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Good leaders are made not born.

If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience (Jago, 1982). This guide will help you through that process. To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are NOT resting on their laurels.

While leadership is learned, the skills and knowledge processed by the leader can be influenced by his or hers attributes or traits, such as beliefs, values, ethics, and character. Knowledge and skills contribute directly to the process of leadership, while the other attributes give the leader certain characteristics that make him or her unique.

Strategic Leadership Strategic leadership requires the potential to foresee and comprehend the work environment. It requires objectivity and potential to look at the broader picture. A few main traits / characteristics / features / qualities of effective strategic leaders that do lead to superior performance are as follows: Loyalty- Powerful and effective leaders demonstrate their loyalty to their vision by their words and actions.

Keeping them updated- Efficient and effective leaders keep themselves updated about what is happening within their organization. They have various formal and informal sources of information in the organization.

Judicious use of power- Strategic leaders makes a very wise use of their power. They must play the power game skillfully and try to develop consent for their ideas rather than forcing their ideas upon others. They must push their ideas gradually.

Have wider perspective/outlook- Strategic leaders just dont have skills in their narrow specialty but they have a little knowledge about a lot of things.

Motivation- Strategic leaders must have a zeal for work that goes beyond money and power and also they should have an inclination to achieve goals with energy and determination.

Compassion- Strategic leaders must understand the views and feelings of their subordinates, and make decisions after considering them.

Self-control- Strategic leaders must have the potential to control distracting/disturbing moods and desires, i.e., they must think before acting.

Social skills- Strategic leaders must be friendly and social.

Self-awareness- Strategic leaders must have the potential to understand their own moods and emotions, as well as their impact on others.

Readiness to delegate and authorize- Effective leaders are proficient at delegation. They are well aware of the fact that delegation will avoid overloading of responsibilities on the leaders. They also recognize the fact that authorizing the subordinates to make decisions will motivate them a lot.

Articulacy- Strong leaders are articulate enough to communicate the vision(vision of where the organization should head) to the organizational members in terms that boost those members.

Constancy/ Reliability- Strategic leaders constantly convey their vision until it becomes a component of organizational culture.

Cause of Four Factors of Leadership There are four major factors in leadership (U.S. Army, 1983):

Leader You must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do. Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader or someone else who determines if the leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed. Followers Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. You must know your people! The fundamental

starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must come to know your employees' be, know, and do attributes. Communication You lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. For instance, when you set the example, that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees. Situation All situations are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective. Also note that the situation normally has a greater effect on a leader's action than his or her traits. This is because while traits may have an impressive stability over a period of time, they have little consistency across situations (Mischel, 1968). This is why a number of leadership scholars think the Process Theory of Leadership is a more accurate than the Trait Theory of Leadership. Various forces will affect these four factors. Examples of forces are your relationship with your seniors, the skill of your followers, the informal leaders within your organization, and how your organization is organized. The Two Most Important Keys to Effective Leadership According to a study by the Hay Group, a global management consultancy, there are 75 key components of employee satisfaction (Lamb, McKee, 2004). They found that:

Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization. Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence: 1. Helping employees understand the company's overall business strategy. 2. Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives. 3. Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee's own division is doing relative to strategic business objectives. Principles of Leadership

To help you be, know, and do, follow these eleven principles of leadership (U.S. Army, 1983). The later chapters in thisLeadership guide expand on these principles and provide tools for implementing them: 1. Know yourself and seek self-improvement - In order to know yourself, you have to understand your be, know, and do, attributes. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through self-study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others. 2. Be technically proficient - As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees' tasks. 3. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions - Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, they always do sooner or later do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge. 4. Make sound and timely decisions - Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools. 5. Set the example - Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see - Mahatma Gandhi

6. Know your people and look out for their well-being Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers. 7. Keep your workers informed - Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other key people. 8. Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities. 9. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished - Communication is the key to this responsibility. 10. Train as a team - Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not really teams...they are just a group of people doing their jobs. 11. Use the full capabilities of your organization - By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities. Attributes of Leadership If you are a leader who can be trusted, then those around you will grow to respect you. To be such a leader, there is aLeadership Framework to guide you: BE KNOW DO BE a professional. Examples: Be loyal to the organization, perform selfless service, take personal responsibility. BE a professional who possess good character traits. Examples: Honesty, competence, candor, commitment, integrity, courage, straightforwardness, imagination. KNOW the four factors of leadership follower, leader, communication, situation.

KNOW yourself. Examples: strengths and weakness of your character, knowledge, and skills. KNOW human nature. Examples: Human needs, emotions, and how people respond to stress. KNOW your job. Examples: be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks. KNOW your organization. Examples: where to go for help, its climate and culture, who the unofficial leaders are. DO provide direction. Examples: goal setting, problem solving, decision making, planning. DO implement. Examples: communicating, coordinating, supervising, evaluating. DO motivate. Examples: develop morale and esprit de corps in the organization, train, coach, counsel. Environment Every organization has a particular work environment, which dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders respond to problems and opportunities. This is brought about by its heritage of past leaders and its present leaders. Goals, Values, and Concepts Leaders exert influence on the environment via three types of actions: 1.The goals and performance standards they establish. Successful organizations have leaders who set high standards and goals across the entire spectrum, such as strategies, market leadership, plans, meetings and presentations, productivity, quality, and reliability.

2.The values they establish for the organization. Values reflect the concern the organization has for its employees, customers, investors, vendors, and surrounding community. These values define the manner in how business will be conducted. 3.The business and people concepts they establish. Concepts define what products or services the organization will offer and the methods and processes for conducting business. These goals, values, and concepts make up the organization's personality or how the organization is observed by both outsiders and insiders. This personality defines the roles, relationships, rewards, and rites that take place. Roles ad Relationships Roles are the positions that are defined by a set of expectations about behavior of any job incumbent. Each role has a set of tasks and responsibilities that may or may not be spelled out. Roles have a powerful effect on behavior for several reasons, to include money being paid for the performance of the role, there is prestige attached to a role, and a sense of accomplishment or challenge. Relationships are determined by a role's tasks. While some tasks are performed alone, most are carried out in relationship with others. The tasks will determine who the role-holder is required to interact with, how often, and towards what end. Also, normally the greater the interaction, the greater the liking. This in turn leads to more frequent interaction. In human behavior, its hard to like someone whom we have no contact with, and we tend to seek out those we like. People tend to do what they are rewarded for, and friendship is a powerful reward. Many tasks and behaviors that are associated with a role are brought about by these relationships. That is, new task and behaviors are expected of the present role-holder because a strong relationship was developed in the past, either by that role-holder or a prior role-holder. Culture and Climate

There are two distinct forces that dictate how to act within an organization: culture and climate. Each organization has its own distinctive culture. It is a combination of the founders, past leadership, current leadership, crises, events, history, and size (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). This results in rites: the routines, rituals, and the way we do things. These rites impact individual behavior on what it takes to be in good standing (the norm) and directs the appropriate behavior for each circumstance. The climate is the feel of the organization, the individual and shared perceptions and attitudes of the organization's members (Ivancevich, Konopaske, Matteson, 2007). While the culture is the deeply rooted nature of the organization that is a result of long-held formal and informal systems, rules, traditions, and customs; climate is a short-term phenomenon created by the current leadership. Climate represents the beliefs about the feel of the organization by its members. This individual perception of the feel of the organization comes from what the people believe about the activities that occur in the organization. These activities influence both individual and team motivation and satisfaction, such as:
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How well does the leader clarify the priorities and goals of the organization? What is expected of us? What is the system of recognition, rewards, and punishments in the organization? How competent are the leaders? Are leaders free to make decisions? What will happen if I make a mistake?

Organizational climate is directly related to the leadership and management style of the leader, based on the values, attributes, skills, and actions, as well as the priorities of the leader. Compare this to ethical climate the feel of the organization about the activities that have ethical content or those aspects of the work environment that constitute ethical behavior. The ethical climate is the feel about whether we do things right; or the feel of whether we behave the way we ought to behave. The behavior (character) of the leader is the most important factor that impacts the climate. On the other hand, culture is a long-term, complex phenomenon. Culture represents the shared expectations and self-image of the organization. The

mature values that create tradition or the way we do things here. Things are done differently in every organization. The collective vision and common folklore that define the institution are a reflection of culture. Individual leaders, cannot easily create or change culture because culture is a part of the organization. Culture influences the characteristics of the climate by its effect on the actions and thought processes of the leader. But, everything you do as a leader will affect the climate of the organization. For information on culture, see Long-Term Short-Term Orientation The Process of Great Leadership The road to great leadership (Kouzes & Posner, 1987) that is common to successful leaders:
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Challenge the process - First, find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most. Inspire a shared vision - Next, share your vision in words that can be understood by your followers. Enable others to act - Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem. Model the way - When the process gets tough, get your hands dirty. A boss tells others what to do, a leader shows that it can be done. Encourage the heart - Share the glory with your followers' hearts, while keeping the pains within your own. Leadership Models

Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do. The ideal is not to lock yourself in to a type of behavior discussed in the model, but to realize that every situation calls for a different approach or behavior to be taken. Two models will be discussed, the Four Framework Approach and the Managerial Grid. Four Framework Approach

In the Four Framework Approach, Bolman and Deal (1991) suggest that leaders display leadership behaviors in one of four types of frameworks: Structural, Human Resource, Political, or Symbolic.

This model suggests that leaders can be put into one of these four categories and there are times when one approach is appropriate and times when it would not be. That is, any style can be effective or ineffective, depending upon the situation. Relying on only one of these approaches would be inadequate, thus we should strive to be conscious of all four approaches, and not just depend on one or two. For example, during a major organization change, a Structural leadership style may be more effective than a Symbolic leadership style; during a period when strong growth is needed, the Symbolic approach may be better. We also need to understand ourselves as each of us tends to have a preferred approach. We need to be conscious of this at all times and be aware of the limitations of just favoring one approach.

Structural Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is details. Structural Leaders focus on structure, strategy, environment, implementation, experimentation, and adaptation. Human Resource Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support, advocating, and empowerment. while in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a pushover, whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief; they are visible and accessible; they empower, increase participation, support, share information, and move decision making down into the organization. Political Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is an advocate, whose leadership style is coalition and building. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a hustler, whose leadership style is manipulation. Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get; they assess the distribution of power and interests; they build linkages to other stakeholders, use persuasion first, then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary. Symbolic Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a prophet, whose leadership style is inspiration. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a fanatic or fool, whose leadership style is smoke and mirrors. Symbolic leaders view organizations as a stage or theater to play certain roles and give impressions; these leaders use symbols to capture attention; they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences; they discover and communicate a vision. For an activity, see Bolman and Deal's Four Framework Approach.

Managerial Grid The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid, also known as the Leadership Grid (1985) uses two axis: 1. "Concern for people" is plotted using the vertical axis 2. "Concern for task or results" is plotted along the horizontal axis. They both have a range of 0 to 9. The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior has the attraction of simplicity. These two dimensions can be drawn as a graph or grid:

Most people fall somewhere near the middle of the two axis Middle of the Road. But, by going to the extremes, that is, people who score on the far end of the scales, we come up with four types of leaders:
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Authoritarian strong on tasks, weak on people skills Country Club strong on people skills, weak on tasks Impoverished weak on tasks, weak on people skills Team Leader strong on tasks, strong on people skills

The goal is to be at least in the Middle of the Road but preferably a Team Leader that is, to score at least between a 5,5 to 9,9. In addition, a good leader operates at the extreme ends of the two scales, depending upon the situation. Authoritarian Leader (high task, low relationship) Leaders who get this rating are very much task oriented and are hard on their workers (autocratic). There is little or no allowance for cooperation or collaboration. Heavily task oriented people display these characteristics: they are very strong on schedules; they expect people to do what they are told without question or debate; when something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to prevent it; they are intolerant of what they see as dissent (it may just be someone's creativity), so it is difficult for their subordinates to contribute or develop. Team Leader (high task, high relationship) These leaders lead by positive example and endeavor to foster a team environment in that all team members can reach their highest potential, both as team members and as people. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible, while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various members. They normally form and lead some of the most productive teams. Country Club Leader (low task, high relationship) These leaders predominantly use reward power to maintain discipline and to encourage the team to accomplish its goals. Conversely, they are almost incapable of employing the more punitive coercive and legitimate powers.

This inability results from fear that using such powers could jeopardize relationships with the other team members. Impoverished Leader (low task, low relationship) These leaders use a delegate and disappear management style. Since they are not committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance; they essentially allow their team to do whatever it wishes and prefer to detach themselves from the team process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles. The most desirable place for a leader to be along the two axes at most times would be a 9 on task and a 9 on people the Team Leader. However, do not entirely dismiss the other three. Certain situations might call for one of the other three to be used at times. For example, by playing the Impoverished Leader, you allow your team to gain self-reliance. Be an Authoritarian Leader to instill a sense of discipline in an unmotivated worker. By carefully studying the situation and the forces affecting it, you will know at what points along the axes you need to be in order to achieve the desired result. Four pillars of leadership Leadership, Management, Command, & Control The four pillars of an organization are Leadership, Management, Command, and Control. They are important for every leader and manager to understand because they directly drive the organization. Used properly, the business will grow; used improperly, the business will sink. These are not distinct processes, but rather concepts that all leaders perform in order to build and strengthen their organizations.

As the above diagram shows, the four pillars overlap, thus they are not separate processes. This blending gives the organization the ability to focus on opportunities and deal with threats:
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Leadership drives the interpersonal aspects of the organization, such as moral and team spirit. Management deals with the conceptual issues of the organization, such as planning and organizing. Command guides the organization with well thought-out visions that makes it effective. Control provides structure to the organization in order to make it more efficient. Benefits of the Four Processes

Command and Control Command is the imparting of a vision to the organization in order to achieve and end-goal.. It does this by formulating a well-thought out vision and then clearly communicating it. It emphasizes success and reward. That is, the organization has to be successful to survive and in turn reward its members (both intrinsically and extrinsically). An example would be visioning a process that helps to increase informal learning and make it more effective. A bad vision would be implementing a social media tool, such as a wiki or Twitter. This is because social media tools are the means rather than an end-goal. That is, they are more like specific objectives that enable you to achieve your end-goal (vision). Now you might implement a social media tool as explained below, but the real goal is to increase interactions that lead to informal learning, while a supporting process is the tool itself.

Visions do not have to come from the top, but rather anywhere in the organization. Informal leaders are often good sources of visions, however if the vision requires resources, then they normally need the support of a formal leader. In contrast, Control is the process used to establish and provide structure in order to deal with uncertainties. Visions normally produce change, which in turn produce tension. These tensions or uncertainties bust be dealt with so they do not impede the organization. For example, the organization might implement a new social media tool to enable its worker to interact with others and aid the process of informal learning more effectively. After implementing the tool the leader might ask, Is the tool we provided to increase the effectiveness of informal learning really working? Thus control is also used to measure and evaluate. Inherent in evaluation is efficiencythe act of examining the new tool often leads to processes that make it more efficient. This can be good because it can save money and often improve a tool or process. The danger of this is if the command process is weak and the control process is strong then it can make efficiency the end-goal. That is, it replaces effectiveness with efficiency. A good example of this is our present economy that caused many organizations to perform massive layoffs. Now the same organizations are complaining that they can't find qualified workers. Efficiency over road effectivenessthey failed to realize that they would need a trained workforce in the future. Leadership and Management Management's primary focus is on the conceptual side of the business, such as planning, organizing, and budgeting. It does the leg work to make visions reality. Do NOT equate the term management" with controlling people." Management is more about ensuring that the organization's resources are allocated wisely, rather than trying to control people. In fact, good managers know that trying to control others is extremely difficult if not impossible.

Thus management helps to acquire, integrate, and allocate resources in order to accomplish goals and task. Going back to the above example of increasing informal learning by implementing a new social media tool, the managers must look at the real goal, rather than the tool. The real goal is to increase informal learning and human interactions in order to make them more effective, not to put into place a media tool. If the tool becomes the primary goal, then the wrong polices could be put into place that decrease its value as an informal learning tool, for example, implementing a policy that no one in the company can ask a question on Twitter as it might make us look stupid or our competitors will know what we are trying to do. This policy removes the real purpose of the tool enabling the employees to learn informally from each other. Secondly, if the focus is only on the tool, then other options are omitted, such as tearing down cubicles and creating spaces where people can meet. In contrast, Leadership deals with the interpersonal relations such as being a teacher and coach, instilling organizational spirit to win, and serving the organization and workers. The Synergy of the Four Pillars While all four processes have their place, they are not implemented separately, but rather in concert. In the example of implementing a new social media tool for increasing informal learning:
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Command communicates the vision or goal to the best people who can implement it. Through the process it also adjusts to new knowledge and refines the vision. Management allocates the resources and helps to organize the activities that will make it a reality. This is normally a continuous process, rather than a single activity. Leadership helps to guide, coach, and motivate the people to do their best throughout the entire process. Control reduces risks, which in turn makes the process more efficient.

The four pillars need to be in harmony with each other. As the diagram below show, when one or more of them is too strong, the organization falls out of balance:

Likewise, if any of the pillars become too weak, it drives the organization out of balance:

Thus the four pillars must consistently be weighed against each other to ensure they are in a proper balance that allows the organization to grow and prosper. Types Of Leadership Leadership Types

Autocratic Leadership Style Autocratic leadership style is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. The manager does not

consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations. The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments. Autocratic leadership is an extreme form of transactional leadership, where a leader exerts high levels of power over his or her employees or team members. People within the team are given few opportunities for making suggestions, even if these would be in the team's or organizations interest. Most people tend to resent being treated like this. Because of this, autocratic leadership usually leads to high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover. Also, the team's output does not benefit from the creativity and experience of all team members, so many of the benefits of teamwork are lost. For some routine and unskilled jobs, however, this style can remain effective where the advantages of control outweigh the disadvantages. Studies say that autocratic leaders: --Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees --Do not trust employees --Do not allow for employee input Yet, autocratic leadership is not all bad. Sometimes it is the most effective style to use. Autocratic leadership style is effective when: --New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow --Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions

--Employees do not respond to any other leadership style --There are high-volume production needs on a daily basis --There is limited time in which to make a decision --A managers power is challenged by an employee --The area was poorly managed --Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization The autocratic leadership style should not be used when: --Employees become tense, fearful, or resentful --Employees expect to have their opinions heard --Employees begin depending on their manager to make all their decisions --There is low employee morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage Bureaucratic Leadership Style Bureaucratic leaders work by the book, ensuring that their staff follow procedures exactly. This is a very appropriate style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with machinery, with toxic substances or at heights) or where large sums of money are involved (such as cash-handling). In other situations, the inflexibility and high levels of control exerted can demoralize staff, and can diminish the organizations ability to react to changing external circumstances. Bureaucratic leadership style can be effective when: --Employees are performing routine tasks over and over.

--Employees need to understand certain standards or procedures. --Employees are working with dangerous or delicate equipment that requires a definite set of procedures to operate. --Safety or security training is being conducted. --Employees are performing tasks that require handling cash. Bureaucratic leadership style is ineffective when: --Work habits form that are hard to break, especially if they are no longer useful. --Employees lose their and in their fellow workers. interest in their jobs

--Employees do only what is expected of them and no more. Charismatic Leadership A charismatic leadership style can appear similar to a transformational leadership style, in that the leader injects huge doses of enthusiasm into his or her team, and is very energetic in driving others forward. However, a charismatic leader can tend to believe more in him or herself than in their team. This can create a risk that a project, or even an entire organization, might collapse if the leader were to leave: In the eyes of their followers, success is tied up with the presence of the charismatic leader. As such, charismatic leadership carries great responsibility, and needs long-term commitment from the leader. Democratic Leadership or Participative Leadership Although a democratic leader will make the final decision, he or she invites other members of the team to contribute to the

decision-making process. This not only increases job satisfaction by involving employees or team members in whats going on, but it also helps to develop peoples skills. Employees and team members feel in control of their own destiny, and so are motivated to work hard by more than just a financial reward. As participation takes time, this style can lead to things happening more slowly than an autocratic approach, but often the end result is better. It can be most suitable where team working is essential, and quality is more important than speed to market or productivity. Democratic leadership can produce high quality and high quantity work for long periods of time. Many employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale. Typically the democratic leader: --Develops plans performance to help employees evaluate their own

--Allows employees to establish goals --Encourages employees to grow on the job and be promoted --Recognizes and encourages achievement. Like the other styles, the democratic style is not always appropriate. It is most successful when used with highly skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational changes or resolving individual or group problems. The democratic leadership style is most effective when: --The leader wants to keep employees informed about matters that affect them. --The leader wants employees to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties.

--The leader wants to provide opportunities for employees to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction. --There is a large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve. --Changes must be made or problems solved that employees or groups of employees. --You want to encourage team building and participation. Democratic leadership should not be used when: --There is not enough time to get everyones input. --Its easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision. --The business cant afford mistakes. --The manager feels threatened by this type of leadership. --Employee safety is a critical concern. Laissez-Faire Leadership This French phrase means leave it be and is used to describe a leader who leaves his or her colleagues to get on with their work. It can be effective if the leader monitors what is being achieved and communicates this back to his or her team regularly. Most often, laissez-faire leadership works for teams in which the individuals are very experienced and skilled self-starters. Unfortunately, it can also refer to situations where managers are not exerting sufficient control. The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the hands-off style. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine affect

goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own. This is an effective style to use when: --Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated. --Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own. --Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used --Employees are trustworthy and experienced. This style should not be used when: --It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager. --The manager cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how well they are doing. --Managers are unable to thank employees for their good work. --The manager doesnt understand his or her responsibilities and is hoping the employees can cover for him or her. People-Oriented Leadership Leadership or Relations-Oriented

This style of leadership is the opposite of task-oriented leadership: the leader is totally focused on organizing, supporting and developing the people in the leaders team. A participative

style, it tends to lead to good teamwork and creative collaboration. However, taken to extremes, it can lead to failure to achieve the team's goals. In practice, most leaders use both task-oriented and peopleoriented styles of leadership. Servant Leadership This term, coined by Robert Greenleaf in the 1970s, describes a leader who is often not formally recognized as such. When someone, at any level within an organization, leads simply by virtue of meeting the needs of his or her team, he or she is described as a servant leader. In many ways, servant leadership is a form of democratic leadership, as the whole team tends to be involved in decisionmaking. Supporters of the servant leadership model suggest it is an important way ahead in a world where values are increasingly important, in which servant leaders achieve power on the basis of their values and ideals. Others believe that in competitive leadership situations, people practicing servant leadership will often find themselves left behind by leaders using other leadership styles. Task-Oriented Leadership A highly task-oriented leader focuses only on getting the job done, and can be quite autocratic. He or she will actively define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, plan, organize and monitor. However, as task-oriented leaders spare little thought for the well-being of their teams, this approach can suffer many of the flaws of autocratic leadership, with difficulties in motivating and retaining staff. Task-oriented leaders can benefit from an understanding of the Blake-Mouton Managerial

Grid, which can help them identify specific areas for development that will help them involve people more. Transactional Leadership This style of leadership starts with the premise that team members agree to obey their leader totally when they take a job on: the transaction is (usually) that the organization pays the team members, in return for their effort and compliance. As such, the leader has the right to punish team members if their work doesnt meet the pre-determined standard. Team members can do little to improve their job satisfaction under transactional leadership. The leader could give team members some control of their income/reward by using incentives that encourage even higher standards or greater productivity. Alternatively a transactional leader could practice management by exception, whereby, rather than rewarding better work, he or she would take corrective action if the required standards were not met. Transactional leadership is really just a way of managing rather a true leadership style, as the focus is on short-term tasks. It has serious limitations for knowledge-based or creative work, but remains a common style in many organizations. Transformational Leadership A person with this leadership style is a true leader who inspires his or her team with a shared vision of the future. Transformational leaders are highly visible, and spend a lot of time communicating. They dont necessarily lead from the front, as they tend to delegate responsibility amongst their teams. While their enthusiasm is often infectious, they can need to be supported by detail people.

In many organizations, both transactional and transformational leadership are needed. The transactional leaders (or managers) ensure that routine work is done reliably, while the transformational leaders look after initiatives that add value. The transformational leadership style is the dominant leadership style taught in the "How to Lead: Discover the Leader Within You" leadership program, although we do recommend that other styles are brought as the situation demands. Using the Right Style Situational Leadership While the Transformation Leadership approach is often highly effective, there is no one right way to lead or manage that suits all situations. To choose the most effective approach for you, you must consider:
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The skill levels and experience of the members of your team. The work involved (routine or new and creative). The organizational environment (stable or radically changing, conservative or adventurous). You own preferred or natural style.

A good leader will find him or herself switching instinctively between styles according to the people and work they are dealing with. This is often referred to as situational leadership. For example, the manager of a small factory trains new machine operatives using a bureaucratic style to ensure operatives know the procedures that achieve the right standards of product quality and workplace safety. The same manager may adopt a more participative style of leadership when working on production line improvement with his or her team of supervisors

Three Classic Leadership Styles One dimension of has to do with control and one's perception of how much control one should give to people. The laissez faire style implies low control, the autocratic style high control and the participative lies somewhere in between. The Laissez Faire Leadership Style The style is largely a "hands off" view that tends to minimize the amount of direction and face time required. Works well if you have highly trained and highly motivated direct reports. More info... The Autocratic Leadership Style The style has its advocates, but it is falling out of favor in many countries. Some people have argued that the style is popular with today's CEO's, who have much in common with feudal lords in Medieval Europe.

The Participative Leadership Style It's hard to order and demand someone to be creative, perform as a team, solve complex problems, improve quality, and provide outstanding customer service. The style presents a happy medium between over controlling (micromanaging) and not being engaged and tends to be seen in organizations that must innovate to prosper. Determining the Best Leadership Style Situational Leadership. In the 1950s, management theorists from Ohio State University and the University of Michigan published a series of studies to determine whether leaders should be more task or relationship (people) oriented. The importance of the research cannot be over estimated since leaders tend to have a dominant style; a leadership style they use in a wide variety of situations. Surprisingly, the research discovered that there is no one best style: leaders must adjust their leadership style to the situation as well as to the people being led. The Emergent Leadership Style Contrary to the belief of many, groups do not automatically accept a new "boss" as leader. We see a number of ineffective managers who didn't know the behaviors to use when one taking over a new group. The Transactional Leadership Style The approach emphasizes getting things done within the umbrella of the status quo; almost in opposition to the goals of the transformational leadership. It's considered to be a "by the book" approach in which the person works within the rules. As such, it's commonly seen in large, bureaucratic organizations.

The Transformational Leadership Style The primary focus of this leadership style is to make change happen in: * * * * Organizations Our Groups, Self, Others, and

Charisma is a special leadership style commonly associated with transformational leadership. While extremely powerful, it is extremely hard to teach. Visionary Leadership Visionary Leadership, The leadership style focuses on how the leader defines the future for followers and moves them toward it. From the short review above, one can see that there are many different aspects to being a great leader; a role requiring one to play many different leadership styles to be successful. Other leadership styles include: Strategic Leadership Strategic Leadership is practiced by the military services such as the US Army, US Air Force, and many large corporations. It stresses the competitive nature of running an organization and being able to out fox and out wit the competition. Team Leadership Team Leadership. A few years ago, a large corporation decided that supervisors were no longer needed and those in charge were

suddenly made "team leaders." Today, companies have gotten smarter about teams, but it still takes leadership to transition a group into a team. Facilitative Leadership Facilitative Leadership. This is a special style that anyone who runs a meeting can employ. Rather than being directive, one uses a number of indirect communication patterns to help the group reach consensus. Leadership Influence Styles Leadership Influence Styles. Here one looks at the behaviors associated how one exercises influence. For example, does the person mostly punish? Do they know how to reward? Cross-Cultural Leadership Cross-Cultural Leadership. Not all individuals can adapt to the leadership styles expected in a different culture; whether that culture is organizational or national. Coaching Coaching. A great coach is definitely a leader who also possess a unique gift--the ability to teach and train. Level 5 Leadership. Level 5 Leadership. This term was coined by Jim Collins in his book Good to Great: Why Some Companys Make the Leap and Other Dont. As Collins says in his book, "We were surprised, shocked really, to discover the types of leadership required for turning a good company into a great one."

Servant Leadership. Servant Leadership. Some leaders have put the needs of their followers first. For example, the motto of the Los Angeles Police Department, "To Protect and Serve." reflects this philosophy of service. One suspects these leaders are rare in business. What Makes A Good Leader Leaders come in all makes and models! Here are my seven favorite characteristics that set apart the High Performance Breakthrough Leader from the everyday manager and defines just what it is that makes a good leader! 1. Is Accountable.When something goes wrong great leaders step up and acknowledge their part in it and don't fall into the trap of trying to shift blame elsewhere. They'll focus on fixing the problem not fixing blame 2. Refuses To Gossip. The best leaders are loyal to those who aren't there and doesn't engage in workplace gossip. No matter how well justified or frustrated they may feel - Ever! 3. Grows Their People.They build teams of superstars by being exceptional delegators who delegate challenging work that builds people and gets results. They make sure that their people are regularly being challenged to grow and step ever more into their potential. 4. Has An Open Office. What makes a good leader are those people who make it easy for their people to interact with them. Great leaders aren't into the power trip of having to have an office where others must come to them. They understand that having open plan offices enables them to be in the hub with their finger on the pulse ... providing far better results in terms of communication and camaraderie. 5. Engages And Energizes. The very best of leaders help people to see that what they do makes a difference. They put into place the structures, systems and principles that enable people to feel challenged by what they do, a sense of ownership in their part of the process and they regularly make use of theirinnate talents and strengths.

6. Is At The Leading Edge. One of my favorite sayings is "if you aren't growing then neither are your people" (and you can quote me on that ~wink~). A high performance leader stays relevant by making sure they are at the leading-edge in terms of leadership skills, interpersonal skills and knowledge in their organization's field of expertise. Join our community of leading-edge breakthrough leaders over at the Align-Lead-Inspire Club - there you will find all the tools and resources you need to set your success on fire. 7. Acts From A Place Of Alignment. For me, this is ultimately what makes a good leader. A leader who takes the time to align with their source energy (whether you call it God, Universe or some other name) and fully gets what it means totake inspired action. A leader who listens to their inner voice - will always be guided to take the right action.

Leadership Theories - Important Theories of Leadership

Blake and Moutons Managerial Grid The treatment of task orientation and people orientation as two independent dimensions was a major step in leadership studies. Many of the leadership studies conducted in the 1950s at the University of Michigan and the Ohio State University focused on these two dimensions. Building on the work of the researchers at these Universities, Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (1960s) proposed a graphic portrayal of leadership styles through a managerial grid (sometimes called leadership grid). The grid depicted two dimensions of leader behavior, concern for people(accommodating peoples needs and giving them priority) on y-axis andconcern for production (keeping tight schedules) on x-axis, with each dimension ranging from low (1) to high (9), thus

creating 81 different positions in which the leaders style may fall. (See figure 1).

The five resulting leadership styles are as follows: 1. Impoverished Management (1, 1): Managers with this approach are low on both the dimensions and exercise minimum effort to get the work done from subordinates. The leader has low concern for employee satisfaction and work deadlines and as a result disharmony and disorganization prevail within the organization. The leaders are termed ineffective wherein their action is merely aimed at preserving job and seniority. 2. Task management (9, 1): Also called dictatorial or perish style. Here leaders are more concerned about production and have less concern for people. The style is based on theory X of McGregor. The employees needs are not taken care of and they are simply a means to an end. The leader believes that efficiency can result only through proper organization of work systems and through elimination of people wherever possible. Such a style can definitely increase the

output of organization in short run but due to the strict policies and procedures, high labour turnover is inevitable. 3. Middle-of-the-Road (5, 5): This is basically a compromising style wherein the leader tries to maintain a balance between goals of company and the needs of people. The leader does not push the boundaries of achievement resulting in average performance for organization. Here neither employee nor production needs are fully met. 4. Country Club (1, 9): This is a collegial style characterized by low task and high people orientation where the leader gives thoughtful attention to the needs of people thus providing them with a friendly and comfortable environment. The leader feels that such a treatment with employees will lead to self-motivation and will find people working hard on their own. However, a low focus on tasks can hamper production and lead to questionable results. 5. Team Management (9, 9): Characterized by high people and task focus, the style is based on the theory Y of McGregor and has been termed as most effective style according to Blake and Mouton. The leader feels that empowerment, commitment, trust, and respect are the key elements in creating a team atmosphere which will automatically result in high employee satisfaction and production. Advantages of Blake and Mouton s Managerial Grid The Managerial or Leadership Grid is used to help managers analyze their own leadership styles through a technique known as grid training. This is done by administering a questionnaire that helps managers identify how they stand with respect to their concern for production and people. The training is aimed at basically helping leaders reach to the ideal state of 9, 9. Limitations of Blake and Mouton s Managerial Grid The model ignores the importance of internal and external limits, matter and scenario. Also, there are some more aspects of leadership that can be covered but are not. Houses Path Goal Theory The theory was developed by Robert House and has its roots in the expectancy theory of motivation. The theory is based on the premise that an employees perception of expectancies between his effort and performance is greatly affected by a leaders

behavior. The leaders help group members in attaining rewards by clarifying the paths to goals and removing obstacles to performance. They do so by providing the information, support, and other resources which are required by employees to complete the task. Houses theory advocates servant leadership. As per servant leadership theory, leadership is not viewed as a position of power. Rather, leaders act as coaches and facilitators to their subordinates. According to Houses path-goal theory, a leaders effectiveness depends on several employee and environmental contingent factors and certain leadership styles. All these are explained in the figure 1 below: Figure 1: Path-Goal Leadership

Theory Leadership Styles The four leadership styles are:


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Directive: Here the leader provides guidelines, lets subordinates know what is expected of them, sets performance standards for them, and controls behavior when performance standards are not met. He makes judicious use of rewards and disciplinary action. The style is the same as task-oriented one. Supportive: The leader is friendly towards subordinates and displays personal concern for their needs, welfare, and well-being. This style is the same as people-oriented leadership.

Participative: The leader believes in group decision-making and shares information with subordinates. He consults his subordinates on important decisions related to work, task goals, and paths to resolve goals. y Achievement-oriented: The leader sets challenging goals and encourages employees to reach their peak performance. The leader believes that employees are responsible enough to accomplish challenging goals. This is the same as goal-setting theory. According to the theory, these leadership styles are not mutually excusive and leaders are capable of selecting more than one kind of a style suited for a particular situation.
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Contingencies The theory states that each of these styles will be effective in some situations but not in others. It further states that the relationship between a leaders style and effectiveness is dependent on the following variables: Employee characteristics: These include factors such as employees needs, locus of control, experience, perceived ability, satisfaction, willingness to leave the organization, and anxiety. For example, if followers are high inability, a directive style of leadership may be unnecessary; instead a supportive approach may be preferable. y Characteristics of work environment: These include factors such as task structure and team dynamics that are outside the control of the employee. For example, for employees performing simple and routine tasks, a supportive style is much effective than a directive one. Similarly, the participative style works much better for nonroutine tasks than routine ones. When team cohesiveness is low, a supportive leadership style must be used whereas in a situation where performance-oriented team norms exist, a directive style or possibly an achievementoriented style works better. Leaders should apply directive style to counteract team norms that oppose the teams formal objectives. Conclusion
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The theory has been subjected to empirical testing in several studies and has received considerable research support. This theory consistently reminds the leaders that their main role as a leader is to assist the

subordinates in defining their goals and then to assist them in accomplishing those goals in the most efficient and effective manner. This theory gives a guide map to the leaders about how to increase subordinates satisfaction and performance level. Great Man Theory of Leadership Are some people born to lead? If we look at the great leaders of the past such as Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Napoleon, Queen Elizabeth I, and Abraham Lincoln, we will find that they do seem to differ from ordinary human beings in several aspects. The same applies to the contemporary leaders like George W. Bush and Mahatma Gandhi. They definitely possess high levels of ambition coupled with clear visions of precisely where they want to go. These leaders are cited as naturally great leaders, born with a set of personal qualities that made them effective leaders. Even today, the belief that truly great leaders are born is common. Top executives, sports personalities, and even politicians often seem to possess an aura that sets them apart from others. According to the contemporary theorists, leaders are not like other people. They do not need to be intellectually genius or omniscient prophets to succeed, but they definitely should have the right stuff which is not equally present in all people. This orientation expresses an approach to the study of leadership known as the great man theory. Assumptions The leaders are born and not made and posses certain traits which were inherited y Great leaders can arise when there is a great need. Theory
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Much of the work on this theory was done in the 19th century and is often linked to the work of the historian Thomas Carlyle who commented on the great men or heroes of the history saying that the history of the world is but the biography of great men. According to him, a leader is the one gifted with unique qualities that capture the imagination of the masses. Earlier leadership was considered as a quality associated mostly with the males, and therefore the theory was named as the great man theory. But later with the emergence of many great women leaders as well, the theory was recognized as the great person theory.

The great man theory of leadership states that some people are born with the necessary attributes that set them apart from others and that these traits are responsible for their assuming positions of power and authority. A leader is a hero who accomplishes goals against all odds for his followers. The theory implies that those in power deserve to be there because of their special endowment. Furthermore, the theory contends that these traits remain stable over time and across different groups. Thus, it suggests that all great leaders share these characteristic regardless of when and where they lived or the precise role in the history they fulfilled. Criticism Many of the traits cited as being important to be an effective leader are typical masculine traits. In contemporary research, there is a significant shift in such a mentality. Conclusion Prompted by the great man theory of leadership, and the emerging interest in understanding what leadership is, researchers focused on the leader Who is a leader? What are the distinguishing characteristics of great and effective leaders? This gave rise to the early research efforts to the trait approach to leadership. Trait Theory of Leadership The trait model of leadership is based on the characteristics of many leaders - both successful and unsuccessful - and is used to predict leadership effectiveness. The resulting lists of traits are then compared to those of potential leaders to assess their likelihood of success or failure.

Scholars taking the trait approach attempted to identify physiological (appearance, height, and weight), demographic (age, education and socioeconomic background), personality, self-confidence, and aggressiveness), intellective (intelligence, decisiveness, judgment, and knowledge), task-related (achievement drive, initiative, and persistence), and social characteristics (sociability and cooperativeness) with leader emergence and leader effectiveness. Successful leaders definitely have interests, abilities, and personality traits that are different from those of the less effective leaders. Through many researches conducted in the last three decades of the 20th century, a set of core traits of successful leaders have been identified. These traits are not responsible solely to

identify whether a person will be a successful leader or not, but they are essentially seen as preconditions that endow people with leadership potential. Among the core traits identified are: Achievement drive: High level of effort, high levels of ambition, energy and initiative y Leadership motivation: an intense desire to lead others to reach shared goals y Honesty and integrity: trustworthy, reliable, and open y Self-confidence: Belief in ones self, ideas, and ability y Cognitive ability: Capable of exercising good judgment, strong analytical abilities, and conceptually skilled y Knowledge of business: Knowledge of industry and other technical matters y Emotional Maturity: well adjusted, does not suffer from severe psychological disorders. y Others: charisma, creativity and flexibility Strengths/Advantages of Trait Theory
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It is naturally pleasing theory. y It is valid as lot of research has validated the foundation and basis of the theory. y It serves as a yardstick against which the leadership traits of an individual can be assessed. y It gives a detailed knowledge and understanding of the leader element in the leadership process. Limitations of The Trait Theory
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There is bound to be some subjective judgment in determining who is regarded as a good or successful leader The list of possible traits tends to be very long. More than 100 different traits of successful leaders in various leadership positions have been identified. These descriptions are simply generalities. There is also a disagreement over which traits are the most important for an effective leader The model attempts to relate physical traits such as, height and weight, to effective leadership. Most of these factors relate to

situational factors. For example, a minimum weight and height might be necessary to perform the tasks efficiently in a military leadership position. In business organizations, these are not the requirements to be an effective leader. y The theory is very complex Leadership-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Informal observation of leadership behavior suggests that leaders action is not the same towards all subordinates. The importance of potential differences in this respect is brought into sharp focus by Graens leader-member exchange model, also known as the vertical dyad linkage theory. The theory views leadership as consisting of a number of dyadic relationships linking the leader with a follower. The quality of the relationship is reflected by the degree of mutual trust, loyalty, support, respect, and obligation. According to the theory, leaders form different kinds of relationships with various groups of subordinates. One group, referred to as the in-group, is favored by the leader. Members of in-group receive considerably more attention from the leader and have more access to the organizational resources. By contrast, other subordinates fall into the out-group. These individuals are disfavored by the leader. As such, they receive fewer valued resources from their leaders. Leaders distinguish between the in-group and out-group members on the basis of the perceived similarity with respect to personal characteristics, such as age, gender, or personality. A follower may also be granted an ingroup status if the leader believes that person to be especially competent at performing his or her job. The relationship between leaders and followers follows three stages: Role taking: When a new member joins the organization, the leader assesses the talent and abilities of the member and offers them opportunities to demonstrate their capabilities. y Role making: An informal and unstructured negotiation on workrelated factors takes place between the leader and the member. A member who is similar to the leader is more likely to succeed. A betrayal by the member at this stage may result in him being relegated to the out-group The LMX 7 scale assesses the degree to which leaders and followers have mutual respect for each others capabilities, feel a deepening sense of mutual trust, and have a sense of strong obligation to one another. Taken
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together, these dimensions determine the extent to which followers will be part of the leaders in-group or out-group. In-group followers tend to function as assistants or advisers and to have higher quality personalized exchanges with the leader than do out-group followers. These exchanges typically involve a leaders emphasis on assignments to interesting tasks, delegation of important responsibilities, information sharing, and participation in the leaders decisions, as well as special benefits, such as personal support and support and favorable work schedules. Strengths of LMX Theory LMX theory is an exceptional theory of leadership as unlike the other theories, it concentrates and talks about specific relationships between the leader and each subordinate.

LMX Theory is a robust explanatory theory.

LMX Theory focuses our attention to the significance of communication in leadership. Communication is a medium through which leaders and subordinates develop, grow and maintain beneficial exchanges. When this communication is accompanied by features such as mutual trust, respect and devotion, it leads to effective leadership.

LMX Theory is very much valid and practical in its approach.

Criticisms of LMX Theory LMX Theory fails to explain the particulars of how high-quality exchanges are created.

LMX Theory is objected on grounds of fairness and justice as some followers

receive special attention of leaders at workplace and other followers do not.

Continuum of Leadership Behaviour The leadership continuum was originally written in 1958 by Tannenbaum and Schmidt and was later updated in the year 1973. Their work suggests a continuum of possible leadership behavior available to a manager and along which many leadership styles may be placed. The continuum presents a range of action related to the degree of authority used by the manager and to the area of freedom available to non-managers in arriving at decisions. A broad range of leadership styles have been depicted on the continuum between two extremes of autocratic and free rein (See figure 1). The left side shows a style where control is maintained by a manager and the right side shows the release of control. However, neither extreme is absolute and authority and freedom are never without their limitations. The Tannenbaum and Schmidt continuum can be related to McGregors supposition of Theory X and Theory Y. Boss-centered leadership is towards theory X and subordinate-centered leadership is towards theory Y. Figure 1: Continuum Leadership Behaviuor.

A manager is characterized according to degree of control that is maintained by him. According to this approach, four main styles of leadership have been identified: Tells: The manager identifies a problem, chooses a decision, and announces this to subordinates. The subordinates are not a party to the decision making process and the manager expects them to implement his decisions as soon as possible. y Sells: The decision is chosen by the manager only but he understands that there will be some amount of resistance from those faced with the decision and therefore makes efforts to persuade them to accept it. y Consults: Though the problem is identified by the manager, he does not take a final decision. The problem is presented to the subordinates and the solutions are suggested by the subordinates. y Joins: The manager defines the limits within which the decision can be taken by the subordinates and then makes the final decision along with the subordinates. According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt, if one has to make a choice of the leadership style which is practicable and desirable, then his answer will depend upon the following three factors:
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Forces in the Manager: The behavior of the leader is influenced by his personality, background, knowledge, and experience. These forces include: i. Value systems ii. Confidence in subordinates iii. Leadership inclinations iv. Feelings of security in an uncertain situation Forces in the subordinate: The personality of the subordinates and their expectations from the leader influences their behavior. The factors include: i. Readiness to assume responsibility in decision-making ii. Degree of tolerance for ambiguity iii. Interest in the problem and feelings as to its importance iv. Strength of the needs for independence v. Knowledge and experience to deal with the problem

Understanding and identification with the goals of the organization If these factors are on a positive side, then more freedom can be allowed to the subordinate by the leader. Forces in the situation: The environmental and general situations also affect the leaders behavior. These include factors like: i. Type of organization ii. Group effectiveness iii. Nature of the problem iv. Time pressure When the authors updated their work in1973, they suggested a new continuum of patterns of leadership behavior. In this, the total area of freedom shared between managers and non-managers is redefined constantly by interactions between them and the environmental forces. This pattern was, however, more complex in comparison to the previous one.
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Conclusion According to Tannenbaum and Schmidt, successful leaders know which behavior is the most appropriate at a particular time. They shape their behavior after a careful analysis of self, their subordinates, organization, and environmental factors. Likerts Management System Rensis Likert and his associates studied the patterns and styles of managers for three decades at the University of Michigan, USA, and identified a four-fold model of management systems. The model was developed on the basis of a questionnaire administered to managers in over 200 organizations and research into the performance characteristics of different types of organizations. The four systems of management system or the four leadership styles identified by Likert are:
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System 1 - Exploitative Authoritative: Responsibility lies in the hands of the people at the upper echelons of the hierarchy. The superior has no trust and confidence in subordinates. The decisions are imposed on subordinates and they do not feel free at all to discuss things about the job with their superior. The teamwork or communication is very little and the motivation is based on threats.

System 2 - Benevolent Authoritative: The responsibility lies at the managerial levels but not at the lower levels of the organizational hierarchy. The superior has condescending confidence and trust in subordinates (master-servant relationship). Here again, the subordinates do not feel free to discuss things about the job with their superior. The teamwork or communication is very little and motivation is based on a system of rewards. y System 3 - Consultative: Responsibility is spread widely through the organizational hierarchy. The superior has substantial but not complete confidence in subordinates. Some amount of discussion about job related things takes place between the superior and subordinates. There is a fair amount of teamwork, and communication takes place vertically and horizontally. The motivation is based on rewards and involvement in the job. y System 4 - Participative: Responsibility for achieving the organizational goals is widespread throughout the organizational hierarchy. There is a high level of confidence that the superior has in his subordinates. There is a high level of teamwork, communication, and participation. The nature of these four management systems has been described by Likert through a profile of organizational characteristics. In this profile, the four management systems have been compared with one another on the basis of certain organizational variables which are:
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Leadership processes y Motivational forces y Communication process y Interaction-influence process y Decision-making process y Goal-setting or ordering y Control processes On the basis of this profile, Likert administered a questionnaire to several employees belonging to different organizations and from different managerial positions (both line and staff). His studies confirmed that the departments or units employing management practices within Systems 1 and 2 were the lease productive, and the departments or units employing management practices within Systems 3 and 4 were the most productive.
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Advantages With the help of the profile developed by Likert, it became possible to quantify the results of the work done in the field of group dynamics. Likert theory also facilitated the measurement of the soft areas of management, such as trust and communication. Conclusion According to Rensis Likert, the nearer the behavioral characteristics of an organization approach System 4 (Participative), the more likely this will lead to long-term improvementin staff turnover and high productivity, low scrap, low costs, and high earnings.if an organization wants to achieve optimum effectiveness, then the ideal system Hersey Blanchard Model According to this model, the leader has to match the leadership style according to the readiness of subordinates which moves in stage and has a cycle. Therefore, this theory is also known as the life-cycle theory of leadership. The theory, developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard, is based on the readiness level of the people the leader is attempting to influence. Readiness is the extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. Ability is the knowledge, experience, and skill that an individual possesses to do the job and is called job readiness. Willingness is the motivation and commitment required to accomplish a given task. The style of leadership depends on the level of readiness of the followers. The readiness(R) is divided into a continuum of four levels which are: R1 - low follower readiness - refers to low ability and low willingness of followers i.e. those who are unable and insecure

R2 - low to moderate follower readiness - refers to low ability and high willingness of followers i.e. those who are unable but confident

R3 - moderate to high follower readiness - refers to high ability and low

willingness of followers i.e. those who are able but insecure

R4 - high follower readiness - refers to high ability and high willingness of followers i.e. those who are both able and confident

The direction is provided by the leader at the lower levels of readiness. Therefore, the decisions are leader directed. On the other hand, the direction is provided by the followers at the higher levels of readiness. Therefore, the decisions in this case are follower directed. When the followers move from low levels to high levels of readiness, the combinations of task and relationship behaviors appropriate to the situation begin to change. For each of the four levels of readiness, the leadership style used may be a combination of task and relationship behavior. Task behavior: Extent to which the leader spells out the duties and responsibilities of a follower which includes providing them direction, setting goals, and defining roles for them. Usually a oneway communication exists which is meant to provide the direction to the followers. y Relationship behavior: Extent to which the leader listens to the followers, and provides encouragement to them. Here, a two-way communication exists between the leader and the follower. By combining the task and the relationship behavior, we arrive at the following four different styles of leadership which correspond with the different levels of readiness as shown in the Figure 1.
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S1 - Telling: This style is most appropriate for low follower readiness (R1). It emphasizes high task behavior and limited relationship behavior.

S2 - Selling: This style is most appropriate for low to moderate follower readiness (R2). It emphasizes high amounts of both task and relationship behavior.

S3 - Participating: This style is most appropriate for moderate to high follower readiness (R3). It emphasizes high amount of relationship behavior but low amount of task behavior.

S4 - Delegating: This style is most appropriate for high follower readiness (R4). It emphasizes low levels of both task and relationship behavior.

Fiedlers Contingency Model Fred E. Fiedlers contingency theory of leadership effectiveness was based on studies of a wide range of group effectiveness, and concentrated on the relationship between leadership and organizational performance. This is one of the earliest situationcontingent leadership theories given by Fiedler. According to him, if an organization attempts to achieve group effectiveness through leadership, then there is a need to assess the leader according to an underlying trait, assess the situation faced by the leader, and construct a proper match between the two. Leader s trait In order to assess the attitudes of the leader, Fiedler developed the least preferred coworker (LPC) scale in which the leaders are asked about the person with whom they least like to work. The scale is a questionnaire consisting of 16 items used to reflect a leaders underlying disposition toward others. The items in the LPC scale are pleasant / unpleasant, friendly / unfriendly, rejecting / accepting, unenthusiastic / enthusiastic, tense / relaxed, cold / warm, helpful / frustrating, cooperative / uncooperative, supportive / hostile, quarrelsome / harmonious, efficient / inefficient, gloomy / cheerful, distant / close, boring / interesting, self-assured / hesitant, open / guarded. Each item in the scale is given a single ranking of between one and eight points, with eight points indicating the most favorable rating. Friendly Unfriendly

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Fiedler states that leaders with high LPC scores are relationship-oriented and the ones with low scores are task-oriented. The high LPC score leaders derived most satisfaction from interpersonal relationships and therefore evaluate their least preferred co-workers in fairly favorable terms. These leaders think about the task accomplishment only after the relationship need is well satisfied. On the other hand, the low LPC score leaders derived satisfaction from performance of the task and attainment of objectives and only after tasks have been accomplished, these leaders work on establishing good social and interpersonal relationships. Situational factor According to Fiedler, a leaders behavior is dependent upon the favorability of the leadership situation. Three factors work together to determine how favorable a situation is to a leader. These are: Leader-member relations - The degree to which the leaders is trusted and liked by the group members, and the willingness of the group members to follow the leaders guidance y Task structure - The degree to which the groups task has been described as structured or unstructured, has been clearly defined and the extent to which it can be carried out by detailed instructions y Position power - The power of the leader by virtue of the organizational position and the degree to which the leader can exercise authority on group members in order to comply with and accept his direction and leadership With the help of these three variables, eight combinations of group-task situations were constructed by Fiedler. These combinations were used to identify the style of the leader.
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Figure 1: Correlation between leaders LPC scores and group effectiveness Leadership Effectiveness The leaders effectiveness is determined by the interaction of the leaders style of behavior and the favorableness of the situational characteristics. The most favorable situation is when leader-member relations are good, the task is highly structured, and the leader has a strong position power. Research on the contingency model has shown that task-oriented leaders are more effective in highly favorable (1, 2, 3) and highly unfavorable situation (7, 8), whereas relationship-oriented leaders are more effective in situations of intermediate favorableness (4, 5, 6). Fiedler also suggested that leaders may act differently in different situations. Relationship-oriented leaders generally display task-oriented behaviors under highly favorable situations and display relationship-

oriented behaviors under unfavorable intermediate favorable situations. Similarly, task-oriented leaders frequently display task-oriented in unfavorable or intermediate favorable situations but display relationshiporiented behaviors in favorable situations.