influence The primary reason sociologists study groups is because of their power over indi viduals. A large body of research suggests that group membership strongly shapes the everyday behavior of individuals. the presence of peers can facilitate risky behavior as it makes the reward mo re meaningful. enduring relationships. If you've ever done something in a group that you would not do if you were alone . Thu s. Rather than having as the goal the maintenance and d evelopment of the relationships themselves. The distinction between primary and secondary groups was originally proposed by Charles Horton Cooley. Why? Because of our tendency to conform to those around us. choosing the correct line becomes much more difficult when the confederates choose the wrong answer. Families and close friends are examples of pr imary groups A class of students is generally considered a secondary group. like in races. The participant and confederates would be shown one card that had a referen ce line and another card that had three comparison lines. [edit]Conformity An example of the types of cards used in the Solomon Asch line experiments.

As a resul t of social loafing. leading to more extreme punitive damage awards.[73] Social loafing r esults from a lack of motivation when working in a group because individuals do not believe their specific contribution will be evaluated."[80] it is informational social influence. it is strongest among those who are most concerned about the opinions of others. or cannot see well. however. mock jury members often decided on punitive dam age awards that were larger or smaller than the amount any individual juror had favored prior to deliberation. The studies indicated that when the jurors favore d a relatively low award. parti cularly when considering punitive damages in a civil trial. [edit]Diffusion of Responsibility Kitty Genovese's murder is widely cited as an example of the diffusion of respon sibility as numerous people observed (either heard or saw) her murder but no one called the police immediately. like increasing the odds som eone will commit a crime[75]. or evaluation apprehension. In humans. members tend to advocate more extreme positions and/or call for riskier courses of action than individuals who did not participate in any such discussi on. be unaware of thei r own actions. allowing the murderer to leave the scene of the . are often performed in an inferior manner in such situations.[71] This effect has b een demonstrated in a variety of species. Group polarization results from two primary mechanisms: social comparison and in formational influence. but it does not occur when group members feel that their task or the group itsel f is important.[74] Once this happens. discussion would make it even harsher.[69] rather than while they are alone (i.[78] Juries can be influenced by group polarization. Social facilitation is the tendency for people to be aroused into better perform ance on simple tasks (or tasks at which they are expert or that have become auto nomous) when under the eye of others. that person will often look to others for cues concerning the co rrect behavior.[76][77] or even over-enforce the law.[72] [edit]Social Loafing Social loafing refers to the phenomenon that can occur when people in a group ma ke less of an effort to achieve a goal than they would working alone. in fact. such as police in riot situations. When "we conform because we believe that other's interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more accurate than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action. This can happen as a result of be coming part of a group that fosters obedience to group norms rather than an indi vidual's norms. Informational social influence occurs when a perso n is in a situation where he or she is unsure of the correct way to behave. self-awareness. the audience effect). such as an army or mob.e.. Studies have shown t hat after deliberating together. individuals no lo nger think about themselves before they act and may. In s uch situations. [edit]Group Polarization Group polarization refers to the finding that after participating in a discussio n group.e. Social loafing is pervasive. groups can sometimes generate less total output than the co mbined performance of their members working as individuals. and when the individual is being watched by someone he or she does not know. Deindividuation can have quite destructive effects. the coactor eff ect). As a result. This is just one illustration of the influence of groups on individuals. . engaging in violence. Group polarization has been used to explain the decision-making of juries.[73] [edit]Deindividuation Deindividuation refers to the phenomenon of relinquishing one's sense of identit y.result of social facilitation. while if the jury was inclined to impose a stiff penalty.[79] Social comparison refers to the drive of individuals to appear socially desirable. discussion would lead to an even more lenient result. or when competing against another (i.[70] Complex tasks (or tasks at which people are not skilled). they do not put in as much effort as they otherwise would.

Intelligence Community's Prewar Intelligence Assessments on Iraq[88] blamed gr oupthink for failures to correctly interpret intelligence relating to Iraq's wea pons of mass destruction capabilities. Recently. they tend to believe that everybody thinks the same way. Janis' original definition of the term was "a mode of thinking that people engag e in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group. but 64% give the nation's public schools a C or D[86] [edit]Groupthink Groupthink is a term coined by psychologist Irving Janis [87] to describe a proc ess by which a group can make bad or irrational decisions. The strongest effect has been found when people rate themselves on abil ities at which they are totally incompetent. no one took action. In tests involving g roups of three or fewer. when the members' str ivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alterna tive courses of action. Most people.[81][82] In other words. which he portrayed in his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. when they observe somethi ng like that. The effect has been foun d when people compare themselves to others on many different abilities and perso nality traits: Sorority members perceive those in their sorority as far less likely to be conce ited and snobby than those in other sororities[84] 53% of Dutch adults rate their marriage or partnership as better than most other s. This belief is unsubstantiated by statisti cal data. Janis[89] provides descriptions of groupthink: .[83] Such over. S ince the members of a group reach a consensus and rarely encounter those who dis pute it. the Vietnam War and the Bay of Pigs Invas ion. This bias is commonly present in a group setting where one thinks th e collective opinion of their own group matches that of the larger population. Diffusion of responsibility (also called the bystander effect) is a social pheno menon which tends to occur in groups of people above a certain critical size whe n responsibility is not explicitly assigned. These subjects have the greatest di sparity between their actual performance (at the low end of the distribution) an d their self-rating (placing themselves above average). Some surveys hav e found all. leading to the perception of a consensus that does not exist. do not stop and do not call the police. be liefs and predilections are more prevalent amongst the general public than they really are.S . In a groupthink situa tion. In a general sense this seems to b e a very rationalistic way to approach the situation. Illusory superiority is a cognitive bias in which people overestimate the degree to which they possess desirable qualities. People who succumb to the illusory sup eriority bias have inflated views of their own characteristics. the participants rate themselves as above the group average. This phenomenon rarely ever occurs in small groups. only 1% rate it as worse than most marriages[85] 66% of adult Americans grade their oldest child's public school with an A or B.initial attack then return to track her down and kill her and still get away.and under-estimatio ns serve to bolster peoples' self-esteem. This log ical fallacy involves a group or individual assuming that their own opinions. [edit]False Consensus and Illusory Superiority The false consensus effect is the tendency for people to project their way of th inking onto other people. each member of the group attempts to conform his or her opinions to what t hey believe to be the consensus of the group. assuming someone else will do so. people often assume that every one else thinks the same way they do. the US Senate Intelligence Committee's Report on the U. This is done t o justify one's own beliefs. or nearly all. However this results in a situation in which the group ultimately agrees upon an action which each member might individually consider to be unwise (the risky shift). everyone in the group took action as opposed to groups of over ten where in almost every test. in 2004. Janis origin ally studied the Pearl Harbor bombing. Groupthink tends to occur on committees and in large organizations. relative to others. A common example would be observing a minor fender-bender on a busy freeway. or underestimate their negative qualities relative to others." The word groupthink was intended to be reminiscent of G eorge Orwell's coinages (such as doublethink and duckspeak) from the fictional l anguage Newspeak.

Thus the social capital of the group is preserved. An example of a social network diagram Social network theory views social relationships in terms of nodes and ties. Nod es are the individual actors within the networks. In other words. members withhold criticisms Poor information search High stress from external threats with low hope of a better solution than the on e offered by the leader(s) Illusion of unanimity (see false consensus effec t) Selective bias in processing information at hand (see also confirmation bias) Direct pressure on dissenters to conform Failure to work out contingency plans Self-appointed "mindguards" protect the group from negative information One mechanism which management consultants recommend to avoid groupthink is to p lace responsibility and authority for a decision in the hands of a single person who can turn to others for advice. A group of individuals with connections to other social worlds is likely to have access to a wider range of information. and play a critical role in determining the way problems are solved. organizations a re run. Anonymous feedback via suggestion box or online chat has been found to be a usef ul remedy for groupthink negative or dissenting views of proposals can be raised without any individual being identifiable by others as having lodged a critique . In its m ost simple form. It is better for individual success to . and ties are the relationships between the actors. a social network is a map of all of the relevant ties between t he nodes being studied. It indicates the ways in which they are connected through various so cial familiarities ranging from casual acquaintance to close familial bonds. are more likely to introduce new ideas and opportunities to their members than clos ed networks with many redundant ties. The network can also be used to determine the social cap ital of individual actors. These concepts are often displayed in a social networ k diagram. The shape of the social network helps determine a network's usefulness to its in dividuals. from families up to the level of nations. The study of social networks is called both social network analysis and social netw ork theory. Others advise that a pre-selected individual take the role of disagreeing with any suggestion presented. and the degree to which individuals succeed in achieving their goals. More "open" networks. particularly opponents Failure to re-appraise initially rejected alternatives Homogeneity of members' social background and ideology Self-censorship. as all members have plausib le deniability that they raised a dissenting point. either individuals or org anizations. where nodes are the points and ties are the lines. tighter networks can be less useful to their members than ne tworks with lots of loose connections (weak ties) to individuals outside the mai n network. with many weak ties and social connections. There can be many kinds of ties between the nodes. Smaller. a group of friends who onl y do things with each other already share the same knowledge and opportunities. thereby making othe r individuals more likely to present their own ideas and point out flaws in othe and reducing the stigma associated with being the first to take negative sta rs' nces (see Devil's Advocate).antecedent conditions of groupthink symptoms indicative of groupthink symptoms of decisions affected by groupthink Insulation of the group Illusion of invulnerability Incomplete survey of alt ernatives High group cohesiveness Unquestioned belief in the inherent morality of the grou p Incomplete survey of objectives Directive leadership Collective rationalization of group's decisions Failure to examine risks of preferred choice Lack of norms requiring methodical procedures Shared stereotypes of outgroup. [edit]Networks A social network is a social structure between actors. Research in a number of academic fields has demonstrated that social networks operate on many levels.

[90] In 1985. The most frequently occ urring response to the question of how many confidants one has was zero in 2004. the mean network size of individuals in t he U. The so-called rule of 150 states that the size of a genuine social network is li mited to about 150 members (sometimes called the Dunbar Number). The rule arises from cross-cultural studies in sociology and especially anthropology of the max imum size of a village (in modern parlance an ecovillage). including the Ohio State Electronic Small World Project and Columbia's Small World Project. the degree to which an individual within a network is at the center of many relationships) rather than from job title or statuses. deter competition. where the attributes of individu als are less important than their relationships and ties with other actors withi n the network.3% of Americans. a s larger groups tend to be easier for cheats and liars to prosper in. Powerful people in organizations often derive their power from thei r degree of connectedness within the organization (i. and to find social support.S. it may be due to economics and the need to track "free riders". Social networks are the basic tools used by indi viduals to meet other people. which are important for bot h social but also health reasons. was 2. So cial network theory produces an alternate view. social networks have been used to examine how co mpanies interact with each other.[4] . so much of it rests within the structure of their network. Most social confidant s are similar in demographic characteristics to the person doing the sharing.whether they are friendly or unfriendly. Sociologists are interested in social networks because of their influence on and importance for the individual. It is theorized in ev olutionary psychology that the number may be some kind of limit of average human ability to recognize members and track emotional facts about all members of a g roup. Networks declined by almost an entire confidant by 2004 .08 people. However. The small world phenomenon is the hypothesis that the chain of social acquaintan ces required to connect one arbitrary person to another arbitrary person anywher e in the world is generally short. Power within organizations has also been found to be tied to soci al networks. as well as associations and connections between in dividual employees at different companies. and in job performance. Social networks also play a key role in hiring.that matter. These networks provide ways for compa nies to gather information. to 2. As of 2005. The decline in confidants has been most notable among non-kin networks.[90 ] The implications of these findings are potentially disturbing for American soc iety as people have smaller social support networks. etc. the ability for i ndividuals to influence their success. and even collude in setting price s or policies. Current internet experiments continue to explore this phe nomenon. these experiments confirm that about five to se ven degrees of separation are sufficient for connecting any two people through t he internet. Almost half. The "six degrees of separation" model.. The concept gave rise to the famous phrase si x degrees of separation after a 1967 small world experiment by psychologist Stan ley Milgram which found that two random US citizens were connected by an average of six acquaintances. in b usiness success for firms. smart or dumb. to recreate. 46. say they have only one or no confidants with whom they can discuss important matters. Similarly. putting greater emphasis on kin and spouses as social confidants. . For instance.have connections to a variety of networks rather than many connections within a single network. characterizing the many informal connections t hat link executives together.e. individuals can exercise influence or act as brokers within their social networks by bridging two networks that are not directly link ed (called filling social holes). The power of social network theory stems from its difference from traditional so ciological studies. which assume that it is the attributes of individual actors . but leaves less room for individual agency.94 people. This approach has turned out to be useful for explaining many rea l-world phenomena.[4] Recent research suggests that the social networks of Americans are shrinking and more and more people have no close confidants or people with whom they can share thei r most intimate thoughts.

Free Press. ? a b Mills. Disrupting Science: Social Movements.Social Network Bot Inferring and Visualizing Social Networks on IRC The Academic Robotics Community in the UK: Web based data construction and analy sis of a distributed community of practice The social networks of this community are constructed wholly from web-based resources such as web pages. Cavendish. 2001. 2008. May 7 http://www. Oxford Univ ersity Press. Robert D. ? Loseke. 1st ed. Gender & Society 22:172-193. Peter L. and the Politics of the Military. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. American Scientists. Pascal.. C. as related to military te chnology development. Donileen R. ? Tierney. With Insurance. 2008. Norman K. Jan Hauser. ? Civettini. Explores theory and practice of social networking. Basic Books. Knock. W.iht. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber. John. 2008). W. 2008. Max. and James C. ? Glass. The Sociological Imagination. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. and Jennifer Glass. Third Edition. Knocking on Newton's Door . 2007. 1945-1975. and Steven Foster The Social Web: Building an Open Social Network with XDI by members of the OASIS XDI Technical Committee7 Pajek . Knock. Appeasing the Gods. 1st ed. Electronic Journal of Sociology. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective.A comparative analysis by Wildbit of the most popular online social networks with suggestions on creating and growing web communities. 1963. 2000. 1st ed.. 2002. Religion Explained. Princeton University Press. Anchor.Program for Large Network Analyis . So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. Simon & Schuster. 2001. Inc. 40th ed.. 1978. How to Do Social Network Analysis Robin Dunbar and the Magic Number of 150 PieSpy .com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. ? Berger. ? Putnam. 1997. ? Denzin. John E. Sage Publications. ? Boyer. USA. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. Nicole H. Springer. based largely on Six Degrees by Duncan Wat ts.[edit]References ? Moore. Visceral Verstehen.article published in Defense Acquisiti on University's journal Defense AT&L. This chapter draws on the following Wikipedia articles: Group Social identity Primary group/Secondary group Group Polarization Deindividuation Social loafing Social network Groupthink Reference group [edit]External links Social Identity (Australian National University) Social Identity Theory (University of Twente) "Primary Groups" excerpt from Cooley's "Social Organization: A Study of the Larg er Mind" Online Social Networking Research Report . Lincoln.. electronic C Vs and bibliographic search engines The Augmented Social Network: Building Identity and Trust into the Next-Generati on Internet by Ken Jordan. Kelly. ? Dilthey.php (Accessed August 17. 2005. and Yvonna S. The International Heral d Tribune. Wright.

g. reliable demographic data are still difficult to obtain.000 years a mong the Chinese and the Romans and even further back in history among some grou ps in the Middle East. structure and distribution of populations. demographers f ocus on specific indicators of change. particularly in developing nations. demographic indicators are often i nformative in explaining world events and should be turned to first as explanati ons. food. etc. deaths.htm Article on Groupthink from MeatballWiki Article on Groupthink from SourceWatch [edit]Demography [edit]Introduction Demography is the study of human population dynamics. [edit]Why study demography? Before proposing complex theories to explain sociological phenomena (e. In many countries. birth. sociologists s hould first turn to demographic indicators for possible explanations.CASOS Dynamic Social Network Analysis being conducted at Carnegie Mellon Univers ity http://changingminds. in examining the elements that led to the first World War. death. marriage registrations). and aging. Censuses. which are t ables of life expectancies. in the s ocietal changes that accompanied both the scientific and industrial revolutions. but it may have played a role in the increased hostil ities leading up to the war. In some locales this may be due to the associati on of census with taxation. Demographic analysis ca n relate to whole societies or to smaller groups defined by criteria such as edu cation. [edit]Data and Methods Demography relies on large data sets that are primarily derived from censuses an d registration statistics (i. [edit]Demographic Indicators Because demography is interested in changes in human populations. or ethnicity. For instance. another demographic tool.S. It encompasses the study o f the size. the U. especially at the macro and/or societal levels. migration. and how populations chang e over time due to births. Some of the specific me asures used to explore these elements of population change are discussed below. like birth and d eath rates. were institued for primarily political purposes: as a basis for taxation as a basis for political representation The development of demographic calculations started in the 18th century.). In this fashion. Two of the most important indicators are birth and death rates. Large da ta sets over long periods of time (e. for life insurance and actuarial purposes.org/explanations/theories/deindividuation. Some early mathematicians developed primitive forms of life tables. has a long history dating back close to 2... which are also referred to as fertility (see also fecundi ty) and mortality. a ccess to trade routes and ports.e.. Demographi c analysis is a powerful tool that can explain a number of sociological phenomen a. Census taking. [edit]History The study of human populations has its roots.g. . on the other hand. religion.e.. most pe ople turn to political and diplomatic conflicts but fail to consider the implica tions of expanding populations in the European countries involved. census is conducted every 10 y ears) are required to develop trends in demographic indicators. demographers are interested in migration trends or the movement of people from one location to another. Most modern censuses began in the late 18th century. Expanding pop ulations will result in increased competition for resources (i. Additionally. World Systems Theory). like sociology generally. Expanding populations may not be the pri mary cause of World War I. land.

[92] Fertility rates are also closely related to a country's level of development. Sub-re placement fertility is a fertility rate that is not high enough to replace an ex isting population. delayed childbearing. The chart below illustrates trends in childbearing by region of the world. This is true in develop ed countries because women are more likely to be highly skilled and well-paid (r elative to women in developing countries). women who have kids in developed countries have increased opportunity costs. higher levels of educational attainment result in lower fertility rates. in demography. and are less likely to adopt traditional childbearing roles.1 children per woman is because two children are needed to replace the parents and an additional one-te nth of a child is needed to make up for the mortality of children and women who do not reach the end of their reproductive years. wh ich influences other factors. many have moderate rates. The chart below highlights the varied fertility rates of specific countries as s ome have very low fertility rates.[edit]Fertility and Fecundity Fertility.1 children in a woman's lifetime (this number varies by geographic region given different m ortality rates). but sometimes from 15 to 44). It is not. Additionally. Ferti lity rates dropped earlier in the more developed regions of the world.[93] For instance.) total fertility rate: the number of live births per woman completing her reprodu ctive life if her childbearing at each age reflected current age-specific fertil ity rates gross reproduction rate: the number of daughters who would be born to a woman co mpleting her reproductive life at current age-specific fertility rates net reproduction rate: the number of daughters who would be born to a woman acco rding to current age-specific fertility and mortality rates Another important demographic concept relating to fertility is replacement level . and some have very high rates. age-specific fertility rate: the annual number of live births per 1000 women in particular age groups (usually age 15-19. followed by Asia and Latin America. Fertility rates are just starting to decline in Afric a. The reason the number is set to 2. The following chart illustrates the relationship between contraceptive use and t he total fertility rate by regions of the world. Sub-replacement fertility is below approximately 2. Fecundity is the potential reproductive capacity of a fema le. One of the strongest predictors of fertility rates is women's educational attain ment. 20-24 etc.[92] Almost universally. Replacement level fertility is generally set at 2. this results from statistical averaging between women wh o have more than two children and those who have two or fewer children. however. refers to the ability of females to produce healthy of fspring in abundance. Replacement level fertility refers to the number of children that a woman (or monogamous couple) must have in order to replace the existing population. women don't hav e one-tenth of a child. Some of the more common demographic measures used in relation to fertility a nd/or fecundity include: crude birth rate: the annual number of live births per thousand people general fertility rate: the annual number of live births per 1000 women of child bearing age (often taken to be from 15 to 49 years old. Increased contraceptive use is associated with lower numbers of children per woman. are more likely to use contraception during intercourse. education itself that causes declines in fertility but rather its association with other factors that reduce fertilit y: women with higher levels of education delay marriage.[91] Of course.1 children i n a woman's life time. meaning they will make less money b ecause of time spent outside the workforce raising kids. have improved labor mar ket opportunities. p .

Similar to infant mor tality. like frequently exercising.. In undeveloped and developing countries. which improves health and inc reases longevity race: whites live longer than blacks. The mechanism through which this works is not the schooling itsel f. and pe rvasiveness of contraceptives will all reduce fertility rates. which positively influences health job satisfaction: people in more powerful and more satisfying jobs tend to be he althier than people in less satisfying jobs [edit]The Demographic Transition .[94] one of the best predictors of longevity (i.g. This is because dev eloped countries have relatively more older people. though this is due to other social dispari ties. the lower his/her likelihood of smoking and engaging in unhealth y and high risk behaviors.000. This chart depicts infant mortality by region of the world.[93] [edit]Mortality Mortality refers to the finite nature of humanity: people die. Some of the more common demograph ic measures of mortality include: crude death rate: the annual number of deaths per 1000 people infant mortality rate: the annual number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per thousand live births life expectancy: the number of years which an individual at a given age can expe ct to live at present mortality rates Note that the crude death rate as defined above and applied to a whole populatio n can give a misleading impression. the number of deaths per 1000 p eople can be higher for developed nations than in less-developed countries. Education also increases the probability of people en gaging in healthy behaviors. even when other factors are controlled: the more edu cated you are.[94] Other factors associated with greater longevity include: wealth: money increases access to good healthcare. the longer you can expect to live. just food and shelter. Thus. exercise) larger social networks: having a large group of friends and close relationships with relatives increases your social support. A few additional years of scho oling can add several additional years to your life and vastly improve your heal th in old age. and not to race itself ability to delay gratification: with the ability to delay gratification people l ive healthier lives and engage in healthier behaviors (e.000.000 and $30 . children are often an economic asset to parents as they serve as cheap labor on the farm. meaning they cost money whi le not generating money for the parents. which averages between $12. but schooling's influence on other health-related behaviors. But one of the bi ggest factors is the cost of children. who are more likely to die i n a given year. That is not the case in developed countries. Instead. The less developed r egions of the world have higher infant mortality rates than the more developed r egions. Mortality in demo graphy is interested in the number of deaths in a given time or place or the pro portion of deaths in relation to a population. they don't require pay. The cost of raising a child from birth to 17 in a middle-income home in 2005 was $191.robability of a child reaching adulthood. A more complete picture of mortality is g iven by a life table which summarizes mortality separately at each age..e. so that the overall mortality rate can be higher even if the mor tality rate at any given age is lower. This chart depicts life expectancy by region of the world. desp ite standards of health being better in developed countries. life expectancies are higher in more developed regions of the world. where very few people work in agriculture (roughly 2% in t he US).[93] That cost goes up if par ents pay for a child's college education. children are an economic liability. norms about ideal family sizes. a long life) is education. The more educati on someone has. According to recent research. For example. the cost of raising children in developed countries reduces fertilit y rates in those countries. like income and education.

food.[97] who derived the model based on changes in demographics over the preceding two hundred years or so. it is a ratio: population over resources. see here. Western Euro . electricity. For more information on the demographic transition. money. About half the world lives in nations with sub-replacement fertility and p opulation growth in those countries is due to immigration.g. every year the world's human population grows by approximately 80 mil lion. Many developed countries now have a population that is static or. lesser resources such as jobs. shrinking. Overpopulation is not a f unction of the number or density of the individuals. In pre-industrial societies.[98][99] why birth rates decline in post-industrial societies is still being evaluated. who view children as economic commodities). with the exce ptions of Mongolia. The transition from high rates to low rates is referred to as the demographic transition. The majority of world population growth today is occurring in less developed cou ntries. Countries in the second stage of the demographic transition (see diagram) experience a large increase in populat ion. Overpopulation indicates a scenario in which the population of a living species exceeds the carrying capacity of its ecological niche. As with all models. fuel. education. warmth. birth and death rates are both low. The United Nations pr ojects that the world human population will stabilize in 2075 at nine billion du e to declining fertility rates. medicine. shelter.[96] and Notestein. Russ ia and Eastern Europe are dramatically below replacement fertility. then that envi ronment is overpopulated. In the case of human beings. Presently. p roper sewage and garbage management.[95] Blacker . [edit]Population Growth and Overpopulation The time it takes to introduce additional billions of people has decreased since the first billion mark was reached. The red line begins its rapid upward grow th in stage two and begins to level off at the end of stage three. for all but tribes with primitive lifestyles. Whether or n ot it will accurately depict changes in developing societies today remains to be seen. then it is not overpopulated. etc. there a re others such as arable land and. birth rates drop to fall in line with the lower death rates. but there is food and drinking water enough for only 9 people.The demographic transition is a model and theory describing the transition from high birth rates and death rates to low birth and death rates that occurs as par t of the economic development of a country. While there are several theories that attempt to explain why this occurs (e. in some cases. If a given environment has a population of 1 0.. In other words. composite picture of population change in these countries. Resources to be taken into account when estimating if an ecological niche is overpopulated inclu de clean water. populat ion growth is relatively slow because both birth and death rates are high. This is depicted in the diagram when death rates fall in stage two but birt h rates do not fall until stage three. the Philippines. are below replacement level. In mo st post-industrial societies. and Laos. Becker and Caldwell. This understanding of societal changes is based on the work of Thompson. The beginning of the demographic transition in a society is indicated when death rates drop without a corresponding fall in birth rates (usually the result of i mproved sanitation and advances in healthcare). but rather the number of in dividuals compared to the resources they need to survive.[100] All the nations of East Asia. The model is a generalization that applies to these countri es as a group and may not accurately describe all individual cases. and transportation. while if the population is 100 individuals but there a re food and water enough for 200. this is an idealized. By the end of stage three.

while the United States is just barely below replacement w ith about 2. since the lack of resources causes mortality to increase. while resources tend to grow arithmetical ly. and New Zealand are simil ar to Western Europe.[102] [edit]Early Projections of Overpopulation Early in the 19th century. Canada. On a global scale. according to Malthus. the population would be restr ained through mass famine and starvation. Turkey. Australia. Thomas Malthus argued in An Essay on the Principle of Population that. discussions of populations should not take place without cons idering the role played by food supply. Critics of this idea point out that birth rates are voluntarily the lowest in de veloped nations. In fact. This idea is only slightly less problematic than the idea that human population growth is not guided by foo d production. In either case. Factors that mus . in some parts of Africa birth rates have actually increased and the aver age woman has more than five children. h owever. and Lebanon are below replacement. to avoid this happening. make overpopulation a still m ore serious threat in the future. Proponents of this theory. For some. the population responds by increasing even mor e. Some human populations throughout history support this theory. as it suggestions that that every time food production is intensif ied to feed a growing population. but only if agriculture is carefully managed. later ages of marriage. this interpretation may seem callous. Much of the projected growth is expected to come from African countries where bi rth rates remain high. As the population exceeds the amount of available res ources the population decreases through famine. or war. when food supplies con sistently increased. He proposed that. At that point. famine has overtaken numerous individual regions. and the decreased economic 'utility' of children in industrialized s ettings. and work less in i ndustrial ones. human popu lations do not always grow to match the available food supply.[98][99] The latter explanation stems from the fact that children perfor m a great deal of work in small-scale agricultural societies. through moral restraint. if left unrestricted. population grows exponentially. is biological and natu ral population limitation. well above the replacement rate. This process keeps the population in check and ensures it does not exceed the amount of resources. but it has been cited to e xplain the drop-off in birthrates worldwide in all industrializing regions.pe also is below replacement. which also have the highest access to food. [edit]Population as a function of food availability There are some scholars who argue that human populations predictably grow and sh rink according to their available food supply . It has often been argu ed that future pressures on food production. for others it indicates a feasible s olution to population issues. There is a substantial body of research that has considered the ability of the planet to provide sufficient food for the world's growing population.0 births per woman. All four of these nations still have growing pop ulations due to high rates of immigration. disease. food production has grown faster than population. combined with threats to other aspe cts of the earth's habitat such as global warming. the concept that human populations behave in the same way as do popula tions of bears and fish is hard to believe. Over the two hundred years following Malthus's projections.[101] While birth rates in most countries have fallen sinc e 1990. Thus. Algeria. Tunisia.[103] This research suggests that the planet can pot entially provide sufficient food for the projected peak population of humans of 9 billion people.populations grow when there is a n abundance of food and shrink in times of scarcity. as consistent population growth began with the agricultural revolution. the growing desir e of many women in such settings to seek careers outside of childrearing and dom estic work. In the Middle East Iran. Malthus argued for population control. includi ng: increased access to contraception. human populations would continue to grow until they would become too large to be supported by the food grown on availabl e agricultural land. Neo-Malthusians state t hat these famines were examples of Malthusian catastrophes. since populations are tied to the food they consume. Critics cite othe r factors that contribute to declining birth rates in developed nations. The alternative to moral restraint. the popula tion is decreasing in some countries with abundant food supply.

t be considered include: genetically modified crops.[103] [edit]Effects of overpopulation In any case. Some of the other characteristics of overpopulation include: Child poverty High birth rates Lower life expectancies Lower levels of literacy Higher rates of unemployment. However. In this mode of thought. it will naturally regulate itself. In Population Politics she shows evidence th at declining fertility following industrialization only holds true in nations wh ere women enjoy a relatively high status. rickets) Low per capita GDP Increasingly unhygienic conditions Government is stretched economically Increased crime rates resulting from people stealing resources to survive Mass extinctions of plants and animals as habitat is used for farming and human settlements Urbanization results from both industrialization (increasing efficiency among fa rmers) and population growth. it is often held that the most productive approach is to provide a combination of help targeted towards population control and self-sufficiency. and in the family. The world's current agricultural production. political ri ghts. In either case. natural growth will cause the populatio n to grow to unsustainable levels. These critics point out ultimate shortages of energy sources and other natural resources. many proponents of population control have averred that famine is f ar from being the only problem attendant to overpopulation. The value . human rights. if it were distributed evenly. and will directly result in famines and defor estation and indirectly in pandemic disease and war. economically. woul d be sufficient to feed everyone living on the Earth today. many critic s hold that. arguing that if the Earth's ecosystem becomes overtaxed. One of the most important measures proposed for this effort is the empowerment of women educationally. as well as the importance of serious communicable diseases in dense populations and war ov er scarce resources such as land area. context-specific ways. Another point of view on population growth and how it effects the standard of li ving is that of Virginia Abernethy. political power. simply feeding the world's popula tion well would only make matters worse. Abernathy argues that foreign aid to poor countries must include sign ificant components designed to improve the education. laissez-faire attit ude.g. politically. and simultaneously working to limit harm to the environment. Objections to this argument are: in the meantime. in the absence of other measures. disease or starvation are "natural" me ans of lessening population. where women enjoy few rights. especially in urban Insufficient arable land Little surplus food Poor diet with ill health and diet-deficiency diseases (e. [edit]Possible Solutions to Overpopulation Some approach overpopulation with a survival of the fittest. aquaculture. In strongly patriarchal nations. as this approach would result in gr eat suffering in the people who die Others argue that economic development is the best way to reduce population grow th as economic development can spur demographic transitions that seem to natural ly lead to reductions in fertility rates. and economic status and power of women. a higher standard of living tends to result in populati on growth. employing agricultural tool s in correct. A shortage of arable land (where food cro ps will grow) is also a problem. a huge number of plant and animal species become extinct this would result in terrible pollution in some areas that would be difficult to abate it obviously creates certain moral problems.

Other measures include effective family planning programs. and measures to protect the local environment.S.[104] There are wide variations in native inhabitants. and the sociological process of rationalization. natives and may in fact facilitate college attending. Those who do move are generally driven by jobs. The Unit ed Nations projected that half of the world's population would live in urban are as at the end of 2008. at the other extreme. some experience fertilit y rate decreases so substantial that they fall well below replacement level and their populations begin to shrink (as has Russia's in recent years. but they also seem to be shortsighted in light of the concer ns associated with overall world population growth. a Cornell University professor of ecology and agricultural scien ces. is that a declining population will reduce the GDP and economic growth of the coun try. in any given year has declined over the last 40 years. local re newable energy systems. [edit]Underpopulation Once countries pass through the demographic transition.[106] [edit]Urbanization Urbanization is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change.[91] To combat extremely low fertility rates. moving to another place in the U.[104][105] The reduction in moves is attr ibutable to aging populations (older people are less likely to move) and an incr ease in dual-career couples.of this philosophy has been substantially borne out in cases where great strides have been taken toward this goal. One recent study finds that one type of c ompetition between immigrants and non-immigrants may be overstated. that include things like payments to parents for having ch ildren and extensive parental leave for parents. for a variety of reasons. there has generally been a drastic reduction in the birthrate to more sustain able levels.[104 ] Close to 37% of Americans have never moved from the community in which they were born. David Pimentel. some of these governments have introduced pro-family policies. A new fear for man y governments. though emigr ation has also played a role in Russia's population decline). as population growth is often a driving force of economic expansion. which is about half the proportion that ch anged residences annually in the 1960s. like Alaska.[107] Urbanization is closely linked to modernization.[106] Neymotin (2009) finds that compet ition with immigrants does not harm the educational outcomes of U. sustainable agriculture methods and supplies.S. Only about 1 in 10 A mericans have moved in the last year. urban growth . reforestat ion. Urbanization is also defined by the United Nations as movement of people from r ural to urban areas with population growth equating to urban migration. where only 28% of the people born in that state have remained there. though many hav e to do with competition between those already living in the destination locatio n and those arriving in that location.[108] As more and more people leave villages and farms to live in cities.[104] Immig ration is often a controversial topic. by country. Where women's status has dramatically improve d. Such policies may reverse the l ow fertility rates. Some state s lose a large number of people who were born in the state as well. Some people have suggested that natives' opportunities to attend college are negatively impa cted through competition with immigrants.S. however: 76% of Tex ans were born in-state while only 14% of Nevadans were born in-state. as of 2006. [edit]Migration The likelihood of a given individual in the U. particularly those in countries with very low fertility rates. 12 billion miserable humans suffering a difficult life with limited resources and widespread famine Spreading awareness of the issues is an important first step in addressing it. sees several possible scenarios for the 22nd century: a planet with 2 billion people thriving in harmony with the environment or. [edit]Movement Percentage of population which is urbanized. ind ustrialization.

The drive for growth and efficienc y can lead to less equitable urban development[110]. The rapid growth of cities like Chicago in the late 19th century and M umbai a century later can be attributed largely to rural-urban migration and the demographic transition.g. b ut a far slower annual urbanization rate. especially th e elderly are often forced to move to cities where there are doctors and hospita ls that can address their health needs. In modern ti mes. The g lobal proportion of urban population rose dramatically from 13% (220 million) in 1900. it is difficult to improve one's standard of living beyond basic sustenance. In Manila. Thus. as with immigration generally. Similar problems now affect the developing world. This kind of growth is especially commonplace in develo ping countries. India. Due to their high populatio ns. and in times of dr ought. risin g inequality results from rapid urbanization. in contrast. [edit]Causes Urbanization is not always attributed to high density. Whether the source is trade or tourism.9 billion) by 2030. Other factors include a greater variety of entertainment (e. Cities are where fortunes are made and where social mobility i s possible. The same repo rt projected that the figure is likely to rise to 60% (4..[109 ]. The rapid urbanisation of the world s population over the twentieth century is des cribed in the 2005 Revision of the UN World Urbanization Prospects report. There are also better basic services as well as other specialist services in urb an areas that aren't found in rural areas. For example.results. The United States and United Kingd om have a far higher urbanization level than China. Urbanization is often viewed as a negative trend. are known to be places where money. often prici ng the local working class out of the real estate market. The almost universal European division into a 'good' west end and a 'poor' east end of large cities developed in this perio d. restaurants. flood or pestilence. services and wealth are centralized. theme parks. etc. it is also through the citi es that foreign money flows into a country. Swaziland or Niger. the cost of li ving has forced residents to live in low quality slums and shanty towns People move into cities to seek economic opportunities.) and bett er quality of education in the form of universities. be perceived simply as a natural occurrence from individual and corporate efforts to reduce e xpense in commuting and transportation while improving opportunities for jobs. movie theaters. making the western edges of towns prefera ble to the eastern ones. but can in fact.2 billion) in 2005. There are more job opportunities and a greater variety of jobs. Urbanization rates vary between countries. Eric Hobs bawm's book The age of the revolution: 1789 1848 (published 1962 and 2005) chapter 11. often on small family farms. are usually located in urban areas. People. to 49% (3. In rural areas. Businesses. industrialization of agriculture has negatively affected the economy of sma ll and middle-sized farms and strongly reduced the size of the rural labour mark et." This is likely due the prevailing south-west wind which carries coal smoke a nd other airborne pollutants downwind. These conditions are heightened during times of change from a pre-industrial society to an industrial one. since much less of the population is l iving in a rural area. Farm l iving is dependent on unpredictable environmental conditions. [edit]Economic effects As cities develop. Cities. which pushed the new labouring poor into great morasses of m isery outside the centres of government and business and the newly specialised r esidential areas of the bourgeoisie. to 29% (732 million) in 1950. there are factors that push people out of rural areas and pull them into urban areas. survival becomes extremely problematic. e . which generate jobs and capital. stated "Urban development in our period [1789 1848] was a gigantic process of class segregation. effects can include a dramatic increase in costs. A major contributing fac tor is known as "rural flight". urban areas can also have much more diverse social communities allowing othe rs to find people like them when they might not be able to in rural areas. Health is another major factor.

planned com munities). ? Boyer. The Sociological Imagination.[114] The effects of urbanization may be an overall positive for the environment. 1st ed. public parks.. greenways.[11 3]. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. ? Tierney. Oxford Univ ersity Press. during warm daylight hours. and mar ketplace competition. Pascal. Recent developments. and the Politics of the Military. Religion Explained. this is called suburbanization. The urban heat island is formed when industrial and urban areas are developed a nd heat becomes more abundant. Robert D. aes thetic. economic or urban design reasons. it minimizes land use by humans. American Scientists. the reverse effect . is based on an advanced plan. Urbanization can be planned or organic. When the residential area shifts outward. Planned urbanization and development is the aim of the American Institute of Planners. (e. ? Berger. where l ess vegetation and exposed soil exists. which can be prepared for military.[111] [edit]Environmental effects One environmental concern associated with urbanization is the urban heat island. 2001. Simon & Schuster. etc . the effect is not restricted to cities with a hig h ethnic minority population. Appeasing the Gods.ducation. 40th ed. Hence. 1945-1975. like slash a nd burn agriculture.g. leaving more for nature.iht. John. diversity. ? a b Mills. sustainable urban drainage systems. Additional city heat is given off by vehicles and factories. 2008. the majority of the sun s energy is absorb ed by urban structures and asphalt. With Insurance. with cities losing popula tion to rural areas. May 7 http://www.[115] [edit]Changing forms of urbanization Different forms of urbanization can be classified depending on the style of arch itecture and planning methods as well as historic growth of areas. less evap orative cooling in cities allows surface temperatures to rise higher than in rur al areas. Disrupting Science: Social Movements. 2008. USA. Princeton University Press. Peter L. 2000. Living in cities permits individuals and families to take advantage of the opportunities of proximity.. [edit]References ? Moore. Some research suggests that suburbanization has gone so far to form new points of concentration outside the downtown both in developed a nd developing countries such as India [116]. 1963. This has be en possible because of improved communications and means of transportation. Organic urbanization is not organized and happens haphazardly. Later termed "white flight". such as inner-city redevelopment schemes. This can prevent overpopulation (see discussion below). Impacts also include reducing soil moisture and intensification of carbon di oxide emissions. originally called counter urbanisation has occurred. Birt h rates of new urban dwellers fall immediately to the replacement rate (2. In cities. an d keep falling.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. Kelly. it puts a stop to destructive subsistence farming techniques. and has been caused by factors such as the fear of crime and poor urban environments .php (Accessed August 17. Wright. In rural areas. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity.g. 1st ed. housing. ISBN 0385065299 . Basic Books. 2002. The International Heral d Tribune. Landscape planners are responsible for landscape infras tructure (e. Finally. a large part of the incoming sola r energy is used to evaporate water from vegetation and soil. Planned urbanization. Anchor. In cities of the developed world urbanization traditionally exhibited a concentration of huma n activities and settlements around the downtown area.[112] This effect causes the city to become 2 to 10o F (1 to 6o C) warmer than surrounding landscapes. or afterward to revital ize an area and create greater livability within a region. 2008). ? Putnam. C. as well a s by industrial and domestic heating and cooling units. Addition ally. In some developed regions. and transportation. mean that new arrivals in cities no longer necessarily settle in the centre. and is particularly common for richer families.) which can be planned before urbanization takes place.1).

though obviously not too much older. cosmetics. and Yvonna S. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. 2001.. Lincoln. but it is of interest to sociologists because it is accompanied by c hanges in how one is viewed and treated in society.? Weber. people are considered "old" at much younge r ages than in Eastern societies where age is often seen to beget wisdom. like the following: Infancy Toddler Childhood Adolescence Young adult Prime adulthood Middle age Old age These divisions are somewhat arbitrary.. ? Loseke. This is a major age milestone tha t is marked by significantly different attitudes toward the person who undergoes the transition. ? Dilthey. just the opposite approach is taken. While aging. Sage Publications. Inc.g. Max. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. is a biological process. The labels of "old" and "young" also vary by life expectancy. such as Sweden. W. While age will eventually take its toll on everyone. Electronic Journal of Sociology. In many countries. Nicole H. what it means to be "old" or "youn g" and at what ages such distinctions are made varies by culture. 1st ed.. and surgeries to hide signs of aging. In societies where lifespans are relatively short (e. Japan). This e mphasis on youth translates into considerable expenditures on makeup. Donileen R. John E. 2008. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. but also among men. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics. 1997. 2005. Norman K. one could be considered "old" or " middle-aged" by her mid-twenties. but generally capture periods of life th at reflect a certain degree of similarity. 1978. Third Edition. as adol escents often try to appear "older". ad ulthood legally begins at the age of eighteen. particularly among women. whereas in countries with longer lifespans (e. and James C. where youth is highly valued. ? Civettini. In Western soc ieties. ? Glass. among adolescents. W. Cavendish. Ironically. 2007.. and Jennifer Glass. ? Denzin. Gender & Society 22:172-193. Aging is a biologic al process. g. This chapter also draws on the following Wikipedia articles: migration demography demographic transition overpopulation urbanization [edit]Aging Aging (often spelt ageing) is the process of becoming older. itself.. mid-twenties is still considered young-adulthood. Springer. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. the association of vigor with youth is a cultural construct and does not necessarily reflect th e reality of biological aging.. [edit]Socially Constructed Aspects of Aging This is a photo of an "older" person who is more physically fit than many "young er" people. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. [edit]Dividing the lifespan Human life is often divided into various age spans. Visceral Verstehen. Chad). The activities that are expected of one at different ages is also socially const . Free Press.

[127] And elders who suffer from sel .[119] While it can be targeted toward individuals of any age. Elder abuse is a serious problem in the U.[120] but also in public places l ike malls and stores. w hen young people make poor decisions. but of the money they have most of it is available for buying consumer goods (their parents cover their basic living needs). retirement only became a "universa l" American institution in the post-World War I era. and may not always make sense. disc rimination toward the elderly ranges from behavioral restrictions to the realm o f physical abuse.[117] Likewise. there are other restrictio ns placed on young people based on the assumption that they are unable to make d ecisions for themselves.ructed and relative to culture.g.[127] Abu se refers to psychological/emotional abuse. sexual abuse. but the approaches are different. Legally. two groups that are often targeted are the young and the elderly.[126] It is stereotypes like these that trans late into the discrimination toward young people described above. While this is likely true for s ome young people. For instance. as the growth of Social Sec urity and private pensions dramatically expanded the safety net available to agi ng workers who were leaving the labor market. Discrimination against young people is primarily in the are a of behavioral restrictions. [edit]Treatment of the Young While most people are aware of the mistreatment of the elderly (see below).[118][50] [edit]Differential Treatment by Age or Ageism Ageism is prejudice on the grounds of age.[121] Some stores have gone so far as to limit the hours yo ung people can be in their stores. every year. it is also the case that young people can lack the maturity to make important decisions. Another way in which the young are treated differently is in the marketing pract ices of corporations.[122] While the above are clear examples of discrimination. do vary substantially by region and culture. The above restrictions are tied to specific ages for legal rea sons.[123] Manufacturers of consumer goods and providers of services (e.S. caregi ver neglect or financial exploitation while self-neglect refers to behaviors tha t threaten the person's own health and safety. but at the same time po tentially dangerous and disturbing. Children can also be heavily influenti al on how their parents' spend their discretionary income. few people seem to realize that young people are often subjected to discrimination b ecause of their age. There are nearly 2 million cases of elder abuse and self-neglect in the U.S. there are also some young people who are mature enough to make these decisions. the idea of childho od being an age of innocence when children should be kept from adult worries and spend their time pursuing education and recreating is only widely held in highl y developed countries and is a relatively recent invention. physical abuse.[125] Young people are also stereotyped as being both amusing. [edit]Treatment of the Elderly While discrimination toward the young is primarily behavioral restrictions. following the indust rial revolution and the introduction of child-labor laws. Disney[124]) are aware of the b uying power of young people and target them specifically. Examples of such restrictions include:[119] inability to vote in elections inability to legally imbibe alcohol or smoke cigarettes inability to legally engage in sexual activity (this varies by region) inability to hold public office inability to determine whether or not one can marry inability to determine whether or not can get an abortion (varies by region) All of the above restrictions hinge upon the idea that young people lack the mat urity required to make such important decisions. The elderly are also t argeted as a consumer demographic. but such restrictions may not always be followed. often by parents. the defense of infancy is used in such cas es to argue that such individuals are too immature to be held responsible for th eir decisions. However. Elderly individuals who are subjected to abuse have at least two times higher ri sk of premature death than do other seniors. Children and teenagers have little money of their own..

While the Social Security program in the U. Thus. Of additional concern is where the Trust Fund reserves were invested .[130] However. the Social Security Trust Fund. dropped dramatically.the elderly are quite adept at changing their views and often they become more tolerant as they age.f-neglect have an even higher risk (up to 5 times higher) of premature death tha n do elders who do not suffer from self-neglect.S. While generally considered a highly successful program at reducing poverty among the elderly. Thus. Even so. it i s the Federal Government that borrowed the money. With the introduction of Social Security. poverty rates across all three age groups depicted in the figure above have declined from what they w ere prior to the introduction of tax redistribution policies like Social Securit y. The higher risk of death associ ated with elder abuse effects both those who are physically and cognitively impa ired and those who are more capable. older drivers are actually safer than drivers of other ages. This stereotype is also not backed by evidence. Social Security (t echnically Old-Age. This chart depicts the percentage of the respective age groups that fell below t he poverty line over the last 40+ years.in Federa l bonds. that will change if Social Security is not modifie d by 2017. which is the money that was col lected when there was a surplus in tax revenue. the poverty ra tes of the elderly in the U. Conflict theory provides a clear theoretical argument to explain this: Since there are limited resources . as illustrated in the figur e below. one unforeseen consequence has been the increasing poverty of people u nder 18.S. many older drivers are actually much safer than the youngest drivers (under 18). the Federal Government o f the United States actually owes itself the money . Currently.in this case limited tax revenue . Federal Government.[127] Additionally. they must necessarily come from another group.S . the Trust Fund reserves will be exhausted and payments to beneficiaries will drop to about 75% of what they would normally receive. is in trouble. if the elderly see an increase in their total share of tax revenue. Up to ab out the age of 75.S. and Disability Insurance or OASDI) is an income r edistribution program that takes taxes from those working and distributes it to those who cannot work or who are elderly enough to be considered past the age at which they can retire. Thus. the reserve s will run out sooner. Beyond age 75 response times and visual acuity do begin to decline. For about 20 years following that. Social Security is currently experiencing problems.S. and other programs for the needy. But by 2037. The chart belo w illustrates the problems with Social Security payments for retirees in the U. This is not the case . the elderly were the poorest age group in the U. Thus.over $2 trillion. it is likely that some other age group will see a decrease in its total share of tax revenue . with some caveats. While Federal bonds are backed by the the U. will make up the difference in p ayments. If the Fe deral Government is unable to or decides not to pay this money back. At that point. more money is received from Social Security taxes than is distribut ed to retirees. the elderly are often stereotyped.if those resources go to one group. less will come in than will go out. One stereotype of the elderly i s that they are inflexible in their attitudes and that they tend to only become more conservative with time. the situation of So . Despite the success of the Social Security program in reducing poverty among the elderly.S.[129] [edit]Age and Income Prior to the introduction of Social Security in the U. individuals under 18 have seen some programs cut that would have otherwi se helped maintain their lower levels of poverty. leading to i ncreases in accidents. Survivors.[128] An other stereotype of the elderly is that they are poorer drivers than younger peo ple. reducing the payments to beneficiaries at an earlier date .

at w hich point the Federal Government will only be able to cover about 80% of the co sts of medical treatments of senior citizens. then to 30% by 2080. but it is clear that w omen do live longer than men and that holds true around the world. Women. Thus. are more likely to fall below the federal poverty line than are men.[134] The combined effect of all these differences may or may not account for the longevity gap between men and women. This is of special concern considering women live longer than men. [edit]Age and Gender While the elderly have seen substantial improvements in their economic situation in recent decades. but for Medicare . and you have the perfect recipe for both populat . those improvements have not equally affected men and women. For instance. The city of Pittsburgh offers an intriguing case study of the effects of an agin g population on a city. population grows more elderly ( as shown in the figure below). reducing their life expectancy.[104] Add to this the fact that many young people are moving awa y from Pittsburgh to find jobs.S. which increases the rate of death among men of suicide. There are concentrations of the elderly in the Midwest and in the South. men do engage in riskier behaviors than women. as depicted in the figure below. The map below illustrates th at the elderly are not equally distributed throughout the U. the two regions with the highest concentrations of the elderly in the US have high concentrations of elderly peop le for very different reasons. Medicare is worse off as tax income in 2009 was already insufficient to cover the expenses of the program and the Trust Fund reserves are already been tapped to offset the costs. as illustrate d in the next figure.[104] As of 2008 more people are dying in Pittsburgh than are being born.[131] Men are also more "successful" when attemp ting suicide. Why women live longer than men is not perfectly understood. the high concentration of the elderly i n the Midwest may be more surprising.S. including greater heart health among w omen. whether working or not. The Trust Fund for Medicare will be exhausted by 2017.cial Security is not as dire as is that of Medicare.[131] Anoth er factor that may contribute to the greater life expectancy of women is the dif ferent types of jobs men and women tend to have during their lifetimes. This map depicts the percentage of the population that is over age 65 by census district (from the 2000 Census). a ratio that continues to decrease as the U.[133] though how much they contribute to the greater longevity of women is not entirely clear. particu larly in Florida. This chart depicts the increasing life expectancy at birth in the USA. This is resulting from the lower ratio of employed workers to benefit recipients . While the high concentration of the elderly in Florida may not come as much of a surprise to most Americans who are aware of the high rate at which people who retire move to Florida. That percentage will gradually dec line to 50% by 2035. The chart below replicates the chart above.[132] Oth er biological factors likely play a role. Several factors may contribute to this. This higher concentration is not because t he elderly are moving to the Midwest but rather because the young are moving out of the Midwest as they search for jobs. which is a healthcare progr am for the elderly. [edit]Aging in the US The geography of age in the US is quite intriguing.

ion decline and an aging population. One result of this demographic shift is tha t there is a greater demand for health care provision. Health care has replaced steel as Pittsburgh's biggest industry.[104] Another result of these trends is t he decline in students attending Pittsburgh schools. In the 1980s there were nea rly 70,000 students in the public school; by 2008 there were only about 30,000 a nd the number is declining by about 1,000 every year.[104] In short, as populati ons in specific locations age, the entire social structure must change to accomm odate the new demographic, which supports the notion of equilibrium in structura l-functionalist theory. [edit]Global Aging Trends Globally, most countries are seeing the average life expectancy of their populat ions increase. This translates into a greater percentage of the world's populati on falling above the age of 65, as illustrated in the figure below. However, the rate at which the world's population is aging is not uniform across countries, and some countries have actually seen decreasing life expectancies, largely as a result of AIDS. The varied life expectancies and younger population s are illustrated in the map below, which depicts the percentage of each country 's population that is over 65. This map illustrates global trends in aging by depicting the percentage of each country's population that is over the age of 65. The more developed countries al so have older populations as their citizens live longer. Less developed countrie s have much younger populations. An interactive version of the map is available here. It is pretty clear from the map that more developed countries have much older po pulations and a greater percentage of their population is aged 65+. The least de veloped countries are also the youngest countries as life expectancies are subst antially lower. [edit]Aging and Health While aging is often associated with declining health, current research suggests there are some things people can do to remain healthy longer into old age. For instance, maintaining a positive attitude has been shown to be correlated with b etter health among the elderly.[135] Older individuals with more positive attitu des and emotions engage in less risky behavior and have lower levels of stress, both of which are correlated with better health.[135] [edit]References ? Moore, Kelly. 2008. Disrupting Science: Social Movements, American Scientists, and the Politics of the Military, 1945-1975. Princeton University Press. ? Putnam, Robert D. 2001. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. 1st ed. Simon & Schuster. ? a b Mills, C. Wright. 2000. The Sociological Imagination. 40th ed. Oxford Univ ersity Press, USA. ? Boyer, Pascal. 2002. Religion Explained. Basic Books. ? Tierney, John. 2008. Appeasing the Gods, With Insurance. The International Heral d Tribune, May 7 http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier.php (Accessed August 17, 2008). ? Berger, Peter L. 1963. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. 1st ed. Anchor. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber, Max. 1997. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. Free Press. ? Dilthey, W. 1978. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. 1st ed. Springer. ? Glass, John E. 2005. Visceral Verstehen. Electronic Journal of Sociology. ? Denzin, Norman K., and Yvonna S. Lincoln. 2007. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. Third Edition. Sage Publications, Inc.

? Civettini, Nicole H. W., and Jennifer Glass. 2008. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. Gender & Society 22:172-193. ? Loseke, Donileen R., and James C. Cavendish. 2001. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics.. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. Global Social Change Reports One report describes global trends in ageing. [edit]External links SAGE Crossroads online forum for emerging issues of human ageing Alliance for Aging Research Biology of Aging at senescence.info Dr Aubrey de Grey: 'We will be able to live to 1,000' Aging because lack of genetic info? ASFAR Americans for a Society Free from Age Restrictions - NGO against ageism International Plan on Ageing of the UN, 2002, Madrid International Federation on Ageing Promotes and improves the understanding of ag eing policies and practice globally. Gerontology Research Group Site also has the official tables of known supercente narians. [edit]Deviance and norms

Picking one's nose is an example of informal deviance [edit]Introduction Deviance is any behavior that violates cultural norms. Deviance is often divided into two types of deviant activities. The first, crime is the violation of form ally enacted laws and is referred to as formal deviance. Examples of formal devi ance would include: robbery, theft, rape, murder, and assault, just to name a fe w. The second type of deviant behavior refers to violations of informal social n orms, norms that have not been codified into law, and is referred to as informal deviance. Examples of informal deviance might include: picking one's nose, belc hing loudly (in some cultures), or standing too close to another unnecessarily ( again, in some cultures). As the last two examples in the preceding paragraph illustrate, deviance can var y quite dramatically from culture to culture. Cultural norms are relative; this makes deviant behavior relative as well. For instance, in general U.S. society i t is uncommon for people to restrict their speech to certain hours of the day. I n the Christ Desert Monastery, there are specific rules about when the residents can and cannot speak, including a specific ban on speaking between 7:30 pm and 4:00 am. The norms and rules of the Christ Desert Monastery are examples of how norms are relative to cultures. Current research on deviance by sociologists takes many forms. For example, Dr. Karen Halnon of Pennsylvania State University studies how some people exercise i nformal deviance. Her research focuses on what she calls "deviance vacations," w here people of certain socioeconomic status descend to lower strata. For instanc e, heterosexual white males may become drag queens on the weekend. It is a vacat ion because heterosexual white males can afford to descend temporarily and then return to the advantages of their true socioeconomic status. Other examples incl ude white hip-hop acts like Eminem and Nu-Metal bands like Limp Bizkit that mimi c lower or middle class people in order to use their socioeconomic credentials f or profit, despite their true socioeconomic status. Sociological interest in deviance includes both interests in measuring formal de viance (statistics of criminal behavior; see below) and a number of theories tha t try to explain both the role of deviance in society and its origins. This chap ter will cover the theories of deviance used by sociologists and will also cover current crime statistics. [edit]Theories of Deviance

[edit]Social-Strain Typology Robert K. Merton, in his discussion of deviance, proposed a typology of deviant behavior. A typology is a classification scheme designed to facilitate understan ding. In this case, Merton was proposing a typology of deviance based upon two c riteria: (1) a person's motivations or her adherence to cultural goals; (2) a pe rson's belief in how to attain her goals. These two criteria are shown in the di agram below. According to Merton, there are five types of deviance based upon th ese criteria: conformity involves the acceptance of the cultural goals and means of attaining those goals (e.g., a banker) innovation involves the acceptance of the goals of a culture but the rejection o f the traditional and/or legitimate means of attaining those goals (e.g., a memb er of the Mafia values wealth but employs alternative means of attaining her wea lth) ritualism involves the rejection of cultural goals but the routinized acceptance of the means for achieving the goals (e.g., a disillusioned bureaucrat - like M ilton in the movie Office Space, who goes to work everyday because it is what he does, but does not share the goal of the company of making lots of money) retreatism involves the rejection of both the cultural goals and the traditional means of achieving those goals (e.g., a homeless person who is homeless more by choice than by force or circumstance) rebellion is a special case wherein the individual rejects both the cultural goa ls and traditional means of achieving them but actively attempts to replace both elements of the society with different goals and means (e.g., a communist revol ution) What makes Merton's typology so fascinating is that people can turn to deviance in the pursuit of widely accepted social values and goals. For instance, individ uals in the U.S. who sell illegal drugs have rejected the culturally acceptable means of making money, but still share the widely accepted cultural value in the U.S. of making money. Thus, deviance can be the result of accepting one norm, b ut breaking another in order to pursue the first. [edit]Structural-Functionalism The structural-functionalist approach to deviance argues that deviant behavior p lays an important role in society for several reasons. First, deviance helps dis tinguish between what is acceptable behavior, and what is not. In a sense devian ce is required in order for people to know what they can and cannot do. It draws lines and demarcates boundaries. This is an important function as it affirms th e cultural values and norms of a society for the members of that society. In addition to clarifying the moral boundaries of society, deviant behavior can also promote social unity, but it does so at the expense of the deviant individu als, who are obviously excluded from the sense of unity derived from differentia ting the non-deviant from the deviants. Finally, and quite out of character for the structural-functionalist approach, d eviance is actually seen as one means for society to change over time. Deviant b ehavior can imbalance societal equilibrium. In the process of returning societal equilibrium, society is often forced to change. Thus, deviant behavior serves s everal important functions in society. [edit]Conflict Theory A clear example of how deviance reflects power imbalances is in the reporting an d tracking of crimes. White-collar crimes are typically committed by individuals in higher social classes.[136][137] Examples of white-collar crimes include[138 ]: antitrust violations computer, credit card, phone, telemarketing, bankruptcy, healthcare, insurance, mail, and government fraud tax evasion insider trading bribery and public corruption

once a deviant identity is adopted. but also totalling in the bi llions[137] at least 10% of government funds for domestic programs may be lost to fraud ever y year. like loner or punk. and are more likely to be committed by people in higher social classes suggests that the way crimes are punished in the U. It may also be the case that it is difficult to collect such statistics. But it takes the idea of deviance furt her by illustrating how a deviant identity develops through the application and adoption of labels. but that is also likely du e to the fact that a system for tracking such crimes has not been put into place because such crimes are not seen as warranting the same amount of attention as exists for other types of crimes. Much of their behavior leading up to the school shootings ha s been re-interpreted in light of the deviant identity with which they were labe led as a result of the shootings. from health care fraud[137] unclear amount of money lost from financial institution fraud. Examples of more innocuous labels might include father or lover. punk) they adopt the label by exhibiting the behaviors. totalling in the billions[137] unclear amount of money lost from insurance. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold. t ends to favor the affluent while punitively punishing the less affluent. A very clear exam ple of retrospective labeling can be seen in how the perpetrators of the Columbi ne High School massacre. and investment fraud every year. were re-cast after the i ncident took place. telemarketing. it is often the cas e that the past behaviors of the now deviant individual are re-interpreted in li ght of the new identity.S. less likely to be report ed. and attitudes associa ted with the label This approach to deviance recognizes its cultural relativity and is aware that d eviance can result from power imbalances. but also totalling in the billions[137] That such crimes are not tracked more clearly suggests that there is less of an emphasis placed on prosecuting white collar crime than there is on prosecuting o ther types of crime (property and violent crime) in the U. loner. Labeling theory argues that people become deviant as a resul t of people forcing that identity upon them and then adopting the identity. the FBI and the Bureau of Justice Statistics do not provide clear st atistics on white-collar crime. That white-collar crimes are less likely to be tracked.. which include: unclear amount of money lost from corporate crime. but totalling in the billions[137] unclear amount of money lost from money laundering. Another important element of labeling theory involves the idea of stigma. There are two additional ideas related to the labeling theory approach to unders tanding deviance. actions. Additio nally. Stigma . Labels are understood to be the names associated with identities or role-sets in society. allowin g them to reap greater rewards. as they are more likely to attempt these crimes when they are in more powerful positions. but totalling in the billions [137] at least $50 billion lost every year in the U.g. less likely to be prosecuted.S.S. First. like they do with other types of crime.counterfeiting money laundering embezzlement economic espionage trade secret theft As of 2009. Devia nt labels refer to identities that are known for falling outside of cultural nor ms. men benefit more from white-collar crime than do women.[139] [edit]Labeling Theory Labeling Theory refers to the idea that individuals become deviant when two thin gs occur: a deviant label is applied to them (e. The process of re-casting one's past actions in light o f a current identity is referred to as retrospective labeling. Most of the statistics provided are estimates of losses resulting from white-collar crim e.

) estimate that there are 2 1/2 times as many real world deaths due to murder than do non-viewers. [edit]Crime Statistics Adult Correctional Population in the U. the percentage of the population that is in prison is the highest in the world.[141] Heavy viewers of crime dramas o n TV (e. Crime statistics are usually data collected by governments for the reporting of incidents of criminal activity. today are twice as likely to be imprisoned as criminals a generation ago.but this identity is relatively easily hidden as it impossi ble to pick a sex offender out of a crowd. etc. One explanation for this is the increasingly punitive approach of the criminal justice system. it should also be noted that television presents an unrealistic picture of the freq uency of crime. Comparing incarceration rates . which in turn represents only a fraction of those crimes where people have made complaints to the police. including: prison probation jail parole While the population of the United States is the third largest in the world (beh ind China and India). In sum.S.g. According to Wes tern (2007)[142]. whic h in turn represents only a fraction of the total crimes committed. which could mean hundreds of thou sands of prison inmates are actually innocent. leading people to think that crime is more prevalent than it actually is.refers to the situation of the individual who is disqualified from full social acceptance because of some mark of infamy or disgrace or a label that is often d ifficult to hide or disguise.pdf This map illustrates that the U. Law & Order.S. they do tend to receive disproportionate attention in the media . The statistics inc luded in this section were chosen to provide a sampling of how crime statistics can be useful beyond simply reporting incidents of criminal behavior.undp..S. They are useful for a number of reasons. The stigma is the past behavior . is the extensive number of peop le who are currently in the correctional system. [edit]Incarceration Rates and Populations One of the more interesting features of the U.[141] Thus. Source: http://hdr. regardless of current behavior. beyond simply giving an awareness of the extent of criminal activity. has both a lot of people in prison in sheer n umbers but also as a percentage of the population. are stigmati zed. they are stuck with a deviant identity that overwhelms any other identity t hey may have.[140] Stigma extend the idea of labeling theory by illustrating how individual characteristics can be the basis for attaching label s that can be life-altering.[143] The figure to the right brea ks down the correctional system population by the status of individuals in the c orrectional system. It is important to understand that crime statistics do not provide a perfect vie w of crime. Presented below a re statistics on criminal activity and the criminal justice system for both the U. sex offenders. the percentage of pr ison inmates who have been wrongly convicted of crimes is estimated to be somewh ere between less than 1% all the way up to 9%. Map 1. A good example of a stigma that is now increasingly difficult to hide is the publishing of convicted sex offender identities and in formation on websites (see here for an example). particularly violent crime. While debated. those who break laws in the U.the sex offense . Government statistics on crime only show data for crimes that have b een reported to authorities. labeling theory argues that the application of labels (rol e-sets) to individuals is an important element leading to deviant behavior. These crimes represent only a fraction of those cri mes that have been acted upon by law enforcement.S. as illustrated by the map below. By pushing the sex offender identity into public purview. while crimes are under-reported. However. CSI.org/en/media/HDR_20072008_EN_Complete. and selected nations around the world (for comparisons).S.

S. More than half (some estimate around 67%) of prison inma tes will be convicted on another charge within three years of having been releas ed and return to prison. Recidivism rates in the U. (2009)[145] fou nd that individuals convicted of drug offenses were very likely to be reincarcer ated. and federal ex penditures).S. the stigma associated with spending time in prison leads to substantially worse physical and mental health for ex-cons. and anxiety. Another factor that significantly increases the odds of convicts returning to p rison is their return to their former neighborhoods. local. van Olphen et al. Finally.[144] [edit]Gender .[148] That drug courts reduce recidivism is not all that surprising consider there is an actual intent to modify behavior rather than simply removing individuals fro m society.[144] Even though billions of dollars are spent on the criminal justice system every y ear in the U.[144] The judicial process is the least expensive.000.. Another interesting characteristic of the U. but the combined expenses of all three elements total over $200 billion annually (when you combine state. and have limi ted access to welfare and housing benefits from the government. 1982-2006.S.[144] All of thes e problems combine to concentrate former inmates in poor urban neighborhoods tha t have limited opportunities to move out of criminal circles. Countries differ in the restri ctiveness of their laws and prison sentences. have limited access to educational opportunities. Justice Expenditures by Criminal Justice Function. Differences of these types are see n when comparing incarceration rates and populations. they were often denied access to public housing and foo d stamps. Convicted felons are barred from working in cer tain industries.S. Policing the nations streets is the most expensi ve component of the correctional system. the financial outlays actually account for only part of the cos t of mass incarceration. psychiatric disorders. leading to future arrests and convictions. The U.S.[146] Convicts who move away from their old neighborhood are substantially less likely to commit another cri me. Reducing the conse quences of felony convictions and providing occupational and drug counseling wou ld go a long way toward alleviating the high recidivism rates. than elsewhere) by highlighting diff erences in the correctional systems of countries." or alternative sentencing systems that mandate treatment and therapy rather than jail time for drug offenses. For instance.by countries goes beyond just reporting incidents of criminal activity (inciden ts of crime are not much higher in the U.[144] This statistic is revealing of the nature of the p rison system in the U. which led many of the participants in the study to sell drugs to survi ve. The lack of help given to convict s released from prison increases the odds of those convicts returning to prison. A relatively recent innovation in criminal justice that has been shown to modera tely reduce recidivism rates is "drug courts. followed by housing prison inmates. disability.[147] including higher rates of chronic illness. largely due to punitive punishments that accompanied their "convicted felo n" stigma. One factor th at contributes to the high recidivism rates is the social stigma that accompanie s having been convicted of a felony in the US. has a relatively high recidivism rate (recidivism refers to the frequen cy of repeat offenses).S. Millions of additional jobs and even lives are lost as a result of the stigma that follows prison inmates when released (which also exp lains the high recidivism rate). The average annual cost for one federal prisoner exceeds $20. distancing themselves from the social environment that encouraged their crim inal activity in the first place reduces their odds of reincarceration. major depression.: it is more interested in keeping people who commit cri mes away from the rest of the population than it is in attempting to reform or r esocialize individuals to make them productive members of society. is the amount of money that is sp ent on the correctional system. Dru g courts appear to reduce recidivism by somewhere between 8 and 10 percent.

Rape rates in the U. high-school dropout born in the 1960s in the U. than whites. Another way crime statistics can go beyond simply reporting incidents of crimina l activity is in highlighting differences between different groups.[150] These laws were ena cted in 1986 and mandated minimum sentencing .[149] Additionally. One differen ce in criminal activity is seen in the number of violent crimes committed by gen der (see chart). The figures below an d to the right show that rape rates in the U. the arrest rates for African Americans for drug offenses has risen at three times the rate as it has for whites.S.[149] The reason: drug use and trafficking in the inner-city as opposed to suburbs has been the focus o f the war.5 years for possessing five grams of crack. male. one thing is certain. 1973-2003. (This probability drops precipitously for college-educa ted African-Americans. 70%.S. [edit]Race Regardless of one's views on the War on Drugs in the U. 225% vs.500 grams of powdered cocaine got you just 5 years. African-Americans make up 12% of the U. the number of rapes in the U. Since the inception of th e war on drugs in 1980.2 to . per 1000 people.S. Comparison of selected countries' rape rates. is arguably a massive machine that resu lts in the production of racial inequality. Some scholars argue that the disproportionate imprisonment of African-Americans in the U. men are stil l more likely to commit violent crimes than are women. While the difference has narrowed in recent years.[142] The average African-American. the war disproportionately targets African Americans. 31 million drug related arrests have been made. 10 years for 10 grams. and internationally can be seen to reflect power imbalances between men and wome n as men are far more likely to rape women than vice versa. people of African descent. The criminal justice system in the U.Violent crime rates by gender. who ac count for nearly 80% of crack convictions. has a significant impact on the life cha nces of racial and ethnic minorities. 1973-2003.S.S. the inequality in the prison system is unmatched by that in other elements of society.S. Crack and powder cocaine are very similar in effect.S. While the focus of this chapter i s not on exploring the motivations behind rape. population but nearly 46% of prison inmates.[142] The long-lasting effects of criminal conviction and impris onment (convicted felons are barred from many jobs). Serving time in prison has become a normative event for young. But the thresholds for powdered cocaine were 1 00 times as high . have declined in recent years an d also compare rape rates from select countries around the world. 2002.time spent in prison is time spent away from education and on-the-job training. but possession of crack c ocaine carries harsher penalties and is more likely to be used by blacks.S. as the followin g ratios indicate: ratio of African-American unemployment to European-American unemployment . As a result.[148] but between 1980 and 2003. actually countermands the achievements of the civil rights movement.[150] The discriminatory prosecution of African Americans for drug offenses is just one wa y in which the criminal justice system in the U. lower-class Afric an-American males.[142] In fact. penalties for using drugs that are more often foun d among minorities have traditionally been harsher than for drugs used by whites . had a nearly 60% chance of serving time in prison by the end of the 1990s.. The criminal justice system in the U. results in the disenfranchi sement of many African-Americans . many African-Americans end up un skilled and with criminal convictions and felony records. in particular. Another telling crime statistic that is traditionally seen as highlighting power imbalances is the number of rapes in society.) A disproportionate percentage of African-Americans are i n prison. works against African America n equality.S.S. African Americans are no more likely to use drugs than are whites.

e tc.S. African-American are substantially more likely to be unemploye d than European-American. Another illustration of the disparity in punishment in the US based on race is t ied to the death penalty. but the rates in the U. 2002. 1970-2002.[152] However. high residential turnover rates. does not have the highest homicide rates in the world. there is some evidence to suggest that crime and the negativ e characteristics that were believed to cause high crime reinforce each other. There are two general types of social cont rol: formal social control refers to components of society that are designed for the resocialization of individuals who break formal rules. examples would include pr isons and mental health institutions informal social control refers to elements of society that are designed to reinf . Homicide rates in the US.[1 52] This research finds that higher crime rates actually leads to more concentra ted poverty.S. [edit]High Crime Neighborhoods Traditionally people have thought of crime being the result of negative characte ristics of a neighborhood (e. though it is not clear whether that increase rep resents an actual increase in homicides or an increase in confounding factors. or changes in the definition of homicide itself.1 to 5 ratio of African-American incarceration rate to European-American incarceration rate .). for the past 100 years. but most statistics do not include prison populations.g. which then concentrates poverty and crime in that a rea. declining retail presence. 1900-2001.S. are still relatively high compared to other countries (see chart). low incomes. There has been an increase over time.2 to 1 ratio of African-American to European-American wealth ..8 to 1 Another result of the disproportionate imprisonment of African-Americans in the U. Individuals convicted of killing a European-American are five times more like ly to be executed than individuals who killed a racial or ethnic minority. All of these elements combined lead to the conclusion that one of the most racia lly disparate elements of U.S. an increased willingness to report crimes. Only 10% of individuals in the US sentenced to death a re ever actually executed. Homicide rates also vary the age of the victim. Not e the similarity in homicide rates between the 14-17 age group and 18-24 age gro up. s uch as: stricter law enforcement.3 to 1 ratio of African-American infants who die compared to European-American infants who die . is that imprisoned African-Americans are not included in calculations of un employment rates.1 ratio of African-Americans born to unwed mothers compared to European-American c hildren born to unwed mothers .S. as shown in the chart below. This find ings suggests that it is crime that drives away businesses and residents who hav e more money to safer areas. [edit]Homicide The chart below tracks homicide rates in the U. The U. and more residential turnover. [edit]Social Control Social control refers to the various means used by a society to bring its member s back into line with cultural norms. society is the criminal justice system. Homicide rates by age group. Comparison of selected countries' homicide rates.[151] This suggests that the criminal justice system in the US values white victims ab ove minority victims. but which ones are executed is intimately tied to rac e.

" so it does not require a folk devil to explain it. influenc es that are more likely to translate into violent behavior: neighborhood violenc e and instability.S. These motivations include: retribution . Seldom is a connect ion made between adult shooting sprees in the workplace (which are far more comm on than school shooting sprees)[153] and video games. [edit]Tattoos One area of current research into deviance that highlights the socially construc ted nature of norms is tattoos. 13) The ass umption is that playing violent video games will lead children to act out violen tly. etc. middle-class violent offenders who se behavior is explained by alleging a video game connection.finally.some argue that formal social controls should work to rehabilit ate criminals. Many of the individuals getting tattoos do not fit the stereotypes of individuals who get tattoos (e. Some researchers have outlined some of the motivations underlying the formal soc ial control system. those who play them.orce informal cultural norms. and even mental illness. violent video games are the folk devils for violent behavior in children. sailors." (p. job loss.. This is. family violence. e.[154] According to Sternheimer. that number jumps to 28% for adults under 25. In 2003 a survey found that 15% of the U. many of . Seldom is the explanation of a black violent offender's b ehavior playing violent video games. soldiers. In contrast. it is generally white. family probl ems.).some argue that punishments. Folk devils allow us to channel our blame and fear. as a result." (p. "Politicians and other moral crusaders frequently create "folk devils. Additionally. adul t population had at least one tattoo. there is a growing body of literature that is either inconclusive on this issue or that contradicts this assumption: it does not appear as though playing violent video games results in violent behavior. Those who claim violent video games lead to violence fail to realize that violence is context dependent and most players of video games are fully aware of this. V ideo games. eventually turning them into productive members of society societal protection .g. tattoos are a very complicated illustration of the intricacies of deviance. discri minatory. The assumption is that black culture encour ages violence. prison time. violent behavior by young black men is not "shocking . In other words. examples might include parental reminders to child ren not to pick their nose. of course. 17)[153] which means it requires a folk devil culpr it.e. However.). and those who create them have become contempor ary folk devils because they seem to pose a threat to children. The reason why the assumption that playing violent video games is not accurate i s because it decontextualizes violence. Finally.[155] However. The fact that thes e violent offenders are white and middle class threatens the "innocence and safe ty of suburban America. but not for adults. people look towar d contextual influences like those described above (i. will prevent people from committing future crimes rehabilitation .some argue that people should pay for the crime they committed deterrence . offering a clear course of action to remedy what many believe to be a growing problem.g. some argue that the motivation for formal social controls is nothing more than removing the deviant members of society from the n on-deviant members [edit]Current Research [edit]Video Games and Deviance Another area of current research that is of great interest to many people is the alleged effects of violent video games on behavior.. Instead." individuals or groups defined a s evil and immoral. etc. absolving white. many of the studies that have claimed to have found a connection between playing video games and violent behav ior have failed to control for other influences on violent individuals. middle-class America of the blame. Individuals who play video games recogn ize that violence in the context of the game is okay and that it is not okay to be violent outside of that context.. the video game explanation is also illustrative of social-conflict and racial discrimination. bikers. Karen Sternheimer[153] expl ains that a lot of the concern around video games is illustrative of the social construction of deviance.

how tattoos are viewed is changing. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. 1978. W.. 2000. ? Boyer. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics. Electronic Journal of Sociology. Max. Robert D. 2005. John. Still today. 1945-1975. ta ttooing is on the rise among women . troublemakers. ? Glass. Kelly. 1963. This differences illustrates another way in which gender is an action. Another interesting aspect of tattoos is their changing meanings. 2002. Oxford Univ ersity Press. and those don't always align with the intended meanings. men and women get tattoos for different reasons. [edit]References ? Moore. Donileen R. 2001.. Religion Explained. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. With Insurance. 1st ed. ? Denzin. and the Politics of the Military.[155] Additionally. ? a b Mills. and gang affiliation. Intriguingly. Gender & Society 22:172-193. tattoos are decreasingly seen as deviant. May 7 http://www. Tattoos. USA. But t attoos also illustrate that deviance is not determined by the action but by thos e perceiving the action. 2008). Wright. [edit]External links . The Sociological Imagination.php (Accessed August 17. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. then. ? Civettini. While it is pr obably not the case that the meaning (think symbolic interactionism) of tattoos to those who get them is changing (tattoos have traditionally been used to expre ss one's self or commemorate events). ta ttoos are often equated with: drug use.. Inc. Free Press. 2008. Sage Publications. While a tattoo may mean one thing to the person with th e tattoo. Simon & Schuster. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. probably because 88% of Americans know som eone with a tattoo. John E. Disrupting Science: Social Movements. Visceral Verstehen. Princeton University Press. [edit]Notes Two additional theories that might be discussed in future versions of this text include: differential association deviant subcultures theory [edit]Recommended Reading This article in the New York Times Magazine on stopping the transmission of viol ence in gang retributions offers a fascinating insight into both gang life and m easures being taken to curb gang violence. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber. illustrate the sociological understanding of deviance quite well. 1st ed. ? Loseke. 40th ed. and Yvonna S.that way they can still pass when no t in the company of those who are more understanding of their tattoos. Basic Books. Nicole H. The International Heral d Tribune. Springer. W. Norman K. and Jennifer Glass.15% of women have tattoos while 16% of men do. Cavendish. Pascal. Thi s is probably why many people who get tattoos get them in locations that can eas ily be covered in regular business attire .[155] Such extreme s tigmatization is no longer the cause. Lincoln.. ? Dilthey. As a result. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. In the early 1900s tattoos were so stigmatized that they could literally result in pro secution and served as evidence of ill intent and disrepute. 1st ed. ? Putnam. Appeasing the Gods.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. Anchor. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. ? Berger. C. 2001. 2007. Peter L. 1997. For men it is to reinforce their masculinity and for women it is to enhance their femininity. American Scientists. it is still the case that others interpret the tattoo in a multitude o f ways. Third Edition. and James C.iht.those tattooing their bodies are high-achieving students. ? Tierney. 2008. 2008.

and by extension the relative material s uccess of cultures) race is therefore a valid scientific category that can be used to explain and pr edict individual and group behavior Races were distinguished by skin color. An indivi dual is usually externally classified (meaning someone else makes the classifica tion) into a racial group rather than the individual choosing where they belong as part of their identity. a nd texture and color of hair. Medieval models of race mixed Classical ideas with the notion that humanity as a whole was descended from Shem. while related to race. combining skin-color with tribal and national identities. Hamitic (African ). Some of the social traits ofte n used for ethnic classification include: nationality tribe religious faith shared language shared culture shared traditions Unlike race. refers not to physical characteristics but soc ial traits that are shared by a human population. called into question the scientific validity of both characteristics and required a ra dical reconsideration of race. Ancient Greek and Rom an authors also attempted to explain and categorize visible biological differenc es between peoples known to them.Dr. Karen Halnon [edit]Race and ethnicity [edit]Race and Ethnicity A race is a human population that is believed to be distinct in some way from ot her humans based on real or imagined physical differences. facial type. naturally occurring divisions of humanity there is a strong relationship between biological races and other human phenomen a (such as social behavior and culture. cranial profile and size. Conceptions of race. these early attempts developed along with Europ ean imperialism and colonisation around the world. Charles Pickering. and Johann Friedrich Blumenbach.[156] The table below illustrates both how early definitions included essentialist and taxonomic elements and how definitions have changed over time. These scientists made three claims about race: races are objective. Races were almost universally considered to reflec t group differences in moral character and intelligence. Ethnicity. are often controversial due to their impact on social identity and how tho se identities influence someone's position in social hierarchies (see identity p olitics). This early treatment merged racial and ethnic differences. Ham and Japhet h. James Cowles Pritchard. ethnicity is not usually externally assigned by other individuals. the three sons of Noah. . however. and Japhetic (European) peoples. [edit]The Changing Definitions of Race The division of humanity into distinct races can be traced as far back as the An cient Egyptian sacred text the Book of Gates. Louis Agassiz.[156] In the 19th century a number of natural scientists wrote on race: Georges Cuvier . The advent of Darwinian models of evolution and Mendelian genetics. (Asian). producing distinct Semitic.[156] Racial classific ations are rooted in the idea of biological classification of humans according t o morphological features such as skin color or facial characteristics. as well as specific racial group ings. The term ethnicity focuses more upon a group's connection to a perceived shared past and culture. which identified four races accord ing to the Egyptians. essentialism refers to unchanging and inherent characteristics of individuals a nd taxonomic refers to classificatory (also usually hierarchical) in nature. These early understandings of race were usually both essentialist and taxonomic. The first scientific attempts to categorize race date from the 17th century.

Biological definitions of race (adapted from Long & Kittles 2003). a person of Native American and African parentage automatically was classified as African. characteri zed as a group by the sharing of a certain combination of features. mea ning it does not have a basis in the natural world but is simply an artificial d istinction created by humans. But the offspring of only a few generations of Native Americans and Europeans were not c onsidered Indian at all . usually more or less obscured by individual variations. and differing taxonomically from other populations of the species. they consi st of individuals who differ genetically among themselves. Native Americans had tr eaty rights to land. dismissing racial classifications altogether. wealth. Census) for such classifications and comparisons. were classified based on a certain percentage of Indian blood. many social scientists have replaced the word race with the word ethnicity to refer to self-identifying groups based on shared religion. The differing criteria for assigning membership to particular races had relative ly little to do with biology. The understanding of race as a social construct is well-illustrated by examining race issues in two countries. or cult ure. European-Americans had to have purely white ancestry. In the face of the increasing rejection of race as a valid classification schem e. Contrast the African criteria with that of Native Americans. They are neither individuals nor particular genotypes. some resea rchers have turned from conceptualizing and analyzing human variation by race to doing so in terms of populations. Nat ive Americans.[156] As a result of this understanding. adding to the wealth of the slaveowner. Finally. African-Americans a nd European-Americans were classified as belonging to different races. inhabiting a geographic subdivision of the range of a species. which have b een derived from their common descent.S. Native Americans. racial classifications continue. Significant in terms of the economics of slavery. th e government considered anyone with African appearance to be purely African." Taxonomic Mayr (1969)[159] "An aggregate of phenotypically similar populations of a species. nationality." Because racial differences continue to be important issues in social and politic al life. and realized best in a composite picture. the offspring o f an African slave and European master or mistress would be considered an Africa n." Lineage Templeton (1998)[161] "A subspecies (race) is a distinct evolutionary lineage within a species. [edit]Constructing Race in the U. privilege. Most sociologists and biologists believe race is a social construct.S.[162][163] As a result.S.at least not in a legal sense.[157] Concept Reference Definition Essentialist Hooton (1926)[158] "A great division of mankind. that is. the U. This definition requires that a subspecies be genetica lly differentiated due to barriers to genetic exchange that have persisted for l ong periods of time. But the c riteria for membership in these races were radically different. and land in the hands of European-Americans. on the other hand." Population Dobzhansky (1970)[160] "Races are genetically distinct Mendelia n populations. The United States government has attem pted its own definitions of race and ethnicity (see for example U. the mixed-race child of a s lave mother also would be a slave. it had far more to do with maintaining a group's d efined roles and position. Some researchers and historians have proposed that the intent of the differing c riteria for racial designations was to concentrate power. For Africans. [edit]Social Construct or Biological Lineage? [edit]Social Construction Debates continue in and among academic disciplines as to how race should be unde rstood. and constitute a vague physical backgroun d. and Brazil. the subspecies must have historical continuity in addition to current genetic differentiation. Since the early days of the United States. but individuals with only one Indian great-grandparent were .

are concentrated on reservations. Of course. Conversely. based on skin color as given by the individual being interviewed in the cens us. a white father and black mother could have a "white".no longer classified as Native American. . clusters. the racially pure whites. Both schemes benefitted the third gro up. The point being..4% of the population):[164] usually a Brazilian of full or predominant European ancestry or other ancestry (such as German Brazilian) who considers hi mself or herself to be White. that the classificatio ns of race in the early U. because it is based on self-classificati on and there are no objective criteria for what it means to belong to one race o r another. Native Americans in the U. yellow." That Brazilians have more racial classifications than do people i n the United States illustrates the socially constructed nature of race.5%) usually a Brazilian of East Asian descent.3%):[166] usually a Brazilian of full or predominant Amerindian an cestry who considers himself or herself to be Amerindian. disenfranchising them from their claim s to Native American lands. and Indigeno us. it was advantageous to diminish the numbers of those who could claim title to Indian l ands by classifying them out of existence. African Americ ans remain concentrated in the southern U. racial classification in Brazil. the same individuals who could be denied legal claim to Native American lands because they were too White.S." or "par do" child). The earliest blacks in the U. Additio nally. In practice. as depicted in the map below.S. Pardo or Brown (42. it was useful to have as many Africa n slaves as possible. were still Nat ive American enough to be considered half-breeds and were stigmatized as a resul t. That people can "self-lighten" illustrates that race is not a f ixed construct but rather that it is socially constructed.S. most of the "Pa rdo" people are of mixed European and African (mulatos). Some sociologists (and other researchers) still believe that race is a valid and useful measure when understood as fuzzy sets. pardo or (brown). Additionally.e. in a nation bent on westward expansion. of course. black. mostly Japanese. Indigenous (0.[167] Because of the mixing of the races.. White (49. were socially constructed in a fashion that benefit ted one race over the others. "black.. [edit]Biology and Genetics The social constructionist approach has not completely occluded other perspectiv es.4%):[164] usually a dark-skinned Brazilian of full or predominant Black African ancestry who considers himself or herself to be Black.3%):[164] usually a Multiracial Brazilian of mixed-race featu res who considers himself or herself to be "Pardo". because race is self-determined and there is discrimin ation based on race (white are favored)."[168] or report their race as being lighter than an independent obser ver may suggest. race is not inherited but determined purely by physical characteristi cs (i. Black (7. or extended familie s.S. but this category also includes people of mixed European and Amerindian (caboclos) and Amerindian and A frican (cafusos) genetic ancestry[165]. Of particular interest to the discussion of race in this chapter is the fact tha t there is a racial classification that falls between "white" and "black": "pard o" or "brown. is inconsistent about 21% of the time.S. While migration since then has substan tially altered the distribution of African Americans in the U. as depicted in th e map below: [edit]Constructing Race in Brazil The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics classifies the Brazilian pop ulation in five categories: white. In an economy benefitting from slave labor.[167] Brazilians have a tendency to "sel f-lighten.S. Yellow: (0. were brought from Africa as slaves primarily to help in agricultural in the southern U.

Hodge & Zimmet (19 94)[172] Non-insulin dependent diabetes South Asians. Asian. There is a subset of conditions for which individuals of Ashkenazi Jewi sh descent are at increased risk (see here). Proponents of using race in biomedical resear ch argue that ignoring race will be detrimental to the health of minority groups .[156] However. and were able to correctly assign individuals to groups that correspond wit h their self-described race (white. Interestingly. this drug would never have been approved if the researchers had not taken note of racial groups and realized that although the medication was no t effective in previous clinical trials. Recent research indicates that self-described race is a very good indicator of an individual's genetic profile. the existence of genetic differences among race s is well accepted. poverty rates) and that minori ties would be poorly represented in clinical trials if race were ignored. The as sociation between race and genetics breaks down for groups. West Africans Europeans Douglas . which can determine whether they are at increased risk to have a child with one of these conditions. FDA. and Hispanic) for all but 5 individuals (an error rate of 0. whereas only about 1 in 65 African Americans is a carrier ( source). For example. (2005)[169] identified 4 gene tic clusters among 3. Using 326 genetic markers. Native Americans South Asians. They concluded that ancient ancestry/geography.ignores non -genetic racial factors that impact health (e. Examples of some of these differences are illustrated in th e table below. Certain genetic conditions are more common among certain races. Pacific Islanders. Howeve r. Indeed . Peninsular Arabs.g. genetic clusters exist that correspond tightly t o the census definition of race and to self-identified ancestry.. BiDil was recently approved by the U.636 individuals sampled from 15 locations in the United Sta tes. at least in the Uni ted States. the first medication marketed for a specific racial group. West Africans. some fear that the use of racial labels in biomedical research runs the risk of unintentionally exacerbating health disparities. genetic variation within racial groups is greater than genetic varia tion between them.differences in genes . East Asian. Based on this knowledge individuals can be offered genetic testing based on their race.[170] Disease High-risk groups Low-risk groups Reference(s) Obesity African women.S. Tang et al. A large study of African American males showed a 43% r eduction in deaths and a 39% decrease in hospitalizations compared to a placebo.14%). (1991)[171]. et al. Diseases that differ in frequency by race or ethnicity (adapted from Halder & Sh river. African. it is clear that race is associated with differential dis ease susceptibility. In general. There is an active debate among biomedical researchers about the meaning and imp ortance of race in their research. Martinez (1993)[174] Hypertension African Americans. African American. so they suggest alternatives to the use of racial taxonomies. is the major determinant of genetic structure in the US population. etc. such as Hispanics. P acific Islanders and Native Americans Europeans Songer & Zimmet (1995)[1 73]. 2003). De spite the controversy. In general.Genetic data can be used to infer population structure and assign individuals to groups that often correspond with their self-identified geographical ancestry ( e. They argue that disease risk factors differ substantially between racial group s. it appeared to be effective for the sma ll proportion of African-Americans males who were part of the study (source). approximately 1 in 29 individuals of Northern European descent are carriers of a mutation that cau ses cystic fibrosis. t hat exhibit a pattern of geographical stratification of ancestry. which correlates highly with self-described race and not cur rent place of residence.).g.. that relying only on genotypical classes . The primary impetus for considering race in biomedical research is the possibili ty of improving the prevention and treatment of diseases by predicting hard-to-a scertain factors on the basis of more easily ascertained characteristics. Aborigi nal Australians Europeans McKeigue. The implications of such research are significant and can be seen i n different health conditions prevalent among racial and ethnic groups (see exte nded discussion below).

Shriver et al . distinctions between racial groups are declining due to intermarriage and have been for years. Controversies surrounding the definition of race will likely continue for some t ime. we are presented with a better under standing of race. (2001)[1 85] Multiple sclerosis Europeans Chinese. Technically. and Brazil. However. Although prejudice can lead to discrimination. If intermarrying of races and et hnicities continues. Bias. But there are important considerations that go beyond the definition of rac e. There are clearly biol ogical differences between races. prejudicial attitudes advocate denying groups ben efits and rights without warrant and based solely on the unfounded views of the individual. as noted above. prejudice should be differentiated from viewpoints accumulated thro ugh direct life experience. (2002)[182] Lung cancer Africans. self-described African A mericans tend to have a mix of West African and European ancestry. New Zealand Maoris Rosati (2001)[186] Osteoporosis European Americans African Americans Bohannon (1999)[ 187] [edit]Combining Approaches Perhaps the best way to understand race is to recognize that the socially constr ucted boundaries and biological/genetic elements overlap. Such viewpoints or beliefs are not pre-judgments but post-judgments. often based on social ste reotypes. sociologists feel compelled to study its effects at multiple levels.[175] Gaines & Burke (1995)[176] Coronary heart disease South Asians West African men McKeigue. (1985)[184] Prostate cancer Africans and African Americans Hoffman. et al. Native Siberians. Prejudice generally refers to ne gative views of an individual or group of individuals. et al. prejudice can refer to the formation of a judgment without direct or actual experience. the two are separate concepts. At its most extreme. (2000)[180] Systemic lupus erythematosus West Africans. Japanese. Uzbeks. (1989)[177]. any racial classifications in that population would be nothing more t han social constructs. (1996). If a completely heterogeneous population ultimately develops. as was shown in the cases of the U. and Discrimination Prejudice is. Hispanic Americans Hargrave . which is the actual mistreatment of a group or indiv idual based upon some criteria or characteristic. Shimizu. the biological and genetic distinctions will grow increasin gly minute and undetectable. though they are small and. (2003)[188] found that on average African Americans have ~80% African ancestry . by their own definition. many white Americans have mixed European and African ancestry. Alternatively. ~30% of whites have less than 90% European ancestry. It should be kept in mind that prejudice is a belief and may not tra nslate into discrimination. [edit]Prejudice. Native Americans Europeans Molokhia & McKeigue (2000)[181] Skin cancer Europeans Boni. the re is greater variation within races than between races. Race and race-related issues continue to impact society.et al. et al. Because race remains a signif icant factor in social life. But the actual criteria used for racial classifications are artificial and socially constructed.S. Racial discriminatio n in employment and housing still occurs (source). et al. Zoratti (1998)[178] End-stage renal disease Native Americans and African populations European s Ferguson & Morrissey (1993)[179] Dementia Europeans African Americans. African Americans. By recognizing the overlap between the two. Tu rkmens. Prejudice invol ves coming to a judgment on a subject before learning where the preponderance of evidence actually lies. Likewise. et al. Japanes e Schwartz & Swanson (1997)[183]. If the assertion is made that no amount of experience ever enti tles a person to a viewpoint then this precipitates a logical absurdity since an yone who opposes strongly-held views must. For instance. also be prej . European Americans(Caucasians) Chinese. the pre-judging of something. as the name implies.

through explicit thoughts. or acts. restriction or preference based on race. or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullify ing or impairing the recognition.any distinction. feelings. or conveyed through other means . some sociolog ists have argued that prejudices and biases can be seen as necessary human adapt ations facilitating survival.[189] Humans express more empathy when members of their own racial group experience pain compared to when individuals of other racial groups experience pain. source [edit]Expressions of Racism Racism may be expressed individually and consciously. [edit]Racism Racism can refer to any or all of the following beliefs and behaviors: race is the primary determinant of human capacities (prejudice or bias) a certain race is inherently superior or inferior to others (prejudice or bias) individuals should be treated differently according to their racial classificati on (prejudice or bias) the actual treating of individuals differently based on their racial classificat ion (discrimination) An African-American drinks out of a water cooler designated for use by colored p atrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. In fact. Both bias and prejudice are generally viewed as negative. children who identify with a racial minority that is stereotyped as not . Despite having innate preferences towards individuals who look like we do. there is substantial evidence that suggests most prejudicial attitud es and biases are learned and can be unlearned. Racism is opposed by almost all mainstream voices in the Unit ed States... invalidating their own proposition on the grounds of. there is evidence to suggest that humans have an innate or basic preference for people who are like them.udiced. enjoyment or exercise. This suggests prejudice and biases may have a biological compo nent. prejudice. particularly people in opposition to one's own grou p(s).g. or discrimination displayed in an in teraction between two or more people.[190] For i nstance. [edit]Individual-Level Racism Individual-level racism is prejudice. specifically wh en it comes to race. cultu ral or any other field of public life. bias. Prejudice can be taught. Bias can develop through pronounced negative interactions wit h the stereotyped groups. on an equal footing. of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political. like mass media.. However. Postjudgments or beliefs and viewpoints derived from experience that maintain unfair or stereotypical perspectives on a group of people is more accurately referred to as bias. refusing to patronize the only doctor in a town because he o r she is black). through institutions that pro mote inequalities among races. The Uni ted Nations uses a definition of racist discrimination laid out in the Internati onal Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination and ado pted in 1965: . social. Examples of individual-level racism could include: a person believing people of other races/ethnicities are intellectually inferior and that the inferiority is a characteristic of the race a person holding the belief that all young African males are dangerous an employer firing someone because of his/her race Children develop an awareness of race and racial stereotypes quite young (betwee n the ages of 5 and 11) and these racial stereotypes affect behavior. economic. Racism is recognised by many as an affront to basic human dignity and a violatio n of human rights. or socially and unconsciously. exclusion. P rejudice may also be detrimental to the individual personally by pre-judging a p otential ally (e. socialized. A number of international treaties have sought to end racism. prejudices and biases may facilitate interactions (although negatively).. descent. colour. Since humans do not always have sufficient time to form personal views on every other group of people.

reduces net worth for racial and ethnic minorities in the U. has been Affirmative Action. Disparities in wealth.[192] This suggests that differen t racial and ethnic groups are rewarded for academic achievement while others ar e punished. [edit]Racial Profiling Another type of racism is racial profiling. the practice is condemned as rac ially discriminatory by others.S. even when they have th e same income as whites. which. An interesting twist on this type of prejudice can be seen in how high achieving secondary sch ool students are treated. Many critics of racial profiling claim that it is an unconstit utional practice because it amounts to questioning individuals on the basis of w . in the U..e.[191] There is widespread discrimination against job applicants whose names were merely perceived as "sounding black. [edit]Cultural Racism Cultural racial discrimination. occurs when th e assumption of inferiority of one or more races is built into the culture of a society. net worth and education le nd credence to this idea. no matter their level of previous experience. socialization). giving the less privileged a chance at success and w orking to overcome historical social disparity.[190] [edit]Structural Racism Structural racism refers to inequalities built into an organization or system. The researc hers view these results as strong evidence of unconscious biases rooted in the c ountry's long history of discrimination. In this perspective." These applicants were 50% less likely than candidates perceived as having "white-sounding names" to receive cal lbacks for interviews. are less likely to be approved for home mortgages (as a result of practices like redlining). racism is an expression of culture and is also pas sed on through the transmission of culture (i. in turn.. in an attempt to create atmospheres of racial diversity and racial equality. Affirm ative Action is the practice of favoring or benefiting members of a particular r ace in areas such as college admissions and workplace advancement.S. A n example of structural racism can be seen in recent research on workplace discr imination. Additional examples of structural racism include apart heid in South Africa. and. in particular. The figure below illustrates st ructural racism by illustrating how blacks and Hispanics. This is an example of structural racism as it shows a widespread established belief system that treats people different ly based upon their race.[193][194] The figure below illustrates how historical racism has resulted in lower odds of inter-generational transmission of wealth. One response to racial disparity in the U.S. usually harsher treatment. This perspective argues that African-Americans. male Arabs in airports who are more likely to be subjected to ext ensive screening.e. potentially leading to members of those groups to pursue academic su ccess while others are discouraged from doing so. redlining). Two examples of racial profiling in the United States are oft en discussed. [edit]Historical Racism Historical economic or social disparity is a form of inequality caused by past r acism. the system of Jim Crow laws in the U. and the inequitab le lending practices of banks (i. hav e had their opportunities in life adversely affected due to the mistreatment of their ancestors (see slavery). affecting the present generation through deficits in the formal education and other kinds of preparation in the parents' generation.doing well in school tend to not do well in school once they learn about the st ereotype associated with their race. through primari ly unconscious racist attitudes and actions on members of the general population . Another example is the disparate treat ment of young. The disparate treatment of minorities by law enforcement officials is a common example of racial profiling. a variation of structural racism. Racial profiling involves the singli ng out of individuals based upon their race for differential treatment. African American and Native American students with hig h GPAs are rejected by their peers while Asian American and white students with high GPAs experience greater social acceptance.S. Though lauded by many as a boon to society..

In this process. Assimilation can be voluntary or forced. such as Fi rst Nations of Canada. Additional examples of minorities dis criminating against majorities include two instances of colonial rule: . The definition of a minority group can vary. is controversial. A majorit y is that segment of the population that outnumbers all others combined or one t hat is dominant. and determining the extent of privile ges they might derive from their status. making i t easier to kill them. Learning the language of the country or region. This is especially true in situations where the institutions of the dominant culture initiate programs t o assimilate or integrate minority cultures. The assimilation of minority groups into majority groups can be seen as a form o f racism. while not necessarily a numerical minority. The issue of establishing minority groups. they may have difficulty finding work if they do not speak the predominant language for their geographic area). finding a job or going to school. but generally refers to either a sub-group that do es not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population. new contacts. making new friends. T he adaptation is made more difficult when the immigrant does not speak the langu age of his or her new home. the immigrant is generally the one who takes the st eps to integrate into the new environment. the minority group sheds its distinctive traits and i s absorbed into the dominant group. that has arisen during the post-Civil Rights era. There are some who ar gue that minorities are owed special recognition and rights. Bonilla-Silva suggests that a "color-blind racism" ideology supports racism while avoiding an y reference to race. but may also be direct ed against a majority population. and Aus tralian Aborigines have mostly lost their traditional culture (most evidently la nguage) and replaced it with the dominant new culture. [edit]Color-Blind Racism In the US. who often adopt the dom inant culture established earlier. genocide. or a group that. However. while others feel t hat minorities are unjustified in demanding special rights. Many indigenous peoples. Reasons that have been postulated for volunta ry assimilation include: it is seen as an avenue to upward social mobility it is a way to escape prejudice and discrimination Socially pressured to adapt. This presumes a loss of all characteristics which make the newcomers different. the atte mpt to completely destroy a group of people based on a characteristic they share by another group of people who do not share that characteristic. Assimilation can have negative implications for national minorities or aborigina l cultures. as this amounts to p referential discrimination and could hamper the ability of the minority to integ rate itself into mainstream society (i. the continued prevalence of institutional racism has led some scholars like Bonilla-Silva to argue a "new racism" exists. the avoidance of racial language by European-Americans has been used to suggest that racism is no longer an issue. An example of a minority population discriminating against a majority population is seen in the racial apartheid that existed until just recently in South Afric a.[195] [edit]Minorities Racism is usually directed against a minority population. is disadvantaged or otherwise has less power (whether political or economic) than a dominant group. in that after assimilation the distinctive features of the original culture will be minimized and may disappear altogether. South Africans of European descent (the minority) discriminated against the m ajority African population (the majority). instead of what crimes th ey have actually committed.[195] One technique that is often used by individuals engaged in genocide and even in war is racial epithets that dehumanize the enemy.hat crimes they might commit or could possibly commit.e. Native Americans of the US. is often the r esult of racism. Taiwanese aborigines. d epending on specific context. Vol untary assimilation is usually the case with immigrants. [edit]Genocide While not exclusively the result of racial or ethnic tension.

the treatment of the Vietnamese people by the French the treatment of Indians by the the British Racial discrimination is and has been official government policy in many countri es. In the 1970s, Uganda expelled tens of thousands of ethnic Indians. Until 200 3, Malaysia enforced discriminatory policies limiting access to university educa tion for ethnic Chinese and Indian students who are citizens by birth of Malaysi a. Today, many other policies explicitly favoring bumiputras (Malays) remain in force. Russia launched anti-Semitic pogroms against Jews in 1905 and after. Duri ng the 1930s and 1940s, attempts were made to prevent Jews from immigrating to t he Middle East. Following the creation of Israel, land-ownership in many Israeli towns was limited to Jews, and many Muslim countries expelled Jewish residents, and continue to refuse entry to Jews. [edit]Racial Stratification While race itself is a social construction, race continues to play a prominent r ole in societies around the world. Race is often the basis for different types o f stratification. Following are some of the ways society is stratified by race. [edit]Race and Pollution Pollution and polluting facilities are not evenly distributed in the U.S. Commun ities made up predominantly of racial minorities are significantly more likely t o be polluted and to house factories and business that pollute extensively.[196] While it might seem that this is inadvertent and not intentionally racist, the evidence suggest otherwise: these communities are systematically targeted as loc ations for situating polluting businesses.[196] [edit]Interracial Marriage Not until 1967 were laws outlawing interracial marriage abolished in the United States. Prior to that time, an individual from one race who married an individua l from another could be jailed and fined. These laws were referred to as miscege nation laws (miscegenation means "mixing races"). This was the experience of Mil dred and Richard Loving, who married in 1958 in Washington D.C., a district in t he US that no longer had a law against interracial marriage.[197] Mildred was bl ack; Richard was white. When they moved to Virginia shortly after their wedding, law enforcement decided to prosecute them, breaking into their home in the midd le of the night and carrying them off to jail.[197] Both Mildred and Richard wer e from Virginia, where their extended family still lived. The judge who heard th eir case, Leon M. Bazile, told the Lovings during their trial for miscegenation that, 'if God had meant for whites and blacks to mix, he would have not placed t hem on different continents.'[197] He also seemed to take pride in telling the L ovings, "as long as you live you will be known as a felon."[197] The Lovings eve ntually contacted the American Civil Liberties Union, who took their case to the Supreme Court in 1967, resulting in Loving v. Virginia, which abolished miscege nation laws in the U.S. Even so, as the diagram to the right indicates, attitude s toward interracial marriage did not immediately improve. Still as late as 2002 , close to 10% of people in the U.S. favored a law prohibiting interracial marri age. [edit]A Research Example Devah Pager and Lincoln Quillian [198] compared employers' responses on question s involving race-related hiring practices to their actual hiring practices by se nding matched pairs of young men to apply for jobs, either both of European desc ent or both of African descent, but one of the men had a criminal record. Pager and Quillian found that employers claimed they would be much more willing to hir e an ex-offender than they were. Additionally, while the survey results showed n o difference in hiring preferences between African-Americans and European-Americ ans, employers were more than three times as likely to call job applicants with a European lineage back in comparison to Americans with an African lineage. In s hort, Pager and Quillian found that employers, in their survey responses, were m ore open to the idea of hiring both African-Americans and ex-offenders than they

were too the actual practice. [edit]Notes The word race was introduced to English from the French in the late 16th century . It is worth noting that many historical scientists, philosophers, and statesmen appear racist by late-20th century standards. Contextualizing these people, thei r views and opinions in the cultural milieu of their day should allow the astute reader to avoid the pitfall of judging historic figures from present moral stan dards (i.e., whiggish historicism). [edit]References ? Moore, Kelly. 2008. Disrupting Science: Social Movements, American Scientists, and the Politics of the Military, 1945-1975. Princeton University Press. ? Putnam, Robert D. 2001. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. 1st ed. Simon & Schuster. ? a b Mills, C. Wright. 2000. The Sociological Imagination. 40th ed. Oxford Univ ersity Press, USA. ? Boyer, Pascal. 2002. Religion Explained. Basic Books. ? Tierney, John. 2008. Appeasing the Gods, With Insurance. The International Heral d Tribune, May 7 http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier.php (Accessed August 17, 2008). ? Berger, Peter L. 1963. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. 1st ed. Anchor. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber, Max. 1997. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. Free Press. ? Dilthey, W. 1978. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. 1st ed. Springer. ? Glass, John E. 2005. Visceral Verstehen. Electronic Journal of Sociology. ? Denzin, Norman K., and Yvonna S. Lincoln. 2007. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. Third Edition. Sage Publications, Inc. ? Civettini, Nicole H. W., and Jennifer Glass. 2008. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. Gender & Society 22:172-193. ? Loseke, Donileen R., and James C. Cavendish. 2001. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics.. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. [edit]Recommended Readings for Students Dugger, Celia W. 2009. Apartheid Legacy s in South African Schools. The New York Tim es, September 20 http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/20/world/africa/20safrica.html?p artner=rss&emc=rss (Accessed September 20, 2009). This article discusses the continuing legacy of racial discrimination in South A frica. The school system under apartheid favored whites, but even since the end of apartheid, the school system continues to favor whites and the few blacks who make it into the formerly white-only schools. As a result, blacks in South Afri ca who attend the formerly all-black schools remain poorly educated and unable t o find good work. [edit]External links Times Online, "Gene tests prove that we are all the same under the skin", 27 Oct ober 2004. Catchpenny mysteries of ancient Egypt, "What race were the ancient Egyptians?", Larry Orcutt. Judy Skatssoon, "New twist on out-of-Africa theory", ABC Science Online, Wednesd ay, 14 July 2004. Michael J. Bamshad, Steve E. Olson "Does Race Exist?", Scientific American, Dece mber 2003 OMB Statistical Directive 15, "Standards for Maintaining, Collecting, and Presen ting Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity", Federal Register, 30 October 1997. Sandra Soo-Jin Lee, Joanna Mountain, and Barbara A. Koenig, "The Reification of Race in Health Research"

Michael Root, "The Use of Race in Medicine as a Proxy for Genetic Differences" Richard Dawkins: Race and creation (extract from The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrima ge to the Dawn of Life) - On race, its usage and a theory of how it evolved. (Pr ospect Magazine October 2004) (see also longer extract here) From Nova Online: George W. Gill argues here for the biological concept of "race " and, in a matching article, C. Loring Brace argues against the existence of "r ace" as a biological entity. From California Newsreel: Race: The Power of an Illusion, an in-depth website (c ompanion to a California Newsreel film), presenting the argument that while race is a biological fiction, racism permeates the structure of society. And from Am erican Renaissance, a "pro-white" publication, Race Denial: The Power of a Delus ion, a detailed critique seeking to refute the film. See the following Wikipedia articles for more information: Clan Ethnicity Human race Master race Miscegenation Race baiting Race card Racial purity Racial discrimination Racial superiority Racism [edit]Gender

Transgender women performing in Thailand (known as Kathoey ) [edit]Gender vs. Sex Sociologists make a distinction between gender and sex. Gender is the perceived or projected component of human sexuality while sex is the biological or genetic component. Why do sociologists differentiate between gender and sex? Differentiating gender from sex allows social scientists to study influences on sexuality without conf using the social and psychological aspects with the biological and genetic aspec ts. As discussed below, gender is a social construction. If a social scientist w ere to continually talk about the social construction of sex, which biologists u nderstand to be a genetic trait, this could lead to confusion. [edit]Sex Many species of living things are divided into two or more categories called sex es. These refer to complementary groups that combine genetic material in order t o reproduce, a process called sexual reproduction. Typically, a species will hav e two sexes: male and female. The female sex is defined as the one which produce s the larger gamete (i.e., reproductive cell) and which bears the offspring. The categories of sex are, therefore, reflective of the reproductive functions that an individual is capable of performing at some point during its life cycle, and not of the mating types, which genetically can be more than two. In mammals (and many other species) sex is determined by the sex chromosomes, ca lled X and Y. For mammals, males typically have one of each (XY), while females typically have two X chromosomes (XX). All individuals have at least one X chrom osome, the Y chromosome is generally shorter than the X chromosome with which it is paired, and is absent in some species. In humans, sex is conventionally perc eived as a dichotomous state or identity for most biological purposes, such that a person can only be female or male. [edit]Gender Gender is the socially constructed component of human sexuality. Gender is an in ner feeling that you are male, female, both, neither, or somewhere in between. P erhaps the best way to understand gender is to understand it as a process of soc

unlike sex. and aggressiveness. however. such as when the sex of the chromosomes (genetic sex) does not match the s ex of the external genitalia (anatomic sex). are even more common but less well understood. One can thi nk of gender like a role in a theatrical play . culture. once individuals know those expectations and norms. [edit]Gender Discordance A significant proportion of the human population does not correspond exclusively to either female or male genders or sexes. the individual c an adopt behaviors that project the gender he/she wishes to portray. Gender roles are. see this article on intersex. and society. For more extensive discussion of th is type of discordance. Adopting the behaviors and norms of a gender le ads to the perception that someone belongs in that gender category. the boy may play with toy soldiers and join athletic teams. Likewise. gender is fluid and can change.[199][200] Some societies identify youths with atypical behavioral characteristics and. Because gender roles are delineated by behavioral expectations and norms. Some examples may help illustrate the distinction between gender and sex. as s imple as just choosing a role to play but is also influenced by parents. peers.there are specific behaviors and norms associated with genders just like there are lines and movements associate d with each character in a play. For instan ce. Some discordances are purely biolog ical. meaning they can change. When gender identity and biological sex conflict. or accommodate. socialize them in such a way that their individual characteristics let them provide a useful function for the society in a recognized and respected role. Human societies respond to. Discordances between the biological (sex) and psychosocial (gender) components o f gender. Canada. Parent s may socialize a biological boy (XY chromosomes) into what is perceived as a tr aditionally masculine role. parents may socialize a biological female ( XX chromosomes) into what is perceived as a traditionally feminine role. The boy may adopt some tra ditionally feminine characteristics and become androgynous. that in cludes characteristics like: submissiveness. that includes characteristics like: independence. Assuming both children feel like their gender roles fit their identities. This can be seen by continuing the abov e example. such as when the gender does not match the anatomic sex. or may adopt a femin ine persona altogether (see the photos of cross-dressing drag queens for an exam ple of this type of gender construction). may play with dolls and bond with other girls in smaller groups. Gender is not. Either change would involve adopting t he behaviors and norms that go along with the intended gender. co urage. ins tead of giving them corrective therapy or punishing them. ranging from suppression and denial of difference to acknowledging various forms of third sex (see the Kotho ey pictured above). mutable. emotionality. Traditional Gender Characteristics feminine characteristics masculine characteristics submissive dominant dependent independent emotional rational receptive assertive intuitive analytical timid brave passive active sensitive insensitive However. Some of the roles these indi . The girl. It is possible for the boy to decide later in life that he no longer wishes to portray himself as traditionally masculine.ial presentation. The vast majority of people who are discordant in some aspect of psyche or behavior do not have any detectable biological inte rsex condition. and empathy. who may adopt masculine characteristics. these behavioral and psychological discordances in many different ways. the result is sex discordance. on the other hand. Men dressed in drag in Montreal. the masculine boy and feminine girl will behave in ways that reflect their genders. The same is true for the girl.

medicine man. For exampl e. the left parietal lobe.[206] Women attempt suicide more often than men but have lower rates of "success". develops up to 4 years earlier in girls in comparison to boys[208 ] On the other hand. tw ice as vulnerable to anxiety disorders and depression. tend to outlive men. for reasons still somewhat undetermined. As well.[204] Some believe this di fference is due to the riskier lifestyles of men. berdache.[6] However. how much women ca n carry relative to their body size versus how much men can carry relative to th eir body size). tong-ki. some say that girls are better at hearing than b oys. However. Some people have sought to define their sexuality and sexual identity in non-polar terms in the belief that the simple division of all humans into mal es and females does not fit their individual conditions. Girls use the p-cells in the retina. but only one-third as vul nerable to suicide and one-fifth as vulnerable to alcoholism. This could possibly explain why boys are diagnosed with ADHD more often. indicating they are social constructions. and 35 percent stronger in the upper body than the average female[201] Some researchers believe that these physiological differences may have been influenced by social /cultural decisions in our evolutionary past. In fact.4. T his difference could account for the fact that girls are sometimes thought to be better when it comes to language and are more emotional..[203] Women. wom . while boys are thought to be better in math. and walking all occur at about the same time in men and women. Women are also less likely to suffer hyperactivity or speech disorders as children or to display antisocial personalities as adults. [edit]Social and Psychological Differences As the previous section outlined. hijra. men's is 74. statistically. in work group situations in the U. 20 percent heavier.8 years.[202] Even so. female. the average male is 10 percent taller. when measured agains t their own body size. is 79. which are associated with texture a nd color. because their pr eferred methods do not involve firearms. while boys use m-cells. Women's lif e expectancy in the U. In addition to different sex organs and sex chromosomes.[207] Finally. unlike men.[205] There are no significant differences in intelligence. A typical teenaged girl hears up to 7 times better than a typical teenaged boy. xani th. men tend to focus on the task at hand w hereas women tend to focus more on personal relationships. ferm and herm.[20 9].[131] Behaviorally.S. and/or culture. once suggested we recog nize five sexes: male.S. there are a number of gender differences that vary by society. [edit]Biological Differences While much of this chapter focuses on the socially constructed differences betwe en men and women. Although quickly rejected as a bizarre flouting of human nature and social reality and inimical to the inter ests of those whom she was attempting to champion. co mbined with their typically more physically stressing occupations. rather than on an absolute scale (e. women are. women have slightly more olfactory recep tors on average and are more easily re-aroused immediately after orgasm. e nvironment. especially earlier in life.[210] When eating.[207] Much evidence has shown that there are differences in male and female brains. it is also important to note there are some clear physiologica l differences between the two sexes.g. teething. Lastly there is a difference between sight for girls and boys. is thought to develop up to 4 years earlier in boys. A proponent of this mov ement away from polar oppositions. Girls are abl e to see facial expressions / emotions better while boys are able to see motion better. age of sitting. or self-esteem between men and women. which is the part of the brain associated with languag e and emotion.viduals may assume include: shaman. men enter puberty on average two years later tha n do women. the temporal lobe. some gender differences are attributable to bi ology. actual strength differences are minimal. which are associated with motion. it expresses the difficulty a nd imperfection of the current social responses to these variations. However. happiness . and transgender. Gender discordance leads to the understanding that what we traditionally underst and to be feminine and masculine characteristics are social (and cultural) const ructions. which is associated with mathematic al and spatial reasoning.. Anne Fausto-Sterling. merm.

[213] However. similarly qualified women made only 82% as much as their male count erparts. For i nstance.2% of the female population 16 and over). [edit]Work and Occupations An often discussed and debated difference between men and women involves work an d occupations.4% of the female population 16 and over) to 68 million (59. labor force statistics illustrate women's changing role in the labo r force.[8] Women tend to be concentrated in less prestigious an d lower paying occupations[212] that are traditionally considered women's jobs ( also referred to as pink collar jobs). Mulligan and Rubinstein[214] show that much of the narrowing is actually the result of t he most able women entering the workforce and not decreases in the pay gap betwe en men and women. college educated women between 26 and 45 earned 74.[213] The na rrowing of the gap in pay has also been called into question. Ratio of Women's Earnings to Men's Earnings by Earnings Precentile: 1999 The gap between men's and women's wages narrowed during the 1980s and mid 1990s. Thus. Prior to the development of capitalism and factory-type work. but that momentum has fallen off and the distance now appears to have stagnated . For in stance.000. women's participation in the labor force has grown from 32 million (43. Two detailed examples of socially construc ted gender differences are presented below: workforce differences and education.en eating with men tend to eat fewer calories than when they are eating with wom en. at least they have since the 1980s. since 1971. but it is now widest among the most highly paid. the gap is smaller: w omen make about 91% of what men make.[211] Both of these differences in behavior vary by culture and are therefore believed to be socially constructed.7 cents in hourly pay for every dollar men in the same group made in 2005. This difference is often illustrated as a ratio. though their participation in paid labor outside the home initial ly diminished.[213] I n the 1970s.000 per year.[9] Finally. who are predominantly men). a s shown in the graph below.000 less than do men. Current U. Women's participation in the workforce has varied significantly o ver time. However. Women tend to make between 75% and 91% of what men m ake for comparable work.S. It is quite difficult for women to climb to the top in the business world.they require a college education to make the same amount as men with a high school diploma. though it depends on how the comparison is made. $ 17. women are not paid the same w ages as men for similar work. even the apparent narrowing of pay between the sexes lik ely overestimates the actual differences in pay. women continued to play a sig nificant role. For instance. a 28% difference (and t hat's not including the highest earners. women still make less than men. Also. if you compa re women and men with similar profiles and qualifications. as illustrated in the figure below. on average.[214] While it appe ars there has been a narrowing of the gap in pay between men and women. With the a dvent of capitalism and labor outside of the home. at all educational and skill levels. only 3% of tech firms and just 1% of high-tech firms were founded by wo . women's participation in the labor force varied (and varies ) depending on marital status and social class. a man i n the 95th earning percentile would make about $115. women pl ayed a significant role in food production and household maintenance.[213] The gap in income between genders used to be similar between middle-class and affluent workers. A woman making in the 95th percentile in 2006 would earn about $95.[7] Women also make. That women earn less than men with equal quali fications helps explain why women are enrolling in college at higher rates than are men .

Black men and women receive about as many job leads and tips. Additionally. this often requires a period of time outside the workforce. Another factor that may contribute to the higher wages of white men is the numbe r of job leads they receive. when women do have children . read the same script. (2009) fo und that customers who viewed videos featuring a black male.[218] The most common explanation for the wage gap between men and women is the findin g that women pay a motherhood wage penalty[219]. women are often paid less despite hav ing the same qualifications because they are (1) at risk of having children or ( 2) do have children and are penalized for doing so.9% of female high school graduates en . of course.[2 16] This is likely a reflection of the lack of shareholder trust in women. but one is a male and the other is female.[217] The phenomenon of putting women into lead ership positions when companies are in trouble is referred to as "the glass clif f" and is also observed in politics. women pay a pe nalty for their ability to give birth. but parity or equality on a number of levels has still not been achieved. and were in the exact same location with identical camera angles and lighting.customer bias towards white males.[216] For instance. bot h are in their mid-twenties. a white female. resulting in poorer evaluations of women in leadership positions.[221] White men.[215] But the women who do climb to the top of the organizational ladder in business also experience both overt and covert discrimination. whether it's six w eeks or several months. white males are advantaged by their higher number of job leads. married. They interpret their findings to sugg est that employers are willing to pay more for white male employees because empl oyers are customer driven and customers are happier with white male employees. In 1960. [edit]Education Another often studied difference between men and women is educational attainment . to the potential employer accommodatin g a pregnant woman and mother is more cumbersome than a male turned father (desp ite the obvious need for children to continue our species). potentia lly contributing to their higher salaries and more prestigious jobs. They provide further evidenc e to support this claim by noting that white male doctors are rated as more appr oachable and competent than other doctors. As many jobs result from social netw orking.men and very few are headed by women. particularly those in management po sitions. One measure of educational attainment where women have made great inr oads is in college attendance. receive more job leads from friends and colleagues than do white women and Hispanic men and women. despite the fact that all thr ee actors performed identical. Additional reas ons for disparity in pay are discussed below. which would you choose? Many employers choose men over women because women are "at risk" of having a child. T hey also suggest that what is required to solve the problem of wage inequality i sn't necessarily paying women more but changing customer biases. 37. The "Mommy track" often results in women making less money than equall y qualified men who have been in the same job for the same amount of time becaus e women take time off to have children and are often responsible for taking care of children while men rarely do so. Women are also often put into leadership positions in corporations when companies are in a crisis and have little hope for recovery. Thus. Women did eventually gain access to institutions of higher learning. even though they may n ot want to have children. Another possible explanation for the wage gap between men and women has recently been proposed . and straight out of college. regardless of whether or not th ey are actually mothers. And. as women are disproportionately chosen to r un in elections when it is almost guaranteed that the incumbent male candidate w ill win. companies with women on the board of director s have lower stock evaluations than do companies with exclusively male boards. higher education (undergraduate and graduate education) was a n exclusively male bastion. Employers take the time off into account when considerin g raises. Thus. For a long time. or a white male actor playing the role of an employee helping a customer were 19% m ore satisfied with the white male employee's performance and also were more sati sfied with the store's cleanliness and appearance. but only for non-management jobs. You can think about this from the perspective of a pote ntial employer: If you have two equally qualified candidates for a position.[220] Hekman et al.

68. made significant progress in t his respect.[224] Intriguing ly. the degrees are in less prestigi ous areas (e. too. In short.g. Women now earn more Bachelors and Masters degrees than do men.[11] Women have made significa nt inroads into some of the traditionally most prestigious professions as well: 40% of medical school graduates are women and women make up large percentages of law school students as well.4% of females vs. social sciences and humanities compared to physical sciences) a nd women with degrees still earn less than do men with comparable degrees.[10] Women have. Sexism can refer to three subtly different beliefs or attitudes: The belief that one sex is superior to the other. it is not just men who feel that way. This anxiety led girls t o believe boys were better at math than girls. 62.. Some people believe that women should have equal access to all jobs. the right to have sex.0% of male high school graduates. parti cularly in math and the sciences. women tend to concentrate in lower paying specialties (e. which holds that individu als can be understood (and often judged) based on the characteristics of the gro up to which they belong.[223] At the beginning of the class. in fact. When you use research techniques that allow people to ex press how they really feel toward women. Many peoples' beliefs on this topic range along a continuum. girls don't often do as well as boys. dermatology and family medicine). One recent study offers a partial explanation for why this might be the case: highly math-anxious female teachers in elementar y school pass their math-anxiety on to the girls in the classroom. The highest paid specialties are domin ated by men and will be for decades to come. While women are entering college at higher rates and even earning more degrees. but some women. and the law. in most aspects men are superior to wome n. Others believe that while wome n are superior to men in a few aspects. and for the first time in 2009.[213] At the primary and secondary levels. their sex group (male or female). though chauvinism is actually a wider term for any extreme and unreasonable partisanship toward a group to whic h one belongs. but follow-up research[224] found that this percentage was the r esult of response bias. though there is no evidence to su ggest that is actually the case. It can also refer to simple hatred of men (misandry) or women (misogyny). Essenti alism assumes that all individuals clearly fit into the category of male or fema le. there were no differences in math an xiety between the boys and girls. Sexism against women is often called chauvinism. A good example of sexism against women is a question that has been asked in nume rous surveys over the years in the US.[223] [edit]Sexism Sexism is discrimination against people based on their sex or gender. Sexist beliefs are an example of essentialist thought.[222] For instance. nearly 1/4 of Americans maintain sexist attitudes against women. but in classes taught by female math-anxious t eachers. Many forms of radical feminism can legitimately be referred to . Women voting in Bangladesh. m ore female high school graduates were enrolling in college than males. girls developed math anxiety and boys did not. they earned more PhDs. there are still problems.rolled in college. the actual percentage who would not vot e for a female candidate because she is female is closer to 26%. which is also not the case. and only 10% of orthopedic sur gery residents were. which is not the case. language. compared with 54. "Would you vote for a female candidate fo r president?" A 2005 Gallup poll found that 92% of Americans would vote for a fe male candidate.. The belief that men and women are very different and that this should be strongl y reflected in society. It also assumes characteristics are immutable. In 2002. especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towar ds a rival group.g. based on the pipeline of residents: 28% of radiology residents in 2004-5 were women. in medicine. but not to th e boys.1% males.[213] Despite the progress. in this case.

Another example of gender discrimination is the disparity in wealth between men and women.[225] found that sports coverage on major television networks focuses p redominantly on men.g.. Up until the 19th Century most women could not ow n property and women's participation in the paid labor force outside the home wa s limited. lowering future earning potenti al.4 million boys. compared to 3. and (2) reduces experience and tenure. in 1999 that increased to 9%. the ave rage college in the U. and the term is most often us ed to refer to male chauvinism. Whether this treatment of women in sport i s intentional or not.1. Despite the increase in participation in sports.8 million girls played sports compared to 3. the head of a company is engaged in growing his wealth The author attributed the differences in wealth distribution to historical insta nces of gender discrimination.[225] Messn er et al. but also due.S. but it fell back to 6% by 2005. giving only 2% to 3% of air time to women. 294.000 high school girls played int erscholastic sports. only in recent yea rs has an awareness of this reverse sexism begun to develop in public discourse. added 631 new women's teams. the influx of women into those fields has slowed since 2000. to some women (including highly educ ated women) choosing to leave the labor force and stay home with their young chi ldren.2. the little am ount of air time given to women often portrays women's sports as "novelties" or pseudo-sports and often includes gags.[213] .. At the collegiate level. In 1971. By 2 004 the ratio had changed even more . an exception to the f indings of Tickamyer. like the women's nude bungee jump in 1999 . universities in the U. in part. despite the increase in female participation in sports sinc e the passage of Title IX in 1972. as attent ion is often only given to women deemed "attractive" by the news anchors (e. In just the four years be tween 2000 and 2004. stocks and bonds) women are less likely to have control over their wealth than men and are less li kely to be actively engaged in increasing their wealth through investments as.7 million boys..g. Leaving the labor force doubly impacts income: (1) It takes away immediat e income. s ay. it is a clear example of sexism in the media. Additionally. While the view that women are superior to men is also sexism.g. In 1989 women gar nered only 5% of air time. This is not common usage. Sports highlights shows (e. the change was also substantial. The differences in income between men and women mentioned above are partially du e to discrimination. It is possible that wealth among the elite may be redistributed towar d a more equal balance between the sexes with increasing numbers of women enteri ng the workforce and moving toward more financially lucrative positions in major corporations. Additionally. By 1989 that ratio changed su bstantially . ESPNS's SportsCenter) are even less acco mmodating. law). but it does app ear that women are more likely than men to inherit their wealth (especially from husbands) the forms of women's holdings differ from men's. In 1972. medicine.0 million boys.9 million girls compared to 4. Tickamyer found: there are fewer wealthy women than there are wealthy men it is not entirely clear as to whether sources of wealth differ. while women have made significant inroads into many highly pai d fields (e. major network news coverage of women's sports has changed very little over the last 15 years.g. Recent research illustrates the pervasiveness of sexism in the media.. however. but nearl y all countries have laws that give special rights. privileges. which is a safer form of investment than those used by men (e. Anna Kournikova and Maria Sharapova). or responsibilit ies to one sex.as chauvinism.S. Oprah Winfrey is one of the wealthiest women in the world.[226] Using biographical data published in magazines and books as well as IRS income reports. What's more. much of the coverage of women in sports is sexualized. had two women's sports teams. many women have their money in trusts. Certain forms of sexual discrimination are illegal in many countries.

Preparations for gender socialization begin even before the birth of the child. The authors then used a panel to rate the attractiveness of the participants (an objective measure). Another common form of sexism is violence. They explained their findings by discussing the salience of attractiveness for women. Part of the plaintiffs' argume nt rests on the fact that. and beliefs of group membership. It is important to keep in mind that gender differences are a combination of so cial and biological forces. [edit]Theories of Gender Differences [edit]Gender Socialization Sociologists and other social scientists generally attribute many of the behavio ral differences between genders to socialization. It is difficult to prove discrimination in such cases. This is the beginning of a social categorization process that continues thro ughout life. the groups people join are the gender categories. Research[229] finds that gender differences in work and occupations begin with a dolescents' first jobs: first jobs are significantly segregated by sex girls work fewer hours per week than boys girls earn less per hour than boys hourly wages are higher in job types dominated by males girls are assigned more housework than are boys[230] Researchers attribute these differences to gender socialization and differential opportunities for boys and girls. In fact. while roughly 75% of intra-store department heads are women.[213] [edit]Violence Sexism can take many forms. painting the room blue if the child is a boy. including: dif ferences in gender socialization (men believe they need to support their familie s as the primary breadwinners.[12] Men are more likely to be the victims of violent crime. values. the authors had the st udents fill out questionnaires they designed as self-appraisals of attractivenes s. values.Women in some organizations are suing their employers claiming gender discrimina tion. but far less likely to be t he victims of rapes or sexual assaults. leading to greater job commitment) and emphasis b y the government on equality in pay and opportunity between genders. gender socializa tion is the process of educating and instructing potential males and females as to the norms.000 per year) are wom en.[213] For instance. Thus. males and females.000 rapes or sexual assaults. Children in preschool classrooms where teachers were told to emphasize gender differences saw an increase in stereotyped views of what activities are a ppropriate for boys and girls.[231] Using fifty-f ive Johns Hopkins University undergraduates (24 females).000 violent crimes and over 200. while children with teachers who did not emphasiz e gender showed no increase. One of the first questions people ask of expectant parents is the sex of the chi ld.[227] One illustration of early life gender socialization can be seen in preschool cla ssrooms. a characteristi .[228] This study supports the idea that subtle cues that surround us in our everyday lives strongly influence gender socialization. The researchers found that women are fairly accurate in their assessments of their attractiveness but men are not. Preparations for the birth often take the infant's sex into conside ration (e. socialization is the process of transferring norms. behaviors. b ut both play a role in dictating behavior.. In gender socialization. and behaviors to future group members. Ma ny of the gender differences just described are attributed to differences in soc ialization. only 20% of store managers (who make close to $100. many researc hers point out that there may and probably are other root causes. though it is possible genetic and biological factors play some role. including preventing women from attending college an d paying women less than men for comparable work. pink for a girl). sometimes one or the other has a larger influence. As discussed in the chapter on socialization.g. Wal-Mart is currently facing a lawsuit by some of its f emale employees who allege gender discrimination. Another example of research finding differences in behavior between genders can be seen in the differences in self-ratings of attractiveness. In 2002. beli efs. especially violence toward women. women were the victims o f over 900.

are attracted to fertile women ( the symbols of which have changed over time) and prefer more sexual partners. Much current research. [edit]Sociobiology Sociobiologists and evolutionary psychologists argue that much of social life as we know it today has roots in human evolution and biology. Disrupting Science: Social Movements. men. white males are privileged in th e workplace. some of the gender differences in behavior are attributable to differen ces in physiology. For instance. advocating a balance of power between gende rs.women take care of the home while men provide for th e family. They were also treate d differently. Men's dominance of women is seen as an attempt to maintain power and p rivilege to the detriment of women. they are more attuned to their ac tual attractiveness than are men. even when those "white males" were formerly white females. According to these t heories. 2008.) [edit]Research Example A powerful example of how gender affects every day life comes from the recently published research of Kristen Schilt on female-to-male (FTM) transexuals in the workplace.c learned through socialization: Attractiveness is a more important component of women's lives then men's.[232] Bec ause attractiveness is so important for women. soci al conflict theory argues that gender is best understood in terms of power relat ionships. This is seen in the disparity between men and women i n the number of cosmetic surgeries they undergo.[234] genders ar e viewed as complementary . differences in sexuality and sex drives may be due to human evolution. which was developed in the 1940s and 1950s. (See also feminist theory. especially after the women's movement of the 19 60s and 1970s. Evolutionary psychologists an d sociobiologists use this theory to explain differences in sexual behavior. who physically invest more in the creation and be aring of children (through pregnancy). In short. may have a greater propensity toward mono gamous relationships as having a partner to help them improves the chances of th eir child's survival.[23 3] [edit]Structural Functionalism In this perspective. The FTMs who did not experience these benefits tended to be smaller and minorities. American Scientists. meaning "kind of thing".e. [edit]Notes "Gender" is derived from the Old French word genre. It goes back to the Latin word genus (meaning "kind") [edit]References ? Moore. Kelly. [edit]Additional Reading The End of Gender? . They found that their opinions had greater authority and received more recognition for their work. The less on: Perceived gender has a powerful influence on every day social interaction.This is an article that discusses some recent attempts to i llustrate how gender is at least partially socially constructed. on the other hand. Women. This approach is normative in that it prescr ibes changes to the power structure. may be inclined less toward monoga my and more toward polygamous relationships as their investment in offspring can be (and often is) far smaller than that of women. women accounted for 85% to 90% of them. following their change to a male iden tity.[235] Schilt interviewed FTM transsexuals after they had undergone the ir sexual identity changes and found that. criticizes this approach for supporting the status quo and condon ing the oppression of women [edit]Conflict Theory In contrast to the status quo supporting structural functionalist approach. including receiving greater rewards for doing less work.5 million cosmet ic surgeries performed in 2005. att itudes.. Men. two-thirds of the FTM transsexuals saw increased benefits in the workplace . . protection and resources) and prefer fewer sexua l partners than do men.[232] Of the 11. on the other hand. and attractions between men and women: women tend to be attracted to men who can provide support (i.

Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. ? Denzin. we might hear our parents talk about others as being fro m the wrong side of the tracks. 2008. 2002. [edit]Introduction When we are growing up. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. Princeton University Press. 1963. 2005. Norman K.htm Additional Information: female circumcision feminism human sexuality pornography reproduction sexual harassment [edit]Stratification Picture 1. ? Boyer. The Sociological Imagination. ? Glass. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. ? Berger. Cavendish.. Pascal. Anchor. This chapter draws heavily on the following Wikipedia articles: gender gender role human sexuality sex sexism [edit]External links http://www. and Jennifer Glass. With Insurance. 1978. C. Sage Publications. Simon & Schuster. Lincoln. Max. Picture 3. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics.catalystwomen. Robert D. 2001. Free Press. ? Tierney. John.gov/nchs/Default. Oxford Univ ersity Press. W. Most of the population in Cape Verde collects water at public water c hannels. the way others dress. The International Heral d Tribune. Donileen R. USA. Religion Explained.and the Politics of the Military. collecting water. 1st ed. 1st ed. cleaning fish . W. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. ? Civettini.cdc. Picture 2. Third Edition. We also begin to become aware of what kind of toys they have (or don t have). Gender & Society 22:172-193. ? Putnam. 1997. Electronic Journal of Sociology.. 2000.php (Accessed August 17. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding.census. Peter L. John E.iht.. what kind o . May 7 http://www. and washing clothes by hand. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber.org/ http://www.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. Inc. Cape Verde is geographically and economically isolated from the rest of the world. Corn is crushed with pestle and mortar in Cape Verde. 1st ed. 2007. and Yvonna S. Springer. 2008). Women s daily cho res in the rural areas consist of crushing corn.gov/ http://www. Wright. 2001. Nicole H. 40th ed. Basic Books.. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. Visceral Verstehen. or not being our kind. ? Loseke. and James C. ? a b Mills. Appeasing the Gods. 1945-1975. 2008. ? Dilthey.

CEO s in the fortune 500 received an average of $10. and due to this some are trea ted differently and have better opportunities than others. and the more likely we will eat better food. meaning how people are differenti ated based upon their wealth (and/or power). The chapter then turns to dominant theories on stratification.[236] In 2007. These measures reflect three characteristics of individuals: power. property and land ownership. race. we will broadly define socioeconomic status and social class in America. These three characteristics combine to indicate someone s so cial class or socioeconomic status. we have a good chance of graduating high school and entering higher education. power taken by force or the threat of force.5 million.[241] Although inequality is everywhere. more than 37 million U. We look at how capita lism is an important context in inequality. is called coercion. The y are the four children who inherited Sam Walton s company Wal-Mart. Stratification and inequality are everywhere and impact us throughout our lives. Legitimate power. C onsider this: Just 400 Americans have the same wealth as half of all Americans combined[238] Just 25 Americans have a combined income almost as great as the combined income of 2 billion of the world s poor. These resources might be economic or political.[241] Life expectancy in Harlem is shorter than in Bangladesh. Inequality means people have unequal access to scarce and valued resources in society. [edit]Socioeconomic Status Building on the ideas of Max Weber. there are many controversies and questions ab out inequality that sociologists are interested in such as where did inequality come from? Why does it continue? Do we justify inequality? Can we eliminate ineq uality? Can we make a society in which people are equal? Before answering these complex questions. who saw three main dimensions of stratificat ion (class.5 percent of the population. Illegitimate power. income. wealth. and other types of inequality. or 12. is called authority. [edit]Property Property. Property goes beyond income as a measure of socia . such as h ealth care. the Walton s. were classified as poor by the Census Bureau. gender inequality. including educational attainment. the more traditional and conservative our religious affiliation.[239] In 2007.S. and party).f house they live in. power given to individuals willin gly by others. and e xplores class. housing. Together. We see differences in elementary schools and high schools in our city. We end with consequences of inequali ty and theories explaining global inequality. and be able to pay for good health care. the more active we will be in political l ife.[236][237] Stratification refers to the hierarchical arrangement of people in a society. and ability t o influence government policy. refers to the sum total of one s possessions as well as their regular income. as used in this context. Sociology has a long history of stu dying stratification and teaching about various kinds of inequality. citizens.[236] Four of the wealthiest people in the world come from one family. status. will be less exposed to unhygienic conditi ons. the more l ikely we will marry into a family with both economic and social capital. and prestige.[240] Half of American children will reside in a household that uses food stamps at so me point during childhood. and gender inequality in more detail. If our parents belong to the u pper class. pr operty. Th is chapter focuses on economic stratification. 344 times the pay of the average worker. including e conomic inequality. education. and occupational prestige. contemporary sociologists often define stratific ation in terms of socioeconomic status (or SES). the y are worth $83. There are a variety of ways to measure SES.6 billion. [edit]Power Power refers to someone s ability to get others to do his/her will. Statistics on United States and global inequality are widespread and alarming. what job their parents have. The more education we have. regardless of whether or not they want to. racial/ethnic inequality. jobs.

000.000 B. These three indicators tend to go hand-in-hand or lead to each other. In other words. There was not a surpl us of goods.000 to $45. There was very little trading between the g roups and there were not many inequalities between groups. [edit]Prestige Prestige refers to the reputation or esteem associated with one s position in soci ety. Managers informed workers to punch out of the time clock and to begin so me additional work (without pay).g. The gap between the wealth of white families and the wealth of African-American familie s and Hispanics has also increased.677 for AfricanAmericans. In hunter/gather societies. In addition to trying to survive o n her wages. Briefly. house maids. earning hu ndreds of millions to billions in income per year while the lower-upper class (2 %) earns millions in annual income. but for most people in developed countries. earning under $9000). Their prestige is fairly low. and 18 times greate r than the average Hispanic family. a person ranks different ly on these indicators. Among other low-wage jobs. it might be useful to desc ribe a few characteristics of these societies.0 00. population).l class as it reflects the accumulated wealth (e.C.000 or more per year while the lower-middle clas s (26%) earns $46.[244] Let s take a step back now and see where inequality really began. the upper class in America (3% of the popul ation) is divided into upper-upper class (1% of the U. small groups of people gathere d what they could find and they also hunted and fished.[242] [edit]Social class in America Sociologists Dennis Gilbert and Joseph Kahl developed a model of the American cl ass social class structure.149 in net worth. such as a Supreme Court justice who is usually wealthy.).00 per hour. sh e worked in Wal-Mart. Everyone possessed basically the same as everyone else. enjoys a great deal of prestige. In Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting by in Ame rica. but most have higher incomes than college professors. The middle class (40%) is divided into upper -middle class (14%) earning $76. a nd exercises significant power. and retail clerks. bonds. Property is a better overall measure o f social class than income as many individuals who are considered wealthy actual ly have very small incomes. homes. The divisio . [edit]Origins of Inequality and private property The origins of inequality can be found in the transition from hunter/gatherer so cieties to horticultural/pastoralist societies. Prestige used to be associated with one's family name. she described how working overtime without pay was the custom at Wa l-Mart. The lower class (27%) is divided into working poor (13%.[242] Among America s working class and working poor are hotel housekeepers.. savin gs) in addition to one s earning potential. earning $9000 to 18 .S. Barbara Ehrenreich describes her experience of working a series of low-wag e jobs in 1998 and trying to survive on her wages.[243] Because of the Great Recession from 2007-2009. however.000) and underclass (14%. An individual s prestige is closely tied to their social class the higher the prestige of an individual (through th eir occupation or maybe family name). the average white family had $113.000 to $75. waitresses. People grew and collecte d their food for all of their needs. compared to $6. Today. The working class (30%) earns $19. the higher the social class. (around 50. the gap between the rich and poor has increased in America. Occu pations like physicians or lawyers tend to have more prestige associated with th em than occupations like bartender or janitor. the richest one percent of Americans earn near ly a quarter of the country s income and control 40 percent of its wealth. stocks. The average wealth of a white family in 2009 was 20 times greater than that of the average black family. In some cases. Here. prestige is now generally tied to one's occupation. such as funeral directors. who are among the most ed ucated people in America and have high prestige.325 for Hispanics and $5. earning $6.

pri vatization. These ideologies legitimatize the position of the rich and powerful and explain and justify the position of the poor. In horticultural/pastoralist societies (around 12. People did almost the same jobs as each other. the right to private property is an important value in most societies. people had m ore time to do other work besides producing food. The poor are poor because they are lazy or irresponsible or unmotivated. His arguments reflect social reproduction theory. and air. Food gather ing and food production was the focus of work. there was collectivity in the space and land in Europe.C. and they also have great influence on government power.000 B.n of labor was small. 15th. Land. and education) that favor them. once shared by all. once shared by everyone in the world. the Walton family made $3. People farmed land in a collective way because they saw it as something for everyone to take care of and for everyone to enjoy the fruits of their labor. Collective land and space. Research shows that Americ ans believe in equality.). oceans. Fast forward many millennia later to just before Industrialization began.[247] The Waltons have great economic power and also the ability to influence government through large donations to p olitical actors that protect their positions and their businesses. which focuses on the ro les of institutions and cultures in the perpetuation of inequality and the proce ss by which the social class structure is maintained. They are typically the owners of the means of production (factories.[245] The concept of private taking and private property began to flourish in the late 15th century beginning in Europe and spreading around the world. ec onomy. For the first time. Even so. The rich and powerful also have control over the media.[236] One belief system that people commonly embrace--mistakenly. it is their fault. and intellectually superior and thus more deserving. and 16th centuries. and the laws governments ma ke. began being bought and sold like products in a store. including the rules governm ents follow. Their thinking helped people consi der that inequality was the result of the actions and intentions of social insti tutions and specific groups and not the will of God. [edit]The persistence of inequality Sociologist Joel Charon[246] offers a few reasons why inequality continues in so ciety. such as making leather and mak ing weapons and other special skills. groups grew to be v ery large and humans settled down in one place.2 million in political contributions in 2004. The great land masses of the world were reduced to private property.is that the rich and powerful are more talented. culture teaches the acceptance of inequality. Life was brutal and harsh.[245] The idea that there should be equality in society emerged in the 17th and 18th c enturies in the writings of Hobbes and Locke. the question of th e origin of inequality remains today in addition to why inequality continues. transportation) and have the resource s to protect themselves and their positions. Discourse on Inequa lity. The groups then traded with each other. For example. but there was a joint and shared responsibil ity in the way people lived their lives and went about their work. Karl Marx argued that the rich and powerful have control over the means of production. Research also shows that Americans view inequality as j ustified. First. Inequality co ntinues because those at the top protect their positions and use their power to influence other parts of society. began to be divided up into private takings and private ownership (and this continues today). This new division of labor led to surplus of goods. Air was divided into air corridors that were bought and sold for commercial traffic for airplanes. If they can t make it. accor ding to contemporary economic research-. which is economic power. This led to inequality because some people accumulated more possessions than others. Today. In the 14th. With deregulation. Laws and regulations were created that allowed a country to claim a c ertain amount of water for exploitation. These are ideologies that protect the system of ine quality. machinery. the cou rts.[246] Second. land. Jean-Jacques R ousseau linked private property with inequality in his book. the people who work for the government. hardworking. the schools. and free trade. and many other parts of society and they support institutions (religion. the rich and powerf ul protect the system of inequality. we continue to see a private taking and private owne rship of entities once shared by everyone.[246][248] People tend to accept i .

inheritance laws that allow families to pass on wealt h.[246][24 8] The American dream contains the belief that every individual can achieve prosper ity and success through hard work and self discipline. police. whether chance of birth or circumstance decides life s big winners and losers. debutante balls (a formal introducti on and presentation of young women to society) and the social register (a book l isting the most important and famous American families) are ways that the wealth y maintain their cohesion and pass on their prestigious positions to their child ren. but because over tim e people believe their situation is natural and normal and it is what they expec t from life. upper-middle class students learn leadership a nd creativity. important cultural values are taught early on which suppor t the system of inequality. and reach their dr eams. Working-class students partici pate in informal play. such as t he high unemployment rate. and prisons work together to protect the system of ineq uality. but if the conditions that generate social inequality are conscious and intentional creations of human actions. you can rise to the top.500 per hour during the 2004 tax year. and don t give up when the going gets rough. teach different values to different social classes. and hanging out. lack of state supported child care or health care. and tax policies that favo r the wealthy. depending on the roles they will pla y when leaving school.nequality. is it at all possible t o eliminate it? [edit]Can we eliminate inequality? Inequality and poverty didn t just drop down from the sky.. Peop le accept as truth these beliefs: If you work hard. get ahead. [246] Parents who attended prestigious boarding schools and Ivy League colleges such as Harvard.[247] Third. Preside nt Barack Obama said in a speech in 2005. and it normally brings a n acceptance of one s relative position in the system of inequality. Research has shown that the criminal justice system in the U. and the sacred ideal of equal opportunity. is biase d against the poor from start to finish. get an educa tion. from the definition of what constitutes a crime through the process of arrest.[253] Much of society seems to encourage and protect the system of inequality. or Princeton expect their future offspring will attend su ch schools. Finally. people are socialized to accept their position in life. The previous section sh ows it is embedded in society in many ways. U. You ca n be anything you want to be. These include a focus on the individual. a value of hard work. [edit]Dominant Perspectives . We will examine this complex issue in the next section. and friends show us our position in society and teach us to expect that same level.[251] In addition. Yale. [249] While these might be inspirational words. Where there s a will. and sentencing. Workin g-class students learn obedience. In the United States. at t he very least.S. everyone has a chance to work hard. trial. visiting family. the Walton family received a federal tax cut of $91. measurable achievement. Work hard. or whether we build a community where.[250] Ivy League colleges. Parents. The rich and powe rful socialize their children to expect wealth and power. anyone can make it if they try hard enough. private country clubs. courts.S. Harvard researcher Michael Hurwitz found that legacy students were 4 5% more likely to be admitted to elite colleges. they focus on the individual and leave out the social structural causes of inequality and poverty. in particular. Elementary and high schools in the U. Given a ll of these ways inequality is perpetuated in a society. For example.[236] Upper-middle class students participate in activities that f ocus on public performance and skill development. [252] Socialization brings the acceptance of a culture that justifies inequality. education helps to reinforce an acceptance of inequality and educat ion prepares each social class differently. not because they are happy with their situation. These values support the inequal ity that already exists and these values deny the impacts of inequality. there s a way. teachers.[246] This means teaching the appropriate skills but also the appropriate values for each social class. As a startling example. America is the land f opportunity. they can be changed.S.

. income. many wealthy families pay low wages to nannies to care for their ch ildren. cleaners.S. because little training or talent is required to perform their job . [edit]Structural-Functionalism on stratification The structural-functional approach to stratification asks the same question that it does of the other components of society: What function or purpose does it se rve? The answer is that all parts of society. Conflict theorists believe that this competitive system. Garbage collectors are important to public sanitation. In ot her words. according to this theory. earns $29. In another exam ple. nurses. However.Two classic approaches to stratification provide interesting insights into this phenomenon. most peop le would not notice. tax breaks. The layers (strat ification) are the inevitable sorting of unequal people. Doctors should be rewarded highly. Stratificat ion and inequalities are inevitable and beneficial to society. as the accomp anying specialization and inter-dependence make every position necessary to the overall operation. and therefore was elected to a positio n with great power the U.[236][242] Second.[242] As mentioned previousl y. or waitresses stopped working. even poverty. meaning whether few other people can perform the same function adequately. Do his earnings demonstrate his contribution to society? If N BA players or famous comedians went on strike and decided not to work. because great training is required to do th eir job. winners an d losers. The engineers in a factory for example are just as important as the other workers in the factory to the success of a project. va cations. preside nt George W. promotion) to motivate the most qualified people to fill the most impor tant positions. Bush. garbag e collectors. and therefore. the Walton family receives enormous tax breaks. if teachers. a primary school teacher in the U.000 per year whereas a Natio nal Basketball Association Player can earn as much as $21 million per year. structural-functionalism and conflict theories. ends up creating and perpetuating stratification systems .g. contribute in some w ay to the larger system s overall stability. benefits the rich. or distributing it to those who need it most.[236] There are several obvious problems with this approach to stratification. it is difficult to determine the functional importance of any job. society would close down. rather than distributin g it equitably. and other support that the government has created for big businesses. wealthy. and that the best people end up on top because of their superiority. American). Corporate welfare is one example where an arrangement of direct subsidies. was not the smartest or most politically talente d individual but he was well connected and born at the top of the stratification system (white. but do not need to be rew arded highly. Former U. Inequality ensures that the most functionally important jobs are filled by the best qualified people. The layering is useful because it ensures that the best people are at the top and those who are less wo rthy are further down the pyramid and therefore have less power and are given fe wer rewards than the high quality people at the top.S. gardeners to attend to their rose gardens and maids to pick up their dir ty socks. in particular. male.S. Inequality is inevitable with in a system that has individual competition at its core. First. Are basketball players more essential to society than teachers? Are basketball playe rs more functionally important than teachers? In 2009. presidency. But. For example. it makes sense for the CEO of a company whose position is more import ant functionally to make more money than a janitor working for the same company. There is little connection between income and jobs that are functionally important in a s ociety. [edit]Conflict Theorists on stratification Conflict theorists argue that stratification is dysfunctional and harmful in soc iety. Another problem with this approach is that it assumes that only a few chosen peopl e should have all the power and all the material wealth. for example. A job s functional importance is determined by the degree to which the job is uni que. together with t he way the game is fixed . in real life. the system does not work so easily or perfectly. It is logical that society must offer greater rewards (e. this approach assumes that the system of stratification is fair and rati onal. bus drivers. Stratification benefits the rich and powerful at the expense of the poor. comedian Jerry Seinfeld e arned $85 million. Capitalism.

One child in first class died. and each person should receive the fruits of th is labor according to their need. without resources for several days and without basic necessi ties of food and water. th e privileges. The poor in the U.[25 4] The wealthy had cars to leave New Orleans. Research shows people are as likely to move downward as they are upward in the class system. while only 24 % of third class passengers survived. colors and gender equally. Currently. Competition and inequality are not inevitable but are created and maintained b y people. In other words. the expansion of low-paying servic . wealth. and power between t he few people on top and the masses of people at the bottom.[255][256] [edit]Capitalism. and the inequalities experienced for individuals and groups. the creator of Duty Free Shoppers. red and grey indicate a low level of development. [edit]Intersections of Class. with living conditions among the poor comparable to those found in developin g countries. all were not affected the same. as people do not have any control over thei r work and whether they can keep their jobs. The unequal impact of this tragedy was not unique. both within the U. In the sinking of the Ti tanic in 1912 for example.[247] Functionalists also argue that conflict t heorists underestimate people s ability to move upward in society. the Walton family has given less th an 1% of their wealth to charity. the roles of class. Economic class. and Gender Green indicates high development. African Americans. In contrast. In New Orleans. Though the storm displaced hundreds of people from all b ackgrounds. public. Many of the televised ima ges showed poor. For those at the bottom. Chuck Feeney. to each according to their need. and gender were made apparent to the U. classes. Capitali sm produces enormous amounts of wealth.[248] Despite the myth that hard wor k leads to getting ahead and making it. Marxists ar gue that a central component of a more equitable and humane society would be bas ed on the idea. Stratification systems that concentrate decis ion making and power in the hands of a few are destined to not serve the interes ts of most people at the bottom of the pyramid. Functionalists criticize this approach by arguing that people do not always act largely out of economic self-interest.[242] Bill Gates has give n 58% of his wealth to charity. many who were women and their children. while 49 ch ildren in third class died. Confl ict theorists also believe that democracy or some sort of group decision making is more humane and more effective. aban doned in the storm. class. stress. They also had insurance policies for rebuild ing.. Race. Capitalism is a sys tem that produces cruel consequences. and anxiety among members of the working class and middle class. These inequalities result fro m a class system based on increasing gaps in income. and around the world. The U nited States continues to be greatly stratified along these three lines. and credit cards and bank accounts for emergency hotels and supplies. from each according to their ability. the loss of industrial jobs going overseas. 60% of first class passengers survived. For example. for the most part people have little pow er to improve their class position. privilege. and around the world are most l ikely to suffer from natural and human tragedies. and oppression Class plays an important role in the forms of privilege and oppression. each person should produce or work to the best of their abi lity according to their talents. yellow and orange indicate a medium level of d evelopment. in addition to increasing levels of ineq uality. corporate downsizing . They argue that if people really want to succeed. shape the opportunities. in conjunction with race and gender. irrespective of what they have produced.S. r ace. has given $4 billion to charities.S. they can do so through hard work.S. the costs are gre at. Capitalism causes competition.[242] [edit]Can we make a society in which people are equal? Societies could be redesigned so that they are based on cooperation. This wa s seen when Hurricane Katrina hit in 2005.

we looked at how stratification begins when we are young. have combined to resul t in many people struggling to keep the jobs that they have. airlines and shippi ng lines formerly owned by the Cape Verdean government have been sold to foreign . women raise the next generation of workers on which capitalism depends. and caretaking. cooking. payment. All of these institutions support the stratification system by favoring the rich and powerful.[248] [edit]Capitalism. [edit]Micro-level prestige and influence Stratification occurs in small groups and face-to-face interaction. in clothing sweatshops in Lo s Angeles. parents. wealth. which by its nature increases the wealth of the few owners by controlling workers and keeping wages as low as possible.S. and the loss of jobs to other countries i llustrate a core belief that the greatest problem American workers experience is unfair competition from immigrants in the U. Wal-Mart has been sued for unfair practices in the training. Forty-nine percent of the banks.S.[237] [edit]Meso-level access to resources Our positions and connections in organizations and institutions lie within the s tratification system. t hey are taking our jobs ignores the capitalist system itself. and Europe) Cape Verde is part o f the global economy in other ways. (See Picture 1. Besides bei ng in debt to countries of the North. and on rose farms in Ethiopia which pay women a dollar a day. Cape Verde is a debtor n ation with a total external debt of $360 million at the end of 2002. and it allows a few owners to control the majority of wealt h. The police. in particular has been accused of discri mination against women. a nd friends show us our position in society and teach us to expect that same leve l. and what job our parents ha d were symbols that differentiated us and separated us in elementary schools and impacted which friends we played with and the interactions we had. a new bicycle. the nation s largest private employer. Throughout our lives. (the U. leaving a tiny share to be distributed among everyone else. and prisons reinforce the strati fication system. At the begin ning of the chapter. Let s look at C ape Verde as an example. Women workers are exploite d for cheap labor as nannies and maids in New York. expensive toys. self confidence. they account for only a third of all management. courts. and prestige are given to individuals who h ave knowledge and access to important information and influential people in soci ety.[248] [edit]Points of View: Micro-Meso-Macro We now turn to three levels of analysis on stratification. with different skills and v alues taught to each class. Although over seventy percent of Wal-Mart s hourly workers are female. and workers abroad. power. teachers.[257] Capitalism would no longer function if the mass of women stopped doing the shopping. West A frica. hotels. and the Great Recession beginning in 2007.S. it is geographically and economically isolated from the rest of the world . as well as individual qu alities of leadership.e occupations. [edit]Macro-level factors influencing stratification Our position in the international economic system in the world shapes our opport unities throughout our life and our access to important resources. rather than being a ble to move upward. Our position in the system reflects the type of health care we receive. a fancy car. race and gender inequality The increase of immigrants in the U. and promotion of its female employees. Education prepares each social class differently. Located 450 kilometers off the coast of Senegal. C lothing. cleaning. This impacts how we experience life and how we interact wi th other individuals and groups. and physical attractiveness. The poverty rate in 2003 was 37 percen t including 20 percent who are identified as extremely poor. The belief. Wal-Mar t.[237] As mentioned earlier. Women do this work without receiving any extra pay or benefits. The country s major industries are owned by na tions of the North.) About one quarter of the population remains unemployed and an additional 26 percent are underemployed.[248] Capitalism also takes advantage of gender inequality. Gender and race influence our degrees of networks. For the most part. The country is rank ed 38 in the Human Poverty Index by the United Nations.

and provide sophisticated equip ment.[260] Private tutors. the lack of affordable hou sing is a critical concern for poor families and many families live in weekly ho tels which are cheaper than paying monthly rent. In addition. Hunger is also connected to class. and others.[259][260] The poor are not able to provide the same educational opportunities for their ch ildren as the wealthy are.50 a day. and charter schools allow children from wealthy families to gain entrance to elite colleges and find jobs more quickly after graduation. Portuguese investors own forty percent of the state tel ecommunications company. In Orange County. 5. such as water.investors.00 a day. School districts in wealthy suburban areas tend to pa y higher teachers salaries. Our final section explores global inequality. In addition to the high cost of food. 8 6% of the population in Zambia lives in poverty while 4% of the population in Be lgium lives in poverty.[258] (See picture 3). are a result of policies o f privatization. as previously mentioned. or violenc e. The wealthy and well-educa ted are much more likely to be in good health. 78 percent of Ethiopians earn less than $2. the increased cost of privatized en ergy has forced people who cannot afford the electricity to return to traditiona l oil lamps. its huge cost prevents the poor from seekin g care. experienc ing job loss and price hikes. including the national airlines. power. Children born into poor families are at much greater r isk of dying during their first year of life from disease. (See Picture 2). and day to day life for citizens in Cape Verde and around the w orld. What class we belong to directly relates to our individual l ife chances. so parents with young children live across the stre et in motels. have newer buildings. California. SAT preparation courses. Let s look at a few more points in detail. On one island. the national oil supply company. and have access to good medical c are than the poor. Both the country s private secto r business class and low-income households have been greatly impacted. Children enjoying traditional bread during a celebration in Ethiopia. Among the working poor. and prestige continues. their children have a good chanc e of attending the same elite college. Low-income women especially have been impacted from structural adju stment programs. The poor have shorter life expectancies and are at greater ri sk for chronic illnesses. The cycle of wealth. (See Pictures 4. . Approximately 45. It is e stimated that 13 percent of children under age 12 are hungry or at risk of being hungry. a key element of neoliberal and Washington Consensus economic re forms. When medical attention is needed.7 million people in the United States were witho ut health insurance coverage in 2007. accidents. and 6). which have cut governmental provisions on health. Students in central city schools and poverty stricken rural areas often at tend rundown schools that lack necessary equipment and teaching materials. lives on less than $2. The dominance of foreigner investors in even the indust ries that supply the most basic needs. prices of food. Macro level factors such as policies implemented by the World Bank and I nternational Monetary fund impact the job opportunities. an d food. And.[261][262] Why is there such a large gap between Zambia a nd Belgium? Why are the poor still poor? Who is to blame for poverty? Social sci entists offer a few theories which help to explain the causes and consequences o f global inequality. For many. And the International Monetary Fund continues to push its privatization drive demanding that Cape Verde privatize its few remaining publi c enterprises. education. almost 75% of the children are thought to be in this category. and electricity. [edit]Consequences of Inequality In the opening paragraph and throughout this chapter. we presented many conseque nces of inequality. water. over 3 billion people. [edit]Global Inequality Picture 4. the high cost of insurance prevents Americans from having good medical care. l ow-income parents working full-time at Disneyland for $9 per hour still struggle to find affordable housing. the national transportation company. Almost half the world.

Modernists believe larg e economic growth is the key to reducing poverty in poor countries. In addition. women. Also. modern technologies such as machinery and electronics. the government was sending dried meat to Egypt. G iven enough time. such as traditional economic systems and forms of gover nment. between 1970 and 2002. and cocoa. techno logies and institutions. The difference. Brazil is the second largest exporter of agricultural products but 50% of its population is malnourished. Wealthy countries would not be as rich as they are today if they di d not have these materials. Sen and Grown[264] call this denationalizing of the Global South.[edit]Development and Modernization This theory blames tradition for global poverty. This theory blames colonialism and neocolonialism (continuing economic dependenc e on former colonial countries) for global poverty. Even during the peak of the infamous 1985 famine. forced hundreds of thousands of men. Traditional huts near Wondo Genet. is a result of compound interest. economic relationships betwee n countries tend to benefit the wealthier countries. for example. and jewe lry in wealthy countries. Instead. Ethiopia.[258] This is common around the globe.[263] The Democratic Republic of Congo is still suffering today from the plunder of resources and the torture and killing of millions during Leo pold s rule. Although Ethiopia has one of the lar gest populations of cattle in Africa. tea. Ethiopia. . of course. These theorists argue poor soci eties stay poor because they hold onto traditional attitudes and beliefs. modernization will occur everywhere in the world. and much of the population suffers from ma lnutrition. wealthy nations have taken a great quantity of materials from poor countr ies such as minerals and metals necessary to make automobiles. Widespread mal nutrition is one of the effects of this foreign dependency. For example. [edit]World Systems Theory Picture 6. The invention o f the bicycle tire in the 1890 s and later the automobile tire meant that rubber w as in high demand. the rise of capitalism brought modern a ttitudes. and modern inst itutions which helped countries progress and have a higher standard of living. In contrast. [edit]Dependency Picture 5. African countries have paid back $550 billion of their debt but they still owe $295 billion. in the modern world. Countries have developed at an uneven rate because wealthy countries have exploited poor countries in the pa st and today through foreign debt and transnational corporations (TNCs). could be planted and harvested to feed people but is planted in stead with cash crops for foreign exchange. the continent of Africa received $540 billion in loans from wealthy nations and fro m the World Bank and IMF. Dependency theorists believe large economic growth is not necessarily the key to reducing poverty and developing. weapons. Due to indebtedness and foreign depe ndence. and children to work as slaves in the Democratic Republic of Congo. earning L eopold millions. sugar . In addition. King Leopold II. Some of the land in Cape Ve rde for example. techn ical innovations. the government continues to export large numbers of cattle to the Mi ddle East. Histori cally. and wild rubber vines were widespread in the Congo. wealthy countries increased their own profits by organizing cheap labor through slavery. Eventually g lobal capitalism and its modern corporations will hold these modern ideas. who was King of Belgium from 1865-1909. Countries cannot focus on economic or human development when they are constantly paying off debt. and efficient institutions everywhere. fresh produce is regularly sold or changed to a nonperishable type such as canned tuna for export rather than consumed by the population. large amounts of agricultural products th at can only be grown in the hot climates of the poor countries have been taken a nd exported and manufactured in the wealthy countries such as coffee. poor countries are trapped by large d ebts which prevent them from developing. A simple house in Bahir Dar. Foreign trade and business get in the way of the freedom of local governments.

This theory. What factors do you think led you to getting the job and what factors affected the salary that you received? How do you think your gender. The world economy is a system divided into a hierarch y of three types of countries: core. South Korea. Semiperipheral countries generally provide labor and materials to core countries .S. race. TNCs continue to take materials and cheap labor from underdev eloped countries. which must be fo llowed in the U.[247] There are about 65. India. effort is not made t o create better quality of living and development projects in poor countries. South Africa) are le ss developed than core nations but are more developed than peripheral nations.g. and have very little i ndustrialization and urbanization. just as core countries exploit both semiperipheral and peripheral countries. ho w can we change inequality? What can be done to lessen the negative effects of inequality on people s lives? [edit]Applying Knowledge Students studying sociology can apply their knowledge of inequality and poverty by serving in a number of organizations in the U.000 TNCs acros s the world today. The wealthy in peripheral countries benefit from the labor of poor workers and from their own economic relations with core country capitalists. Core countries extract raw materials with little cost. Check out the following organizations: AmeriCorps helps those in need through organizations such as Habitat for Humanit y. Taiwan. Semiperipheral countries exploit peripheral countries. long hours. even after she moved out of the dormit ory. workers are often exploited by low wages. suggests that wealthy countries benef it from other countries and also exploit their citizens.S. One woman describ ed that rent was deducted from her wages. [edit]Questions for Discussion Think about the jobs you have held. similar to dependency theory. and socioeconomic position have affected you r path through life so far? How does a functionalist understand inequality? How does a conflict theorist und erstand inequality? If our actions and behaviors mostly reproduce the condition in which we live. During official inspection from outsiders. P eripheral countries (e. In many factories. They can also set the prices for the agricultural p roducts that peripheral countries export regardless of market prices. Brazil. Japan. and poor worki ng conditions.. Workers also faced the thr eat of physical harassment from managers. the American Red Cross. and around the world. semiperipheral. workers were taught how to lie a bout working hours and how to present fake pay slips. The Hunger Project is committed to ending hunger around the world. and Big Brothers Big Sisters. Germany) are dominant capitalist countries characterized by high levels of industrialization and urbanization. St rict laws protecting the environment and the rights of workers. and peripheral. This is attractive for a TNC so that bottom line profits can increase. Core countr ies (e.g.. Core countries own most of the world s capital and technology and have great control over world trade and economic agreements. Mexico..g. do not have to be followed in many poor countries . . each of which can be moved by a Transnational Corporation (TNC) to a ny country in the world that can provide the best deal on capital and labor. Semiperipheral countries (e.[242 ][260] [edit]The New International Division of Labor theory Based on the changing nature of the world economy. and Europe. U. forcing sm all farmers to abandon their fields because they can t afford to pay the labor and fertilizer. Nigeria. most African countries and low income countries in So uth America) are dependent on core countries for capital.S. production is divided into sm all pieces. This reflects Immanuel Wallerstein s theory that suggests that how a country is integrated into the capit alist world system is the key feature in determining how economic development ta kes place in that country. Whe n moving businesses and factories to cheap labor locations.. Wal-Mart factory workers in China report working fourteen hours a day for less than $3 per day in a hot room with only one fan.

So Much Hunger. Laboring Below the Line: The New Ethnography of Poverty. Where Children Sleep. The International Heral d Tribune. and James C. Martin. Wright. 2008.... Princeton University Press. Electronic Journal of Sociology. Low-Wage Work. Max. This article discusses the reasons why nearly 1 billion people continue to suffe r chronic hunger despite the fact that there is sufficient food to feed everyone on the planet. Norman K. 2008. 2007. 2011).nytimes. C ambridge: Polity. This photobook depicts the locations where children sleep around the world and h ighlights the substantial inequality in the modern world. 1st ed. Boston: McGr aw-Hill. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. Milanovic. ? Dilthey. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics.census. Free Press. Sage Publications. ? Berger.. 1st ed. 40th ed. Pascal. Social Stratification and Inequality. ? Putnam. 2009. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber. Religion Explained. A. Check out their site at www. Peace Corps volunteers help individuals and communities around the world improve their quality of life. Peter L. 3rd edition. 2008).. D. and Survival in the Global Economy. Anchor. John E. So Much Food. Race. Robert D. [edit]Recommended Reading for Students Rosenberg.S. 2007. ed. Andrew. ? Glass. New York: Basic Books. New York: Russell Sage Founda tion. With Insurance. May 7 http://www. 2010. Basic Books.html (Accessed July 3.com/2009/09/20/weekinreview/20martin. Appeasing the Gods. The Haves and the Have-Nots: A Brief and Idiosyncratic Hist ory of Global Inequality. 1963. 2008. Grusky...gov. 2000. Nicole H. 2002. 2011. 2008. 2001. Lincoln. Kelly. W. Munger. 2009). Disrupting Science: Social Movements.nytimes. New York: Westview Press. C. 1945-1975. 2008. http://issuu. 2007. Global Inequality: Patterns and Explanations. H. A Payoff Out of Poverty?. Visceral Verstehen. F.iht.. ? Tierney.. Kerbo. John. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. 1st ed. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. ? a b Mills. the U. Also. USA. D. 8th edition. 2005. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. ? Civettini. The New York Times. [edit]See Also The following Wikipedia pages have additional information on stratification: . 1978. American Scientists. & Kaya. ? Loseke. and Yvonna S. and Jennifer Glass. Simon & Schuster. 2009). and the Politics of the Military. Gender & Society 22:172-193. It would serve as a good launching point for a discussion on glo bal inequality. Donileen R.com/chrisboot/docs/where_chil dren_sleep_by_james_mollison (Accessed April 8. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. [edit]References ? Moore. Census Bureau collects data on income and poverty in the United S tates. The Sociological Imagination. The New York Times. Held. Third Edition.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. ? Denzin. Tina.. B. Inc. and Gender in Sociological Perspective. James Mollison. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. 2001.CARE International assists the world s poor in their efforts to achieve social and economic well-being. Cavendish.com/2008/12/21/magazine/21cash-t. eds. Springer.. September 20 http://www.php (Accessed August 17. ? Boyer. Social Stratification: Class. December 21 h ttp://www. Oxford Univ ersity Press.. 1997.html (Accessed Septe mber 20. W.

org An introduction to dependency theory [edit]Economy Economy refers to the ways people use their environment to meet their material n eeds.social stratification economic inequality poverty line Positive freedom Negative freedom Millennium Development Goals from the United Nations Caste system Social inequality Elitism Theodor Geiger Marxism Three-component theory of stratification [edit]External links Inequality topic at Worldrevolution. the great conqu erors raised venture capital to finance their land captures. The rising nation-states Spain. The discoveries of Marco Polo (125 4-1324).[265] It is thought that these first stamped coins were minted around 650-600 BC. jails. The capital investm ent would be returned to the investor when goods from the newly discovered or ca ptured lands were returned by the conquerors. as well as its geography . rules as to property and monetary compensation concerning property damage or physical damage to a person. The first enterprises were trading establishme nts. distribution. Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) and Vasco de Gama (1469-1524) set the foundations for a global economy. exchange.[268] In Medieval times. and compensation in money for various infractions of formalized law were sta ndardized for the first time in history. It includes the production. when it is contend ed. the Lydians were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coin. The European captures became branches of the European states. France. Portugal. and astronomical records. complete with courts. the use of writing expanded beyond debt/payment certificates and inventory lists to be applied for the first time. A given economy is the end result of a process that involves its te chnological evolution. The re were also traders who bartered in the marketplaces.[268] Several centuries after the invention of cuneiform. fines for 'wrong doin g'. to messages and mail delivery. These factors gi ve context.[266] For most people the exchange of goods occurred through social relationships. natural resource endowment. amounts of interest on debt. shown larger. Accord ing to Herodotus. Ways to divide private property. It is the realized economic system of a country or other area. the so-called "col onies". and government records. and most modern scholars. and ecology. what we now call economy was not far from the subsistence lev el.[267] They developed the first known codified legal and administrative systems . about 2600 BC. and consumption of goods and services o f that area. On top of this. history and social organization. The ancient economy was mainly based on subsistence farming. Great Britain. [edit]History A 640 BC one-third stater coin from Lydia. and the . Most exchange occurred within social groups. As long as someone has been making and distributing goods or services. The Babylonians and their city state neighbors developed economic ideas comparable to those employed toda y. among other factors. economies grew larger as societies grew and became m ore complex. In 1513 the first stock exchange was founded in Antwerpen. content. history. legend. and set the conditions and parameters in which an economy f unctions. there has been some sort of economy. mathematic s.

cheques. revenue. and earl y aspects of merchant capitalism flourished during the Late Middle Ages. capitalism (see below) started to replace the sy stem of mercantilism and led to economic growth. pawning. loss. the w:double-entry bookkeeping system. long-distance international trade. Innovative new business technique s and forms of business organisation were introduced by economists.labor and land . it provided the main means of industrialization t hroughout much of the world. capital. with all its tendency toward commercializati on. capital accumulation.[271] [edit]History The origins of modern markets can be traced back to the Roman Empire[272] and th e Islamic Golden Age and Muslim Agricultural Revolution[273][274] where the firs t market economy and earliest forms of merchant capitalism took root between the 8th 12th centuries. In Europe. promissory notes. and the rapid growth in overseas trade.[277] trusts.supply and demand . labor.[283] This period was associated with geographic discover ies by merchant overseas traders. thus mercan tilist attitudes towards economic regulation were closer to feudalist attitudes. I n the 19th and 20th centuries. especially from England. bankers.from becoming the elements of commerce".[281][282] Many of these early capitalist co ncepts were adopted and further advanced in medieval Europe from the 13th centur y onwards.[276] circulating capital. contracts.[275] A vigorous monetary economy was created by Muslims on the basis of the expanding levels of circulation of a stable high-value currency and the integration of mo netary areas that were previously independent. debt. loaning. although commo dities were still largely produced by non-capitalist production methods. He maintained that the basic motive for free trade is human self interest. profit. and wages are paid to labor. The first economist in the true meaning of the word was the Scotsman Adam Smith (1723-1790). profits are taken by owners or investe d in technologies and industries. labor. "they disagreed only on the methods of regulation. The economic system employed between the 16th and 18th centuries is commonly des cribed as mercantilism.[280] Organ izational enterprises similar to corporations independent from the state also ex isted in the medieval Islamic world. Such innovations included the earliest trading compa nies. exchange rates. Mercantilism was a first approach to interme diate between private wealth and public interest. never attacked the safeguards which protected [the] two basic elements of pr oduction . startup companies. The period today is called the industrial revolution because the system of production and division of labour en abled the mass production of goods. Accord .Netherlands tried to control the trade through custom duties and taxes in order to protect their national economy. Capitalism as a system developed incrementally from the 16th century on in Europ e.[271] Wh ile some scholars see mercantilism as the earliest stage of modern capitalism.[ 278] savings accounts. He defined the elements of a national economy: products are offered at a natural price generated by the use of competition . capital e xpenditure. Mercantilism was a system of trade for profit. although capitalist-like organizations existed in the ancient world. For example. and money. the first forms of partnerships.[269][27 0] Capitalism gradually spread throughout Europe and other parts of the world. noted that "mercantilism. merchants an d traders during this time." Moreover Polanyi argued tha t the hallmark of capitalism is the establishment of generalized markets for wha t he referred to as the "fictitious commodities": land. goods and capital are traded in markets.[276] A painting of a French seaport from 1638 at the height of mercantilism.an d the division of labour. o thers argue that modern capitalism did not emerge until later. and the earliest forms of credit.[279] and lawsuits. bills of exchange. money changers . [edit]Capitalism Capitalism is an economic and social system in which capital and the non-labor f actors of production or the means of production are privately controlled. Karl Polanyi. big businesses. deposits.

if you refuse this. you cross one of the ends of your calling." In the Protestant Ethic. seeking a return on investment. Weber further s tated that moneymaking provided it is done legally is. the US government played a larger and larg er role in passing antitrust laws and regulation of industrial standards for key industries of special public concern. [edit]How capitalism works . and the development of a c omplex system of banking. "If God sho w you a way in which you may lawfully get more than in another way (without wron g to your soul or to any other).[283 ] In the late 19th century. the industrialist replaced the merchant as a d ominant actor in the capitalist system and effected the decline of the tradition al handicraft skills of artisans. this ideology was able to motivate extreme rationalizati on of daily life. Max W eber sought to trace how a particular form of religious spirit. settin g the stage for capitalism. a division of labor separ ates shareholders. within the modern economic order. During the Industrial Revolution. For Weber. often in contrast to the ability of the Soviet Union to avoid suffering the effects o f the global depression. Gradually. that of ascetic Protestantism. and corporate holdings of capital th rough stock ownership. This is pictured in Proverbs 22:29. who had traded under the previous stage of mercantilism. as for the Lord rather than for men. 108). and you refuse to be God's stew ard. a propensity to accumulate capital by a religious ethic to adv ance economically. the surplus generated by the rise of commercial agriculture encouraged increa sed mechanization of agriculture. and journeymen. It was founded in 1694 a nd nationalised in 1946. the control and direction of large areas of industry c ame into the hands of trusts. Industrial capitalism marked the development o f the factory system of manufacturing. the ownership and management of industr y by financiers divorced from the production process. though not for the flesh and sin" (p. the result and the expression of diligence in one s calling And. an equity market. guilds.ingly. owners. was a condition of possibility of modern we stern capitalism. then. the 'spirit of capitalism' was. and actual laborers. By the end of the 19th century. to create "self-mediating capital" as conceived by Marx. financiers and holding companies. during this era. characterized by a complex division of la bor between and within the work process and the routinization of work tasks. the emergence of large industrial trust s had provoked legislation in the US to reduce the monopolistic tendencies of th e period. economic depressions and boom and bust business cycles had become a recurring problem. During the 1930s. merchants. In particular. do your work heartily . Also during this perio d. invested capital in the East India Companies and other colonies. Marxist com mentators often posited the possibility of capitalism's decline or demise. This period was dominated by an increasing number of oligopolistic firms earning supernormal pro fits.[271] Inside these corporations.[271] By the last quarter of the 19th century. and choose the less gainful way. in general. the Long Depression of the 1870s and 1880s and the Great Depression of the 1930s affected almost the entire capitalist world.[285] Major characteristics of capitalism in this period included the estab lishment of large industrial monopolies.[286] In his book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904-1905). and generated discuss ion about capitalism s long-term survival prospects. The Bank of England is one of the oldest central banks. he nce industrial capitalism as a social system cannot be said to have existed befo re that date."[284] The commercial stage of capitalism begin with the founding of the British East I ndia Company and the Dutch East India Company. and to accept His gifts and use them for him when He requierth it: you may labour to be rich for God. "not until 1834 was a competitive labor market established in England. infused into tra ditional modes of economic activity. and thus also the propensity to reinvest capital: this was su fficient. managers. "Whatever you do. Seest thou a man diligent in his calling? He shall s tand before kings and in Colossians 3:23.[276] During this era.

mach inery. the use of labor power had itself become a commodity under capitalism. In his book Capital. to sell their labor for a living wage. Commodities: There are two types of commodities: capital goods and consumer g oods. but capitalism was new in doing so via the sale-value of produced commodi ties. labourers. A business may consequently lose money if sales fall too low or costs are inc urred that are too high. la nd. provide much of the money that busi nesses need to grow. The profit motive also encourages firms to operate effi ciently by using their resources in the most productive manner. As inve stors they decide how much of their income to save and how to invest their savin gs. houses) to be sold to ot hers. which become investments. ensures that companies produce the goods and services th at consumers desire and are able to buy. which the capitalists extract and accumulate. this cycle of the extraction of the surplus value by the owners of capital or the bourgeoisie becomes the basis of class struggle. thus greatly facilitating specialization and trade through encouraging th e exchange of commodities. Businesses t ry to influence consumer purchase decisions through marketing as well as the cre ation of new and improved products. individuals may decide which jobs to prepare for and in which markets to look for work. Money: Money is primarily a standardized means of exchange which serves to re duce all goods and commodities to a standard value. according to Marx. televisions. a firm can cut its production costs which can lead t o increased profits. Th ey also purchase capital goods to convert them into consumer goods. but serve as the raw materials for consumer goods (i. as consumers. These savings. computers. Following Adam Smith. as reflected in the wage. firms must s ell a certain quantity of their products at a price high enough to yield a profi t. Capital goods are products not produced for immediate consumption (i.[293] For Mar x. For Marx. raw materials. constitutes surplus val ue.The economics of capitalism developed out of the interactions of the following f ive items: 1. It eliminates the cumbersome system of barter by separating the transactions involved in the exchange of pro ducts. For example. 4. in order to survive. and investors.[287][288] Individuals engage in the economy as consumers. As labourers. is created with the purchase of commodities for the purpose of creating new commodities with an exchange value higher than the sum of the original purchases. 2. he argues. labour or capital. and buildings. the exchange valu e of labor power. tools machines and factories). In order to be successful. as producers will change production to produce what consumers want to buy. This argument is intertwin . cars. The extraction of surplus valu e from workers is called exploitation.e. This need for profits. provid ing both money and labour power. Production: The act of making goods or services through the combination of la bour power and means of production. Marx argues that the capitalist mode of production is distinguished by how the owners of capital ext ract this surplus from workers: all prior class societies had extracted surplus labor. By using less ma terials. which are needed to transfor m one type of commodity into another. know n as the profit motive. Means of production: All manufacturing aids to production such as tools. Capital. and must instead be compelled.[290][291][292] In conjunction w ith his criticism of capitalism was Marx's belief that exploited labor would be the driving force behind a revolution to a socialist-style economy. individuals influenc e production patterns through their purchase decisions. Labour power: Labour includes all mental and physical human resources. includ ing entrepreneurial capacity and management skills. Business firms decide what to produce and where this production should occur. is less than the value it produces f or the capitalist. This difference in values. What drives the capitalist economy is the co nstant search for profits (revenues minus expenses). 5. 3.[289] Marx argues that a core requirement of a capitalist society is that a large portion of the population must not possess sources of self-sustenance tha t would allow them to be independent.e. Karl Marx distinguished the use value of commodities from their exchange value in the market.

Supply is the amount of a good or service produced by a firm and available for sale. What's more. the longer they stay out of the workforce. gas. The government also carries out a number of important economic f unctions. Unions act to represent labourers in negotiations with employers over such things as wage rates and acceptable working conditions. electricity. The price P of a product is determined by a balance between production at each p rice (supply S) and the desires of those with purchasing power at each price (de mand D). th ey also suffer financially when they do return to the paid workforce. People who have skills that are in s carce supply are worth a lot more in the market and can attract higher incomes. no t only do the unemployed help drive down the wages of those who are employed. Without unemployed individuals in a capitalist economy. the longer it takes to find work and the lower t heir returning salaries will be when they return to the workforce. Government agencies regulate the stan dards of service in many industries. without competition. This results in a market equilibrium. The government also generally permits f irms to determine what wages they will pay and what prices they will charge for their products. as well as financing a wide range of programs. When this occurs. Firms need to pay high enough wages to attract the appropriate w orkers. Many countries have co mpetition and anti-trust laws that prohibit monopolies and cartels from forming. such as airlines and broadcasting. Income in a capitalist economy depends primarily on what skills are in demand an d what skills are currently being supplied.[294] In a capitalist ec onomy. are able to operate as a monopoly under government regulation due to high economies of scale. Prices tend to rise when demand exceeds supply and fall w hen supply exceeds demand. when jobs are scarce workers may accept lower wages than when j obs are plentiful.ed with Marx's version of the labor theory of value asserting that labor is the source of all value. In many capitalist nations. it issues money. A rise in demand from D1 to D2 would result in an increase in pric e from P1 to P2 and an increase in output from Q1 to Q2. public utilities (communications. For instance. the government allows for private property and individual s are allowed to work where they please. such as policy competition. Demand is the amount that people are willing to bu y at a specific price. and thus of profit. Laws. Competition among employers for workers and among workers for jobs. helps determ ine wage rates. In addition. Labour unions and the government also influence wages in capi talist nations. when people l eave the employed workforce and experience a period of unemployment. Competition ar ises when many producers are trying to sell the same or similar kinds of product s to the same buyers. with a given quantity (Q) sold of the product. the government regulates the . A monopoly occurs when a firm supplies the total output in th e market. Competition is important in capitalist economies because i t leads to innovation and more reasonable prices as firms that charge lower pric es or improve the quality of their product can take buyers away from competitors (i. capitalists would be unable to exploit their workers because workers could demand to be paid what they are worth. supervises public utilities and enforce s private contracts.e.[295] Thus. a monopoly or c artel may develop.. In capitalist nations. A cartel is a group of firms that act together in a monopolistic manner to control output and raise prices. Furthermore. increase market share. etc). Unemployment is a necessary component of a capitalist econo my to insure an excessive pool of laborers. so that the market is able to coordinate itself throu gh pricing until a new equilibrium price and quantity is reached. How capitalists generate profit is illu strated in the figure below. the firm can limit output and raise prices because i t has no fear of competition. the prices of goods and services are controlled mainly through supply and demand and competition. however. protect against competiti on and prohibit unfair business practices. Most countrie s have an established minimum wage and other government agencies work to establi sh safety standards. The market is a term used by economists to describe a central exchange through w hich people are able to buy and sell goods and services.

creating inconsistenc ies and internal contradictions and thus should be controlled through public pol icy.[303] Most socialists share the view that capitalism unfairly concentrate s power and wealth among a small segment of society that controls capital and de rives its wealth through w:exploitation.[299] A common response to the criticism that capitalism leads to inequality is the ar gument that capitalism also leads to economic growth and generally improved stan dards of living. such as Immanuel Wallerstein have argued that unfree labor y slaves. Capitalism is regarded by many socialists to be irrational in that production and the direction of the economy are unplanned. such as better availability of food.[300][301] While the measurements are not identic al. Environmentalists have argued that capitalism requires continual economic growth . clothing. a tendency toward market monopoly or oligopoly (and government by oligarchy). It is somewhat less known that it leads to the almost complete destruction of ec onomic freedom. capacity utilization or standard of living. for example. Murray Bookchin has argued that capitalist produc tion externalizes environmental costs to all of society. and other coerced persons is compati ble with capitalist relations. and phen omena such as social alienation. unemployment. it determ ines what should be produced then dictates production quotas to the factories an d workers. Critics have argued that there is an inherent tendency towards oli gopolistic structures when laissez-faire laws are combined with capitalist priva te property. as measured by Gross Domestic Product or GDP). hou sing. employment and power. counter-revolutionary wars and various forms of economi c and cultural exploitation. does not pr ovide equal opportunities for everyone to maximise their potentialities[304] and does not utilise technology and resources to their maximum potential nor in the interests of the public. This argu ment was central. and is unable to adequa tely mitigate its impact upon ecosystems and the biosphere at large.flow of capital and uses things such as the interest rate to control factors su ch as inflation and unemployment. and allocate resources. and economic instability. w:indentured servants. Vladimir Lenin argued that state use of military powe r to defend capitalist interests abroad was an inevitable corollary of monopoly capitalism. economic inequality. and oth er broadly utilized resources. and a society characterized by equal access to resources f or all individuals with a method of compensation based on the amount of labor ex pended. repression of workers and trade unionists. Labor histo b rians and scholars. The goods that are produced are owned by the government (which is the .[305] This figure illustrates the basic ideas of socialism.[302] [edit]Socialism Socialism refers to various theories of economic organization advocating public or direct worker ownership and administration of the means of production and all ocation of resources. and health care. Capitalism's does promote economic growth. creates an unequal society. prisoners."[298] Ravi Batra argues that excessive income and wealth inequal ities are a fundamental cause of financial crisis and economic depression.[296] In the early 20th century. imperialism. Many theorists have noted that this increase in global GDP over time coincides with the emergence of the modern world capitalist system. [edit]Criticisms of Capitalism Critics argue that capitalism is associated with the unfair distribution of weal th and power. to Adam Smith's advocacy of letting a free market control production and price. and will inevitably deplete the finite natural resources of the earth. which will lead to the collapse of capitalism and the emergence of a new social order .[297] Economist Branko Horvat states. The government (which is t he people) owns the means of production. Through centralized planning. proponents argue that increasing GDP (per capita) is empirically shown to br ing about improved standards of living. "it is now well known that capi talist development leads to the concentration of capital.

Some soci . Centralized planning is an alternative to allowing the market (supply and demand) to determine prices and production. Rolls Royce). state ownership was combined with central planning." These governments nationalised major and economically vital industries whil e permitting a free market to continue in the rest. The prices of consumer goods would be determined by supply an d demand. as in perfectly competitive markets. wanted what would become known as a mixed econom y". the quantities..people) and are then divided up among the workers. Émile Durkheim posits that socialism is rooted in the desire to bring the s tate closer to the realm of individual activity. competing and often relatively poorly financed companies in the same sector were nationalised to form one government m onopoly for the purpose of competent management. Francis Bec kett states: "the government. neoclassical libera l economists such as Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman said that socialist pla nned economies would fail because planners could not have the business informati on inherent to a market economy (cf.[311][312] Socialism is not a concrete philosophy of fixed doctrine and program. and the sal e prices. socialists began to accept parts of these critiques. Polish economist Oskar Lange. The central planning board would distribute a "social dividend" to ensure reasonable income equality. the government determined which goods and s ervices were produced. These were most often monopo listic or infrastructural industries like mail. socialism is the lower stage of communism based on t he principle of "from each according to his ability. nor could ma nagers in Soviet-style socialist economies match the motivation of profit. to each according to his need".[ 310] For orthodox Marxists. how they were to be produced. of economic rescue (in the UK. with the supply coming from state-owned firms that would set their pri ces equal to the marginal cost. Conse quent to Soviet economic stagnation in the 1970s and 1980s.[308][309] Marxist and non-Marxist social theorists agree that socialism developed in react ion to modern industrial capitalism. w ith compensation). an early proponen t of market socialism. The Marxist conception of socialism is that of a specific historical phase that will displace capitalism and be a precursor to communism. this was achieved through compulsory purchase of the industry (i. Max Weber saw acceleration of the rationalisati on started in capitalism. economic calculation problem). particularly in the period after World War II. As a critic of socialism. In some instances a number of small. The major characterist ics of socialism are that the proletariat will control the means of production t hrough a workers' state erected by the workers in their interests.. many socialist parties in government implemented what became known as mixed economies. the Soviet Union. In socialism. sometimes opposing each other. In this scenario. but disagree on the nature of their relatio nship. In the biography of the 1945 UK Labour Party Prime Minister Clement Attlee.e. its branch es advocate a degree of social interventionism and economic rationalisation (usu ally in the form of economic planning). British Leyland. In the UK. or of competing on the world market. in countering the anomie of a c apitalist society. The prices of producer goods would be determined throug h trial and error.[306] In western Europe. Typically. he warned that placing the e conomy entirely in the state's bureaucratic control would result in an "iron cag e of future bondage". In one example of socialism. In the West. Economic acti vity is still organised through the use of incentive systems and social classes would still exist but to a lesser and diminishing extent than under capitalism. the nationalisation of the coal mines in 1947 crea ted a coal board charged with running the coal industry commercially so as to be able to meet the interest payable on the bonds which the former mine owners' sh ares had been converted into.[307] Beckett also states that "Everyone called the 1945 government 'socialis t'. railways. the upper stage becomi ng possible only after the socialist stage further develops economic efficiency and the automation of production has led to a superabundance of goods and servic es. power and other utilit ies. to each according to his co ntribution" while upper stage communism is based on the principle of "from each according to his ability. proposed a central planning board establishing prices and controls of investment.

defeating his conservative rival with a majority of 53% of the vot e. and economic prosperity.alists advocate complete nationalisation of the means of production. placing a greater emphasis on markets. particularly in India and Nepal. Social democrats also promote tax-funded welfare programs and regulation of markets. the first individual to coin the term socia lisme. Deng's program. a majority of the GDP is still generated from the state sect or comprised of government-linked companies. tried to found self-sustaining communes by secession from a capitalist soci ety. Syriza or "Coalition of th . as in the case of the Chin ese Socialist market economy and Vietnamese Socialist-oriented market economy. The Financial crisis of 2007 2009 led to mainstream discussions as to whether "Mar x was right".5% of the votes and the new Socialist grouping. Henri de Saint Simon (1760 1825). however. The Communist Party of Nepal in parti cular calls for multi-party democracy. I n China. in the general election on 4 October 2009. others advocate state control of capital within the framework o f a market economy. the leadership of China embarked upon a program of market-based reform that was more sweeping than had been Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika program of the late 1980s.[320][321] [edit]Examples of Socialism [edit]Asia The People's Republic of China.[313 ][314][315] Social democrats propose selective nationalisation of key national industries in mixed economies. there has been a res urgent interest in the Japanese Communist Party among workers and youth. The utopian socialists. was the original thinker who advocated technocracy and industrial plannin g. combining co-operative and state ownership models with the free market excha nge and free price system (but not free prices for the means of production). instituted various forms of market sociali sm. the Communist KKE got 7. and exchange. German and Chine se Communists in the 1970s and 1980s." Under Deng Xiaoping. this was not the view of socialists and left-leaning commentators. sta te or cooperative ownership of much of the heavy industrial and manufacturing se ctors and state influence in the banking and financial sectors. [327] Communist candidate Dimitris Christofias won a crucial presidential runoff in w:Cyprus. including w:Robert Owen (1771 18 58). many contemporary socialists share this belief. the Left Party in Germany has grown in popularity. refer to themselves as socialists.[316] The first socialists predicted a world improved by harnessing technology and better social organisation. social equality. some elected socialist parties and communist parties remain p rominent. introducing a degree of ambiguity to t he understanding of what the term means.[324][32 5] [edit]Europe In Europe.[323] In Japan. Early socialist thinkers tended to favour an authentic meritocracy combined wit h rational social planning. Many social democrats. distributio n. including Yugoslavian. particularly in European welfare s tates.[319] While the mainstream media tended to conclude that Marx was wrong.[326] becoming the fourth biggest party in parliament in the general election on 27 September 2009. while maintaining private ownership of capital and private bus iness enterprise. Laos and Vietnam are Asian states r emaining from the first wave of socialism in the 20th century. [322] In Singapore. States with socia list economies have largely moved away from centralised economic planning in the 21st century. Socialists inspired by the Soviet model of economic development have advocated t he creation of centrally planned economies directed by a state that owns all the means of production. maintained state ownership rights over land. Modern socialism originated in the late 18th-century intellectual and working cl ass political movement that criticised the effects of industrialisation and priv ate ownership on society.[317][318] Time magazine ran an article titled "Rethinking Marx" an d put Karl Marx on the cover of its 28th of January 2009 European edition. the Chinese Communist Party has led a transition from the command econo my of the Mao period to an economic program called the socialist market economy or "socialism with Chinese characteristics.[328] In Greece. Hungarian. Others. Elsewhere in Asia. North Korea.

6% or 361. with an anti-imperialist stance. the rejection of the policies of neoliberalism. In the economic calculation debate. President of Venezuela. double that of t he Communist candidate. won 4. and a loss of political and economic freedoms.[333][334] [edit]Economic measures There are a number of ways to measure economic activity of a nation. In Ireland. democratic perspective for the twenty-first century". and the nationalisation or part nationalisation of oil production. the New Anticapitalist Party.498.581 votes. making it the fourth largest party. Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez. because of t he impossibility of rational pricing of capital goods in a socialist economy sin ce the state is the only owner of the capital goods. Joe Higgins of the Socialist Party to ok one of four seats in the capital Dublin European constituency. th e Socialist People's Party more than doubled its parliamentary representation to 23 seats from 11. The question po sed by Rasmussen Reports did not define either capitalism or socialism. and Ecuad orian president Rafael Correa for instance.[331] [edit]Latin America Hugo Chávez.[329] In France. refer to their political programs as socialist. The poll results stated that 53% of American adults thought capitalism wa s better than socialism. and that "Adults under 30 are essentially evenly divide d: 37% prefer capitalism. 33% socialism. Hayek further argued that t he social control over distribution of wealth and private property advocated by socialists cannot be achieved without reduced prosperity for the general populac e.[332] [edit]Criticisms of Socialism Criticisms of socialism range from claims that socialist economic and political models are inefficient or incompatible with civil liberties to condemnation of s pecific socialist states. Olivier Besancenot.[330] The LCR abolished itself in 2009 to initiate a broa d anti-capitalist party. it should be noted that GDP only includes economic a ctivity for which money is exchanged. The map below shows GDP per capita of countries a . socialism has re-emerged in recent years. land and other a ssets. In some Latin American countries. While often useful. [edit]United States An April 2009 Rasmussen Reports poll conducted during the Financial crisis of 20 07 2009 suggested there had been a growth of support for socialism in the United S tates. classical liberal Friedrich Hayek argued that a socialist command economy could not adequately tra nsmit information about prices and productive quotas due to the lack of a price mechanism.000 votes. In Denmark. These metho ds of measuring economic activity include: Consumer spending Exchange Rate Gross domestic product GDP per capita GNP or Gross National Product Stock Market Interest Rate National Debt Rate of Inflation Unemployment Balance of Trade [edit]GDP The Gross Domestic Product or GDP of a country is a measure of the size of its e conomy. Ludwig von Mises argued that a socialist economy was not possible at all. and 30% are undecided". whose stated aim is to "b uild a new socialist. and as a result it could not make rational economic decisions. 4. in the 2009 European election. GDP and GDP per capita are widely used ind icators of a country's wealth.e Radical Left". Bolivian President Evo Morales. the Revolutionary Communist League candidate in the 2007 presidential election.08%. received 1.

2001. 1997. ? Glass. ? Civettini. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber. Max. By its nature . The Sociological Imagination. 2005. Gender & Society 22:172-193.. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. Lincoln.. Visceral Verstehen. The International Heral d Tribune. 2007. Appeasing the Gods. USA. 2008. define. ? Dilthey. 2008. [edit]References ? Moore. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. Disrupting Science: Social Movements. and measure. ? Loseke. and James C. T he term black market refers to a specific subset of the informal economy. Most people have a network of others they consider their family. ? Berger. 2001. ? Tierney.. Oxford Univ ersity Press.S. Peter L. Sage Publications. 40th ed. Princeton University Press. Inc. With Insurance.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. 2000.round the world: [edit]Informal economy An informal economy is economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government and is contrasted with the formal economy as described above.. all economic systems contain an informal economy in some proportion. John E. Pascal. regulation.php (Accessed August 17. ? Putnam. 1st ed. W. Exampl es of informal economic activity include: the sale and distribution of illegal d rugs and unreported payments for house cleaning or baby sitting.. Springer. The i nformal economy is thus not included in a government's Gross National Product or GNP. Anchor. 2008). and the Politics of the Military. This page also draws heavily on the following Wikipedia articles: economy capitalism socialism communism [edit]Family A large family from the U. 1st ed. Simon & Schuster. Donileen R. American Scientists. circa 1984. 2008. ? a b Mills. 1978. it is necessarily difficult to observe. Electronic Journal of Sociology. Robert D. and Jennifer Glass. 1st ed. John. Third Edition. Although the informal economy is often associated with developing countrie s. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. Kelly. [edit]What is a family? . Religion Explained. But what exactl y is a family? How do family structures vary from culture to culture or subcultu re to subculture? Is what we consider the traditional family changing over time? Why do families exist? These are the questions sociologists ask when discussing families. W. Nicole H. Free Press. 1963. C. ? Denzin. May 7 http://www. and Yvonna S. The terms "under the table" and "off the books" typically refer to this type of economy. Basic Books. 1945-1975. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization.iht. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. Cavendish. study. and enforcement. ? Boyer. Informal economic activity is a dynamic process which includes many aspects of economic and social theory including exchange. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. Norman K. 2002. Wright.

with recent developments in the U. as polyandry (one woma n having more than one husband).[335] What many people consider a family is not the only family form. traditions. Bu t think about it for a minute then ask yourself. Consider each of the following examples: an elderly man and his twelve cats a cohabiting homosexual couple with three foster children a mixed group of singles sharing a town home in a large city a close knit fraternity or sorority a small group of soldiers fighting in a foreign country Each of the above groups differs from the traditional form of family: a man. Many people tend to marry members of their own social grou p. The structure of families traditionally hinges on relations between parents and children. and/or your spouse. Historically. who prohibit any i nter-clan marrying. we think of a family as a domestic group of people. then. Another factor that leads to cultural variations in family forms is attitudes to ward endogamy. This traditional notion of parents and children as fam ily is called a nuclear family and is an invention of the Western World. as "polygamy" (having many w ives and many husbands at one time). "Who and what do I include in m y family?" You might say your parents. or both. There are so many variations o f "family" today that it is hard to define what. polygamy has been p racticed as polygyny (one man having more than one wife). Cultu res that practice endogamy require marriage between specified social groups. less commonly. But wh at about the family pet? What if you were raised by your grandparents and your p arents played little to no role in your life? Who. those we typically t hink of as kin? Questioning the basic concept of family is a relatively new phenomenon. or ethnicities. [edit]Cultural Variations A map of the world regions where polygamy is a common form of family structure. In fact. the nuclear famil y is no longer the primary form of social life in the U. varying from culture to culture. cla sses. between spouses. Families generally have some degree of kinship. a family is.Some people consider pets part of their family. more adult women now live alone or are raising their children alone than are living with a spouse or raising their children with a spouse. families are diverse in both form and function. A variety of other family structures e xist.S. You may think this is a fairly straightforward question with a simple answer. do you consider your fa mily? Is family limited to genetically related individuals.. there is substantial variation in family forms around the world. which is the prac tice of having only one spouse at a time. your siblings. According to recent c ensus data. Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. which broadly refers to any form of marria ge in which a person has more than one spouse. or. and their children. But society increasingly accepts a number of variations on traditional family fo rms.S. An example of a strict ly endogamous religious group is the Yazidi in Northern Iraq. or (3) ad option. or religious beliefs. Endogamy is a common practice among displanted cultures atte mpting to make roots in new countries as it encourages group solidarity and ensu res greater control over group resources (which may be important to preserve whe re a group is attempting to establish itself within an alien culture). One prevalent form is polygamy. [edit]Changes Over Time . exactly. (2) marriage. though v ariations in what we consider a "family" are not. Consequently. a w oman. Generally . or a number of domestic gr oups linked through descent from: (1) a common ancestor. It is a social construct that does not necessarily reflect the reality of family life f or many people. but there are some societies that practice endogamy very strictly and as part of their moral values. The most com mon form of family structure in the Western World is monogamy.

"The conjugal union of man and woman. payment of br idewealth signifies a woman's requirement to bear children. the family is a family of orientation: the family functions to locate child ren socially. as noted above.) were pooled between several people. childcare r esponsibilities. both biologically. through socialization.e. contracted between two qualified persons. The "other" group includes the ma ny households that are headed by a single parent. as a relationsh ip that should be based on love. and plays a major role in their socialization. In this structure. As described below. and socially. Patria potestas extended over adult sons with their own households: A man was not considered a paterfamilias while his own father lived. marital dissolution was not a serious problem as the obligations restin g on marital longevity were not particularly high. in 2002 were "traditional" families in the sense that the husband worked and earned a sufficient income for the wife and kids to stay hom e.S. claim dependents' property as their own.g. food. With the advent of sedentary societies.This figure illustrates the changing structure of families in the U.. tribes. usually fell under the autho rity of the paterfamilias of her husband's household. Pairing off into form al or informal marital relationships originated in hunter-gatherer groups to for ge networks of cooperation beyond the immediate family. se ll children into slavery. In Ancient Rome the family structure was centered on the father (see paterfamilias). labor power. In some cultures marriage imposes upon wome n the obligation to bear children. Only 7% o f families in the U. marriage b ecame one of the central institutions for forging economic and political relatio nships and was no longer viewed.[336] Among the aristocratic elite. but were a lso used for political and economic alliances."[338] Wh ile a variety of family structures continue to exist around the world today. marriage was a pragmatic way of supporting ones elf: it was easier to survive if resources (i. any children she had would belong to her husband's family. one's experience of one's family shifts over time. and women using birt . t hrough procreation. as Romans reckoned descent through the male line. for example. A daughter. especially in the upper classes. The development of horticultural or agriculture-based societies fundamentally ch anged the nature of marriage. You can see a good example of the changing nature of families in the family stru cture of Ancient Rome. which obliges them to live together throughout life.[336] Intermarriage betwe en groups. Even so.S. Family structures of some kind are found in every society. From the perspective of child ren. Groups of related househo lds formed a family. Many families are now dual-earner families. marriage became a means of developing alliances or amas sing wealth. Families were based on blood ties (or adoption). at least among the aristocracy. single-parent households). same-sex marriage). Ancient Roman marriage was often regarded more as a financial and political alliance than as a romantic associati on.. variations on monogamous relationships are increasingly prevalent (i. as she could choose to continue recognizing her father's family as her true family. Modern forms of family structure and marriage in the West have their roots in Ch ristian philosophy and practice. the predominant form is monogamy (though. Given these functions. as are alternatives to mo nogamy (e. and possibly even claim the right to kill family members. inc luding polygamous and polygynous families in many societies (including the U. [edit]Families and Theory [edit]The Function of Families The primary function of the family is to reproduce society. this is no longe r the majority form). in which marria ge was defined as.S. when she married. the family is a family of procreation: the family function s to produce and socialize children.e. companionship. From the point of v iew of the parent(s). For the non-elites. fathers held great power (patria potestas) over those living with them: They could force marriage and divorce. In northern Ghana. although this was not alwa ys the case. The nuclear family emerged during the late medi eval period[337] and was formalized during the Council of Trent. etc. or clans was often political or strategic and resulted in rec iprocal obligations between the two groups represented by the marital partners. However. or sexual attraction..[ 339].

Courtship varies both by time period and by region of the world. no one of these is uni versal.[342][343] Courting. and then allow limited dating to determine whether the parties are suit ed. In some societies. This in the royal family privilege was denied commoners and may have served to concentrate wealth and pow er in one family. [edit]The Sociobiology of Families In almost all societies. and sending gifts are all modern forms of cou rting. in some tr aditional societies. Courtship is the traditional dating period before engagement and marriage. where marriage between brothers and sisters was permitted as it was also permitted in Hawaii and among the Inca. some parents hire a matchmaker to provide pictures and résumés of pote ntial mates. Courting can also t ake place without personal contact. chatting on-line. in the story A Father Advises his Son About Love. During a courtship. courtship is virtually eliminated altogether by the practice of arran ged marriages. the medieval Catholic church prohibited marriage even between distant cousins. In modern societies marriage entails par ticular rights and privilege that encourage the formation of new families even w hen there is no intention of having children. while at the othe r extreme.. where partners are chosen for young people. These sorts of restrictions are a form of exogamy. establishes a relationship between the famili es of the husband and wife. [edit]The Family Life Cycle [edit]Courtship Youth conversing with suitors from the Haft Awrang of Jami. is necessary for the formation o f an economically productive household. with very specif ic formal rules. The incest taboo may serve to promote soc ial solidarity.h control face substantial threats of physical abuse and reprisals. courtship is a highly structured activity. this is called Omiai. courting can take days or years. sending text messages. Marriage sometimes e stablishes the legal father of a woman's child. In more closed societies. wit h Ancient Egyptian. typically by their pa rents. No society does all of these. and if the couple agrees. establishes a joint fund of pro perty for the benefit of children. Tacuinum Sanitatis (XIV century) While the date is fairly casual in most European-influenced cultures. i nstant messaging. labor. It is an alternative to arranged marriages in which the couple doesn't meet before th e wedding. writing letters. Forbidding experimental and serial courtship and sanctioning only arrange . and/or property. marriage. gives the wife or her family control over the hu sband's sexual services. Courting includes activities such as dating where co uples go together for some activity (e. One exception to this pattern is in ancient Egypt.[341] In societies with a sexual division of labor. labor. and/or property. The present day Catholic Church still maintains a standard of required distance (in both consanguinity and affinity) for marriage.000[342] engaged or married couples suggested in an average du ration between first meeting and engagement of 2 years and 11 months. a poll of 3. the parents or community propose potential p artners. In the United Kin gdom. especially with modern technology. Hawaiian. a couple gets to know each other and decides if t here will be an engagement.g. there will be a formal meeting with the m atchmaker and often parents in attendance. The consequence of the incest-taboo is exogamy. In Japan. marriage between some first cousins is preferred. marriage between brothers and sisters is forbidden. the requiremen t to marry someone from another group. and the res ulting relationship between a husband and wife. a meal or movie). One way courtsh ip varies is in the duration. and Inca royalty being the rare exceptions. Virtual d ating.[340] Producing offspring is not the only function of the family. establishes the legal mother of a man's child. In man y societies. gives the husband or his family control over the wife's sexual se rvices. conversing over the telephone.

for instance.S. In recent years . courtship is normally triggered and controlled by women[345][346]. of Brazil. or religiously recognized interpersonal relationship.k. where the feminine term wife and the masculine husband are generally u sed to describe the parties to the contract. lies in the continuing empirical evidence that the institutions of courtship are more strongly supported by women than men. For example. a number of college newspapers have featured editorials where students decry t he lack of "dating" on their campuses. that is often created as a form of co ntract. which likely originated in Scandinavia and was carried to the U. The main weakness in this ar gument. the Kaingang. polygamy. Both Moore and Perper found that. However. This can be seen in the rise in internet dating.[355][356]. Courtship is used by a number of theorists to explain gendering processes and se xual identity. This form of dating. Some theorize that courtship as it was known to prior generations has seen its last days and the next closest thing is gradual exclusivity. which promotes "traditional" dating. in which a person takes more than one spouse. Other forms of marriage also exist. fo r example. This practice ceased in the late 19th Century. driven mainly by non-verbal behaviours to which men respond. In earlier centuries. usually intimate and sexual. by the 1920 s. paired dates. particularly t hose seeking independence and equality at work. however. however. As a result of social changes spurred by the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s. since pre-marital sex was not c onsidered the norm even though it was widespread. This may negatively impact women. speed dating or gradual exclusivity dating (a. young adults were expected to court with the intention of finding a marriage partner. and by the 1930s. the legal concept of marriage is expanding to include same-sex marriage in some areas. it was assumed that any popular young person would have lots of dates. tho ugh. which in such cultures may be considere d more important than individual romantic preferences. though the couple was not supposed to engage i n sexual relations. is present in many societies. Another variation of cour tship is the bundling tradition.[357] The most frequently occurring form of marriage is between a woman a nd a man. Couples today are more likely to "hook up" or "hang out" with large groups rather than go on old-fashioned. where clos e to 40% of the marriages were not monogamous but included multiple spousal part ners. contrary to popular beliefs. This is generally supported by o ther theorists who specialise in the study of body language[347]. that magazines about marriage and romantic fiction continue to attrac t a 98% female readership[350]. Bundling involved potential mates spending th e night together in the same bed. This may be a result of a highly-publiciz ed 2001 study and campaign sponsored by the conservative American women's group Independent Women's Forum.) Currently. by immigrants. Systematic research into courtship processes inside the workplace[351][352] as w ell two 10-year studies examining norms in different international settings[353] [354] continue to support a view that courtship is a social process that sociali ses both sexes into accepting forms of relationship that maximise the chances of successfully raising children.[359] A bride and groom at their wedding.d matches is partly a means of guarding the chastity of young people and partly a matter of furthering family interests. continue to regard courtship as a socially constructed (and male-l ed) process organised to subjugate women[348][349]. the taboo of sex during dating began to wane. where the partners respect and value each other's individual lives but still maintain the ultimate goal of being together even if time or space does not permit it now. dating for fun was becoming an expectation.a.[358] (See. in re cent years traditional dating has evolved and taken on the metamorphic propertie s necessary to sustain itself in today's world. socially. Feminist schol ars. was usually more chaste than is seen today. Farrell reports.[344] Also. Scientific research into courtship began in the 1980s after which time academic researchers started to generate theories about modern dating prac tices and norms. . slow dating) . rather than for social reasons. [edit]Marriage Marriage is a governmentally.

children in single-parent and step-parent families are more likely to act out in negativ e ways. by the 1600s many of the Protestant Euro pean countries had heavy state involvement in marriage. As most people tend to marry or pa rtner with individuals with whom they spend a lot of time. one's level of educational attainmen t was a significant predictor of the educational attainment of one's spouse. marriage was enacted by the couple promising v erbally that they would be married to each other. As part of the Counter-R eformation. the role of recording marriages and setting the rules for marriage passed to the state. The act of marriage creates obligat ions between the individuals involved. by itself constitute a bet rothal. Previous res earch has attributed this to the fact that single-parent households tend to be p oorer than dual-parent households and poverty is related to behavior problems. But jobs after one completes his/her education also tend to be grou ped by level of education.000 teens. The reasons people marry vary widely.The ceremony in which a marriage is enacted and announced to the community is ca lled a wedding. As part of the Reformation. it was unquestionably binding. children who se fathers are more involved in their lives are less likely to have behavior pro blems. people spend more time with individuals of a similar level of educational attainment. it is not surprising that there is significant educational similarity between spouses. between the parti es' extended families. and people with a college degree are likely to marry people wi th a similar level of educational attainment. "opposites attract" is less accurate of marriage than the maxim "bird s of a feather flock together. Schwartz and Mare[362] examined trends in marriage over time and found that the old maxim. Part of the reason why education i s so influential in determining the level of education of one's spouse is becaus e people tend to form groups based on levels of education. Peo ple without a high school diploma are unlikely to marry someone with more educat ional attainment. but usually include: to publicly and forma lly declare their love. "I marry you"). One well-known attribute of marriage is that it tends to have health benefits. There is a take-home lesson from this study: One way to reduce behavior problems in teenagers is to encourage a close relationship between them and thei . A recent study by Marcia Carlson[365] adds another clue as to why children raised in single-parent households or households with step-parents might have more beh avior problems. which under normal circumstances had to include the priest. In Europe during the Middle Ages." Their research focused on one specific similarit y in marital partners: education.g. it would. and. such as divorce and annulment. They found that the educational levels of Amer ican married couples decreased in similarity slightly after World War II but has since increased substantially. H appily married people tend to be healthier than unmarried people. if mad e in the future tense ("I will marry you"). Marriages are perpetual agreements with legal consequence s. If made in the present tense (e. According to Carlson's study of nearly 3. and the educatio n and nurturing of children. social and economic stability. First there are the g roups formed in the process of becoming educated (many people meet their spouses in school).[363][364] Howe ver. in some societies. As a result. legitimizing s exual relations and procreation. the Catholic Church added a requirement of witnesses to the promise. the union was a marria ge. When the relationship between a child and the father is missing. terminated only by the death of one party or by formal dissolution processes. which may be performed either by a religious officiator or through a si milar government-sanctioned secular process. unhappily married couples may not receive the same health benefits and may actually be less healthy than their single peers. As of 2003. If the couple proceeded to have sexual relations.[363] [edit]Children Kids raised in families with only one parent or with step-parents are more likel y to have behavior problems than are kids raised with both parents. This promise was known as the "verbum". The ways in which marriages are enacted have changed over time.[360][361] A marriage can be declared by a wedding c eremony. the formation of a single household unit. the presence of a priest or ot her witnesses was not required.

but the independent life stage is a period of single-living prior to the formation of one's own family. used to be among t he lower-middle sector of the population in terms of income and wealth. Thus. which also overla ps with the time in most children's' lives when they are beginning to look for l ife partners. as parents are trying to compensate for height ened supervision outside the home by allowing children greater freedom inside th e home.. Divorce is a negotiating tool for wome n who seek change in their relationships. With smaller families. just above the middle.g.. improving their socioeconomic status. the re duction in the number of kids among Catholics has actually improved their socioe conomic status on average. wome n may feel more insecure and are therefore reluctant to push for change within a marriage. Part of the reason for this has been a decrease in the size of Catholic familie s. t hey are allowed to decorate their own rooms) but have lost autonomy in public ar eas outside the home (e.[366] Thus. parents are decreasingly involved in the decision-making process.[3 68] Analyzing back issues of Parents magazine. Her cross-natio nal study of 22 countries suggests that where there is more tolerance of divorce . rank higher. Markella Rutherford found that pa rents face a difficult task of trying to balance authority with childhood autono my. Some of the loss of autonomy is the result of a growing fear among parents of child p redators. One illustration of this is the upward mobility of Catholics in t he U. Where divorce is an option. This is a painting of Catherine de Medicis wearing the clothing of a widow from the 16th Century. Catholics in the U. while having an active father helps impr ove behavior problems. In countries with greater acceptance o f divorce.S.S. and the more kids a family has. Contradicting these claims. How parents raise children and childhood autonomy have also changed over time. Catholics are able to retain more of their inc ome and turn it into savings. Catholics are having about the same number of children as are non-Catholics i n the U. There is also some evidence that the gender of children increases fat her involvement in the home. This same factor may help explain the increase in autonomy in the home.[369] Catholics in the U. they are not allowed to go to the park alone). on average.S. Rosenfeld and Kim attribute the increase in interracial and same-sex marriages t o the increasing prevalence of this life stage. Kids are expensive to raise. it is customary for the widow or widower t o indicate their loss by dressing in specific ways and following certain behavio ral guidelines.r fathers.g. the lower the so cial class (though this is a complicated relationship as the causal direction go es both ways)." This life stage is a period of t ime in which young adults leave home and live alone (often to go to college). fathers having sons helps improve their dedication and de votion to their families. Men risk losing the ir wives if they refuse to shape up and help out around the house. Kids are closely connected to a family's socioeconomic status as well. analyzing marriages that remain intact. there is greater gender equality within marriage. there is a more equal division of household work. Another recent finding related to children is that parents have less influence o n their children's' mate selections now than they used to. Thus.S. Numerous studies have tried to determine why 50 per-cent of marriages end in div orce within the first 25 years in the United States. Yodanis shows that the ease of divorce in creases women's equality within marriage. As a result of this life stage. Most researchers think that women are disadvantaged by the ease of divorce. But as o f the 1990s and 2000s. [edit]Divorce In some cultures.[50] Carrie Yodanis[370] tak es a different approach. which is generally over-stated. while d ivorce has helped many women leave unhealthy marriages in which they are at risk . when a spouse dies. Rosenfeld and Kim[367 ] found that a new life stage has developed in the latter half of the 20th centu ry that they call the "independent life stage. over the past few decades. Children have gained more autonomy in private spaces in their homes (e. Ch ildren used to remain in their parents home until they left to start their own f amily.

etc. though this is similar to Yodanis's argument ..g.[37 1] There is evidence to suggest that specific types of couple therapy can help c ouples see where they are committing the fundamental attribution error and subst antially reduce the odds of divorce. women are much less affluent and a la rge percentage of divorced. Men also obta in greater mental health benefits from marriage than do women and report greater marital satisfaction than do women. the ability to get a divorce easily may also strengthen marriages. Finally. With financial security comes independence. men generally retain control of the money. when heterosexual couples divorce. These differences in health remain even after an individual remarries. This is known as the fundamental attribution error and can lead to the dissolution of relationships. However.[373] [edit]Death and Widowing In most societies. It is also h igher for blacks than for whites and Hispanics.. they do not hold themselves to the s ame critical judgment. This occurs when the parties in the relationship attribute the negative behaviors they disli ke to fundamental characteristics of the person rather than to the situation. Women's right s advocates pushed for this change as it facilitated women's ability to exit unh ealthy marriages.[50] The introduction of "No-fault divorce" laws removed the burden of proving that one's spouse had caused irrepar able damage to the relationship (through adultery.companio . A spouse who outlives the other is referred to as a widow (female) or widower (male). things like negotiating child care) . single women fall below poverty lines.[376] As a result. climbing stairs or walking a block). wom en's workforce participation also increases the odds of divorce.[373] Divorce d people have 20% more chronic health conditions (e.[377] The greater marital satisfaction men r eport is likely the result of the benefits they receive from marriage . men reap many be nefits from this type of living arrangement.of great physical and mental harm. For instance.[50] Other factors that may have also contributed to the rise i n divorces is a cultural mystique that suggests marriage should be blissful and not have any problems.[372] Divorce and widowhood carry with them the burden of reduced health.[50] The unrealistic expectations many couples bring to marriage heightens the probability of divorce if things don't align wi th those expectations. heart disease. the death of one of the partners terminates the marriage. particularly financial stress. Thus. there is a social-psychological component to divorce as well. People ha ve a tendency to unfairly judge other peoples' behavior as being "part of who th ey are" or part of their identity. [edit]Gender While marriage does increase the socioeconomic status of women. diabetes.[50] This is a common depiction of marriage in media.[375] As t he figure to the right illustrates. the probability of a first marriage ending i s substantially higher for couples that live in poorer communities. when they do something that is mean. while many women mana ge a household's finances. They also have 23% more mobility limitations (e . cancer) than do married people.. [edit]Families and Inequality [edit]Social Class Families and family stability are strongly influenced by social class. The increasing participation of women in the workforce has provided women with g reater financial security.). it is situationally determined and doesn't reflect their identity. but is far from an accurate portrayal. battery.S.it really just empowers women who are in bad mar riages to feel like they can leave the marriage and not experience a dramatic de cline in quality of life.g. Another factor that contributes to high divorce rates is the change in laws that made divorce easier in the 1970s in the U. The higher rates of divorce for individuals in lower social classes is largely attributable the greater stresses these couples face. Divorcees experience declines in healt h because of two things that accompany divorce: reduced income[374] and stresses over the dissolution of the marriage (e. and in monogamous societies this allows the other partner to remarry.g.

An example of such restrict ions would be a requirement to marry someone from the same tribe. minister. Spain. apartheid-era S outh Africa and most of the United States in the first half of the 20th century. Mormon fundamentalism). the benefits of marri age tend to favor men over women. "The dual requir ements of state registration and church consecration to constitute marriage.[380 ] Women who marry at younger ages generally have lower educational attainment (t hough the causal direction here goes both ways). some sects which recognize polygamy (see. the freewoman Perpetua could be described a even tho s "a married matron" but Felicitas as the "fellow-servant" of Revocatus ugh the Christians regarded. Argentina. Conversely. Virginia in 1967.nship and household labor . Supreme Court declared all such laws unconstitutiona l in the case of Loving v. have more kids. such as Nazi-era w:Germany. It was a significant step towards a clear separation o f church and state and advance toward a secular society when German Chancellor O . Racist laws ad opted by some societies in the past. and immigrants who do not wish to alert the immigration authorities that they are married either to a spo use they are leaving behind or because the complexity of immigration laws may ma ke it difficult for spouses to visit on a tourist visa. such marriages as binding. In the U. widowed. and are also mo re dependent on their husbands financially. Muslim men who wish to engage in pol ygamy that is condoned in some situations under Islam. so that many contrabands e scaping slavery during the American Civil War sought official status for their m arriages. In many jurisdictions. In some countries. which is not a problem for men.[381] In short. In most Amer ican states. on the other hand. In Europe. Likewise. religiously."[33 8] In England and Wales. although they are theoretically distinct. so that in the Acts of Perpetua and Felicitas. and many societies require official approval of a religious or civil body .S. and Russia. there people who have religious ceremonies that are not recognized b y civil authorities. Turkey. Calvin and his colleagues reformulated marriage t hrough enactment of The Marriage Ordinance of Geneva. the civil marriage ceremony may take place during the rel igious marriage ceremony. could also be con sidered examples of endogamy.[378] Married women. German y. Cultures that practiced slavery might admit that slave marriages formed but gran t them no legal status. thereby curtailing the practice of Fleet Marria ge. leading to many highly skill ed women leaving the workforce. Anth ropologists refer to these restrictions as endogamy. [edit]Religion The participants in a marriage usually seek social recognition for their relatio nship. the lack of fl exible work options for highly skilled women results in many of them "opting out " of the workforce. [edit]Race and Ethnicity Societies have also at times required marriage from within a certain group. it is necessary to be married by the state bef ore having a religious ceremony. ho mosexual couples (where same-sex marriage is not legally recognized). rabbi or othe r religious authority. and in such a case the religious authority acts simultane ously as an agent of the state. retired couples who woul d lose pension benefits if legally married. The U. s lave marriages in the United States were not binding. Examples include widows who stand to lose a pension if they remarry and so undergo a marriage only in the eyes of God and the community. This was the practice under the Roman empire. such as France. do often have to sa crifice occupational success or career advancement. In the Protestant tradition.. imposing.[379] Married women also have higher rates of mental illness than do single. these laws were largely repealed betw een 1940 and 1960. it was Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act that first require d a formal ceremony of marriage. the marriage may be officiated by a priest.while not having to sacrifice occupational success o r career advancement. which prohibited marriage between persons of different races.S. it has traditionally been the churches' office to make marriages offi cial by registering them. and divorced women.[379] Many of these women leave because the work environment does not allow for a balance between work and family. Among the rights distinguishing serfdom from slavery was the right to enter a legally recognizable marriage.

women now earn more than 50% of bachelor's degrees .. without the support of a husband.[3 83][384][385] For the most part.[382] They teach that unmarried people should not have sex.[336] However. economically. had significant ramifications on family life. in that. despite a still promine nt gender gap in pay. but it does not receive the same formal recognition by religio ns. This change in the econom ic structure of the U. Additionall y. despite their ability to support their children. or lesbian. wife.[387] There is some evidence. The cohabiting population. in practice. In the 1950s. is mainly made up of those between the ages of 25 and 34. the declining purchasing power of male wages in the 1970s along with the incr eased levels of education among women led to an increasing percentage of married women (with and without kids) to enter the workforce. which they refer to as fornication. Women and men began d elaying the age of first marriage in order to invest in their earning power befo re marriage by spending more time in school." but by 1978. Fornication is sometimes socially discourage d or even criminalized. and reduced the clerical marriage to a private ceremony. Cohabitation is an intimate relationship which includes a common living place an d which exists without the benefit of legal. three generation households are more financially secure env ironments for raising children than are two generation households if it is a sin gle parent who is trying to raise children alone. calle d adultery.[388] Several common reasons that lead coupl .tto von Bismarck introduced the Zivilehe (civil marriage) in 1875. the inability to support a nuclear family on a s ingle wage). is generally condemned by most religions and has even been criminali zed in some countries. 40% of b irths to unmarried American women were intentional. however. although inclusive of all ages. Most of the world's major religions tell couples they should marry before having sexual intercourse. (i.S. or religious sanction. cultural. Despite this condemnation.positioned wom en to survive. While somewhat more common pr ior to the 20th century due to the more frequent deaths of spouses. governments. religious traditions in the world reserve marriage to heteros exual unions but there are exceptions including the Unitarian Universalists and Metropolitan Community Church. or cultures. engage in extramarital sex. the odds of the single-parent led family falling under the poverty line are r educed by 80%. A bout 10-15% of women and 20-25% of men in the U. most people believed that single-parent households were "immoral.e.[387] [edit]Cohabitation This figure shows that roughly 5% of households in the U.[335] nor is it perceived as such. the nuclear family (husband.S. single parents often s truggle financially to make ends meet. it is a widespread practice. women are able to survive as single mothers. Sex with a married person other than one's spouse. only 25% of Americans held that belief. br eaking down the distinction between "legitimate" and "illegitimate". The increased levels of education a mong women . it is sim ilar to marriage.S.[386] [edit]New Developments in Families [edit]One-Parent Households One recent trend illustrating the changing nature of families is the rise in pre valence of single-parent or one-parent households. and. are made up of cohab iting couples of various types: heterosexual. Thus. the child's grandparents ).. in the late 19th and early 20th century.e. It can be seen as an alternative form of marriage.[336] Legal reforms in the 1960s and 1970s expanded the rights of nonmarital children and unwed mothers. gay. and kids) became the societal norm in most Western nations. tha t when single parents move in with their parents (i. By 1997. This law made the declaration of the marriage before an official clerk of the civil administr ation (both spouses affirming their will to marry) the procedure to make a marri age legally valid and effective. But what was the prevailing norm for much of the 20th century is no longer the actual norm.

but are not attributable to demographic differences between the three groups. Mississippi. In California. cohabitation rates in the M iddles East are much lower. In some countries (such as Scotland) and some states in the United States. at least briefly. or Persons of Opposite Sex Sharing Li ving Quarters (these numbers are still reported to show historical trends).4% of all couples in the US) and those who cohabit after marriage (40. the U.. who shares living quar ters.000 such couples.5% of couples in the US). The most important of these is the C ensus Bureau.5% of couples were cohabi ting as of 1999. Idaho and Michigan) still criminalize cohabitation by opposite-s ex couples. In the UK 25% of chil dren are now born to cohabiting parents. In France. Florida. roughly 50% of all children are born into families of unmarried couples. who is not related to the householder.85 million cohabiting couples. up mor e than 1.S. In lat e 2005. which currently describes an "unmarried partner" as "A person age 15 years and over. many of those children are born to women who a re cohabiting. cohabitation is very common.[389] Individuals who cohabit before engagemen t (about 43% of all couples) report slightly lower marital satisfaction.[391] which is available to same-sex couples and opposite-sex couples in which at least one of the partners is age 62 or older. such couples are defined as people who "have chosen to share one another's lives in an intimate and committed relationship of mutual caring.[393] More than half of couples in the US lived together. Legal obstacles for cohabitation w ere removed in 1926 in a reform of the Finnish penal code. and confidence as well as more negative communication as compared with indi viduals who cohabit after engagement (16. there is no legal registration or definitio n of cohabitation. The differences are generally small.[389] Some couples prefer cohabitation because it does not legally commit them for an extended period of time. although anti-cohabitation laws are generally not enforced. Census Bureau reported 4. 17. While cohabitation does address all of the issues above. seven states (North Carolina. Today. while the number of children being born to "unwed" mothers has increased over time. West Vir ginia. cohabitation amon gst Finns is most common for people under 30.[395] In 2005. dedicat ion. and who has a close personal relationship with the householder. less than 3% of all couples cohabit. Of couples with children. g ranting them limited legal recognition and some rights similar to those of marri ed couples. before walking down the aisle. Denmark and Norway.[392] In most States of the United States. 18% were cohabiting. Early cohabitors also h ave a great potential for divorce. In Israel. and because it is easier to establish and dissolve. the Bureau euphemistically identified any "unrelated" opposite-sex coup le living with no other adults as POSSLQs. as people move in a nd out of each other's homes and sometimes do not agree on the definition of the ir living arrangement at a particular moment in time." in cluding having a "common residence.000 percent from 1960. Virginia.S. 21% of families in Finland consisted of cohabiting couples (all age grou ps). cohabiti ng is viewed as a legal relationship and is referred to as a common-law marriage after the duration of a specified period or the birth of a child to the couple."[390] This recognition led to the creation o f a Domestic Partners Registry."[393] Befo re 1995. so demographers have developed various methods of identifying cohabitation and measuring its prevalence.[389] In Sweden. it does not improve the quality or duration of marriages. when there were 439. In contrast to Europe and the U. Generally.es to decide to live together include: wanting to test compatibility or establish financial security before marrying a desire to live as married when same-sex marriages are not legal living with someone before marriage as a way to avoid divorce a way for polygamists to avoid anti-polygamy laws a way to avoid the higher income taxes paid by some 2-income married couples (in the United States) seeing little difference between the commitment to live together and the commitm ent of marriage This figure illustrates that.[cita .[394] Cohabitation often does not have clear start and end dates.

where same-sex marriage was formally allowed as of May 17. 7.e. Children raised in sam e-sex parented households are no more or less likely to be homosexual than child ren raised in heterosexual parented households. Assuming the percentage of homosexuals in Massachusetts is simil ar to that of the rest of the nation (roughly 2.[citation needed] [edit]Same-Sex Unions A homosexual couple at their marriage ceremony. For instance. U. [edit]Recommended Reading Some couples have made a concerted effort to balance home and work responsibilit ies so they literally split everything 50/50.tion needed] Cohabitation runs contrary to Islamic Law and is not common in pred ominantly Muslim countries. There is. One question often raised about same-sex unions is how it influences any childre n raised in these households. the average same-sex couple is older than the average heterosexual couple the average same-sex couple is more educated than the average heterosexual coupl e while divorce rates are higher for couples that marry younger generally (see dis cussion of divorce above).[397] Three additional states allow same-sex civil unions. New Jersey. map showing same-sex marriage laws for individual states. divorce) in other countries where same-sex marriage has been leg ally allowed for a longer period of time.[398] Between May 2004 and December 2006.3% of men and 1. or o ther factors preventing reproduction. Andersson et al. While homosexuality has existed for thousands of years among both humans and oth er animals. respectively.[396] formal marriages between homosexual partners is a relatively re cent phenomenon. there is very little existing data on marital dissolution rates.S. age.3% of women). Massachusetts & Iowa. th e above number indicates that 16. 2004 and April 2009. children raised in same-sex households have more complex pers pectives on sexuality and have well-articulated responses to discrimination.7% of homosexuals in Massachusetts married duri ng that time. Are children raised by same-sex parents more likel y to be homosexual? The answer is surprising to some: No.[400 ] [edit]Childfree Some married couples remain childless by choice or due to infertility. including: less support from the community and less encouragement or pressure fr om family and friends to make the marriage last.341 same-sex couples married in Massachusetts.[399] examined precise ly this issue in Norway and Sweden. Yet. [edit]References . the divorce rate is slightly higher for same-sex coup les than heterosexual couples female same-sex couples are more likely to divorce than are male same-sex couple s Andersson et al.. data on marital dissoluti on rates (i. doing so is difficult.S. Given how recent same-sex marriage is in the U. found several wa ys in which homosexual unions differ from heterosexual unions in these countries : World map illustrating laws regulating homosexuality by country. there are some differen ces. however.. Andersson et al. attribute the higher divorce rate to a combination of factors. This N ew York Times Magazine article examines this relatively new trend. where same-sex marriages or civil unions hav e been legally recognized since the mid-1990s. and Ver mont. As of 2009. only two states in the United States recognized mar riages between same-sex partners. Even so. Connecticut.

It is important to note at the beginning of t his chapter that sociologists study religion not to prove. 2008. Kelly. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. The Sociological Imagination.. Oxford Univ ersity Press. The International Heral d Tribune.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. Electronic Journal of Sociology. [edit]Introduction Sociologists study religion the same way they study other social institutions.iht. ? a b Mills. 2008. Inc. ? Denzin. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. and variou s other methodological approaches. l ike education or government. ? Loseke. survey analysis. John E. Basic Books.? Moore. To do this. May 7 http://www.. 1945-1975. ? Dilthey. The aim is primarily to understand religions. and Jennifer Glass. Peter L. Sage Publications. Simon & Schuster. Visceral Verstehen. 2001. Religion Explained. 40th ed. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber. ? Civettini. 2008). Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics. 1st ed.. 1st ed. ? Putnam.average ages of people when they first marry Ancestor Complex family Dysfunctional family Family law Family life in literature Family name Family relationship Family as a model for the state Genealogy Household Illegitimacy List of people with longest marriages List of people with multiple marriages Marriage [edit]External links The National Marriage Project at Rutgers University John Boswell's Same-Sex Unions in Pre-Modern Europe Alternatives to marriage project [edit]Religion The Shwezigon Pagoda Buddha in Myanmar. Max. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. Third Edition.php (Accessed August 17. 2005. and Yvonna S. 2007. ? Berger. ethnography. Wright. 1963. American Scientists. Lincoln. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. soci ologists employ demographic techniques. Disrupting Science: Social Movements. 1978.. Appeasing the Gods. 1st ed. Gender & Society 22:172-193. and James C. 2008. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. [edit]See also Age at first marriage . Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. John. 2000. Springer. Sociologists aren't interested in whether a religion is ri . Donileen R. disprove or normative ly evaluate religion. W. 2001. but i ncluded in trying to understand religions is the aim of trying to predict what r eligions will eventually do (or what will become of religions). Cavendish. Pascal. Free Press. USA. Princeton University Press. C. ? Tierney. Robert D. With Insurance. and the Politics of the Military. Nicole H. 2002. ? Boyer. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. Norman K. W. Anchor. 1997. ? Glass.

ght or wrong. Under this definition.the typology can include things that are not tradition ally understood to be religious (like cars or toys). using this definition.g. Yet. Profane Perhaps the most well known definition of religion is that provided by Emile Dur kheim.[4 06] . Despite the problems with this last definition. the definition is extremely broad and can encompass substantial elements of social life.) The Greek god Zeus. an athei st who believes that existence ends with physical death. This introduces one of the most significant critic isms of this definition . they do hold the flag. and angels. cars (and even toys) are considered sacred and treated almost as reverentially as the Torah is treated in Judaism. The sacred elements of soc ial life are what make up religion. each of which will be discussed briefly. Each definition has its merits and detriments.[405] This view of religion draws a sometimes ambiguous line between beliefs and rituals relating to empirical. [edit]Religion as Supernature The third social scientific definition views religion as the collective beliefs and rituals of a group relating to supernature. The reverential treatment of the Torah would be contrasted with all sorts of more mundane things like cars or toys. the sources of conversion experiences[401]). mundane elements of society).. This is particularly important in the study of religion because the definition determines which groups will be included in the analysis. but what one often finds is that the definition of religion employed by a particular researcher or in the investigati on of a particular topic depends on the question being asked. For example. For instance. Yet because the beliefs and rituals are understood to be shared by a group. such as spirits. [edit]Religion as Existential Questioning Another definition of religion among social scientists (particularly social psyc hologists) views religion as any attempt to answer existential questions (e. nationalism would be consid ered religion. This definition casts religion in a func tional light as it is seen as serving a specific purpose in society. god(s).g. and other nat ional monuments to be sacred. For i nstance. are not consider ed sacred. the nation's capitol. naturalistic explanations for ma ny elements of religion (e. At the other extreme. d efinable phenomona and those relating to undefinable or unobservable phenomena. As is the c ase with the sacred/profane typology. [edit]Sacred vs. it does most closel y adhere to the traditional (and popular) view of what constitutes a religion. (For a critique of this definition. for most people.. this definition could be argued to exclu de atheists. would be considered rel igious because he/she has attempted to answer a key existential question. which. while most people in the United States would not consider their nationa lism to be religious. This definition is not without its problems as well. That said. see Dobbelaere[404]. This requires sociologists to assume a relativistic perspective th at basically takes a neutral stance toward issues of right or wrong or true or f alse. the acute reader will be quick to point out that for some. Three gener al definitions have been proposed. 'Is there life after death?[401][403]). the social scientific study of religion can be challenging from a faith standpoint as it provides alternative.[402] Durkheim argued that the definition of religion hinged on the distin ction between things that are sacred (set apart from daily life) and things that are profane (everyday. some one who attends religious services weekly but makes no attempt to answer existen tial questions would not be considered religious. this definition is also often critiqued fo r being broad and overly encompassing. As a result. [edit]Definitions of Religion The starting point for any study of religion should begin with a definition of t he concept. the Torah in Judaism is sacred and treated with reverence and respe ct. as some argue it can also include atheists who have a specific positio n against the existence of a god (or gods).

. and h ave a strong tendency to equate 'citizenship' with 'membership exercise religious monopoly and try to eliminate religious competition very closely allied with the state and secular powers . include all members of the society within their ranks. The basic idea is that there is a continuu m along which religions fall. The church classification describes re ligions that are all-embracing of religious expression in a society. full-time clergy who possess the appropriate credentials of education and formal ordination almost by definition gain new members through natural reproduction and the socia lization of children into the ranks allow for diversity by creating different groups within the church (e. The change from a church to a denomination is still underway in many Latin American countries where the majo rity of citizens remain Catholics.[edit]The Church-Sect Typology Having defined religion. [edit]Denominations The denomination lies between the church and the sect on the continuum. the c lassification scheme is useful as it also outlines a sort of developmental proce ss for religions. Because t here is significant variation in each religion. Along this continuum are several addit ional types.frequently there is over lapping of responsibilities and much mutual reinforcement extensively organized as a hierarchical bureaucratic institution with a complex division of labor employ professional. Before describing these different religions. but has se en numerous contributions since then. Sociologists. Religions o f this type are the guardians of religion for all members of the societies in wh ich they are located and tolerate no religious competition. there are also some changes in their characteristics. The state churches of some Eu ropean countries would fit this type. it is important for the reader to u nderstand that these classifications are a good example of what sociologists ref er to as ideal types. This is e specially true of Catholicism in the United States. Denomina tions come into existence when churches lose their religious monopoly in a socie ty. Ideal types are pure examples of the categories. Today.[407][408] This scheme has its origins in the work of Max Weber. When churches and/or sects become denominations.g. A slight modification of the church type is that of ecclesia. Johnstone provides the following eight characteristics of denominations:[409] . when speaking technically. The reader may notice that many of the labels for the types of religion are commonly employed by non-socio logists to refer to religions and tend to be used interchangeably. Even so. each of which will be discussed in turn. Johnstone[409] provides the following six characteristics of churches: claim universality. They also strive to provide an all-encompassing worldview for their adherents and are typically enme shed with the political and economic structures of society. A denomination is one religion among many.[410] Ecclesias inc lude the above characteristics of churches with the exception that they are gene rally less successful at garnering absolute adherence among all of the members o f the society and are not the sole religious body. especially in th e past. will not use these labels interchangeably as they ar e designations for religions with very specific characteristics. we now move to one of the most common classification sc hemes employed in sociology for differentiating between different types of relig ions. ranging from the protest-like orientation of sects to the equilibrium maintaining churches. the Roman Catholic Church has been forced into the denomination c ategory because of religious pluralism or competition among religions. orders of nuns or monks) rather than through the formation of new religions The classical example of a church is the Roman Catholic Church. how closely an individual religi on actually adheres to their ideal type classification will vary. [edit]Church and Ecclesia The first type of religion is the church.

in the case of Lutheranism).).. but more involveme nt than churches often draw disproportionately from the middle and upper classes of society Most of the major religious bodies in the U. If the sect withers in membership. or eventual development into a denomination. Most of the well-known denominations of the U.dissolution. an institutionalized sect can res ult. An often seen result of such factors is the incorporation into the theology of the new sect a distaste for the adornments of the wealthy (e. they can tak e only three paths . Methodists.g. it will dissolve. explicit doctrine. They have a mixture of sect-like and denomin ation-like characteristics. institutionalization.. The development of norms results in a dec rease in spontaneity.S.. Th e adoption of denomination-like characteristics can either turn the sect into a full-blown denomination or.g. existing today originated as se cts breaking away from denominations (or Churches. the formation of a new sect ) tend to come from a lower socio-economic class than the members of the parent denomination. Lutherans). are denominations (e.e. etc. and Seventh-day Adventists. Examples include: Hutterites and the Amish.. The char acteristic that most distinguishes cults from sects is that they are not advocat ing a return to pure religion but rather the embracement of something new or som ething that has been completely lost or forgotten (e. they can form wi thout breaking off from another religious group (though they often do). Their motivation tends to be situated in accusations of apostasy or heresy in the parent denomination. Baptists. jewelry or o ther signs of wealth). Baptists . if a conscious effort is made to maintain some of th e spontaneity and protest components of sects. leaders of sectarian movements (i. M ost scholars believe that when sect formation does involve social class distinct ions they involve an attempt to compensate for deficiencies in lower social stat us.g. Interestingly. a component of sect development that is not entirely understood.similar to churches. which is often one of the primary attractions of sects. Falun Gong practitioners in London. the sect is forced to adopt the characteristics of denomi nations in order to maintain order (e. bureaucracy. Examples include: Methodists.g. If the membership increases. though it will also accept conv erts. [edit]Sects Sects are newly formed religious groups that form to protest elements of their p arent religion (generally a denomination). Another interesting fact about sects is that after their formation. lost scripture or new p rophecy). And even if the membership does not grow or grows slowly. but unlike sects. like sects.S. unlike sects. norms will develop to govern group activities and behavior. . they are often decrying liberal trends in denominational development and advocating a return t o true religion. [edit]Cults or New Religious Movements Cults are. But. some even actively pursue evangelization accept the principle of at least modestly changing doctrine and practice and tol erate some theological diversity and dispute follow a fairly routinized ritual and worship service that explicitly discourage s spontaneous emotional expression train and employ professional clergy who must meet formal requirements for certi fication accept less extensive involvement from members than do sects. Institutionalized sects are halfway between sects and denominations on the continuum of religious development. Falun Gong is a new religious movement. new religious groups. Cults are also more likely to be led by charismatic leaders than are o ther religious groups and the charismatic leaders tend to be the individuals who bring forth the new or lost component that is the focal element of the cult. in being on relatively good terms with th e state and secular powers and may even attempt to influence government at times maintain at least tolerant and usually fairly friendly relationships with other denominations in a context of religious pluralism rely primarily on birth for membership increase..

Cults emphasi ze the individual and individual peace. Marx argued that religion is able to do this by promising re wards in the after-life rather than in this life. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the deman . like sects. the celebr ation and even (self-) worship of human society. Temple Worship among Mormons). Some scholars are hesitant to grant cults denominational status because many cults maintain their more esoteric characteristics (e. Cults also tend to attract the socially disenchanted or unattached (though this isn't always the case. It is in this sense that Marx said. Cults.g... . they bureaucra tize and develop many of the characteristics of denominations. religion can be used to just ify terrorism and violence.S. For instance. [edit]Social-Conflict The social-conflict approach is rooted in Marx's analysis of capitalism. Finally. religion is obviously resulting in conflict. it should be noted that there is a push in the social scientific study of religion to begin referring to cults as New Religious Movements or NRMs.g. it is more accurat e to describe them as denominations. Durkheim p roposed that religion has three major functions in society: social cohesion . But given t heir closer semblance to denominations than to the cult type. often integrate elements of existing religious theologies. including: Islam. the social cohesion among the members of a terrorist group is high).religion can provide answers to existential ques tions (see the social-psychological approach below) The primary criticism of the structural-functional approach to religion is that it overlooks religion's dysfunctions. [edit]Theories of Religion Many of the early sociological theorists[402][411] proposed theories attempting to explain religion. in a sense. religion can also legitimize the political system providing meaning and purpose . Marx argued that religion was actually a tool of the bourgeoisie to keep the p roletariat content.[411] Ac cording to Marx.Cults. Most relig ious people would do well to remember the social scientific meaning of the word cult and. and The Nation of Islam. in most cases. b ut in a broader sense.religious based morals and norms help maintain conformity and c ontrol in society. the feeling of a heartles s world. Some denominations in the U. It is the opium of the people. In addition to these classical approaches to understanding religion. and Buddhism. like sects. not the reso lution of such. and the soul of soulless circumstances. [edit]Structural-Functional The Structural-Functional approach to religion has its roots in Emile Durkheim's work on religion. As cults grow.religion helps maintain social solidarity through shared ritua ls and beliefs social control . In one sense. this still fits the structural-functional ap proach as it provides social cohesion among the members of one party in a confli ct (e.. bu t cults tend to create more esoteric theologies from many sources. religion plays a significant role in maintaining the status quo . Finally. "Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature. one modern explanation for the continued high levels of religiosity wi ll be proposed along with a social psychological explanation that will attempt t o explain the continued attraction of religion. trying to explain: (1) the function of re ligion in society.[402] Durkheim argued that religion is. Cults tend to be located in urban centers where they can draw upon large populations for membership. The reasoning behind this is because cult has made its way into popular language as a derogatory label rather than as a specific type of religious group. can develop into denominations. that began a s cults include: Christian Science. realize that three of the major world religions origina ted as cults. These theories approach religion from slightly different perspectives. see Aho 1990 and Barker 1984). Christianity. cults tend to be transitory as they often dissolve upon the death or discrediting of their founder and charismatic l eader. (2) the role of religion in the life of the individual. Given this approach.[412] Religion has often been the justification of an d motivation for war. and ( 3) the nature (and origin) of religion.

these elements of society are then objectified in society so they s eem to take on an existence of their own. religious pluralism is essentially based on a no n-literal view of one's religious traditions. [edit]Religious Pluralism Religious pluralism is the belief that one can overcome religious differences be tween different religions and denominational conflicts within the same religion. the social-conflict approach to religion highlights how it function s to maintain social inequality by providing a worldview that justifies oppressi on. When this plausibility structure loses its intactness or continuity. It should be reiterated here that Marx's approach to sociology was critical in t he sense that it advocated change (in contrast to the knowledge for knowledge's sake approach). A good example of this may be Iran. e. socialization. In the social constructionist fr ame of mind. he took a particular stand on the existence of rel igion. all the important social processes within it serve to c onfirm and reconfirm the reality of this world" (p. in Saudi Arabia the public practice of religions other t han Islam is forbidden. institu tions. Acco rding to Berger.g. as in certain European countries where Roman Catholicism or regional forms of Protestantism have special status. the influence of a religion on the individual). that it should be done away with. "When an entire society serves as the plausibility structure for a religi ously legitimated world. also.[411] What Marx meant is that it would be ne cessary for the proletariat to throw off religion and its deceit about other-wor ldly rewards in order for the proletariat to rise up against the bourgeoisie and gain control over the means of production so they could realize this-worldly re wards. every component of society functions to reinforce the belief system.. allowing for respect to be engende red between different traditions on core principles rather than more marginal is sues. The existence of religious pluralism depends on the existence of freedom of reli gion.g. Freedom of religion is when different religions of a particular region pos sess the same rights of worship and public expression. 47). religion is not c reated by (or for) supernatural beings but rather is the result of societies del ineating certain elements of society as sacred. [edit]Social Constructionist The social constructionist approach to religion presents a naturalistic explanat ion of the origins of religion. In other words. in certain societies.) Religious freedom has not existed at all in some commun . religion is cosmization in a sacred mode.d for their real happiness" (p. An other important element to consider of plausibility structures is mentioned by B erger. It is perhaps summarized as an attitude which rejects focus on immaterial differences and instead gives respect to those beliefs held in common. (p.[20] In other words. Another important element of religion discussed by Berger[20] in his outline of the social constructionist approach is the idea of plausibility structures. they can then act back on the individual (e. For most religious traditions. Use of the word sacred in t his context refers to a quality of mysterious and awesome power. for the social constructionist. where everything is structured to re inforce the Islamic faith as reality. which is believed to reside in certain objects of experi ence" (p. Put di fferently. Berger[20] laid a framework for this approach. (For example see the Lateran Treaty and C hurch of England. and the processes by which the beliefs are spread. The reality of the Christian world depends upon the presence of social structure s within which this reality is taken for granted and within which successive gen erations of individuals are socialized in such a way that this world will be rea l to them. other than man and yet related to him. the Christian world begins to totter and its reality ceases to impose itself as self-evident truth. Freedom of religion is co nsequently weakened when one religion is given rights or privileges denied to ot hers. 72). Because criticism of the system in place when he was writing was inherent in Marx's approach. plausibility structures are the societal elements that provide the sup port for a set of beliefs (not necessarily religious). including people. namely. 46)[20] In short. Thus. As a result. " Religion is the human enterprise by which a sacred cosmos is established. 25).

if a person's parents were religious when he was a child. While fear likely does not motiva te all religious people. Batson et. [edit]Social-Psychological The primary social-psychological reason why religion continues to exist is becau se it answers existential questions that are difficult. fervent. they tend to stay in rel igions. Religious Pluralism has also been argued to be a factor in the continued existen ce of religion in the U. he introduces a caveat that is particularly telling for religious individuals for the most po sitive impact on SWB. if not impossible. Alternatively.a. the body's cells eventually die due to lack of nutrition. Gorsuch.[41 5] in his research on subjective well-being (SWB) notes that one of the keys to high SWB (a. they feel they need a purp ose in life to be happy (a.k.e. al. Each of these existential component s are discussed below in greater detail. Belief in God is attributable to a combination of the above factors (i.S.a. Science is also unable to address the question of a highe r purpose in life other than simply to reproduce. like capitalism generally in the U. but is also informed by a discussion of socialization. the process of socialization is certainly a signif icant factor in the continued existence of religion.k. Religion can provide a non-falsifiable answer to the question of what happens after people die. Studies have found that fear is a factor in religious conversion. science may not be able to address the quest ion of what happens when someone dies other than to provide a biological explana tion (i. science cannot dispro ve or prove the existence of a higher being. Finally.. As a result . SWB). etc. Combined. This theoretical approach[413] proposes that because no religion was guaranteed a monopoly in the U. However. Diener.S. protest-like sects are. People have to work toward salvation. note that one of the prima ry motivations for people to seek religion was fear of the unknown. religion can provide a goal and purpose in life for people who believe they need one. God's existence alleviates fear of death and provides meaning).). but they believe it can be achieved. Difficult but at tainable is a good description of salvation for religious people. religions are now better understood as capitalist corporations peddling their wares in a highly competitive market than they are as monopolistic Churches like Roman Catholicism was prior to The Reformation (or. religious pluralism led to th e conversion of religions in the U. Such answers can provide comfort for individuals who want to know what will happen w hen they die.[401] and Spilka. still is in Latin America) or as small. some might argue.. D espite these rare exceptions.. children raised in secular homes tend not to convert to r eligion. the body t hen decomposes. The result of re ligious pluralism is. with the help of religious pluralism. the continued high levels of religiosity in the U. The biggest predictor of adult religiosity is parental religiosity. For instance. in their book Amazing Conversions. Religion providing a purpose in life was also a motivation found by Altemeyer an d Hunsberger (1997) in their analysis of religious converts.. they have been successful. This is the underlying premise of Altemeyer and Hunsberger's (1997) mai n thesis they found some interesting cases where just the opposite seemed to hap pen. Children are socialized into reli gion by their parents and their peers and. fear of the after-life and what it portends. and Hood[414] also point to this factor as an explanation for the continued interest in religiosity. Hunsberger.e.S. and they are socialized into religion and .S.ist countries where the state restricts or prevents the public expression of rel igious belief and may even actively persecute individual religions (see for exam ple North Korea). he is likely to be religious when he grows up. to ad dress scientifically. specifically . into capitalist organizations. it certainly is a factor for some. a consumer attitude : people consume religion like they do other goods. People are afraid of things they do not understand (death). these three social-psychological components explain. Because religions are good a t marketing themselves as the providers of social psychological compensators (se e below). as a result. happiness) is a goal or purpose in life. Thus. secular people converted to religion and religious people became secular. Interestingly. goals should be difficult but attainable. Altemeyer and Hunsberger (1997).S.

and they are more likely to report having had a religious or mys tical experience.g...[401] provide a clear summary of the differences in religiosity be tween men and women: There is considerable evidence that women are more likely to be interested and i nvolved in religion than men. however. most people should make an effort to familiarize themselves with these religious groups to facilitate understanding. Southern Baptists. Eastern Orthodox. and more women report watching religiou s programs (53% compared with 44%). al. although the differences are not always large. 33) One explanation for the greater involvement of women in religion is socializatio n. A detailed description of these religions is beyond the scope of this chapter and the interested reader is encouraged to follow the abo ve links for more information.. Judaism is not. Roughly 50% of the major denominations in t he U. Assembly of God. Among Christian denominations.g. more women hold membership in a chur ch or synagogue (74% compared with 63%).. the religions of the book have numerous branches. If one were to ask any sociologist of religion which are the world religions. Catholic. as one moves away from the established. some so dissimilar that there is more contentio n within the world religions than between them (e. The primary reasons these r eligions refuse to allow women to be ordained are Biblical literalism (believing the Bible is the literal word of god and not recognizing that it is a historica l work written in a different time) and sacramentalism (the belief that the pers . in order concerning these religious groups. Three are religions of the book and can be practiced somewhat distinctly from one s primary cultural identity (e. In sum. classification as a world religion seems a little arbitrary. (p. Catholics vs.. Mormons vs.[401] discuss the idea that women may be socialized into roles in which religion is more highly emphasized than it is in men's roles.S. Counter-intuitively. many religio ns continue to disenfranchise women. Considering the remarkable dissimilarity between these five religious bodies.[416] Denominations that do not allow female ordination include : Roman Catholicism. these have been considered world religions due to their size and/ or influence on society. less traditional ones ( e. Even so.. today do not allow women to be ordained or otherwise serve in ways that are equal to men..believing in God by parents.. Batson et. Episcopalians)..g. even though women are more religious than men. The classifica tion of these groups as world religions is. fundamentalist Christians. In short. they are remarkably consistent: Women appear to be more religious-than-men. Finally. Additionally. More women than men report having attended religious service s in the past week (46% compared with 33%). Episcopal) toward newer. g. Pentecostal) the proportion of women members relative to men increases. artificial . Women are more likely than men to read the B ible at least monthly (56% compared with 41%) and to report having "a great deal of confidence" in organized religion (62% compared with 52%). Women rate their religious beliefs as important mo re than do men. traditional churches (e. like all classifications. and Mormons. [edit]World Religions and Religious History A Jewish synagogue. One note is. while four of these religiou s groups are very populous. [edit]Religion and Other Social Factors [edit]Religion and Gender Batson et.. al. being an American and Episcopalian). while two are better understood as synonymous with culture (Buddhism and Hinduism). th ey would likely give the standard answer that there are five world religions: Christianity Hinduism Islam Buddhism Judaism Traditionally. that they are grouped together at all is remarkable.

al. Today.[401] provide a clear summary of differences in religiosity by rac e (limited presently to Americans of African and European descent).[4 01] These variations in SES by religious groups are illustrated in the figure be low. predominately black churches and predominately white churche s remain distinct with very few churches catering to mixed race congregations (t hough megachurches tend to be more multi-racial). Women who pursue ordination in these religions find it harder to find a job pastoring a congregation..inclu ding fundamentalist Islam and fundamentalist Christianity . White Evangelical Christians are more likely to attribute bla ck/white inequality it to innate biological inferiority or laziness than are whi te Mainline Christians and the non-religious.e. Only 8% to 10% of congregations in the U.S. They include five distinctions in their discussion. because of their belief in individualism. notes that these are more akin to "manifest" reasons and the real or latent rea son is because these religions continue to cater to a specific market niche .[416] As of 2006. and Bapt ists and members of Protestant fundamentalist sects below average" (pp.[49] [edit]Religion and Class Socioeconomic status (SES) or class tends to be associated more with how religio n is practiced rather than degree of religiosity (i. you are more likely to: attend religious services hold traditional religious beliefs feel strongly about your religious beliefs report having had religious experiences consider religion to be important in your life . rel igion has a more prominent role in the day-to-day lives of African-Americans.S.[49] Emerson and Smith[49] convincingly argue that white Evangelical Christians in th e U.S. rural.[416] However.38-39). Religion is also divided by race. This is the result of white Evangelicals refusing to see structural factors that contribute to inequality and their proclivity to blame poor blacks for their poverty. tho ugh blacks were relegated to the balcony and primarily taught to be obedient to their masters. After the American Civil War. very religious vs.. to day are multi-racial (meaning no one race/ethnicity makes up more than 80% of th e congregation). Members of the middle class tend to belong t o more formal churches. not v ery religious).[401] attributes this to the religious institutions' role in the l ives of Americans of African descent. Religion has been one of the primary resou rces that African descendants have drawn upon since their arrival in the U. blacks and whites worshiped in the same churches. and are more likely to find jobs in congregations that a re smaller. "In the United States. and/or pay less.[416] Fundamentalist religions in general .S. women make up about 15% of clergy in the U.[416] Even within the religions that do allow women equal rights and ordination. Methodists and Lutherans about average. former slaves left the white-domina ted religions and created their own as they were mistreated in the white-dominat ed churches.S. are more likely to be assistan t pastors than are men. Chaves. al. actually contribute to racial inequality.on performing sacramental rituals must represent Jesus in his "manliness").in dividuals who oppose modernity. Re ligion has provided a sense of community and support for African-Americans and w as also extremely influential in the Civil Rights Movement[418] As a result. Presbyterians and Episcopalians t end to be above average in SES. Members of lower classes tend to associate with more fundamental ist religions and sect-like groups. who delineated these reasons in his book on female ordination.aim primarily to ret ain the power of men and subjugate women.both when you were growing up a nd as an adult Batson et. [edit]Religion and Education .[49] There are complicated historical reasons for this. During t he U. women experience discrimination. period of slavery. If you are an American of African descen t.[417] [edit]Religion and Race Batson et.

[401] the relationship between religion and mental h ealth is highly nuanced. which argues that religious people will (at least initially) reinforce their beliefs in light of disconfirming evi dence. religion is the answer to life's questions).e. Bats on et. "personal competence a nd control. religious fundamentalism has no place in a productive.g. and open-mindedness and flexi bility" (p. healthy and caring soc iety today. An important study by Johnson[419] draws a complex but interesting picture of th e relationship between religion and education attainment.. al. al. The 'p rocess' component of secularization would refer to how the theory is actualized. 240). Specifically... On the other si de. Johnson's finding is particularly insightful in light of the social psychological theory of cognitive dissonance. find a negative relationshi p between religion and three components of mental health. In order to understand this nuanced relationship. if one does take into consideration the different types of religiosity. are stud ying. Those who make it thr ough college with their religious beliefs intact tend to be more devout than tho se who do not attend college to begin with yet remain religious. it is necessary to clarify the different types of religiosity Batson et. religion tends to be associated with poorer mental health (p. those who don't make it through college with their religious beliefs intact end up far less orthodox and are more likely to disavow religion altogether. al. it is meant that some scholars[402] [411] (e. extrinsic.g. . social contacts). 289). Extrinsically-oriented individuals. it just depends on where you end up. [edit]The Future of Religion All religions beside those invented recently have gone extinct and been forgotte n.g. The most comm on meaning is in reference to the decline of levels of religiosity in society. People in more fundamentalist religious groups tend to have lower levels of educational at tainment while people in more liberal religious groups tend to have higher level s of educational attainment. Quest religiosity refers to the religi ous seeker who constantly asks questions and may not believe there are any clear answers to them. [edit]Secularization Secularization is a varied term with multiple definitions and levels of meaning. Batson et.Like income. secularizatio n is both a theory and a process. [edit]Religion and Health According to Batson et. This understanding of classical secularizati on theory is currently being refined and modified (see discussion below). Batson et. add a third quest religiosity. distinguish between three types of religiosity. Extrinsic religiosity refers to people who use religion as a mean s to an end (e. These types or orientations stem from the work of Gordon Allport who distinguished two type s of religiosity and provided their corresponding labels: intrinsic and extrinsi c religiosity. Freud. Johnson found a dichot omization of religiosity as a result of college education. 240). Weber) believed that as society modernized it would also see a decline in levels of religiosity. It is in this sense that secularization has multiple definitions. This relationship between education and religion is illustrated in the figure below. If one does not take into consideration the different types of religiosity (i. then intrinsic and quest oriented individuals tend to see mental health benefit s from their religious involvement. educational attainment tends to vary by religious group. b ut this is a broad and diffuse meaning that should be clarified by referring to . intrinsic. Intrinsic religiosity refers to people who see religion as the end (e. al. find that their religious involvement results in a negative influence on their mental health (p. It should also be noted that in addition to multiple definitions. By theory. and quest). on the o ther hand. However. al. The relationship between education and religiosity is a dichotomization college edu cation strengthens both religiosity and irreligiosity. self-acceptance or self-actualization.

soup kitchens) were slowly moving into the secular (or a-rel igious) realm. for that matter) is the transition of Harvard University fro m a predominantly religious institution into a secular institution (with a divin ity school now housing the religious element illustrating differentiation). secularization can refer to differentiation. neo-secularization theory argue s that individuals are increasingly looking outside of religion for authoritativ e positions on different topics.one of the more specific meanings outlined below. Differentiation (or specialization) is a reference to the increasing division of labor and occupational specialization in society. for much of the 20th century activities that had been in the rel igious domain (e. Neo-secularizationists would argue that religio n is no longer the authority on issues like whether to use birth control and wou ld therefore argue that while religious affiliation may not be declining in the U. to argue that Chri stianity is 'secularizing' is not clear unless one specifies exactly which eleme nts of which version of Christianity are being discussed. This is the most common understanding and usage of the term at the individual level and refers specifically to personal re ligious decline or movement toward a secular lifestyle. Sommerville[420] outlined six (6) uses of the term secularization in the scienti fic literature. While the trend toward government assistance in social welfare seems to be reversing i n recent years. which broadens the definition of individual level reli gious decline by arguing that secularization can also refer to the decline of re ligious authority. [edit]Religious Fundamentalism . (a debate still taking place). Some scholars[421] have argued that levels of religiosity are not declining (though their argument tends to be limited to the U. The first five are more along the lines of definitions while the sixth application of the term is more of a 'clarification of use' issue: When discussing social structures. While some might consider thi s a foray into social progress. When discussing institutions. other scholars[422] have countered by introducing the id ea of neo-secularization.S. secularization can refer to the transformation of an institution that had once been considered religious in character into somethi ng not thought of as religious. A good example of this type of secularization (a nd differentiation. secularization (as understood in definition five above) is being deb ated in the sociology of religion. When discussing mentalities. In other words..S. few would argue that modern societies are less d ifferentiated than more primitive. often that of government. As there appears to be some merit to this position. secularization can refer to a societal decline in l evels of religiosity (as opposed to the individual-level secularization of defin ition four). these elements of Christianity may not be recog nized by other 'Christian' groups as elements of their version of Christianity. What's more. religion's authority is declining and secula rization is taking place. It should be noted that this understanding of secularization is dis tinct from definition one (1) in that it refers specifically to religious declin e rather than societal differentiation. For example. rather than using a-religious apostates as th e solitary measure of a population's secularity. secularization can only be used unambiguousl y when referring to religion in a generic sense. secularization refers to the transfer of activities from institutions of a religious nature to others without that character. secularization can refer to the transition from ult imate concerns to proximate concerns. an admitted anomaly in the developed world). When discussing populations. tribal societies (following the work of Gerha rd Emmanuel Lenski). Thus. depending on the venue of the discussion. as Christianity is too variably defined to allow fo r generalizations for a specific denomination.g. you need to specify which elements of that specific grou p you believe are declining. When discussing religion generally. [edit]Current Issues in the Study of Secularization At present. if you are interested in discussing religious decline within a specific de nomination or religion. A clear example of this definition of se cularization would be the declining religious affiliations in much of modern Eur ope. When discussing activities.

40th ed. The International Heral d Tribune. Religio us fundamentalists tend to take the view that 'God said it. Electronic Journal of Sociology. Religious fundamentalism is of great importance to sociologists because of its i ncreasingly prominent role in social life. ? Civettini.. Disrupting Science: Social Movements. ? Dilthey. Anchor.iht. C. American Scientists. religious funda mentalists don't allow for a middle ground . The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. only 43% are identifiably religious. 2005. W. Religion Explained. Springer. ? Glass. Kelly. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics. Basic Books.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier.The destruction of the World Trade Centers in 2001 was inspired by the extreme v iews of religion.. religious fundamentalism warrants continued study. Fundamentalism describes a movement to return to what is considered the defining or founding principles of a religion. but because of the impact of this particular religious approach on society today . 1997. especially politics. The fundamentalist approach to politics can hurt a de mocratic system because of fundamentalists' unwillingness to compromise. Religion can serve as a justification and can even he lp motivate the bombers. [edit]References ? Moore. ? Berger. Peter L. May 7 http://www. 2008. Sage Publications. 1963. Free Press. and James C. It has especially come to refer to any re ligious enclave that intentionally resists identification with the larger religi ous group in which it originally arose. 2001. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. Third Edition. Pascal. Simon & Schuster. John E. ? Denzin. and Jennifer Glass. USA. Inc. Norman K. Robert D. ? Putnam.. Wright. specifi cally a democratic system. 2008). 2001. 2002. ? Tierney. While widely associated with religious fundamentalism. so it will have to b e this way. Nicole H. A full analysis of what constitutes religious fundamentalism is beyond the scope of this chapte r. The Sociological Imagination.which is a vital element of the dem ocratic process. 2008. but not all terrorism is inspired by religion and relig ious fundamentalists. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362.' Because anything short of God s will is unacceptable. Kenneth Wald[42] points out how religious fundamentalism can be detrimental to politics. ? a b Mills. 2007. and Yvonna S. the interested reader is encouraged to explore this topic further by reading the Wikipedia article on fundamentalism. suicide bombers are not exclusively religious. John. Appeasing the Gods. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. [edit]External links American Religion Data Archive Hadden: Religion and the Quest for Meaning and Order A test of the Stark-Bainbridge theory of affiliation with cults and sects . ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity.[423] Most suicide bombings are for strategic. and usually involve a dispute over resources. Princeton University Press. Max. Visceral Verstehen. Lincoln. on the basis that fundamental principles upon which the larger religious group is supposedly founded have become corrupt or displaced by alternative principles hostile to its identity. 2000. W. Cavendish. 1st ed. 1st ed. 2008.. 1978. Oxford Univ ersity Press. With Insurance. 1st ed. Donileen R. ? Loseke. ? Boyer. political reasons. and the Politics of the Military. Gender & Society 22:172-193.php (Accessed August 17. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. However.[423] What the future of religious fundamentalism holds for human society is unknown. 1945-1975.

which is 10 percent higher than among European Americans. s ome would consider it idealistic and non-realistic because using the WHO definit ion classifies 70-95% of people as unhealthy. American adults of African and Hisp . Healthcare is one of the world's largest and fastest-growing industries. and Hispanics . diagnostic laboratories.. and ethnic groups. medical device manufacturers and other components of the health care s ystem. or access to health care" (source).Adherents. higher mortality. in particular inequalities in healthcare. [edit]Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as "a state of complete physi cal.). In other cultures. treat ment. the largest of any country in the world. consumed an estimated 14 percent of the gross national product of the Uni ted States. ph armacies. What it means to be healthy can vary from culture to culture and is often connec ted with advances in technology.g. health disparities are well documented in minority populat ions such as African Americans. and does not consist only of the absence of d isease or infirmity" (source) Though this is a useful and accurate definition. Global AIDS Coordinator..S. [edit]Health Disparities In an effort to dispel the stigma associated with HIV/AIDS testing in Ethiopia. Advances in technology hav e also expanded the idea of what it means to be healthy.S. According to the Health Resources and Services Administration of th e U. Among the disease-specific examples of racial and ethnic disparities in the United States is the cancer incidence rate among African Americans. When compared to European Americans. In 2000. mental and social well-being. socioeconomic.com [edit]Health and medicine A doctor conducting a pre-natal examination of a patient in El Salvador. health outcomes. For the G8 countries (eight of the most developed countries in the world) the average is about nine percent . In the United States. Native Americans. these minority groups have higher inciden ts of chronic diseases. was publicly tested. Of particul ar interest to sociologists are the differences in health and quality of health care across racial. and how conce ptions of health have changed over time. etc. lack of exercise. not all people have the same access to health care or the same quality of health care. U. health disparities are the "population-specific differences in the prese nce of disease. Immunizations from various diseases have improved health worldwide. Asian Americans. Randall Tobias. This definition also overlooks the fact that several factors influence both the definition of health and standards of health. largess is more closely associated with unhealthy lifestyle s (e. Health care (or healthcare) is an industry associated with the prevention. In addition. and poorer health outcomes. The sociology of health and medicine is concerned with the distribution of healt hcare services globally. In some cultures. What are understood tod ay to be healthy practices were not emphasized prior to clear understandings of disease and the contributions of lifestyles to health. While technology has advanced the practice of medicine and generally improved he alth. larger body sizes are seen as a sign of healthiness as it indicates an individual has a preponderance of food . poor eating habits. doctors. and management of illness along with the promotion of mental and physical well-being through the services offered by the medical and allied health profess ions. c onsuming over 10 percent of gross domestic product of most developed nations. health care costs paid to hospitals.

Structural barriers to health care include poor transportat ion. Most attention on the issue has been given to the health outcomes that result fr om differences in access to medical care among groups and the quality of care di fferent groups receive. Lack of a regular source of care. access to medical care can be limited due to the scarcity of primary care practitioners. diseases that were common only in the developed world (e. chagas. Lack of financial resources. Finding physicians who ac cept Medicaid and Medicare is becoming increasingly difficult.. American Africans and Hispanics ten d to live in poorer neighborhoods that are near to industrial areas and are olde r than new suburban subdivisions. rural areas. and more dif ficulty obtaining prescription drugs. and infant mortality than whites.[424] [edit]Causes of Health Disparities There is debate about what causes health disparities between ethnic and racial g roups. However. patients are more likely t o postpone medical care. fewer doctor visits. all of which affect a person's abil ity and willingness to obtain needed care.S. common i n older homes. cysticercosis. From the barriers certain racial and ethnic groups encounter when trying to ente r into the health care delivery system. Linguistic barriers. Minority groups in the United Stat es lack insurance coverage at higher rates than whites. There are also substan tial differences in health based on social class or socioeconomic status. more likely to go without needed medical care. they may not understand the medical jargon that is u .g. Structural barriers. government su bsidized clinics as their regular source of care.anic lineage have approximately twice the risk of developing diabetes than Ameri can adults of European lineage . minority groups in the United States are less likely to have a doctor they go to on a regular basis an d are more likely to use emergency rooms and free or reduced rate. Although the lack of financial resources is a barri er to health care access for many Americans. and cytomegalovirus) were becoming a serious concer n among economically disadvantaged populations in the U. a nd excessive time spent in the waiting room. toxocari asis. The health financing system. and understanding basic health information. Without access to a regular source of care. From the quality of health care different ethnic and racial groups receive. patients with a poor u nderstanding of good health may not know when it is necessary to seek care for c ertain symptoms. Industrial pollutants and lead-paint. In inner cities. and communities with high c oncentrations of minority populations. specialists.S. In addition more private practices are putting limits on the number of m edicaid and medicare patients that they will accept because these programs reimb urse at a much lower percentage than private insurers. Similarly. and diagnostic faci lities. Low Health literacy. but can include the following: Lack of insurance coverage. The Institute of Medicine in the United States says fragmentation of the U. Reasons for disparities in access to health care are man y. Language differences restrict access to medical care for mi norities in the United States who are not English-proficient. an inability to schedule appointments quickly or during convenient hours. processing. Minorities also have higher rates of cardiovasc ular disease. This is where patients have problems obtaining. For instance. can both lead to increased incidents of disease. Racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to be enrolled in health insurance plans which place limits on covered services and offer a li mited number of health care providers. pa tients have greater difficulty obtaining care. Scarcity of providers. it is generally accepted that disparities can result from three main areas: From the differences in socioeconomic and environmental characteristics of diffe rent ethnic and racial groups. HIV/AIDS. Compared to whites.[424] A s of 2009. health care delivery and financing system is a barrie r to accessing care. For example. the impact on access appears to be greater for minority populations. Without health insurance. and more likely to go without prescription medicines.

so cioeconomic disparities declined in tandem with a decline in mortality rates.the rate of new AIDS cases is 10 times higher among blacks than white s and blacks are 20 times as likely to have HIV/AIDS as are whites. similar to what happens with women compared to men. (81. Others argue that certain diseases cluster by ethnicity and that clinic al decision making does not always reflect these differences.1 years) than poor black men (66.[426] Financial access to health care is not the only factor that affects health. Hispanics represent just 5%. respectively). Poorer individuals also live in more dangerous neighborhoods and are more likely to eat unhealthy food and engage in risky or unhealthy behavior. Provider discrimination.[426] Disparities in heal th care between the rich and poor are not inevitable . which directly improves health.[428] While it was unclear wh at role the sex of the recommending physicians played.[430] [edit]Paying for Medical Care As noted in the previous section.2 vs. poor er people are generally less likely to exercise. Only 4% of physicians in the United States are Afr ican American. The differential and unequal treatment of the ri ch and poor follows the gap between the rich and the poor: From 1966 to 1980. Critics question this research and say further studies are needed to determine how doctors and patients make their treatment de cisions.[425] Wealt hier people live longer than poorer people. Health disparities based on race also exist. the problem can be more pronounced in these groups than in whites d ue to socioeconomic and educational factors. Similar to the difference in life e xpectancy found between the rich and the poor.[426] Researchers also find health disparities based on gender stratification. consequently. are unable to accurately follow m edical instructions. disparities in health care are often related t o an individual's or a group's ability to pay for health care. even when they have the same symptoms. all of which contributes to poor er health. While problems with health literacy are not limited to mino rity groups. today l ive about 4.7. 74. This section disc usses the costs of healthcare and the different approaches to health care that h .[42 9] Another contributor to the overall worse health of blacks is the incident of HIV/AIDS . This is where health care providers either unconsciousl y or consciously treat certain racial and ethnic patients differently than they treat their white patients. [edit]Examples of Health Disparities There are a number of ways in which health disparities play out based on differe nt systems of stratification. Lack of diversity in the health care workforce. Poorer women have reduced access to mammograms to dete ct breast cancer. bu t the disparity has since increased as income stratification has. even when they are better candidates for screening.[427] This is probably due to fewer opportunities to exercise and a less well-developed understanding of the importance exercise. the authors of this study encourage women to challenge their doctors in order to get care equivalent to m en. affluent and more educated people are more likely to take advant ages of advances in medical science and technology and have seen a more rapid de cline in smoking rates.5 years longer than poorer people (79.S.[426 ] Additionally. One stu dy found that women are less likely than men to be recommended for knee replacem ent surgery. These percentages are much lower tha n these groups' respective proportions of the United States population. Cultural differences between pre dominantly white health care providers and minority patients is also often cited as a barrier to health care. resulting in overall poorer hea lth as well.sed by health professionals and. affluent white women live 14 year s longer in the U.9 years).they are directly correla ted with disparities in wealth.[426][429] Th ere is also evidence that blacks receive less aggressive medical care than white s. Health disparities resulting from economic stratif ication are wide-ranging. Some research suggests that minorities are less like ly than whites to receive a kidney transplant once on dialysis or to receive pai n medication for bone fractures.[426] Black men describe t heir visits to doctors as stressful and report that physicians do not provide th em with adequate information to implement the recommendations they are given. Wealthier people in the U.S.

Approximately 60% obtain health insurance through their place of em ployment or as individuals and various government agencies provide health insura nce to 25% of Americans. The insurer may be a private organization or a government agency. it is worth noting that corporate profits have also played a role in increa sed health care premiums. Another element of high health care costs is related to the private management o f healthcare by large corporations. there is a substantial public component. While the rising cost of health care is debated. this discretionary spending mi . Advocates of the private model argue that this approach to health care has the f ollowing benefits: Some economists argue that the free market is better able to allocate discretion ary spending where consumers value it the most. Aging populations require more health care as a result of increased life expectancy. According to the 2005 United States Census Bureau. some contributing causes are ac cepted. For exam ple. Poor health c hoices also increase health care costs by increasing the incident of disease and disability. Advances in medical technology have arguably driven up the prices o f procedures.ave been taken by governments around the world. Private in surance as the primary provider of health care in a developed nation is really o nly found in the United States. and with fewer diseases. While this is discussed in greater detail be low. Of every dollar spent on health care in the United States. government also increases private sector costs by imposing licensing and regulatory barriers to entry into both the pract ice of medicine and the drug trade within America. [edit]Private Insurance and Free-Market Health Care Two types of health insurance have developed in modern society: private health i nsurance (or free-market) models and publicly funded health insurance models. There is variation among individ uals about how much they value peace of mind and a lower risk of death. to uphold the intellectual property rights of the U. usually a privately owned or publically traded corporation. It is important to note that while the United St ates is the most private of any system. When evaluating the pool of current medical spending availab le to fund cost effective care for the uninsured. there wo uld be fewer health care related expenses. Private practitioners also fa ce inflated costs through the government's use of protectionist measures against foreign companies. people could lower health insurance prices by exercising. approximately 85% of Americans have healt h insurance. Th e benefits and drawbacks of each of these models are discussed in this and the f ollowing section. Preventable health issues are related to: insufficient exercise unhealthy food choices excessive alcohol consumption smoking obesity (more on this below) In theory. In addition.S. in a private system a consumer can choose t o be screened more often and enjoy the luxury of greater peace of mind and margi nally reduced risk. Private insurance refers to health insurance provided by a non-governmental orga nization. and avoiding addictive substances that are damaging to the body. while a public-funded system (see below) might decide to pay for a pap smea r only once every five years if the patient was not positive for the human papil loma virus based on cost efficiency. eating heal thy food. pharm aceutical industry. Healt hier lifestyles protect the body from disease. especially cutting edge and experimental procedures. 44 cents comes from some level of government. [edit]Health Insurance Health insurance is a type of insurance whereby the insurer pays the medical cos ts of the insured if the insured becomes sick due to covered causes or accidents .

it is somewhat surprising that the United States spends a greate r fraction of its national budget on health than Canada. since current private plans are not very good at limiting spending to cost effective procedures and schedules. However. That is more than double the rate of any oth er G8 country. but only $53. the private insurance system. and depression because of the cost of the care. where they have universal he althcare. Also. The need to ensure competence and qualifications among medical p rofessionals also means that they are inevitably closely controlled by professio nal associations that can exert monopolistic control over prices. When heal th care is privately funded. Monopolies are . t hose consumers exploiting this will view the transition to a public system as a reduction in their compensation or benefits. this is not always true. is below av erage among developed nations by almost every health measure. and will question whether a society that will allow them to buy a better car or a European vacation. despite the substantial difference in costs. In contr ast.[432] This is directly attributable to reduced access to healthcare in the US for those with less money. except Japan which spends close to $2. This was the explanation given for the wide disparity in Medicare spendi ng for patients in the last two years of their lives at top teaching hospitals: per patient costs at UCLA were $93.887 per person on health care. t hereby leading free market insurance models to operate inefficiently. Advocates also point to the remarkable advances in medical technology that have accompanied the private insurance/free-market approach to health care. which is not the case in Canada. In 2001 the United States government spen t $4. chronic diseases and cancer survival rates. or Jap an. they are not inclined to perform unnecessary tests just to increase their income.[431] As evidence of this. But the flipside to this boon is that the United States.S.000 at the Mayo Clinic. is truly free. does provide cutting edge technology for those who can afford it. The consum ers of health care are vastly less knowledgeable than the medical professionals they buy it from. th e only mostly-private health delivery system in a developed country. the private insurance approach is not without i ts drawbacks.ght be moved to non-medical luxury goods. France. including: infant mortality. which means they earn more if they do more tests or are consulted more frequently. The extreme importance of health matters to the consumer adds to the problem of the information gap. people in lower socioeconomic classes in the US are significan tly more likely to contract a preventable disease than are people in higher soci oeconomic classes.627 per capita annually. but not better health care. An individual is especially less likely to make rational choic es about his/her own health care in a case of emergency. doctors who are salaried have no financial incentive to perform unnecessary tests. Thus. heart disease. Germany. wh ich can be quite susceptible to bloat and bureaucracy. while it may not provide adequate car e for everyone (see the criticisms below).000. Despite these possible benefits. is the billing approach: in the U. cance r. life expectancy.S.. as is discussed below. Following are some of the more common criticisms of the private he alth insurance approach to health care: As noted above. More than half of the people with chronic conditions in the US regularly skip pi lls and doctors' appointments for conditions like diabetes. Co nsidering private insurers are supposed to cover the majority of health care cos ts in the U.S. Most experts believe that significant market failure occurs in health markets. Th is gives the medical profession the ability to set rates that are well above fre e market value. One explanation for the higher health care costs in the U.[433] Another significant criticism of the private system is that it ends up being mor e costly than publicly funded systems. which is what doctors using fee-for-service approaches do.. Advocates also argue that private industry is more efficient than government. many doctors work on a fee-for-service basis.[434] The quality of care and patient life expectancy did not differ between these two hospitals. private insurance can be a boon to those who can afford the cutt ing edge technology. the opportunity for making large amounts of money i s an attractive proposition for researchers in medical technology and pharmaceut icals. Whe n doctors are salaried.

or even free (as is done in public systems). even though this care may be far more expensive than regular preventative care would have been. reaching a total cost that is clo ser to the ideal than an unregulated market.made even more likely by the sheer variety of specialists and the importance of geographic proximity. the use of paperwork a nd bureaucracy can allow insurance companies to avoid payment of the claim or. such as that for mammograms. fi rst became standard medical practice. of ten with serious and lamentable consequences. Making regular app ointments cheaper. particularly for a sizeable amount. For instance. all standard medical treatments. is undertaken. greatly delay it. Conversely. In theory when a government sets billing rates it can negotiate with the profess ional societies with equal heft and knowledge. this has lead some insurer s to claim that procedures are still experimental well after they have become st andard medical practice. In private insurance systems. However. Experimental treatments or particularly expensive drugs are often not covered. The private insurance or free-market approach also fails to provide an efficient delivery for health care because prevention is such an essential component. When a claim is made. Patients in most markets have no more than one or two hea rt specialists or brain surgeons to choose from. and not benefited from. each insurance company is responsible for negotiating its own salaries. Health insurance is often only widely available at a reasonable cost through an employer-sponsored group plan. this is not a concern in many gr oup health plans because there are often laws that prevent companies from chargi ng a single individual in the plan more than others who are enrolled in the same insurance plan. This largely defeats the purpose of having insurance in the eyes of many. but there is a tendency within the general population to not c orrectly assess their risk of disease and thus to not have regular check ups. This is a cost-cutting technique employed by some companies. Screening for diseases such as cancer saves both lives and money. placing the cost of a visit to a general practitioner too low will lead to excessive visits wasting both a patient's and a doctor's time. fighting claims legally is actually less expensive in some instances than paying the claims outright. particularly kidney transplants. most believe that forcing people to pay some fraction of the cost of an appointment is better. Because insurance companies can avoid paying claims for experimental procedures. Insurance companies usually do not announce their health insurance premiums more than one year in advance. Doctors' salaries do tend to be much lower in public systems.[4 36] This practice is especially criticized by those who have already tried. doctors' salaries in t he United States are twice those in Canada. these health plan administrators are dictating medical practice through their refusal to cover claims. This means that unemployed individuals and self-e mployed individuals are at an extreme disadvantage and will have to pay for more for their health care. Rather than allowing such decisions to be made by health care professionals who know which procedures or t reatments are necessary. D elaying treatment until the condition is too severe to be treated can result. This phenomenon was especially prevalent among private insurance companies after organ transplants. . he or she may fi nd that the premiums have greatly increased. Health Maintenance Organizations or (HMO) types of health insurance are often cr iticized for excessive cost-cutting policies that include accountants or other a dministrators making medical decisions for customers. Some people simply give up pursuing their claims with their insurance provider. if one becomes ill. This means that. A possible re sult of this approach is the higher pay in doctors' salaries. This approach to avoiding payi ng premiums can also undermine medical advances.[435] The one exception is when ext ensive publicity. but one that most people misjudge. Thus while some experts believe f ree doctor visits produce ideal results. a t a minimum. making competition for patients between such experts very limited. Ma ny people are only willing to pay a doctor when they are sick. has been shown t o reduce both rates of illness and costs of health care. due to the tremendous costs associated wit h this procedure and other organ transplantation.

while the Australian government covers neither. Canada) or through a government social security system (Fr ance. Publicly funded medicine may be administered and provided by the government. many insurers have implemented a program of bill review in which insured individuals are allowed to challenge items on a bill (particularl y an inpatient hospital bill) as being for goods or services not received. A June 2005 survey of a random national sample by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that tw ice as many United Statesians are more worried about rising health care costs th an losing their job or being the victim of a terrorist attack (source). Italy. What will be covered by the public system is also important. yet most health providers are private entities. or National Health Services. Republicans. see the British National Health Service. cover large numbers of people by reimbursing hospitals and other healt h-care providers using what is generally characterized as a charity care scheme. The organizat ion providing public health insurance is not necessarily a public administration .. insured individuals are awarded with a percentage of the amount that the insurer would have otherwise paid for this disputed item or service. but in some systems that is not an obligation: there exist systems where medicine i s publicly funded. Likewise.g. Publicly funded medicine is health care t hat is paid wholly or mostly by public funds (i. and 30% of Republicans do. and just as man y Americans support it even if it means raising their taxes. Concerns about health insurance are prevalent in the United States.e. the Belgian government pays the bulk of the fees for dental and eye care. A 2007 New York Times/CBS Poll found that a majori ty of Americans support some form of universal healthcare (59%). they are less likely to scrutinize or negotiate the costs of the health care they receive. 49% of Independents do.[437] Support is mix ed between Democrats. If a challenge is proven accurate. To address this concern. Proponents of publicly funded medicine cite several advantages over private insu rance or free-market approaches to health care: . However. and Independents: 63% of Democrats support un iversal healthcare. [edit]Publicly Funded Health Care An alternative to private health insurance and the free-market approach to healt h care is publicly funded health care. some syst ems do not necessarily provide universal healthcare. single payer healthcare. Germany) on a separate budget and funded with special separate taxe s.S. Other states. Publicly funded medi cine is often referred to as socialized medicine by its opponents. For some examples. most notably Minnesot a. have taken serious steps toward achieving this goal. and its budget may be isolated from the main state budget. Another difference is how much of the cost of care will be paid for by govern ment or social security system. whereas suppo rters of this approach tend to use the terms universal healthcare. Japan. while not attempting to insure all of their residents strictly speaking. different countries hav e different approaches to the funding and provision of medical services. for instance. Some ar eas of difference are whether the system will be funded from general government revenues (e. It is seen as a key part of a welfare s tate. This approach to health care is the most common and popular among developed (and developing) nations around the world today. insured care recipients are viewed as customers with relative ly limitless financial resources who do not consider the prices of services. Even among countries that have publicly funded medicine. To care providers (health care professionals. medicare Canada and medicare Australia. a few states in the U. The majority of developed nations h ave publicly funded health systems that cover the great majority of the populati on.As the health care recipient is not directly involved in payment of health care services and products. taxes). The United States has been virtually alone among developed nations in not mainta ining a publicly-funded health-care system since South Africa adopted a publicly -funded system after toppling its apartheid regime. nor restrict coverage to pu blic health facilities. in Canada all hospital care is paid for by the g overnment while in Japan patients must pay 10 to 30% of the cost of a hospital s tay. not the insurers). which often includes levies.

even though they may al so do some work for private healthcare providers. because of the lower amount of monetary compensa tion. Some purported disadv antages of the public system include: Some critics argue there is a greater likelihood of lower quality health care th an privately funded systems. [edit]Difficulties of analysis . As a result. this claim is generally not true. Price no longer influences the allocation of resources. doctors are so well paid in both systems that prestige is o ften more important to them than remuneration. A number of countries such as A ustralia attempt to solve the problem of unequal care by insisting that doctors divide their time between public and private systems. wealthy Canadians can and travel to the United States for care. The state chooses for them. The British in particular tend to use private healthcare to avoid waiting lists rather than because they belie ve that they will receive better care from it. thus removing a natural self-corrective mechanism for avoiding waste and inefficiency (though the redund ancy of the private system . generally catering to the wealthy. While the goal of publ ic systems is to provide equal service. This also tends to be an over-exaggerated and ill-founded concern as ther e is some degree of freedom in choosing medical practitioners in public systems. This is very much the case in the United Kingdom where private medicine is seen as less prestigious than public m edicine by much of the population. many of the general con cerns about socialism can be applied to this approach. meaning public systems c ost less than private systems. the egalitarianism tends to be closer to partial egalitarianism. However.competing insurers . Since private p roviders are typically better paid. Thus very long waits can occur before care is received.Publicly funded approaches provide universal access to health care to all citize ns.often results in more ineffici ency than a single. The only country not to have any form of parallel private system for basic health care is Canada. As many people in the US rely on their jobs for health insurance. the best doctors tend to spend t he majority of their time working for the public system. Publicly funded health care may help reduce illnesses associated with job loss. those medical professionals motivated by rem unerative concerns migrate to the private sector while the private hospitals als o get newer and better equipment and facilities. Publicly funded health care facilitates the creation of uniform standards of car e.[431] Another criticism of publicly funded health care is that there is less motivatio n for medical innovation and invention and less motivation for society's most sk illed people to become doctors. Health care workers' pay is often not related to quality or speed of care. so there is effectively a two-tier healthcare system that reduces the equality of service. public system). losing their j obs increases stress and. People are afraid that they can't choose their own doctor. Opponents believe that the y are allowed to exist mainly because politicians and their friends are wealthy and would prefer better care. Publicly funded health care is not without its criticisms. Proponents of these parallel private systems argue that they are necessary to pr ovide flexibility to the system and are a way to increase funding for the health care system as a whole by charging the wealthy more. However. resulting in equality in matters of life and death. increases illness. as a result. Because publicly funded medicine is a form of socialism. because of the universal accessibility of health care. Also. They also argue that all citizens should have acce ss to high quality healthcare. [edit]Parallel Public/Private Systems Almost every country that has a publicly funded health care system also has a pa rallel private system. Every nation either has parallel private providers or i ts citizens are free to travel to a nation that does. in some cases. Publicly funded health care reduces contractual paperwork.[438] It is also the case that publicly funded systems result in a reduction in the pe rcentage of societal resources devoted to medical care.

behind the scenes. In a system financed by taxation. a respo nsible government must be performing cost analysis in order to balance its budge t. lung cancer was con sidered to be a rare disease. however. [edit]Smoking The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention describes tobacco use as "the sin gle most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and a n important cause of premature death worldwide" (source). if those illnesses are fatal or life short ening. With the postwar rise in popularity of cigarette smoking came a virtual e pidemic of lung cancer. Although acceptance of the American Disease Model is not without controversy. but because of in tangible quantities like quality of life. to take the most purely cost effective route. For instance. particularly lung cancer and cancers of the larynx and tongue. they may reduce the eventual cost to the system of treating that person t hrough the rest of their life. Prior to World War I. whi le metrics go up. and the American Col . prevention of smoking or obesity is presented as having the potential to save the costs of treating illne sses arising from those choices. if someone sto ps smoking the risks of developing diseases steadily decline. As a result. diseases of the respiratory tract. The main health risks from tobacco smoking pertain to diseases of the cardiovasc ular system. [edit]Alcohol Alcoholism is a dependency on alcohol characterized by craving (a strong need to drink). the American Public Health Association. or of providing the best care for the terminally ill may be reduced .Cost-benefit analysis of healthcare is extremely difficult to do accurately. but non-fatal conditions. physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms. working and tax or insu rance-paying) life. waiting times or infection rates). Thus. not only because of medical uncertainty. although gradually . It m ay choose to provide the best health care according to some other model. it is possible for personal satisfaction with the system to go down. However. In fact. and cancer. one most physicians would never see during their c areer.e. the Americ an Hospital Association. the greatest cost benefit comes from preserving the working life of those who are likely to pay the most tax in the future. the importance of treating chronic. beca use they would be condemned as callous.e. and tolerance (increasing diffi culty of becoming drunk). the World Health Organization. but the cost of this still must be estimated and funded. and it is possible that they will die of an illne ss every bit as expensive to treat as the ones they avoided by a healthy lifesty le. or consider each month as debits an d credits on an insurance system. it is not likely. in particular smoking is a major risk factor for: myocardial infarc tion (heart attack). Nevertheless. the American Psychiatric Association. th e American Medical Association. such as Chronic Obstruct ive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and emphysema. [edit]Behavior and Environmental Influences on Health The following sections explore some of the ways behaviors and environment can im pact human health. A person's increased r isk of contracting disease is directly proportional to the length of time that a person continues to smoke as well as the amount smoked. This has to be balanced against the loss of taxation or insurance revenue that m ight come should a person have a longer productive (i. as the damage to their body is repaired. or to separate from emotional entanglement. loss of control (being unable to stop drinking despite a desire to do s o). Yet. the National As sociation of Social Workers. In producing a definition of quality of healthcare. i. the effectiveness of healthcare is extremely difficult to measure. This is likely to lead to systems that measure only what is easy to measure (such as length of life. The cost-benefit analysis will be very different depending o n whether you adopt a whole-life accounting. there is an implication that quality can be measured. and there is no uncontroversia l definition of best. the young and rich. Few politicians would dare to present the big picture of costs in this way.

fina ncial problems. the Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholis m and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine published t his definition for alcoholism: "Alcoholism is a primary chronic disease with gen etic. but the long-standing. it is not uncommon for individuals. insists on drinking alcohol excessively for fear of alienation an d neglect. In fact. Scientists also note that studies supporting the benefits of mo . especially teena gers and adolescents between the ages of fifteen and twenty. convictions for crimes such as dru nk driving or public disorder. psychosocial. [edit]Moderate Drinking Of course. t he number varies with age and gender. mostly denial. E ach of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. Recent po lls show that 90% of Americans currently believe that alcoholism is. The controversy over mo derate drinking is an ongoing debate about the claimed benefit or harm to human health from moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages. though not physically threatening in early stages. in fact. a disease (source?). show that alcoholism affects not only the addicted but can profoundly impact the family members around them. Rimm et al. Though these symptoms often arise from a physical d ependence on the substance. The social problems arising from alcoholism can include loss of employment. unscientific prejudice that alcoholism is the result of moral or ethical weakness on the part of the sufferer has been largely altered. there is some debate as to whether there are som e benefits derived from moderate consumption of alcohol. or an inability t o resist alcohol if offered. or feels they cannot socially interact with others unless under the i nfluence then this person is considered socially dependent on the substance. Socia l dependence. offers aid to friends and family mem bers of alcoholics. can lead to phy sical dependence if the person cannot control their urges and more so their reas ons for drinking. preoccupation with the drug alcohol. If a person cannot refuse alcohol in the prese nce of others. In a 1992 JAMA article. 10% are alcoholics and 6% consume more than half of all alcohol. Exhaustive s tudies. In modern times.[439] predict a 24. including those by author Wayne Kritsberg." Symptoms of a person's dependence on alcohol may include. to rely on alcohol as a means of social interaction. There is wide consensus that over-drinking is harmful: alcohol damages human cells and organs such as the brain.7% decrease in the risk of coronary heart disease based upon 30g alcohol/d ay. and distortions in thinking. This condition is usually referred to as The Adult Children of Alcoholics Syndrome. the recovery movement has led to more realistic portraits of alcoholics a nd their problems. Children of alcoholics can be affected even after they are grown. The se traits can be noticed in individuals who relocate (such as students attending a new university) whereby an individual with no past history of alcohol consump tion begins to consume alcohol in order to associate and relate to others. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking. use of alc ohol despite adverse consequences. liver and kidney. and loss of respect from o thers who may see the problem as self-inflicted and easily avoided. Critics of moderate drinking claim that any benefits are far outweighed by the p ossible consequences of over consumption and that these benefits can be had by l ess risky means. but are not limited to . Moderate consumption ty pically means the consumption of 1 to 3 drinks of an alcoholic beverage a day. marital conflict and divorce. not everyone who consumes alcohol is an alcoholic or is at danger of becoming an alcoholic.lege of Physicians have all classified alcoholism as a disease. and environmental factors influencing its development and ma nifestations. Of the two thirds of the North American population who consum e alcohol. a feeling of necessity in regards to consumption of alcohol. a group modelled after Alcoholics Anonymous. Al-Anon. loss of accommodation. The causes for alcohol abuse and dependence cannot be easily explained. Many studies show that consumers of up to 3 drinks a day have a 10% to 40% lower risk of coronary heart disease than those who abstain. Ster eotypes of alcoholics are often found in fiction and popular culture.

their widespread use througho ut pre-historic Mediterranean and European cultures suggests a central role for the obese female form in magical rituals and implies cultural approval of (and p erhaps reverence for) this body form. producing more severe abnormalities than heroin. A lthough their cultural significance is unrecorded. to a greater degree t han European and Western cultures. it is accepted that excessive body weight predisposes to various form s of disease. 651). [edit]Obesity Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve of humans. The current medical recommendation[440] regarding bei ng a moderate drinker is that it is "not only meaningless but also irresponsible " to become a moderate drinker if you don't already drink given that the many ob vious health hazards of alcohol outweigh "the benefits of alcohol [which] are sm all and ill-understood" particularly when so many other cardiovascular treatment s are available (p. and i s the most common preventable cause of birth defects in the United States (sourc e). include African. during any trimester. cocaine. attention deficits. Arabic. stunted physical and emotio nal development. is absolutely safe. or marijuana. There is evidence that moderate drink ers are more affluent than nondrinkers and as such lead lifestyles that are more conducive to good health in general. surpassing both spina bifida and Down syndrom e. No long ter m studies have been done and control groups would be difficult to establish beca use of the many variables. it still served this role.[441] In Western cultures. behavioral problems. While cultural and scientific definitions of obesity are subject to change. Another illustration of this is the finding that feminists are less likely to consider "ultra-thin" t he ideal body image than non-feminists. Researchers believe that the risk is highest early in the pregnancy. which is s tored in fat tissue. memory deficiencies. a fallacy known as the spurious relatio nship. No amount of alcohol. Secondary disabilities develop over time because of problems fitting into the environment . obesity is (or has been) associated with attractivene ss. but there a re risks throughout because the fetus' brain develops throughout the entire preg nancy. In several human cultures. and an inability to tell reality from fantasy. The scientific evide nce informing these debates is more contradictory than most simple arguments ass ume. Venus of Willendorf There is continuous debate over obesity. Indian. Obesity functions as a symbol of wealth and success in cultures prone to food sc arcity. particularly cardiovascular disease. Statistics demonstrating correlations are typically misinterpreted in publi c discussion as demonstrating causation. strength. facial deformities. a failure to comprehe nd the concept of time. at several levels. o besity has come to be seen more as a medical condition than as a social statemen t. The implication of these cultural variations in attitudes towar d obesity is that ideal body shape is culturally relative. an inability to reason from cause to effect. such as lifestyle differences between moderate drinkers and nondrinkers. and Pacific Island cultures. i mpulsiveness. know n as Venuses. . Contemporary cultures which approve of obesity. and fertility. Research on the effects of moderate drinking is in its early stages. Well into the early modern period in European cultures. Some of the earliest known cultural artifacts. It can cause mental retardation.derate drinking do not control for other factors. are pocket-sized statuettes representing an obese female figure. indicating the culture and philosophy of feminism countermands the effects of popular media. is expanded far beyond usual levels to the point where it i mpairs health. [edit]Effects of fetal alcohol exposure Fetal alcohol exposure is regarded by researchers as the leading known cause of mental and physical birth defects.

but equally common is the obese vicious bully. where high-energy food is available in abunda nt quantities in the context of decreased exercise. Obesity is generally a result of a combination of factors: Genetic predisposition Energy-rich diet Limited exercise and sedentary lifestyle Weight cycling. As the name indicates. there is no evidence suggesting that reducing fat intake has an effec t on obesity. the evolutionary hypothesis comes closest to providing some understanding of thi s phenomenon. A proposed mechanism is that the eating serves to reduce anxiety. it is far mor e difficult to understand why the average weight of certain societies have recen tly been growing. While it is often quite obvious why a certain individual gets fat. A common stereotype is the obese character who has a warm and depe ndable personality. Although there is no definitive explanation for the recent epidemic of obesity. 10 March 2004). Learning theory suggests that early childhood conceptions may lead to an association between food and a c alm mental state. In the years from jus t after the Second World War until 1960 the average person's weight increased. patients with this disorder are prone to overeat. An important additional fac tor is that BED patients often lack the ability to recognize hunger and satisfac tion. Various specialists strongly oppose this view. emphasises the need for balance between activity and consumpti on: In trials. presumedly in compensation for social exclusion. As long as your expenditure equals what you eat. and not just . A charge of prejudice and/or discrimination on the basis of appearance could be leveled against these depictions. they cannot explain why one culture grows fatter than another. In 1960 almost the entire population was well fed. There are a number of theories as to the cause of this change since 1980. ofte n in binges. In times when food was scarce. In the two and a half decades since 1980 the growth in the rate of obe sity has accelerated markedly and is increasingly becoming a public health conce rn. Mo st believe it is a combination of various factors: Obese people appear to be less active in general than lean people. The obesity epidemic is most notable in the United States. portrayed as either a failure of will power or a species of addict ion. Gluttony and obesity are commonly depicted t ogether in works of fiction. but not ov erweight. For example. While genetic causes are central to who is obese. the director of the Nutrition. Professor Thoma s Sanders. regardless of how high the fat content is in your diet (The Times. Food & Health Research Centre at King' s College London. [edit]Causes of Obesity Conventional wisdom holds that obesity is caused by over-indulgence in fatty or sugary foods. in turn harming the self e steem of obese people. This is precisely the opposite of what i s required in a sedentary society. Increase in Overweight among US Children and Adolescents. you won't put on weight. especially binge eating disorder (BED ). Londo n. It can be argued that depiction in popular culture adds to and maintains commonly perceived stereotypes. it is only with the reduction in physica l activity and a move towards high-calorie diets of modern society that it has b ecome so widespread. the ability to take advantage of ra re periods of abundance and use such abundance by storing energy efficiently was undoubtedly an evolutionary advantage. a nd some parallels with substance abuse can be drawn.Various stereotypes of obese people have found their way into expressions of pop ular culture. b ut few were obese. caused by repeated attempts to lose weight by dieting Underlying illness Certain eating disorders Some eating disorders can lead to obesity. something that is normally learned in childhood. Although many people may hav e a genetic propensity towards obesity.

U. who resist regula tory attempts to intervene in citizen's private dietary habits. is the increasing number of areas that are built without sidewal ks and parks. followed by an exponential increase. In the early 1980s the Reagan administration lif ted most regulations for advertising to children.[445] This suggests that raising awareness and educating consu mers about the calorie content may help reduce the number of calories consumed. an attempt to indemnify food industry businesses from frivolous law sui ts by obese clients. a 2004 study (Zagorsky 2004) found ob ese American subjects approximately half as wealthy as thin ones. Comparing net worth with BMI scores. come controversies about the correct policy approach to obesity. This is supported by the observation of a dip in American GDP after 1990.because of their obesity. There is some evidence that the public interest approach may help. Another study finds women who married into a hig her status were thinner than women who married into lower status. Urban sprawl may also contribute to the increase in obesity rates. Increases in the service sector of the economy have resulted in a greater percen tage of the population spending most of their workday behind a desk or computer.. This increases the number of restaurant and take-out meals. An indication of the reliance on c ars in the U. A recent study found that parents order items for their children from fast fo od menus that total to just over 100 fewer calories when each item's calories ar e clearly labeled. There is now compelling evidence that childr en's exposure to food commercials on television increases the odds of childhood obesity.S. possibly due to less walking and less time for cooking. obesity statistics followe d the same pattern. As a result.S. Speaking to a Senate committ . offset by two years (source). Weight change does not affect activity levels. see here). the U.S. when obese people lost wei ght did they become more active. McDonald s' french fries portions rose from 200 calories in 1960 to over 600 calories tod ay. Increasing affluence itself may be a cause or contributing factor since obesity tends to flourish as a disease of affluence in countries which are developing an d becoming westernised (for more information on this factor. The main debate is between personal responsibility advocates.[442] Another important contributor to the current obesity concern is the much lower r elative cost of foodstuffs: agricultural subsidies in the United States and Euro pe have led to lower food prices for consumers than at any other point in histor y. In particular. Some obesity co-factors are resistant to the theory that the epidemic is a new p henomenon. nor.S. a class co-factor consistently appears across many stu dies. Marketing may also play a role. and public inter est advocates. On July 16. 2004.[444] Since 1980 both sit-in and fast food restaurants have seen dramatic growth in te rms of the number of outlets and customers served. For example. A controlled increase in calorie intake of lean people did not make them less active. but the converse seems to be the case. and about its precise healt h implications. When income di fferentials were factored out. though it is clearly not the solution to the proble m. and a large proportion of these were for fast food and candy.[443] Changes in the price of gasoline may also have had an effect. a recent bout in this controversy involves the so-called Cheeseburg er Bill. correspondingly. who promote regulations on the same public health grounds as the restrictions applied to tobacco products. In the U. [edit]Policy Responses to Obesity On top of controversies about the causes of obesity. as unlike during t he 1970s it is now affordable in the United States to drive everywhere. A social cause that is believed by many to play a role is the increasing number of two income households where one parent no longer remains home to look after t he house. the number of com mercials seen by the average child increased greatly. Department of Health and Human S ervices officially classified obesity as a disease. the year of th e Gulf War. the inequity persisted: thin subjects were inheri ting more wealth than fat ones. Low food costs and intense co mpetition for market share led to increased portion sizes. curtaili ng both foot traffic and the riding of bikes.

scientific medicine but may coexist in t he same culture. and responses to . conventional or scientific treatments. the capital of Bangladesh. The National Center for Comp lementary and Alternative Medicine at the National Institutes of Health and the willingness of people without "alternatives" to turn to unproven therapies when modern medicine informs them there is nothing else that can be done. including: fads. elements of folk medicine may be diffusely be lieved by many adults or may be gathered and applied by those in a specific role of healer. Within a given culture.ee. midwife." as these practices include things as far ranging as: spiritual. and a variety of unproven treatments. One popular definition of alte rnative medicine is provided by Richard Dawkins. folk medicine should not be c onsidered a reliable or proven form of healthcare. reimbursement would n ot be given if a treatment was not proven to be effective. [edit]Alternative Medicine Alternative medicine describes methods and practices used in place of. yet it may also preserve important c ultural tradition from the past. There is some debate as to what is included under the label "alternative. or powders that purportedly effect cures. illness has often been a ttributed to witchcraft. He is selling various animal parts as cures. death. Such activity may lead to the loss of species of plants that could provide aids to modern medicine. Attit udes toward this type of knowledge gathering and plant preservation vary and pol itical conflicts have increasingly arisen over ownership of the plants.g. ideas that retain some power within certain cultures and communities (see faith healing). the rise of scientific medicine in the past two centuries has altered or replaced m any historic health practices. M any effective treatments adopted by physicians over the centuries were derived f rom plants (e. refuse to be tested or consistently fail tes ts. Herbal medicine is an aspect of folk medicine that involves the use of gathered plant parts to make teas.g. and botany was an important part of the materia medic a of professional medical training before the 20th century. metaphysical. the power of marketing in a capitalistic economy. witch. It is usually unwritten and transmitted orally until someone co llects it."[446] The widespread acceptance of various forms of alternative medicine is a good ill ustration of a combination of social-psychological ideas. stated that Medi care would cover obesity-related health problems. and homeopathy. However. like acupunct ure. Folk medicine refers collectively to procedures traditionally used for treatment of illness and injury. or dealer in herbs. childbirth. Eastern and A sian traditional treatments. and maintenance of wellness. [edit]Folk Medicine The man pictured here is a shaman or traditional healer in Dhaka. land. Of concern is the extinction of many species by the clearing of formerly wild rainforests. Elements in a specific c ulture are not necessarily integrated into a coherent system and may be contradi ctory. the Secretary of Health and Human Services. aspirin). scien tific illiteracy. or the will of the gods. anyone considering trying fol k medicine should always consult with a scientifically trained doctor first. poultices. While potentially important as cultural tradition. Throughout the world. [edit]The Evolution of Health Care and Medicine All human societies have beliefs that provide explanations for. an Oxford biologist: "that set of practices that cannot be tested. an d knowledge in several parts of the world. Attention has been p aid to the folk medicine of indigenous peoples of remote areas of the world in t he interest of finding new pharmaceuticals. [edit]Criticisms of Alternative Medicine .. or religious treatments. Folk medicine is sometimes associated with quackery when practiced as the atrics or otherwise practiced fraudulently. chiropractic. and disease. healing-touch. or in add ition to. demons. Tommy Thompson. However. the influenc e of misinformed politicians on public policy e. It is a body of knowledge distinct from modern. shaman. aid to childbirth.

Testing and studies. With a minor illness this may not be a serious concern. just several dollars for a medication. but when choosing. Critics agree that people should be free to choose. while they may only be getting quack remedies. vitamins. Tes timonials are particularly disturbing in this regard because. s ome people may see some improvement in the ailment for which they are being trea ted and will proceed to testify that the method helped them when the method was not the true cause of improvement. The term alternative medicine is misleading. The scientific community argues that many studies carried o ut by alternative medicine promoters are flawed. There is a concern that patient s may delay seeking conventional medicine that could be more effective. The lac k of oversight by government regulators like the Food and Drug Administration al lows those selling these products virtually free-reign to employ whatever techni ques they can sell. Some alternative practices have killed people. Cost. The result is a buyer beware situation in which consumers mu st discern whether the treatment is harmful. The failure to r egulate supplements has lead to serious health issues for some. and supplements are not regulated by the Food an d Drug Administration (FDA). . but with more se rious illness it can lead to injury. As a resu lt. potentially resulting in harm. But others can be thousands of dollars and require continued p ayments for years and years. which is considered the gold standard in science and modern medicine. disfigurement. double-blind peer-reviewed experiments. Safety issues. In countries where healthcare is state-funded or funded by medical insuran ce. The effica cy of these treatments has not been demonstrated through double-blind randomized controlled trials. They argue t hat the only way to counter observer bias is to run a double-blind experiment in which neither the patient nor the practitioner knows whether the real treatment is being given or if a placebo has been administered. as these treatments have not been proven to be an effective alternative to regulat ed conventional medicine.[451] [edit]Modern Medicine Modern medicine has substantially improved quality of life around the world.[447] Issues of regulation. Where alternative methods provide temporary symptomatic reli ef. as they often use testimonials and hearsay as evidence. Peo ple who choose alternative medicine may think they are choosing a safe. Delay in seeking conventional medical treatment. including some d eaths. This research should then be reviewed by peers to determine the validity of the research methodology. by chance alone. Alternative medicine are not properly regulated. alternative therapies are often not covered.[447] [448] While n ot all alternative medicine treatments are potentially lethal. or to the cyclical nature of some illnesses.[449][450] This means that companies are not require d to prove that these supplements are either effective or safe. people must be certain that whatever method they choose will be safe and effective. many are. leaving the results open to observer bias.Some of the criticisms of alternative medicine include: Lack of proper testing. and must be paid for by the pat ient. This issue is particu larly important in the treatment of children and individuals whose capacity to e valuate the treatment is impaired. In the United Sta tes. there is no governmental control on who practices alternative medicine and n o real way of knowing what training or expertise they possess.[449] Such problems did ultimately lead the FDA to ban the sale of ephedra . herbal remedies. Proponents of alternative medicine say that people should be free to choose whatever method of healthcare they want . Many of the studies allegedly supporting the claims of a lternative medicine are not controlled. Not proven to be an alternative. Medical doctors hold that alternative medical practitioners some times fail to correctly diagnose illnesses and therefore do not provide safe the rapies. Costs for some therapies are relatively inexpensive. while th ey undergo alternative therapies. to natural healing. or death. Poor diagnosis. effectiv e medicine. this can usually be explained as being due to the placebo effect.

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L. " How Much Has Europe Been Secularized?" Inchiesta 32(136):99-112. ? Chaves. August 22 http://online. Screening Mammography in Older Women: Effect of Wealth and Prognosis. 'Fundamental Causes' of Health Disparities: A Comparat ive Analysis of Canada and the United States. Rebecca L.. Floris-Moore. J.com/article/SB1250903393137509 61. Jr. Robert. robert j. Mark. Doty. J.. 1931. M.html (A ccessed March 25. ? Statistical Abstract 2009 ? Morris. 1998. James P. ? Williams. Karl. F ifth Edition. A multi-level study of neighborhood enviro nment and its relationship to physical activity in adulthood Urban Studies:44(13) : 1-18.nytimes. ? Borkhoff. Chapman and Hall. 1994.. New York: The Free Press. 2002. Walter. Harvard University Press. University of California Press. & Gunter. 1932. wsj. an d Louise C. Gap in Life Expectancy Widens for the Nation. Research on Social Work Practice. Social and Cultural Facto rs Influence African American Men s Medical Help-seeking. R. E. Disease and Disadvantage in the United States and in England. ISBN 0131254367 ? von Wiese. ? Schoen. Sabrina K. Dise ase Hit U. NJ: Prentice Hall. Zoe. 2007. Subjective Well-B eing: Three Decades of Progress. Amer ican Journal of Preventive Medicine 37:468-471. The Social Teaching of the Christian Churches. 28:53 9-49. Schoenbach. Ernst. D. and Michelle A. 125(2). and Betsy McKay. ? a b brym.S. 2009). Benton. ? a b Griffith. ? Stark. and Marco Zecchi. ? a b Johnstone. Sudore. Laurence. et al. ? a b Simon. Religious Belief: Soliciting New Evidence with Multinomial Logit Modeling. ? a b c d e Chaves. 2009. Mark. Terror in the Mind of God. H.wsj. Monica Turci. 2008). Michael.? Johnson. Special issue on African American m ales. Andrea E. ? Juergensmeyer. Iannaccone. C. International Sociology 24:93-113. E. Cornelia M..com. Karla Lindquist. Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion. Suh. 1984. Gorsuch. The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement. 36:231-246.. (2010). The Guilford Press. Michelle M. ? a b c d e f Pear. Cathy. Stephanie. 2009. Psychological Bulletin. Leopold. David. R. and Jordon Pe . Rodney. How. 2008.O. R. Robin Osborn.. Th e New York Times. 2008. and Smith. Selling God. JAMA. Marmot.M.com/2008/03/23/us/23health. ISBN 019509838 2 ? Spilka. ? Wen M. ? Adimora. Systematic sociology. Hunsberger. B. CMAJ 178:681-687. and Smith. Formal Education vs. 1999. B. Oxford University Press. Arch Intern Med 168:514-520.. 1997. Aldon D. 1997. 2006 May 3. ISBN 0198782659.H. 2000. 295(17): 2037-2045 ? Willson. 1963. R. six lessons of suicide bombers. Allen. Browning CR & Cagney K. James. ? Sommerville. Daniel Carson. "Secular Society Religious Population: Our Tacit Rule s for Using the Term 'Secularization'. 2007. Ronald L. Contexts 6:40-45. Upper Saddle River." Social Forces 72(3):749-74. Hood.html (Accessed August 24. ISBN 0520240111 ? Moore. 2008. Adaora A. New Yor k: Macmillan. Developing World's Parasites. Brie A. The Psychology o f Religion. Kenneth E. ? Troeltsch. On Church and Sect. The effect of patients' sex on physicians' r ecommendations for total knee arthroplasty. March 23 http://www. ISBN 1572309016. 1994. Victor J..W. Oxfor d University Press. E. ? a b c d Marx. E nding the Epidemic of Heterosexual HIV Transmission Among African Americans. 2003. Laurence R. Karl Marx: Selected Writings. American Sociological Review. Journal for the Scientific Study of Re ligion. Published online 18 November 2010. Oldfield. "Secularization As Declining Religious Authority. Covinsky. ? a b Banks. 2009. 2000. ISBN 0029221307 ? Johnson.. 1999. K." Journal for the Scientific Study of Reli gion 37 (2):249-53. Lucas.. Ordaining Women: Culture and Conflict in Religio us Organizations. ? Diener. Mark. McLellan.

307:584-6. 2009. ? Abdulla. [edit]External links The Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine . http://www. quackwatch. In Eight Countries. W. (2007).S. The New York Times. Kane PH.quackwatch. 2010. Interindividual variation in posture allocation: possible role in human obesity. 2008. 2007.org/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/altbelief. n.html ? Strully. a nd Sandra M. B ody Image.co m/html/localnews/2004022178_miracle19m2. and M J Stampfer.ox. David C. 1999. 2008). Goodman. Christakis.nwsource. ? Swami. McCrady SK. Am J Public Health 100:334-340.org .org/new/200705041.aol. The inf luence of feminist ascription on judgements of women's physical attractiveness.com/2008/04/11/opinion/11krugman. Christine. 2010. 2008. Pediatrics peds.nytimes. Am J Publ Health 2004. Associations of Television C ontent Type and Obesity in Children.or g/atlases/2008_Chronic_Care_Atlas. 2008.html (Accessed April 13.simonyi.pdf (Accessed April 13. Guarantee of Health Care. Health Care Horror Stories. Jane E. This article would serve as a very good launching po int for discussing the ethics of universal healthcare.uk/dawkins/writings/snakeoil. S.dartmouthatlas. Most Support U. ? Dawkins. Potential for Harm in Dietary Supplements. March 28 http://news. ? Zimmerman. 2008. K. 2008). Jen sen MD. [edit]Recommended Reading The New York Times recently invited a professor of bioethics to discuss the ethi cs of rationing healthcare. ? Lopez R. 2008. ? Wennberg. Elliott S. 2010). J. Adrian Furnham. ? Toner. Bell. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 90:651. Gina. 2008). Tovee. ? Tandon. 2008. Job Loss and Health in the U. Is alcohol really good for you?. (2009).ac. The New York Times. PMID 15333317.nytimes. Pooja S. Tracking the Care of Patients with Severe Chronic Illn ess: The Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care 2008. Girl Dies. and Martin J.nytimes. Lebanon.. and Other Preoccupations by John Diamond.com/2007/03/02 /washington/02poll. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed. ? Memory Supplements Forgettable.d. Olson LR. and Michael J. Richard in Snake Oil.94:1574-9. Berens. ? Kolata.html (Accessed A pril 13. Nutrition Menu Labeling May Lead to Lower-Calorie Restaurant M eal Choices for Children.cspinet. http://www. 2008) . Why Bogus Therapies Often Seem to Work.S..nytimes. Robert. Barry L. April 8 http://www. Jonathan S. html (Accessed April 13.html (Accessed Apr il 13. 2008. April 14 http://www. Krizan AC. Viren. John E. PMID 15681386.com/health/story/ar/_a/parents-pick-prayer-over-doctor-girl/ 20080327161309990002 (Accessed April 13. Natalie Salem. Urban sprawl and risk for being overweight or obese. Health Aff 28:w1-16. ? a b Brody. ? Beyerstein. November 19 http://seattletimes. from http://www. Public never warned about dangerous device.2009-1117. K Fosher. & Elder. Science 2005. Moderate alc ohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of effects o n lipids and haemostatic factors. 2007.shtml ? a b Willmsen.com/2008/04/08/health/08brod. ? Imrie. Says CSPI. Fisher.com/2008/04/14/us/14drug. New Hampshire: The Dartmo uth Institute for Health Policy & Clinical Practice http://www.html (Accessed Februar y 11. Frederick J. Paul. 1997.html (Accessed April 13. Demography 46(2): ? Rimm. Retrieved March 2. Sharp. In Chronic Condition: Experiences Of Patients With Complex Health Care Needs. P Williams.) 319:1523-1528. ? Levine JA. The New York Ti mes. 2008). 2003. 2008). http://www. 2008). The Seattle Times. Lanningham-Foster LM. Co-Payments Soar for Drugs With High Prices. Chuan Zhou. E B. Jeffrey Wright. and Dimitri A. Skinner. Labor Market. M Criqui. and Janice F. R. April 11 ht tp://www..ugh.. ? Krugman. The New York Times. Cara Beth Rogers. Parents Pick Prayer Over Doctor. AOL News. Clark MM.

Power. derives his authority from a ratio nal-legal system of laws outlined in a formal document. [edit]Power Political power is a type of power held by a group in a society which allows tha t group to administrate the distribution of public resources. the regulation of political units. and wealth. For example. academic. It consists of social relations involving authority or power. "Eliminating Health Disparities: Toolkit" (2 004) Obesity. terrorist group. the jus tification and right to exercise power. King of Saudi Arabia. is often defined as th e ability to influence the behavior of others with or without resistance. or multin ational corporation possesses such power relates to the amount of societal influ ence they can wield. President of the United States. [edit]Power. then. King Abdullah bin Abdul al-Saud.1 994 Joint CDC/StatsCan comparison on the two health care systems . and religi ous institutions.2004 (pdf) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Diagnostic & Prevention Network (FAS DPN) Well. [edit]Authority In government. Authority refers to a claim of legitimacy. while a mob has the power t .com FAS Fact Sheet FAQ on FAS from National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Dr Sterling Clarren's keynote address on FASD. their meanings differ. including labour. Political powers are not limited to heads of states. and Violence Barack Obama. Ho wever.International health statistics comparison International Health Statistics: What the Numbers Mean for the United States . however the ext ent to which a person or group such as an insurgency. authority is often used interchangeably with the term "power". the Constitution of the United States of America. derived his authority fro m tradition. including corporate. Prairie Northern Conference on Fe tal Alcohol Syndrome. BMI and Calorie assessment Calculators Body Mass Index Calculator Obesity advice / FAQs International Task Force on Obesity Childhood Obesity Argument that the concern for obesity is overwrought BMJ Article on Obesity and Public policy Economics of Obesity The Worldwide Obesity Epidemic by Frank Sacks MD [edit]Politics [edit]What is Politics? Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. and the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply social policy. formally or informally. Yukon 2002 Moderate alcohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of effects on lipids and haemostatic factors National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities Understanding Health Disparities Initiative to Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health United States go vernment minority health initiative Health Disparities Collaborative American Public Health Association. but politics has been obs erved in all human group interactions. The term is ge nerally applied to behaviour within civil governments. Authority.

such as when one purchases a hunting license or if one belongs to a government sanctioned fighting league like the UFC). Thus. the fact that the government has authority gives it the right to use power to force citizens to do what the government deems appropriate. Another person who used his charisma to gather followers. there a re a variety of forms of government. Intriguingly. often for life or unti l abdication. do g overnments derive their authority from their right to use violence? Another way to think about this quirk of politics is to ask yourself: Would you follow the l aw if there were no repercussions to your behavior. the founder of The Church of Jesus Christ of La tter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons) was considered charismatic.. The second type of authority is Traditional authority. reinforces th e government's claim to authority. Max Weber identified and distinguished three types of legitimate authority. Joseph Smith Jr. [edit]Types of Governments In addition to there existing various legitimate means of holding power. Here. The first type discussed by Weber is Rational-legal authority. which are usually written down and are often very complex. Charismatic authority is that authority which is derived from a gift of grace. was Jeffrey Lundgren. derived his authority from his charisma . a Hobbesian social contract).g. then it is known as traditional authority. to force people to behave in certain ways.o punish a criminal. based on its authority. the government has the right. theoretically a near-exclusive right (others can use violence only wh en officially sanctioned. founder of Mormonism. The right of here ditary monarchs to rule like the King of Saudi Arabia is an example. Joseph Smith. In oth er words. which derives from long-e stablished customs. Modern societies depend on legal-rational auth ority. A monarchy is a form of government in which supreme power is absolutely or nomin ally lodged with an individual. the government has authority. or when the leader claims that his authority is derived from a "higher power" ( e. The person who heads a monarchy is called a monarch. The p ower of the rational legal authority is mentioned in a document like a constitut ion or articles of incorporation. Government officials. [edit]Monarchy Queen Elizabeth II is the monarch of the United Kingdom. the charisma of the individual or the leader plays an important role. It was a comm .. When power passes from one gen eration to another. which gives it power . you have something of a paradox: Do gov ernments have authority if they do not have the right to use violence? And. like the President of the United States are good ex amples of this form of authority. At the same time. Followers accept this and are willing to follow this higher or insp ired authority in the place of the authority that they have hitherto been follow ing. the fact that the government of a country has the right to use violence. God) that is superior to both the validity of traditional and rational-lega l authority. While you may for other reas ons (e. The third form of authority is Charismatic authority. ultimately it is the threat of the legi timate use of violence that makes government authority compelling. Refusal to follow the dictates of the government can result in the government using violence to coerce individuals into compliance. for example by lynching..g. habits and social structures. who is the head of state. It is that form o f authority which depends for its legitimacy on formal rules and established law s of the state. Jr. ultimately for rather nefarious purposes. people who believe in the rule of law consider that only a court of law to has the authority to order capital puni shment. [edit]Violence In most modern nation-states. the power of one's personality. Clear examples of charismatic leaders are often seen in the founders of rel igious groups.

personality cults. a single party that controls the state. and Vietnam. In political theo ry. [edit]Totalitarianism Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a political system that strives to reg ulate nearly every aspect of public and private life..g. control over the e conomy.[2] However. freedom of political expression. An essential process in representativ e democracies are competitive elections. freedom of speech and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vot e in their personal interests. North Korea. the use of mass surveillance. democracy describes a small number of related forms of government and also a political philosophy. The "majority rule" is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy. then a branch of the system of rule could accumulate power and become harmful to the democracy itself. [edit]Communist State A Communist state is a state with a form of government characterized by single-p arty rule of a Communist party and a professed allegiance to an ideology of comm unism as the guiding principle of the state. Even though there is no universally accepted definition o f 'democracy'. some of which provide better represent ation and more freedoms for their citizens than others.[1] There are several varieties of democracy. The first principle is that all members of the society (citizens) have equal access to power and the second that all members (citizens) enjoy universally rec ognized freedoms and liberties. the Dutch Repu blic). [edit]Democracy Democracy is a form of government in which the right to govern or sovereignty is held by the majority of citizens within a country or a state. military o r religious hegemony. there are two principles that any definition of democracy include s. Oligarchies have been tyrannical throughout history. family. as many constitutional monarchies such as the United Kingdom and Thailand are considered monarchies yet their monarchs ha ve limited political power.on form of government in the world during the ancient and medieval times. that are fair both substantively and pr ocedurally. 16 of which are Commonwealth realms that recognise the monarch of the United Kingdom as their head of state. wealth. if any democ racy is not carefully legislated to avoid an uneven distribution of political po wer with balances. Communist states may have several l . but without responsible government it is possible for the rights of a minority to b e abused by the "tyranny of the majority". such as the separation of powers. Furthermore. Map of countries that declared themselves or were declared to be socialist state s under the Marxist-Leninist or Maoist definition at some point in their history . L aos. Hereditary rule is often a common characteristic. bein g completely reliant on public servitude to exist. [edit]Oligarchy An oligarchy is a form of government in which power effectively rests with a sma ll elite segment of society distinguished by royalty. Such states are often controlled by politically powerful f amilies whose children are heavily conditioned and mentored to be heirs of the p ower of the oligarchy.g. Note that not all of these countries were Ma rxist-Leninist or Maoist at the same time. but are considered republics (e. A map showing the current Communist states. 44 nations in the world have monarchs as heads of state. They are China. Currently. There is no clear definition of monarchy. Totalitarian regimes or mo vements maintain themselves in political power by means of an official all-embra cing ideology and propaganda disseminated through the state-controlled mass medi a. The Pope) and some s tates have hereditary rulers.. Cuba. Holding unlimited political power in the sta te is not the defining characteristic. and widespread use of state terrorism. regulation and restriction of free discussion and criticism. bu t elective monarchies are also considered monarchies (e. The map uses present-day borders.

in particular. usually by participating in electoral campaig ns. the state and party claim to act in accordance to the peasantry. Each state has significant discretion in deciding how candidates are nominated. forming a coalition among disparate interests. go vernments assert that they represent the democratic dictatorship of the proletar iat. but the Communist party is usually granted a special or dominant role in government. While almost all claim lineage to Marxist thought. [edit]USA The United States Constitution is silent on the subject of political organizatio ns.D. or policy positions. th ere are two main parties in presidential contention: Democratic Party Republican Party Each of these two parties shares a degree of national attention by attaining the mathematical possibility of its nominee becoming President of the United States . [edit]Theocracy Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the s tate's supreme civil ruler. for Maoists. though s ome state affiliates do. However. Theocratic tendencies have been found in several religious traditions including Judaism. for an American to say that he or she is a member of the Democratic or Republican party. and among Christianity: Catholicism.for its presidential candidate in states whose c ollective total is at least half of the Electoral College votes. candidates a re nominated by a political party or seek public office as an independent. whereas minor party repre sentatives and Independents are required to complete a petitioning process. [edit]Types of Government Thought Question While there are many more types of government.egal political parties. or are merely influenced by theological or moral concepts. American political parties are more loosely organized than those in other countr ies.D. activities.e. and monarchi es held "By the Grace of God". the People's Republic of China proclaimed a policy of "socialism with Chinese characteristics. such as in the development of parallel institutions. His torical examples of Christian theocracies are the Byzantine Empire (A. major party candidates are formally chosen in a party primary or convention. Theocratic governments enact theonomic laws. Republicans and independents in millions as of 2004. Eastern Orthodoxy.[3] The complete list of political parties in the United States is vast. Islam. why do you th ink that? [edit]Political Parties A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain and maintain political power within government. In the United States. the state and the Communist Party claim to act in accordance with the wishes of the industria l working class. and Mormonism. have no formal organization at the na tional level that controls membership. a form of government in which a state is governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regard ed as divinely guided. For Marxist-Leninists. often by statute or under the constitution. there are many varieties of C ommunist states. Typically. Theocracy sh ould be distinguished from other secular forms of government that have a state r eligion. mainly because most of the founding fathers disliked them. with indigenous adaptions. Registered Democrats. In partisan elections.i. one can . Under Deng Xiaoping. or in a broader sense. and t hus eligible to appear on the election ballot. d o you think there is a type that is better than the others? If so." In most Communist states. major and mi nor political parties and groups soon arose. having ballot access . The two major parties. Consequ ently. 330-145 3) and the Carolingian Empire (A. the institutions of the state and of the Communist party become intimatel y entwined. Parties often espouse an expressed ideology or vision bolstered by a written platform with specific goals. is quite different from a Briton's stati ng that he or she is a member of the Labour party. Confucianism. based on what you've just read. Protestantism. Yet.. 800-888). Hinduism. Thus.

If the government includes an elected Congress or Parliament the parties may sha re power according to Proportional Representation or the First-past-the-post sys tem.S.S. affiliated organizations. an elected official may change parties simply by declaring such intent. The exact composition of these committees is different for e ach party. The Electoral College results of the 2008 Presidential Election in the U. and other individuals important to the party. each party wins a number of seats proportio nal to the number of votes it receives. In first-past-the-post. A party committee may choose to endorse one or another of those who is seeking the nomination. the electorate i s divided into a number of districts. illustrating the strength of the two major parties varies by geographic region in the U. Once in office. Unlike a single-party system (or a non-partisan democracy). nor does it give a person any particular rights or obligations with respect to the party. a voter can register as a member of one or another party and/or vote in t he primary election for one or another party. in w hich only two parties have a real chance of electing their candidates to office. each of the two major parties has a national committee (Se e. However . Each party competes for votes from the enfranchi sed constituents (those allowed to vote). because it prevents the leadership of a single party from setting policy without challenge. In most states. At the federal level. A party really cannot prevent a person who disagrees with the majority of positions of the party or actively wor ks against the party's aims from claiming party membership. on th . The result is that American political parties have weak central organizations an d little central ideology. Party identification becomes somewhat formalized when a person runs for partisan office. In Proportional Representation. with Republicans stronger in the South. Democratic National Committee. and naturally gravitates toward a two-party system. The map below shows the results of the 2008 Presidential Election in the United States. This gravitation is known as Duverger's law. and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments. particularly in pres idential campaigns.S. officially recognized groups. Republican National Committee) that acts as th e hub for much of the fund-raising and campaign activities. with numerous parties in which no one party oft en has a chance of gaining power alone. this means declaring oneself a candidate for the nomina tion of a particular party and intent to enter that party's primary election for an office.often become a "member" of a party. gene rally called political parties. but they are made up primarily of representatives from state parties.. it encourages the ge neral constituency to form multiple distinct. and some Mo untain states while Democrats are stronger along the coasts. except by consensus. other than possibly allowing that per son to vote in that party's primary elections (elections that determine who the candidate of the party will be). and it is often difficult to tell who is going to do the voting. the national committees do not have the power to direct the activities of indi vidual members of the party. Proportional Representation. s tates. First-past-the-post is not conducive to a pr oliferation of parties. A multi-party system is a system in which three or more political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separatel y or in coalition. each of which selects one person to fill o ne seat by a plurality of the vote. but in the end the choice is up to those who choose t o vote in the primary. A multi-party system is essential for representative democracies. so long as the voter s who choose to vote in the primary elections elect that person. The sole factor that brings one "closer to the action" is the quantity and quality of par ticipation in party activities and the ability to persuade others in attendance to give one responsibility. [edit]Sweden Sweden has a multi-party system. Midwest. but such participation does not re strict one's choices in any way. A person may choose to attend meetings of one l ocal party committee one day and another party committee the next day. merely by stating that fact. In some U.

McVeigh and Sobolew ski (2007) argue that the white males in sex segregated counties are more likely to vote for conservative candidates because they feel their occupational securi ty is threatened by women and racial minorities. On the other hand. Germany. see fi gure below) in developed countries.S. . The Pirate Party is the third largest party i n Sweden in terms of membership. The symbol of the Pirate Party. women are underrepresented in political posi tions. This difference is not without implications. each with less than a majority of the vote.[5] U. This is illustrated in the graph below: This figure breaks down women's participation in Congress in the U. but remain underrepresented among both parties relative to their per centages in the population as a whole. In these nations.2% of the House and 17% of the Senate w ere women. even though most of the time no party has a parliamentary majority by itsel f). if there are multipl e major parties. The agenda also includes support for a strengthen ing of the right to privacy. It is in teasing out the stratification of political p articipation and political power that the sociological imagination is particular ly useful. some people are more likely to have access to politic al power than are others. does not have this tendency. Women are more likely to be elected as Democrats than as R epublicans. the parties are for ced to work together to form working governments.e other hand. to come to prominence in Sweden. India. some people are more likely to vote than others (see this Wikipedia article on Voter turnout for more informati on on this). In the U. for instance. both at local and national levels. sometimes so large that they cannot agree on any overarching principles. [edit]Voting Patterns and Inequality In any political system where voting is allowed.S. The multi-party system of proportional representation has allowed a small third party. [edit]Politics and Gender While women are generally as likely to vote (or even more likely to vote. though a substantial imbalance remained between the two political par ties. multiple political parties have often formed coalitions fo r the purpose of developing power blocs for governing. by year an d by political party.S. counties with sex segregated occupations are 11% more likely to vo te Republican than counties that have mixed-sex occupations. In 2010 things had improved slightly. France. This also promotes a form of c entrism. in the 109th Congress (2005-200 7) there were only 14 female Senators (out of 100) and 70 Congressional Represen tatives (out of 435). some theories argue tha t this allows centrists to gain control.[4] One of the factors that predicts how people vote is attitudes toward gender equa lity. something that would b e very unlikely in the United States. The Pirate Party. and allows multiple major parties to arise. The Pirate Party strives to reform laws re garding copyright and patents. and Is rael are examples of nations that have used a multi-party system effectively in their democracies (though in each case there are two parties larger than all oth ers. both on the Internet and in everyday life. 17. Additionally.. Its sudden popularity has given rise to parties with the same name and similar goals in Europe and worldwide. The Party has intentionally chosen to be b lock independent on the traditional left-right scale to pursue their political a genda with all mainstream parties. Women make up a very small percentage of elected officials. and the transparency of state administration. The United States is an example of where there may be a multi-party system but t hat only two parties have ever formed government. Along this line of thought. A two-party system requires voters to align themselves in large blocs.

and the Politics of the Military. 1st ed. Robert D. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber. women are generally about as likely as men to vote.. 2008). 2001. May 7 http://www. Peter L. Basic Books. 1st ed. Pascal. The International Heral d Tribune. Religion Explained. Bush are both Yale Univ ersity alumni. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. Both are white.S. American Scientists. Max.S. 1945-1975. in th e graph below (which also illustrates sex differences in voting rates): Young people are much less likely to vote than are older people. are facing looming crises .S. wealthier and more educated people are more likely to hold political positions.S. As a result. John Kerry. through organizati ons like the AARP and are more likely to vote as a block on issues that affect t hem directly. ? Boyer. 2002. Appeasing the Gods.iht. and Hispanics. and come from families that have be en involved in politics.S. Simon & Schuster. Free Press. worth millions of dollars. Also. have more power than yo unger people. 1963. Additionally. 2008.[edit]Politics and Age Young people are much less likely to vote than are older people and are less lik ely to be politicians. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. The Sociological Imagination. . John Kerry is a lawyer and George W.S. The candidates. [edit]Politics and Race Generally.[4] [edit]Politics and Class Another way that political power is stratified is through income and education. racial and ethnic minorities are less likely to vote in elections and are also underrepresented in political positions. USA. ? Putnam. 2008. but remained at just 1% of the Senate. I f blacks were represented in proportion to their numbers in the U. Kelly. Wright. Wealthier and more educated people are more likely to vote (see figures to the r ight). 40th ed. A good illustration of this is the 2004 Presidential Electi on in the U. Racial and ethnic minorities are also less likely to hold political positions.. Bush has an MBA from Harvard . In the U. this means whites are more likely to vote than are bla cks. Oxford Univ ersity Press. there shou ld be 12 Senators and 52 Members of the House. John.[4] This is illustrated for young people in the U.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. In 2009 there was 1 black Senator (Roland Burris) and 39 Members of the House. 1997. and George W.8%). Princeton University Press. With Insurance. The lower voting rates of young people in the U. Older people are also more organized. ? Tierney. but are underrepresented in political positions. help explain why things like Medicare and Social Security in the U. older individuals in the U. In 2010 the number in the House in creased slightly to 41 (7. ? Berger. [edit]References ? Moore. ? a b Mills.php (Accessed August 17.the elderly will retain many of the benefits of these programs and are unwilling to allow t hem to be changed even though young people will be the ones to suffer the conseq uences of these crises. 2000. Asians. The graph below illustrates t he disparate voting rates between racial/ethnic groups in the U. in the 2008 P residential Election: Racial and ethnic minorities are generally less likely to vote than the majority population. Disrupting Science: Social Movements.S. C. Anchor.S.

Gender & Society 22:172-193. or the rapid spread of rumors (e. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials.. MySpace) or clothing item (e..g. Donileen R. there are practical reasons why the study of collective be havior is important. a panic in a burning theater (e. Only a few doors were in operatio n that night.g. Examples of collective behavior include: religious revival meetings (like those depicted in the documentary Marjoe). [edit]Collective behaviour [edit]Introduction The term Collective behavior refers to social processes and events which do not reflect existing social structure (laws. Nicole H. eleven fans were killed by compressive asphyxia and severa l dozen others injured in the rush for seating at the opening of a sold-out conc ert by English rock band The Who. Springer.. and Jennifer Glass.g. a collective so cial movement to improve the environment (e. the mass. (als o known as "general seating"). first-served basis.. Visceral Verstehen. anyone can be a member of th e collective while group membership is usually more discriminating collective behavior generates weak and unconventional norms while groups tend to have stronger and more conventional norms Traditionally.g. and institutions). Whe n the crowds waiting outside heard the band performing a late sound check. Collective behavior. that Barack Obama is Muslim or not a US citizen).. a third form of action. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. 2005. the public. Cavendish. takes place when norms are absent or unclear. "On December 3. Two examples might illustrate the practical importance: The Who following a performance in 1975.? Dilthey. 1979. ? Loseke.. 2007. a sudden widespread interest in a website (e. ? Glass. ? Denzin. they thought that the concert was beginning and tried to rush into the still-closed d oors. 1st ed. 1978. where the best seats are available on a first-com e. W. The concert was using "festival seating". Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. riots. Due to the festival seating. the Ken tucky Beverly Hills Supper Club fire). W. and there are reports that management did not open more doors due to the concern of people sneaking past the ticket turnstiles. Third Edition. Greenpeace). many fans arrived early.. but whi ch emerge in a "spontaneous" way. 2008. often included are additional behaviors like: rumors. Collective behavior might also be defined as a ction which is neither conforming (in which actors follow prevailing norms) nor deviant (in which actors violate those norms). Inc. Electronic Journal of Sociology. [edit]Why Study Collective Behavior? Aside from the intrinsic interest of understanding why large groups of people be have the way they do. These divers e actions fall within the area sociologists call collective behavior. and the social movement.g. or when they contradic t each other. conventions. Lincoln." . ? Civettini. and James C. Collective behavior differs from group behavior in three ways: collective behavior involves limited and short-lived social interaction while gr oups tend to remain together longer collective behavior has no clear social boundaries. and Yvonna S. 2001. and fads. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. Some at the front of the crowd were trampled as those pushing from behind were unaware that the doors were still closed. Scholars have devoted far less attention to collective behavior th an they have to either conformity or deviance.. Sage Publications. While there is a degree of deb ate over what should be included under the label of "collective behavior" among sociologists today. trends. Norman K. John E.. collective behavior in sociology includes four forms[6]: the crow d. wriststrong bracelets). Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics.

deliberately planned meeting (e. Because it is n ot just Negroes. Mobs tend to be highly emotional. Understanding how people behave in riots. And we shall overcome. What happened in Sel ma is part of a far larger movement which reaches into every section and state o f America. Their cause must be our cause too. Lyndon Johnson delivered a televised address to garner support for the voting rights b ill he had sent to Congress. people at the mall) conventional . Various forms of collective behavior are examined in detail in the following sec tions. the battle will not be over. The national br oadcast of the footage of lawmen attacking unresisting marchers seeking the righ t to vote provoked a national response. tear gas.. Crowds are a common occurrence in modern life. and other performances result in the gathering of crowds. voter registration in the South had more th an doubled. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 on August 6. It is the effort of American Negroes to secure for themselves the ful l blessings of American life.S. a political rally or soccer game in Europe or Latin America) acting . Because riots do not have a specific en d.g. who must overcome the crippling leg acy of bigotry and injustice. It authorized Fede ral supervision of voter registration in states and individual voting districts where such tests were being used." Again. Within four years.000 new black voters had been registered. Blumer (1951) differentiated four types of crowds: casual . Ma rch 7. under standing how humans react during natural disasters and ensure that the damage th at occurs is entirely a result of the disaster and not the human response to it. Better understanding how to organize such a movement can provide movement members the tools they need to succeed. state troopers and local law enforcement attacked the peaceful demonstrators with billy clubs. In it he stated: But even if we pass this bill. Alabama. [edit]Crowds A crowd is a gathering of people who share a purpose or intent and influence one another. Another motivation for studying collective behavior is in order to actually chan ge elements of society. The act had an immediate and positive impact f or African Americans. c oncerts. fans rushing a stage d uring or after a concert) When crowd behavior is directed toward a specific. Only six block s into the march. 1965. rubber tubes wrapped in barb ed wire and bull whips. How to redesign buildings and manage crowds are two types of knowledge that ca n result from the study of collective behavior.g. Within months of its passage.Better architectural design and crowd management might have avoided this tragedy . "On March 7. Most sporting events. African American leaders led a march of 600 people to walk th e 54 miles (87 km) from Selma to the state capital in Montgomery. Eight days after the first march. but really it is all of us. 1965. it is assumed that their intention is to express general dissatisfaction.g.g. an example may help illustrate this point: Police attack civil-rights marchers outside Selma. 250. and how they can be rapidly concluded is also know ledge that can result from the study of collective behavior. the result is a mob. Additionally.. during the 19th and 20th centuries. The 1965 act suspended poll taxes. violent end. on Bloody Sunday.depicts a crowd at an emotionally charged event (e. what sets them off.a crowd intent on accomplishing something (e. however. literacy tests and other subjective voter tests. Examples of mob violence include the lync hings in the Southern U. This is the component of collective behavior known as "s ocial movements. Violent crowd beh avior without a specific goal is a riot. . They drove the marchers back into Selma.loose collection of people with no real interaction (e." Understanding how to organize a social movement to pursue social change is one o f the areas studied by sociologists. community meeting organized b y political leaders) expressive ..

Thus. g rowing with time. as the name implies. which allows for the rapid distribution of information around the world . but the influence of the individual should not be overlooked. Blumer sees crowds as emotional. being trapped in a burning theater) or a rational sense of injustice (e. This is especially true with the advent of mas s media. is actually the result of rational fear (e.. leading them to engage in sometimes outlandish beha vior. anonymity. which he sees as characteristic of crowds in general.[edit]Diffuse Crowds Collective behavior can also refer to behavior that is diffused or dispersed ove r large distances. crowd behavior is often instigated by and guided by individuals. some solitary individuals as well. This theory takes a symbolic interactionist approach to understan ding crowd behavior. It is also worth noting that LeBon's book is from the perspective of a frightene d aristocrat.g.. arguing that it is a combi nation of like-minded individuals.. [edit]Theories of Crowd Behavior [edit]Contagion Theory Originally proposed by Gustave LeBon (1896).[7] This new approach distinguishes what brings people togethe r as a gathering from what they do once gathered.g. allowing for behavior that normally woul d not take place. Individuals who gather are often acquai nted and invited or informed about the gathering. and shared emotion that leads to c rowd behavior. He interprets the crowd episodes of the French Revolution as irrat ional reversions to animal emotion. There are. results in irration al. [edit]Convergence Theory Convergence theory argues that the behavior of a crowd is not an emergent proper ty of the crowd but is a result of like-minded individuals coming together. Most gatherings are temporary and are formed by an assembling process. however. if a crowd becomes violent (a mob or riot). contagion theory presents members of crowds as irrational. but as capable of any emotion. not on ly the negative ones of anger and fear. This line of research also dispenses with the idea that crowds impair judgment. In o ther words. That the crowd seems to take on a life of its own is certainly true.[ 7] Alcohol and drugs. which can contribute to deviant behavior. but crowds themselves do not impair judgment. Or. First. emotionally charged behavior. contagion theory proposes that crow ds exert a hypnotic influence on their members. convergence theory would argue that this is not because the crowd encouraged violence but rather because people who wanted to become violent came together in the crowd. but in the interactions that follow the development of the crowd. some crowds actually spur ind ividuals into behavior that they would otherwise not engage in. The actions of individuals at gatherings also illustrate that i . the Cincinnati race riots). Once gathered. The primary criticism of convergence theory is that there is a tendency for peop le to do things in a crowd that they would not do on their own. new expectations and norms can emerge. This also implies that the behavior of a crowd is an emergent property of the people coming together and not a property of the people themselv es. while some crowds may result from like-minded individuals coming tog ether to act collectively (e. There are several problems with LeBon's theory. the frenzy of the cro wd is somehow contagious. combined with the anonymity of belonging to a large group of people. The hypnotic influence. Not all collective behavior has to occur in the immediate vic inity of others (compact crowds).g. like a disease. of course. Second. It argues that people come together with specific expectati ons and norms. [edit]Crowds as "Gatherings" More recent research into collective behavior has begun to change sociological t hinking on crowds. certainly can im pair judgment and influence the actions of crowds. and the contagion feeds upon itself. Crowds have an a nonymizing effect on people. Much crowd behavior. the subgroups o f individuals who already know one another tend to stay together throughout the gathering. political rally). [edit]Emergent-Norm Theory Emergent-Norm Theory combines the above two theories.

While in dividuals may attempt to lead or control a riot. People who are "hysterical" often lose self-control d ue to the overwhelming fear. A similar usage refers to any sort of public wave phenomenon. . very often moral panics revolve around issues of sex and sexuality. and that surrounding the mu rder of James Bulger in Liverpool. Panics typically occur in disaster situations. riots have occurred due to poor working or living conditions. Architects and city plann ers try to accommodate the symptoms of panic. taxation or conscription. cars.[7] Sometim es these are emergency dispersal. 2005. A riot is a form of civil disorder characterized by disorganized groups lashing out in a sudden and intense rash of violence. and often include a large element of ma ss hysteria. if semi-literate. frequently a minority group or a subculture. government oppression. The term also occurs in the phrase mass hysteria to describe mass public near-pa nic reactions. Perhaps the key point of the "crowds as gatherings" appr oach is that there is a great deal of variation in gatherings. England in 1993. A widely circula ted and new-seeming urban legend is frequently involved. poses a menace to society. Sometimes they are planned or the enthusiasm of the gathering wanes a nd people simply leave. [edit]Panic Panic is a sudden terror which dominates thinking and often affects groups of pe ople. It is commonly applied to the waves of popular medical problems t hat everyone gets in response to news articles. and religious buildings. mob in August 2000. crop circles. and sometimes acting s pontaneously. Though not always.) [edit]Riots Confrontation between protesters and riot police during a Belizian riot. during desi gn and planning. Riots typically involve vandalism and the destruction of private and public property. sometimes interacting with their subgroup.[7] Gatherings also exhibit dispersing processes that end the gatherings. sometimes ignoring them. (See this page for examples of moral panic. and usua lly expressed as outrage rather than unadulterated fear. often using simulations to determine the best way to lead peopl e to a safe exit. Riots often occur in reaction to a perceived grieva nce or out of dissent. state-owned institutio ns. or frustration with l egal channels through which to air grievances. and has b een used to describe the periodic widespread reappearance and public interest in UFO reports. [edit]Moral Panic A moral panic is a mass movement based on the perception that some individual or group. sometimes responding to solicitations. as when authorities arrive and try to end the gathering. the outcome of a sporting event. These panics are generally fuelled by media coverage of social issues (although semi-spontaneous moral panics do occur).ndividuals remain independent. which led to the assault and persecution of a pediatricia n by an angry. such as the yuppy flu of the lat e 1980s. riots are typically chaotic and exhibit herd-like behavior. vandalism or other crime. one of unmanageable f ear or emotional excesses. [edit]Mass Hysteria Hysteria is a diagnostic label applied to a state of mind. conflicts be tween races or religions. The term was coined by Stanley Cohen in 1972 to descri be media coverage of Mods and Rockers in the United Kingdom in the 1960s. and may endanger the overall health of the affected group. and similar examples. Recent moral panics in the UK have included the ongoing tabloid newspaper campai gn against pedophiles. such as herd behavior. Targets can include shops. such as during a fire. These panics can someti mes lead to mob violence. The specific property to be targeted varies depending on the cause of the riot and the inclinations of thos e involved. A moral panic is specifically framed in terms of morality. Historically. restaurants.

which reflect public desires and wished-for outcomes Bogie or fear rumors that reflect feared outcomes Wedge-driving rumors that intend to undermine group loyalty or interpersonal rel ations As rumors travel they grow shorter. For Harsin a "rumor bomb" extends the def inition of rumor into a political communication concept with the following featu res: A crisis of verification. Rumors may also be be political communication strategies. and more easily grasped. remains popular. the Red Scare. especially within the complex convergence of multiple forms of m edia. and Satanic ritual abuse. though the definition can vary. and that he is Muslim. refers to a fashion that becomes popular in a cult ure (or subcultures) relatively quickly. and print.4% of statements on archived internet message boards are sensemakin g statements that attempt to solve problems. A context of public uncertainty or anxiety about a political group. 33)[9].[8] Doctors in Chin a determined that.[12] Bordia and DiFonzo f ound that 29. which the rumor bomb overcomes or transfers onto an opponent. A rapid diffusion via highly developed electronically mediated societies where n ews travels fast. Rumors may be part of a collective explanation process. figure. for most of those who fell ill. TV. event. China in 2009 when hund reds of workers at an acrylic yarn factory began to fall ill. from cell phones and internet. which is what the workers claimed caused the illness. "an unnamed advisor to the p resident").) [edit]Rumors A rumor is often viewed as "an unverified account or explanation of events circu lating from person to person and pertaining to an object. A recent example of psychogenic illness resulting from mass hysteria occurred in Jilin. or c ause. also known as a craze. like a pollutant or infectious agent).g. J ayson Harsin introduced the concept of the "rumor bomb" to describe the widespre ad phenomenon of rumoresque communication in contemporary relations between medi a and politics. (See this page for a list of fads . or issue in pub lic concern" (p. . Two prominent rumors about Barack Obama circulated during his 2008 Presidential Campaign. then loses popularity dramatically. where it is better understood thr ough the related sociological term of moral panic. or illnesses that are the result of psychology and not an external sour ce (e. [edit]Fads A fad. including: Pipe dream rumors.S. happening.[11] Negative rumors are more likely to be disseminated than positive rumors..[13] In 2006. The rest of the discussion revolves around these statements. A clearly partisan even if an anonymous source (eg. that he was not born in the U. which seeks to profit politically from the rumor bomb s diffusion. Mass hysterias can also exhibit themselves in the sudden onset of psychogenic il lnesses. often for a rather bri ef period. McCarthyism. more concise. Media and particular c ultural-historical conditions may facilitate a rumor's diffusion. A crisis of verification is perhaps the most salient a nd politically dangerous aspect of rumor.Hysteria is often associated with movements like the Salem Witch Trials.[11] A bout 70% of details in a message are lost in the first 5 to 6 transmissions.[10] Rumors generally in volve some kind of a statement the veracity of which is not quickly or ever conf irmed. there were no physical indica tions of poisoning. or condition they express and gratify the emotional needs of the community There are also various types of rumors. Harsin treats rumo r as a particular rhetorical strategy. to radio. Rumors have three basic characteristics they're transmitted by word of mouth they provide "information" about a person.

nationalgeographic. There are several good online resources for checking rumors and urban legends.. 2000. another Disney film sexual innuendo in Aladdin. The International Heral d Tribune. [edit]Suggested Multimedia Resources The Final Report: LA Riots.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. ? Civettini. 2008. May 7 http://www. ? Tierney. i ncluding: snopes. 1978. John. McPhail (1991)[17] argues that crowds vary along a number of dimensions. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber. and the Politics of the Military. 2005. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics. Princeton University Press.. [edit]References ? Moore. 1963. the result may look like an an imal-like stampede without in fact being irrational. ? Loseke. Robert D. 1945-1975. Basic Books.S. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. 2008). 40th ed. particularly useful for checking email rumors urbanlegend. 1st ed. Sage Publications. Simon & Schuster. 2007. http://channel. ? Berger. Lincoln.. W. Third Edition. 1st ed. Norman K. This chapter draws on the following Wikipedia articles: collective behavior fad panic hysteria social movements rumor [edit]External links The University of Delaware Disaster Research Center . Cavendish. 2008). Oxford Univ ersity Press. 1st ed. 2008. John E. Peter L.php (Accessed August 17. USA. and James C. American Scientists.. Disrupting Science: Social Movements. Pascal. With Insurance. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. ? Putnam. 2002. ? Boyer. and that traditional stereotypes of emotionality and una nimity often do not describe what happens in crowds. Max. Appeasing the Gods. Kelly. ? Denzin. In a series of empirical st udies of assemblies of people. ? a b Mills. The Sociological Imagination. Gender & Society 22:172-193. and Yvonna S.com/series/final-r eport/2770/Overview (Accessed May 5.com factcheck. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. and Jennifer Glass. W. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362.Examples of rumors include: the alleged removal of weapons of mass destruction from Iraq to Syria[14] sexual innuendo in The Little Mermaid adaptation by Disney sexual innuendo in The Lion King.com. another Disney film that John McCain had an illegitimate black child [15] that Barack Obama is a Muslim and was not born in the U. Inc. Donileen R.org. 2001. ? Glass. particularly useful for checking political rumors [edit]Research Examples Berk (1974)[16] uses game theory to suggest that even a panic in a burning theat er can reflect rational calculation: If members of the audience decide that it i s more rational to run to the exits than to walk.iht. Religion Explained. 2001. Wright. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. ? Dilthey. C. Anchor. Free Press. Nicole H. Visceral Verstehen. Electronic Journal of Sociology. 1997. 2008. Springer. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization.

the women's movement of the 1960s and 1970s resulted in a number of counter movements that attempted to block the goals of the women's movement. was originally develo ped to encourage national politicians to move past the Clinton impeachment proce edings (see here)..g. A social movement organization is a formally organized component of a social movement.. tougher rest rictions on drunk driving.. Modern social movements became possible through the wider dissemination of liter ature and increased mobility of labor due to the industrialization of societies.[18] Thus. there are numerous other groups activ ely engaged toward this end (see vegan).[edit]Social movements [edit]Introduction Social movements are any broad social alliances of people who are connected thro ugh their shared interest in blocking or affecting social change. PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) advocates for vegan lifestyles along with its other aims. anti-globaliz ation). failure. Organised social structures like modern day armies. they can tak e a number of paths. the movement may or may not have attained its origina l goal . Whether these paths will result in movement decline or not varies from movement to movement. But PETA is not the only group t o advocate for vegan diets and lifestyles.. In this instance.org. MoveOn. [edit]Stages in Social Movements Blumer. But an SMO may only make up a part of a particular social movem ent. A distinction is drawn between social movements and social movement organization s (SMOs).[23] and Tilly[24] have described different stages social move ments often pass through. For instance.encouraging the censure of Clinton and moving on to more pressing issue .. and po pular movements required freedom of expression. Giddens[19] has identified four areas in which social movements operate in moder n societies: democratic movements that work for political rights labor movements that work for control of the workplace ecological movements that are concerned with the environment peace movements that work toward. For instance. coalesce. the social movement may be a push toward veganism (an effort with numerous motivations)[18] and PETA is an SM O working within the broader social movement.g. one of the difficulties in studying social movements is th at movement success is often ill-defined because movement goals can change. In fact.g. Social movements can be aimed at change on an individual level (e. prohibition).g . many of which were reform movements within conservative religions. At that point. and developed into a Political Action Committee or PAC. well. or even the establishment of the movement within the mainstream. Movements emerge for a variety of reasons (see the the ories below). Social movemen ts do not have to be formally organized. including: finding some form of movement success. Social movements can also advocate for minor changes (e. Multiple alliances may work separately for common causes and still be considered a social movement. see MADD) or radical changes (e. group or even societal level (e.S. political societies. AA) or change on a broader.[20] [edit]Types of Social Movements Aberle[21] described four types of social movements based upon two characteristi cs: (1) who is the movement attempting to change and (2) how much change is bein g advocated. For instance. co-optation of leaders. the group has developed into a major player in national politics in the U. a website founded in the late 1990s. government).[22] Mauss. peace It is also interesting to note that social movements can spawn counter movements . repression by larger groups (e. and generally bureaucratize.g. education and relative economic independence. Since that time.

[edit]Social Movement Theories A variety of theories have attempted to explain how social movements develop. it may never materialize mobilization . The emphasis on resources offers an explanation why some discontented/deprived individuals are able to organize while others are not. people do what needs to be done This theory is also subject to circular reasoning as it incorporates. individuals who are lacking some good. the key to joining the movement wa s having a friend or associate who was a member of the movement. the reasoning is circular. if the social movement is quickly and powerfully repress ed. [edit]Structural-Strain Theory Structural-Strain Theory proposes six factors that encourage social movement dev elopment:[29] structural conduciveness .people experience deprivation growth and spread of a solution . provide a sense of empowerment and belonging that the mo vement members would otherwise not have. [edit]Resource-Mobilization Theory Resource-Mobilization Theory emphasizes the importance of resources in social mo vement development and success. The theory argues that social movements develop when indiv iduals with grievances are able to mobilize sufficient resources to take action. social movement activism is. like in the case of deprivation theory..[28] in his study of Ida ho Christian Patriotism. Second. Resources are understood here to include: knowle dge. First. [edit]Deprivation Theory Deprivation Theory argues that social movements have their foundations among peo ple who feel deprived of some good(s) or resource(s). Some of the assumptions of the theory include: there will always be grounds for protest in modern. media.people come to believe their society has problems structural strain . In fact. often the only indication t hat there was strain or deprivation. This makes the actual stages the move ment has passed through difficult to discern.[27] Very little support has been found for this theory. solidarity.[26] [edit]Mass-Society Theory Mass-Society Theory argues that social movements are made up of individuals in l arge societies who feel insignificant or socially detached. deprivation theory and relies upon it.a solution to the problems people are experien cing is proposed and spreads precipitating factors . th is de-emphasizes the importance of these factors as it makes them ubiquitous . and internal and external supp ort from power elite. So me of the better-known approaches are outlined below. since most people fe el deprived at one level or another almost all the time. grievances or deprivation). service.the entity that is to be changed must be at least somew hat open to the change. labor. the theory has a hard t ime explaining why the groups that form social movements do when other people ar e also deprived.discontent usually requires a catalyst (often a specific event) to turn it into a social movement lack of social control . Aho. politically pluralistic soci eties because there is constant discontent (i. or comfort are more likely to organize a social movement to improve (or defend) their conditions. ac cording to this theory. According to this approach . the reasoning behind this theory is circular . and social/structural strain for the underlying motivation of social movement activism.[25] There are two significant problems with this theory.e. If deprivation is claime d to be the cause but the only evidence for such is the movement. money.but the goals of the SMO have changed.s . at least i n part. did not find that members of that movement were more li kely to have been socially detached.often th e only evidence for deprivation is the social movement. legitimacy. However.this is the actual organizing and active component of the movemen t. Social movements.

commitment is maintained by building a c ollective identity and continuing to nurture interpersonal relationships movement organization is contingent upon the aggregation of resources social movement organizations require resources and continuity of leadership social movement entrepreneurs and protest organizations are the catalysts which transform collective discontent into social movements.). This vulnerability can be the result of any of t he following (or a combination thereof): growth of political pluralism decline in effectiveness of repression elite disunity. [edit]Political Process Theory Political Process Theory is similar to resource mobilization in many regards. The theory. The insurgent consciousness is the collect ive sense of injustice that movement members (or potential movement members) fee l and serves as the motivation for movement organization. arguing that in order for a social movement to organize it must have strong leadership a nd sufficient resources. then. Political process the ory argues that there are three vital components for movement formation: insurge nt consciousness. the civil rights movement in the U. Some groups may have the insurg ent consciousness and resources to mobilize. Insurgent consciousness refers back to the ideas of deprivation and grievances.actors are rational. An additional strength of this model is that it can look at the outcomes of social movements not only in t erms of success or failure but also in terms of consequences (whether intentiona l or unintentional. Organizational strength falls inline with resource-mobilization theory.g. Some movements are effective without an influx of money and are more dependent upon the movement members for time and labor (e . [edit]Culture Theory . One advance on the political process theory is the political mediation model. they weigh the costs and benefits from movement participati on members are recruited through networks. social movement organizat ions form the backbone of social movements the form of the resources shapes the activities of the movement (e. This has presented culture theorists an opportunity to expound on the importance of cultu re. but because political opportunities are closed. they will not have any success. argues that all t hree of these components are important. positive or negative) and in terms of collective benefits. Critics of the political process theory and resource-mobilization theory point o ut that neither theory discusses movement culture to any great degree. especially financial resources.g. organizational strength. bu t tends to emphasize a different component of social structure that is important for social movement development: political opportunities. the leading factions are internally fragmented a broadening of access to institutional participation in political processes support of organized opposition by elites One of the advantages of the political process theory is that it addresses the i ssue of timing or emergence of social movements.S.S. Presidential inauguration protest. and political opportunities... Political opportunity refers to the receptivity or vulnerability of the existing political system to challenge. The idea is that certain members of society feel like they are being mistreated or that somehow the system is unjust. there is no clear pattern of mo vement development nor are specific movement techniques or methods universal Critics of this theory argue that there is too much of an emphasize on resources . Photo taken at the 2005 U. access to a TV station will result in the extensive use TV media) movements develop in contingent opportunity structures that influence their effo rts to mobilize. wh ich outlines the way in which the political context facing movement actors inter sects with the strategic choices that movements make. as each movement's response to the opportunity structures depen ds on the movement's organization and resources.

money. while it places others out of the picture. [edit]Examples of Social Movements civil rights movement in the United States environmental movement green movement gay rights movement labor movement anti-globalization movement vegetarian movement feminist movement pro-life movement [edit]Notes Additional Topics may include: . the injustice frame will provide the motivation for people to contribute to the movement. he is presented with a choice: join or not join the movement.Culture theory builds upon both the political process and resource-mobilization theories but extends them in two ways. an issue frame marks off some part of the world. People carry around multiple frames in their heads. It provides coherence to an array of sy mbols.. linking them through an underlying organizing idea that suggests what is essential . time. but infer its presence by its characteristic exp ressions and language. Framing processes includes three separate components: Diagnostic frame: the movement organization frames what is the problem or what t hey are critiquing Prognostic frame: the movement organization frames what is the desirable solutio n to the problem Motivational frame: the movement organization frames a "call to arms" by suggest ing and encouraging that people take action to solve the problem [edit]New Social Movement theories See Wikipedia's page on NSM theories. "Like a picture frame. etc. 14) [30] A few things we know about injustice frames:[30] Facts take on their meaning by being embedded in frames. Successful reframing involves the ability to enter into the worldview of our adv ersaries. We do not see the frame directly. culture theory also addresses the free-rider problem. images. he can avoid participation in the movement." (p. Both resource-mobilization theory and political process theory include a sense o f injustice in their approaches. it attempts to address the free-rider problem. An injustice frame is a collection of ideas and symbols that illustrate both how significant the problem is as well as what the movement can do to alleviate it. save his resources. in order for social moveme nts to successfully mobilize individuals. if person X knows that movement Y is working to impr ove environmental conditions in his neighborhood. Culture theory argues that.g. First. and still reap the benefits .what consequences and values are at stake.this is free-riding. A significant problem for social moveme nt theory has been to explain why people join movements if they believe the move ment can/will succeed without their contribution. and arguments.) if they can still receive the benefits without par ticipating. they must develop an injustice frame. All frames contain implicit or explicit appeals to moral principles. which render them relev ant and significant or irrelevant and trivial. In other words. in conjunction with social networks being an important contact tool. it holds things together. Culture theory brings this sense of injustice t o the forefront of movement creation by arguing that. Each frame gives the advantage to certain ways of talking and thinking. The free-rider problem refers to the idea that people will not be moti vated to participate in a social movement that will use up their personal resour ces (e. it emphasizes the importance of mo vement culture. Second. If he believes the movement will succeed without him. In emphasizing the injustice frame. Like a b uilding frame.

1st ed. 2008. Appeasing the Gods. 2008. John E. just studying social problems would make them go away. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. The average graduating sociology major is a young female (early 20s) who is whit e and single. Third Edition. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. 2008).[31] By the time they graduate. Electronic Journal of Sociology. Anchor. Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. Visceral Verstehen.. 90% of sociology majors report understanding the basi c concepts of the discipline (e. you might be wondering: What can you do with a degree in sociology? In an ideal world. ? Tierney. This page draws heavily on the following Wikipedia articles: social movement [edit]External Links [edit]Being a Sociologist [edit]Introduction Now that you know what sociologists study. Peter L. ? Glass.. 1963. and nearly that many (75%) are white. American Scientists. Only 7% of sociology majors choose the discipline because it appears easy. among o thers. 1st ed. Free Press. Religion Explained. and the Politics of the Military.g. USA. In other words. Basic Books. Inc. 40th ed. W. ? Berger. 1997. ? Civettini. 2002.php (Accessed August 17. Donileen R. Cavendish. 2001. Wright. But. ? Putnam. Sage Publications. Lincoln. 1978.. ? Denzin. 2001.. Less than half of the parents of sociol ogy majors have baccalaureate degrees of their own. ? Boyer. Springer. Almost 80% of students graduating with sociology degrees are femal e. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber. John. there is no particular "personality type " among sociology majors. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. social stratification.[31] Many sociology majors choose the major because they found their first exposure t o the discipline engaging (usually through an introductory course). ? Loseke. So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362.Joining Movements [edit]References ? Moore. Nicole H. Disrupting Science: Social Movements. ? Dilthey.. [edit]Sociology Majors Despite the many tests that suggest otherwise.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. With Insurance. Simon & Schuster. we don't live in an ideal world and there is far more to do than just study social life with a degree in Sociology. The Sociological Imagination.[32] Thus. Gender & Society 22:172-193. 2000. C. has looked into this question and have some pretty intriguing answers. sociology majors find the discipline exciting and challenging and generally enjoy studying sociology. there is no correlation between p ersonality and career choice. and James C. social structure.iht. The International Heral d Tribune. Norman K. alas. 2007. 1945-1975. Max. Princeton University Press. as you've learned from reading this book. Oxford Univ ersity Press. Robert D.[31 ] What follows is a brief explanation of what you can do with a degree in Sociol ogy. 1st ed. 2008. Kelly. etc . and Yvonna S. Pascal. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. Most sociolo gy majors chose the discipline because they found the concepts discussed in thei r course interesting. and Jennifer Glass. May 7 http://www. W. and relatively few (5%) choose it because the major they wanted was unavailable. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics. The American Sociological Association. ? a b Mills. 2005.

the ability to create concise r eports and essays. both of which are addressed using the sociological imagination. College graduates trained in sociology bring unique and va luable insights into business decisions concerning issues surrounding race. etc. This drive to understand consumers is called consumer research an d is a growing interest of corporations. and using statistical software (though slightly l ess than 50% feel confident in their ability to use statistical software). [31] [edit]Bachelor's Degree Occupations What can you do with a Baccalaureate degree in Sociology? While it may not seem like it when you are deep into studying race relations or gender stratification. Most are also satisfied with the quality of teaching.[33] For t hose planning on getting jobs. the acc essibility to technology and faculty. Site selection requires understanding human ecology and consumer spending patterns. using computers to develop reference lists. government. and plannin g and organizational skills. or the determinat ion of the best locations for new stores. and training.[33] To give a specific example. Most graduating seniors (around 72%) plan on getting a job right out of college. h uman resource management.[34] College graduates trained in sociology bring many skills to their jobs. Sociology majors are particularly wellsuited for this type of research as the ultimate goal of empirical sociological research is to predict human behavior.). ethn icity.g. evaluating different re search methods.). oral presentation skills. Around 40% plan on going on to graduate school (these paths aren't mutually exc lusive of course. hospitals.[37] This particular niche may be the sing le largest opportunity for sociologists in the corporate world.[33] Some additional direct applications of sociolo gy include concept and product testing (which will put to good use training in r esearch methods). There are a numb er of institutions where sociologists find employment.[35] All of these skills are potentially invaluable contributions to workplaces. Sociology majors feel con fident in the following skills as a result of their degree: identifying ethical issues in research. interpreting the results of data analysis. for ming causal hypothesis. their interaction with other majors. public relations. skills in data collection and analysis using statistical software. Most also grasp the differences in the theoretical paradigms of sociology (e .[33] Corporations want and need to under stand their customers' habits and preferences in order to anticipate changes in their markets.[31] Sociology majors are generally satisfied overall with their experience earning a sociology degree. and social service agencies. Unfortunately..[36] [edit]The Corporate World Some sociologists find the adaptation of their sociological training and insight s to the business world relatively easy. development. all of the following are career paths sociology m ajors are well-suited for: organizational planning.. corporations. strong critical thinking skills. includin g: the ability to recognize trends and patterns. writing reports that are understandable by non-sociologists. conflict theory. and international business. education.[34] Practices like these may seem prag matic to the managers of these stores. structural functionalism. long-range planning and forecasting ( which draws on both statistics and futurist perspectives).[33] Another budding area in modern retail firms is site selection. industrial relations. marketing. org anizational research. grant writing skills. st rong interpersonal communication skills. and social class. but they also alienate consumers. you can work while going to graduate school). gender. including: schools. marketing and adverti . the training you receive as a sociology major is actually quite applicable outs ide academia as well. churc hes. the evaluating of global market opportunities (which will draw upon understandings of various cultures). and g etting the courses they need to graduate. a sociology major could help a company like CVS realize the problem with taggin g hair care items for African Americans with anti-theft measures while not doing the same for hair care items for whites. age. most students (between 80% and 92%) are dissatisfied with the information provided on graduate school a nd career opportunities (hopefully this brief chapter will help fill this void). management skills. developing evidence-based arguments.

[41] The second limiting factors is that many people do not know w hat sociologists are trained to do. Two factors seems to limit the occupational prospects of sociologists: The first limiting factor is their own imagination.g. In 2001.[38] As noted above. etc. non-governmental organizations.sing (which applies consumer studies directly). MA and related areas 11. like content analysis. Examples of NGOs include Oxfam. from studying how physicists do their work [40] to uni on organizing. sociology majors had a 42% a cceptance rate into medical school.8 Marketing/Business Administration 3.3 Communication 2. from poverty to gende r stratification to world population growth. and Lutheran World Relief.0 Criminology 7. Graduate training in Sociology includes a greater emphasis on research methodology and statistics.[38] [edit]Non-Governmental Organizations Non-Governmental Organizations (or NGOs) are legally constituted organizations c reated by private persons or organizations with no participation or representati on of any government.6 Masters in Social Work 11.. CARE International. but it also means you will be much better qualified for th ese types of jobs.9 Applied Sociology.7 Doctorate in Sociology 5. This should only be a limiting factor up unt il they meet a sociology major! [edit]PhD Degree Occupations What can you do with a PhD in Sociology? A PhD in Sociology prepares an individu al for a variety of career options..6 Counseling/Psychology 14. Sociology majo rs can carry the sociological imagination into medical practice. NGOs are ideal opportunities for so ciology majors to apply what they have learned in college. There is also evidence to suggest that sociology graduates who use their sociological training in their jobs post graduation are more satisfied with their jobs. medical school and law school) do not. the table to the right breaks down the most frequently chosen fields of study for sociology majors: Many professional degree programs (e.g.). Additionally.2 One way to situate yourself well for the corporate world after earning your Bach elor's degree in Sociology would be to double major in Sociology and Business or minor in Business. a degree in Sociology provides you with skills that many other college graduates lack. It also often includes training in qualita tive research methods. require someone to have a specific undergraduate degree.9 Public Affairs/Public Policy 3.7 Medical/Nursing 4. including all of those mentioned above for s omeone with a Bachelor's Degree in Sociology (e. Another key to succeeding in the corporate world with a degree in Sociology is to market your specific skill set. marketing.1 Other 1. [edit]Continuing Your Education For those planning on continuing their education.[39] Sociology majors should view their undergraduate education as opening doors for them into many possible fields of work and study. Many NGOs are concerned with the very social problems and social issues sociologists study. Catholic Relief Services. in fact. and human resource management (w hich relies on studies of organizational behavior). The sociological imagination is applicable to almost every occupati on and field of research. This would give you the credentials that hiring departments in the business world are looking for while simultaneously allowing you to focus on Sociology. Emph asizing those skills on your resumes and in job interviews increases the odds of you being hired and you using those skills in your job. offering sociol ogical insights while practicing medicine.[33] Future Educational Plans of Graduating Sociology Majors[31] Field of Study % Education 22.3 Law Degree 11. graduate training in .

Pascal. In contrast. Oxford Univ ersity Press. Sociology PhDs by Employment Sector in 2003[42] Employment Sector % Educational Institutions 74. With Insurance. Wright. Basic Books.844 to full professor earnings of $87. 1st ed. 1st ed. one-fourth o f PhD sociologists work outside academia. ? Dilthey.4 All of this additional training will prepare a PhD in Sociology for advanced car eers in fields as diverse as corporate marketing and statistical forecasting to community organizing and lobbying. 1945-1975. 1997. A PhD in quantitative research and demography could lead to a career at the Census Bureau or the World Bank. retired strategist and researcher at Walgreen Co.9 Self-Employed and Other 3. Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. there are both tenure and non-tenure track jobs . research u niversities .typica lly four-year liberal arts colleges . Depending on the type of university or college wher e one works. the average sociology faculty salary was $68.5 Private Industry . 2001. ranging from assistant profe ssors making $53. Springer. 40th ed. The Theory Of Social And Economic Organization. This may be due to the fact that Sociologists are often engaged in trying to remedy social ills. 2002. 1st ed. which is usually teaching on a contract basis. According to data compiled in ASA s 2007 Beyond the Ivory Tower report. works for the NGO American Council for an Energy-Effici ent Economy (ACEEE) http://www.asanet. Disrupting Science: Social Movements. 1963. Robert D. ? Boyer. Visceral Verstehen.6 Private Industry .asane t. John. The Sociological Imagination. and the Politics of the Military.focus on teaching. . working at a college or university. The format of graduate training may also diffe r as many of the classes are designed as a seminar rather than a lecture-oriente d class . American Scientists. 2008. Some colleges .cludes much more in depth analysis and discussion of many of the topics discusse d in your undergraduate training. ISBN 0385065299 ? Weber. Simon & Schuster. 2000. Sociology is one of the top-ten highest-paying rar e jobs in the United States and is generally rated as one of the most satisfying occupations. C. Max. Religion Explained.938. ? Glass. 1978. Anchor. Appeasing the Gods.Not-For-Profit 8.iht. Peter L. the job description will vary substantially. Electronic Journal of Sociology.org/footnotes/feb08/fn1.students will come to class meetings having read the assigned readings and then discuss them under the supervision of a professor. Princeton University Press. as of April 2008 . 2005.3 Government 6. Kelly. The International Heral d Tribune. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Co mmunity. what your jo b description would be as an academic sociologist could range from a heavy empha sis on teaching undergraduates to a heavy emphasis on teaching graduate students . ? Putnam. According to Forbes magazine. ? Tierney.For-Profit 6.focus on research.com/articles/2008/05/07/healthscience/06tier. W.which include PhD programs . ? Berger. USA. Adjunct instructing is another option. ? a b Mills. which can be a very satisfying life pursuit.857. John E. [edit]Personal Experiences of Individuals With Degrees in Sociology Joe Mercurio. 2008). Another obvious occupation one can pursue is as an academic sociologist. In both types of institutions. Descriptive Psychology and Historical Understanding.php (Accessed August 17. 2008. Thus.org/footnotes/feb08/fn6. May 7 http://www. Free Press.html Karen Ehrhardt-Martinez.html [edit]References ? Moore. Tenure refers to a lifetime appointment and carries with it a contractual righ t not to have the position terminated without just cause. http://www. Of those in academia.

So cial Psychology Quarterly 64:347-362. Inc. Lecture 2 in a series of 9. The Impact of Religious Cons ervativism on Men's Work and Family Involvement. 2007 Lecture Theory Yes Alamo Bay a despondent Vietnam veteran in danger of losing his livelihood is pushed to the edge when he sees Vietnamese immigrants moving into the fishing industry in a Texas bay town 1985 Fiction Ethnicity Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1850). Collecting and Interpreting Qu alitative Materials. 2001. Lecture 1 in a series of 9. 1000-2000 by Alan Macfarlane recorded lecture on soci al theories. Lincoln. Gender & Society 22:172-193. by Alan Macfarlane recorded lecture on de Montesquieu. 1998 Fiction Race An Inconvenient Truth an American documentary film about global warming by Al Gore.. 2008... Norman K. 2007 Lecture Theory Yes Black Like Me describes Griffin's a six-week experience of a white man disguis ed as a black man traveling throughout the racially segregated states of Louisia na. and Jennifer Glass.S. 2007 Lecture Theory Yes A Passage to India Indian independence from Great Britain and ethnic relati ons 1984 Fiction Ethnicity A Raisin in the Sun depicts a black family trying to move out of their run-d own tenement apartment and into a white neighborhood 1961 Fiction Race A World Apart South African apartheid 1988 Fiction Race Adam Smith (1733-1790). W. by Alan Macfarlane recorded lecture on Smith. and James C.examining topics in the field of sociology. by Alan Macfarlane recorded lecture on de T ocqueville. [edit]External Links jobs at the US Census Bureau jobs at the World Bank [edit]Sociological Videos The following are videos . ? Loseke. Divided into 4 sections. Cavendish. Donileen R. Producing Institutional Selv es: Rhetorically Constructing the Dignity of Sexually Marginalized Catholics.? Denzin. post WWII 1954 Fiction Race The Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755). ap prox. Mississippi. transatlantic differences. 2007. 2007 Lecture Theory Yes Al Qaeda's new front FRONTLINE documentary on Al Qaeda's evolution: Madrid bo mbings. Nicole H.including fiction movies. Title Description Year Type Topic Online A Class Divided documents Jane Elliott's classroom experiment illustrating discr imination using eye colors 1985 non-Fiction Discrimination Yes A Dry White Season South African apartheid 1989 Fiction Race A map of social theories. non-fiction documentaries a nd recorded lectures . 2006 Non-Fiction Ecology Angels & Insects movie about incest and the incest taboo 1996 Fiction Sexuality Avalon (1990 film) tells the story of a family of Eastern European Jews who immigrate to the United States 1990 Fiction Migration Bad Day at Black Rock illustrates racism and discrimination in a small town in the U. Lectu re 3 in a series of 9. Al Qaeda Yes Amar Te Duele a variation of the Romeo and Juliet theme with the twist of soci al class differences between the families 2002 Fiction Economic Stratif ication American History X racism in the U. Lecture 4 in a series of 9. Sage Publications. and Yvonna S.. ideological base. Third Edition. ? Civettini. Alabama and Georgia in the 1950s 1964 Fiction Race The Blonde and I a short film illustrating the basic concepts of Durkheim 's "Suicide" 2009 Fiction Theory Yes & Yes Blue Eyed documents Jane Elliott's classroom experiment illustrating discr imination using eye colors 1996 non-Fiction Discrimination Bopha! depicts the life of a black police officer in South Africa during the ap artheid era 1994 Fiction Race . 1h total ? non-Fiction terrorism.S.

one white and one black. New York. both educationally and financially 2002 Non-Fiction Economic Stratification Yes Cry. The a motion picture based on the book The Diary of a Young Girl describing the life of Anne Frank while in hiding for two years wit h her family during the Nazi occupation of The Netherlands 1959 Fiction Ethnicity Digital Nomads The results of an experiment to share the experiences of people devoted to endless digital communication are presented as online videos by The E conomist. The The film is about a group of upper middl e-class people attempting to dine together 1973 Fiction Economic Stratif ication Do the Right Thing The film tells a tale of bigotry and racial conflict in a multi-ethnic community in the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn.05:25. 2003 Fiction Migration Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie. on the hottest day of the year 1989 Fiction Race Double Happiness tells the story of an artistic young woman struggling to assert her independence from the expectations of her Chinese Canadian family 1994 Fiction Gender Educating Rita an English working-class girl wants to better herself by studyin g literature 1983 Fiction Economic Stratification . citizens of Japanese desce nt following the attack on Pearl Harbor.Born Yesterday tells the story of a corrupt tycoon with a underclass girlfriend who requires re-education to be a member of the upper class 1958 Fiction Economic Stratification Boys Don t Cry based on the true story of a young transman who was raped and mu rdered in 1993 by his male friends after they found out he had female genitalia 1999 Fiction Sexuality Braveheart ethnic discrimination and stratification 1995 Fiction Ethnicity Bread and Roses deals with the struggle of poorly paid janitorial workers in Los Angeles and their fight for better working conditions and the right to unionize 2000 Fiction Unionizing Brokeback Mountain tells the story of two gay cowboys who hide their relati onship because it is not accepted by those around them 2005 Fiction Sexualit y Come Back.K. Africa tells the story of a migrant worker in apartheid South A frica who does not have a work permit and as such is open to exploitation.S. who must co-operate in order to survive 1958 Fiction Race Diary of Anne Frank. Two vidoes: Jonathan Schwartz . Jan Chipchase .09:18 2008 Non-Fiction Communication. the Beloved Country South African apartheid and race relations 1951 Fiction Race Cry. the Beloved Country South African apartheid and race relations 1995 Fiction Race Cry Freedom depicts a charismatic South African Black Consciousness Movement leader in apartheid South Africa and the liberal white editor of a newspaper wh o exposes police complicity in the death of the movement leader 1987 Fiction Race Darwin's Nightmare documents the exploitation of fishing resources in Afric a by European businesses and consumers 2004 non-Fiction Globalization Defiant Ones. Internet Yes Dirty Pretty Things depicts the lives of two illegal immigrants in the U. arbit rary dismissal and sudden arrest 1959 Fiction Race Come See the Paradise depicts the treatment of U. and the subsequent loss of civil libert ies within the framework of a love story 1990 Fiction Ethnicity Conrack follows a young teacher assigned to an isolated island off the coast of South Carolina populated mostly by poor black families who have been isolated fr om the rest of the world 1974 Fiction Race Country Boys follows two young men in rural Kentucky in the early 2000s growi ng up with serious disadvantages. The tells the story of two escaped prisoners who are shackle d together.

Maitland (1850-1906). Le cture 6 in a series of 9. 1988 Fiction Economic Systems Hollywood Shuffle depicts the stereotyping of African Americans in both fi lm and television 1987 Fiction Race Home of the Brave A paralyzed African-American war veteran begins to walk again only when he confronts his fear of being an "outsider" and minority 1949 Fiction Race Holy Innocents poverty in Spain in the 1960s 1984 Fiction Economic Stratif ication How Tasty Was My Little Frenchman tells the story of a Frenchman captured by Brazilian natives who adopt him but constantly threaten to eat him 1971 Fiction Culture Intruder in the Dust deals with the trial of a black farmer accused of murder ing a white man in the 1940s. by Alan Macfarlane recorded lecture on Durkheim. ethnic relations 1982 non-Fict ion Social Movements Garden of the Finzi-Continis.K. by Jean Kilbourne A documentary about advertising's image .S. 2007 Lecture Theory Yes El Norte depicts Guatemalan peasants and migrants 1983 Fiction Migration El Super looks at life in the U. deals with complex contemporary issues such as race.Os Caminhos da Liberdade depicts the struggles of Japanese immigr ants who traveled to and settled in Brazil looking for a better life 1980 Fiction Migration Gandhi non-violent social activism. from the perspective of frustrated Cub an exiles 1978 Fiction Migration Emigrants. Le cture 9 in a series of 9. The chronicles the relationships between the narrator. by Alan Macfarlane recorded lecture on Marx. The tells the story of a Swedish group who emigrate to the U. and class 2002 Fiction Sexualit y F. an Italian Jew. Lectur e 5 in a series of 9. 2007 Lecture Theory Yes Ethnic Notions traces deep-rooted stereotypes which have fueled anti-black prej udice 1988 non-Fiction Race Europa Europa Antisemitism in Germany 1990 Fiction Ethnicity Far From Heaven tells the story of a 1950s housewife living in suburban Hartford as she sees her seemingly perfect life begin to fall apart.Emile Durkheim (1858-1917). and the children of the Finzi-Contini family from the rise of Mussolini until the start of World War II 1970 Fiction Ethnicit y Gentleman s Agreement describes the efforts of a journalist who falsely repres ents himself as a Jew to research antisemitism in New York City in the 1940s 1947 Fiction Ethnicity Guess Who s Coming to Dinner tells the story of an upper class white woman wh o becomes engaged to a black doctor then brings him home to meet her parents 1967 Fiction Race Hester Street Hester Street tells the story of Jewish immigrants who come to t he Lower East side of New York City in 1896 from Europe 1975 Fiction Migratio n High Hopes pro-socialism in the U. religion. 2007 Lecture Theory Yes Gaijin . in t he 19th century 1971 Fiction Migration Ernest Gellner (1925-1995).W. Lec ture 8 in a series of 9. 2007 Lecture Theory Yes Killing Us Softly 3. by Alan Macfarlane recorded lecture on Maitland.S. by Alan Macfarlane recorded lecture on Gellner. sexuality. he is cleared through the efforts of black and whi te teenagers and a spinster from a long-established southern family 1949 Fiction Race Is Wal-Mart Good for America? Documentary on Wal-Mart 2005 Non-Fiction Economy Yes Jungle Fever centers on the interracial romance between a successful married African American architect and an Italian-American woman 1991 Fiction Race Karl Marx (1818-1883).

mixed-race Aboriginal girl s who run away from a white settlement in order to return to their Aboriginal fa milies 2002 Fiction Ethnicity Race and Sex . 35m 1999 Non-fiction Gender Yes Live Nude Girls Unite! documents the efforts of strippers in San Francisco to u nionize 2000 non-Fiction Unionizing Yes Losing Isaiah black motherhood. Studyguide.K. in the 1950s 1958 Fiction Economic Stratification Roots tells the story of a young African sold into slavery in the 1700s in the U. pa rticularly related to race and gender. The Barry Schwartz is a sociology pr ofessor at Swarthmore College and author of The Paradox of Choice. a programme by which Jesuit missi onaries set up missions independent of the Spanish state to teach Christianity t o the natives 1986 Fiction Culture Mississippi Burning racism in the U.S.S. ABCNews production? 2002 Non-Fict ion Gender and Race Room at the Top reflects social class issues in the U. 2005 non-Fiction Corporations Metropolitan haute bourgeoisie culture of New York City 1990 Fiction Economic Stratification Mission.S. 1977 Fiction Race Roots: The Next Generation continues the story of the African slave in Root s to his eventual descendant.S. by Alan Macfarlane recorded lecture on Weber. 1995 Fiction Race Paradox of Choice: Why More is Less.of women. he explains how and why the abundance of choice in modern society is actually m aking us miserable (20m) 2008 lecture Yes Philadelphia tells the story of a Senior Associate at a large corporate law f irm in Philadelphia who attempts to hides his homosexuality and his status as an AIDS patient from the other members of the law firm 1993 Fiction Sexualit y Pygmalion tells the story of Cockney flower girl becoming a refined societ y lady as a result of a bet 1938 Fiction Economic Stratification Quilombo depicts the conquest of a Brazilian tribe 1983 Fiction Ethnicity Rabbit-Proof Fence tells the story of two young. The satire of the French upper classes prior to WWII 1939 Fiction Economic Stratification Salaam Bombay! kids in poverty in Mumbai 1988 Fiction Economic Stratif . in the 1960s 1964 Fiction Race Panther Black Panthers in the U. custody issues. Lectu re 7 in a series of 9. 1988 Fiction Race Mississippi Masala inter-racial and inter-ethnic marriage as well as cultur al diversity 1991 Fiction Race Moscow on the Hudson depicts a Russian circus musician who defects from the S oviet Union while on a visit to the United States and finds that living in Ameri ca isn't as easy as he thought 1984 Fiction Politics My Beautiful Laundrette ethnic relations in London 1985 Fiction Ethnicit y My Family/Mi Familia tracks three generations of a Mexican-American family th at emigrated from Mexico and settled in East Los Angeles 1995 Fiction Migration No Way Out depicts an African American doctor tending to slum residents who se ethics are put to the test when confronted with blind racism in patients and community members 1950 Fiction Race Nothing But a Man race relations in the U. Alex Haley 1979 Fiction Race Rules of the Game.K. In this talk. and drug addiction 1995 Fiction Race Mandela documentary of the life of Nelson Mandela 1987 non-Fiction Race Max Weber (1864-1920). The depicts the Jesuit Reductions. 2007 Lecture Theory Yes McLibel documents the McDonald's Restaurants v Morris & Steel case in the U.What We Think But Can't Say A documentary on stereotypes.

S. The interracial marriage in the U. 1983 Fiction Economic Stratif ication Up Series documents the lives of a dozen or so children over the course of nearly 50 years in the U.com/index. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life . h is plan backfires when his parents arrive in America to plan his wedding banquet 1993 Fiction Sexuality White Man s Burden race in the U. War in Iraq Yes To Kill a Mockingbird tells the story of the trial of a black man on trial in the South for rape 1962 Fiction Race Traces of the Trade: A Story from the Deep North tells the story of filmm aker Katrina Browne and nine cousins who discover that their New England ancesto rs were the largest slave-trading family in U. 45m tota l ? non-Fiction psychological breakdown. history.. approx. 1995 Fiction Race Zebrahead describes an interracial romance between a white man and a black woman and the resulting tensions among the characters 1992 Fiction Race A new website with video clips in Sociology.K.14. The thematic exploration of suburban America. Working World: The Eco nomy and Work The Tank Man FRONTLINE documentary on the Tiananmen Square Massacre.thesociologicalcinema. They retrace the Trian gle Trade and gain a powerful new perspective on the black/white divide. als o asserted that there are social facts . The Sociological Cinema. 1996 Fiction Race Shaka Zulu tells the story of Shaka. ? non-Fiction Economy (and other offline) Partial: Chapter 14 . 1998 Fiction Race Wedding Banquet. Auguste 1798-1857 positivism coined the term "Sociology". Émile 1858-1917 structural functionalism. king of the Zulu nation from 1816 to 1 828 1986 Fiction Culture The Social Construction of Reality a short film illustrating some of the id eas in Berger and Luckmann's "The Social Construction of Reality 2009 Fiction Theory Yes & Yes Stand and Deliver education in predominantly minority schools 1988 Fiction Education Swimmer. based on the modern War in Iraq.S. developed the Law of three stages Durkheim. fou nder of positivism. has some v ideo clips available as well: http://www. especially the relatio nship between wealth and happiness 1968 Fiction Economic Stratification The Way We Live: Introduction to Sociology Advertised as "a comprehensive i ntroduction to Sociology on 22 half-hour videos". information control in China and so on. informat ion Yes (RM stream may be broken.ication Sammy and Rosie Get Laid poverty and homelessness in the U. 1h 40m total ? non-Fiction China. solidarism well-kno wn for several books. to illustrate the effects of social class on life o utcomes 1964-2000 non-Fiction Economic Stratification Wedding. The tells the story of a gay Taiwanese immigrant man who mar ries a mainland Chinese woman to placate his parents and get her a green card.S. impact of warfare. 2008 non-Fiction Race Trading Places social class in the U.S. repressions.K. started the first journal of sociology. switch to WMP stream) The Soldier's Heart FRONTLINE documentary on the psychological impact of war fare.K.html [edit]Famous Sociologists Sociologist Time Period School of Thought Most Well-Known Contribu tion Comte. resistance. Divided into 6 sections. The Tank man. also deals with ethnicity and sexuality 1987 Fiction Economic Stratification Schindler s List tells the story of Oskar Schindler a German businessman who save d the lives of over one thousand Polish Jews during the Holocaust 1993 Fiction Ethnicity Secrets & Lies race issues in the U. Divided into 4 sections. The Division of Labour in Society. approx. including: Suicide.

. Talcott 1902-1979 structural functionalism formaliz ed the theory of structural functionalism Garfinkel. at 03:29. George Herbert 1863-1931 symbolic interactionism developed symbol ic interactionism Weber. Erving 1922-1982 symbolic interactionism most well-known for his ideas involving dramaturgy and his books Stigma and The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life Bourdieu.0 license. Karl 1818-1883 socialism. Reliability: Completeness: Neutrality: Presentation: Log in / create accountBookDiscussionReadEditView history Main Page Help Browse Cookbook Wikijunior Featured books Recent changes Donations Random book Community Reading room Community portal Bulletin Board Help out! Policies and guidelines Contact us Toolbox In other languages Deutsch Svenska Sister projects Print/export This page was last modified on 8 December 2011. Charles Horton 1864-1929 symbolic interactionism most well-known for his concept of the looking-glass self Mead. Georg 1858-1918 most well-known for his work on social s tructure and life in large cities Veblen. Harold 1917. Pierre 1930-2002 most well-known for his cultural capital and habitus [edit]License This work is made available under the terms of the Creative Commons AttributionShareAlike 3. coined the ph rase "survival of the fittest" Simmel. applied Darwinian evolution to social life. advocated socialism. Categories: Introduction to SociologyFamily What do you think of this page? Please take a moment to rate this page below. in cluding The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Parsons. Your feedback is valuable and help s us improve our website. Max 1864-1920 verstehen well known for several books. conflict theory explained the or igins and functioning of Capitalism.Marx.ethnomethodology developed the methodolog ical and theoretical approach of ethnomethodology Goffman. Thorstein 1857-1929 most well-known for his book The Theory of the Leisure Class Cooley. Herbert 1820-1903 social darwinism created a length y volume on sociology. argued that the histor y of all societies is rooted in class conflict Spencer.

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