Business Communication

Unit 6

Unit 6

Developing Oral Business Communication Skills

Structure: 6.1 Introduction Objectives 6.2 Advantages of Oral Communication 6.3 Oral Business Presentations 6.4 Summary 6.5 Terminal Questions 6.6 Answers

6.1 Introduction
Irrespective of your field or the type of job that you choose to take up, developing good oral communication skills is a must. Oral skills are needed for making effective presentations, participating in and conducting meetings, dealing with customers and interacting on a day-to-day basis with your superiors, peers and subordinates within the organization. Your oral communication skills often reveal your personality. Speaking effectively also gives you great visibility and confidence and can contribute to your career success. As you go up the corporate ladder, presentation speaking skills become more important than technical skills. Your ability to organize your ideas, present them and sell them to others is what determines your success. Surveys have revealed that business executives spend a good deal of time making presentations of different types. Whatever the nature of the presentation, it requires planning, developing a structure and strategy and using supports, to make it effective. This unit provides some detailed guidelines for enhancing the effectiveness of business presentations. Objectives After studying this unit, you will be able to –  Explain the advantages of oral communication skills in a business context  Classify oral communication into different categories
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 90

possibility of making immediate contact. teleconferencing will not replace face-to-face meetings completely. Telephone communication. another form of non face-to-face communication. oral communication has some advantages compared to written communication.2 Advantages of Oral Communication To recap briefly what was discussed in Unit 2. has the biggest advantage of being able to contact a receiver who would be impossible to reach in person. meetings today can still take place without being face-to-face. 91 . through teleconferencing. mobile phones Sikkim Manipal University Page No. In spite of its advantages. high interactivity. negotiations. the world’s largest retailer. Teleconferencing allows participants at distant locations to speak and sometimes to see each other. they are expensive and impractical sometimes. due to the distance factor. Today. Thanks to advances in technology. These include its personal quality. since it is unsuitable for certain types of communication that involve brainstorming. make use of teleconferencing to keep their US headquarters in touch with their store managers worldwide. instantaneous feedback and control over the receiver’s attention. persuasion and problem solving. Many multi-national corporations and large Indian organizations also use this facility extensively.While face-toface meetings are more effective than non face-to-face communication in most ways. Example – Several retailers like Walmart. teleconferencing has the same advantages as oral face-to-face communication. Some headhunters also make use of the facility to conduct preliminary interviews and shortlist candidates based in other countries. Apart from the high cost and the difficulty in setting it up.Business Communication Unit 6    Recognize the need for preparation of oral presentations Use a step-by-step approach for making presentations Select visual and other presentation aids for maximum effect 6. Oral communication was also classified into oral face-to-face communication (meetings and presentations) and oral non face-to-face communication (teleconferencing. before inviting them for a face-to-face interview. telephone and voice mail).

Voice mail is a type of telephone communication and is similar to an answering machine. voice mail has not caught on in India. you can make your point felt and save time that might be wasted in exchanging pleasantries. voice mail also makes it possible to keep a permanent record of the communication. Telephone communication has the advantage of providing immediate feedback. each with a different purpose.3 Oral Business Presentations Oral business presentations are a powerful way of presenting your ideas to others and are usually called for when a written memo or report will not be sufficient to do the job. Presentations may be made to both internal audiences – superiors. Although it is generally inferior to speaking in person to the other party. Presentations may also be of different types. to enhance the communication. Besides. peers and subordinates. approval for important ideas is rarely given without a face-to-face explanation. Some of the most common Sikkim Manipal University Page No. unlike other types of oral communication. 92 .Business Communication Unit 6 have made it even easier to contact people who are on the move. as well as to external audiences – consumers. or having the other person talk back. 6. In spite of these advantages however. whereas an oral presentation commands attention and fetches immediate feedback. it has some advantages. suppliers etc. 3. Telephone communication also has a personal quality and permits the use of some non-verbal cues such as tone of voice. Asking for a few days of leave from work may be done through voice mail. A written report tends to be less persuasive and may also be set aside without being read. Thus. Besides. bankers. there is greater control over how the message is composed and delivered. intermediaries. Conflicts between co-workers can be resolved through teleconferencing. 2. Invitations can also be declined without having to give an explanation or reason. Self Assessment Question Are the following statements true or false? 1. When you leave a recorded message.

expressing what you want Sikkim Manipal University Page No.Business Communication Unit 6 types of presentations and the audiences to whom they are addressed are mentioned in the table below – Type/Purpose of Presentation Briefing and Information Orientation Training Reporting Research Findings Reporting Progress Highlighting Company’s Achievements TV and Radio Interviews to describe Company Viewpoints Introduction Product Presentation Project Proposal Policy Proposal Marking Special Occasions Example New online leave application procedure Orientation on Distance Education Terminology How to operate a new software Consumer satisfaction survey Report of weekly sales Reporting awards won by the Company Describing company’s position on environmental issues Overview of the company Highlighting features of a new product New project undertaken by the company New mobile reimbursement policy Presentation at company anniversary celebrations Audience Employees Employees Employees Superiors Superiors Media Society at large New employees Consumers. 93 . the same steps in planning and preparation are to be followed. Whatever the nature of the presentation however. In this section. A “statement of purpose”. it is important to be clear on the goal of the presentation. 1.3. we shall discuss each of these steps in detail. Intermediaries Bankers Superiors Internal and external audiences 6. each with a different purpose.1 Steps in Making Oral Presentations The table above indicates that oral presentations can range from simple to more complex ones. Definition of the Purpose of the Presentation Before preparing for the presentation.

It usually involves selling either a product. To Entertain – A presentation with this purpose is meant to make the audience relax and have a good time. Whom do I want to influence? 2. In the above table.Business Communication Unit 6 to achieve through the presentation should be framed. Where? Sikkim Manipal University Page No. presentations marking special occasions such as the company anniversary. which clearly spells out the answers to the following questions – 1. sales progress. it is more important to frame a specific statement of purpose. are all persuasive presentations. In the table above. To Persuade – A presentation that aims to persuade would try to change the attitude or behavior of the audience. or an idea. A general statement of purpose could be expressed in terms of one of the following –  To Inform – A presentation that seeks to inform would merely create awareness about developments and progress on specific fronts. When? 5. the first eight types of presentations are aimed at informing different audiences about something or the other – new procedures. new software. or in more specific terms. How do I want them to do it? 4. project proposal and policy proposal. or try to spread knowledge about something new. company achievements. What do I want them to do at the end of the presentation? 3. new terminology. the product presentation.   Although it is useful to define the general purpose of a presentation. may merely focus on making people feel good about them. In the table above. so that it becomes easy to measure whether the goal has been accomplished or not. The product presentation seeks to persuade consumers to try a new product. the project proposal tries to persuade bankers to provide funds for a new project and the policy proposal tries to persuade top management to adopt a new policy of reimbursing mobile expenses. The purpose of the presentation may be stated in broad or general terms. 94 . viewpoints and background. findings of a study.

As far as possible. while the key idea is mentioned to the audience at the beginning of the presentation. or generalists. The following information should be gathered about your audience. so that it is measurable. which they Page No. Audience Analysis Making a good presentation alone is not enough. the goal should be quantified. the topic of the presentation and the nature of the audience. For example. Development of the Key Idea The key idea of a presentation is a statement that expresses the main message to be conveyed to your audience. It also has to be tailored to your listeners. It is different from a statement of purpose. within the next one week.” The above statement of purpose describes the reaction that you are seeking from your audience and also describes the goal in measurable terms. the key idea or message may be to explain how your brand is superior to other brands. If they are specialists. 2.Business Communication Unit 6 Example – “I want 50% of my prospective customers to be convinced enough to walk in to the store and try out the new product on a trial basis. Once the key idea is clearly stated. Example – If the purpose is to persuade a prospective customer to try out your company’s brand of vacuum cleaner. a presentation that aims to train employees on the use of complicated software should not expect them to become experts at the end of the session. Presentation goals should also be realistic. keeping in mind the limitations of time. your presentation could include technical aspects and jargon. 3. in that the purpose is generally meant for yourself as the presenter. in such a way that they understand and appreciate it. it becomes easy to develop the rest of the presentation. 95 Sikkim Manipal University . feature for feature. even before you begin preparing for the presentation –  Job Designations and Areas of Expertise – You need to find out whether the audience comprises of specialists in a particular area such as information technology. The number of customers who walk into the store and sample the product during the one week period would indicate whether the goal has been achieved or not.

needs to be studied in advance. Demographic Characteristics of the Audience – The gender. With a smaller group. a lot of background information and explanation will be required. is likely to suggest investment options that would be different from those that might be suggested for a younger audience. you   Sikkim Manipal University Page No. to a more formal style. so that it is relevant and does not offend the audience. 96 . The Level of Knowledge on the Subject – You need to know how familiar your audience is with the subject of the presentation. Others may like the presentation to be made at a slower pace.  Preferred Style of Presentation – It would also be relevant to know the personal preferences of your audience. you may have to make the presentation more simple. If the presentation happens to be on a sensitive topic. both towards you as a speaker and towards the topic of the presentation. If the audience comprises of experts in that particular area. If the audience is prejudiced towards you for some reason. or explain some of the terms elaborately. with regard to the style of presentation that they are most comfortable with. It should be remembered however. The Attitude of the Audience – The attitude of your listeners. On the other hand. so that the presentation may be tailored to appeal to that particular audience. basic explanations may not be needed.  Example – A financial planner addressing an audience comprising of senior citizens. Analyzing all this in advance would help in determining how the presentation should be delivered. age. the presentation could be made less formal.Business Communication Unit 6 would be able to understand. the size of visuals and so on.  Size of the Audience – The size of the audience would determine your presentation style. if the level of familiarity is not so high. that humor should be used with care. than for a larger group. the time set aside for questions and answers. you may have to alter your style of presentation considerably. Some people may prefer a more informal or conversational style with some humor thrown in. cultural background and economic status of the audience also needs to be studied in advance. the time for questions and answers less and the visuals smaller. If not.

time and context that might affect your presentation in any way. 6. a standard format is generally followed. For example. or main message which was discussed earlier. including the following –  Introduction – This should include an “attention getter” to get the audience involved and interested in the presentation topic. 97 Sikkim Manipal University .. As explained earlier. so that you are in a position to anticipate and answer any questions. This is similar to a salesperson being convinced about a product to be sold. your level of knowledge on the subject and your feelings about the subject. you may have to overcome these limitations by altering the seating arrangement. If you are making a presentation as part of a team. Page No. If the choice is not given to you and you are less knowledgeable. This is especially true of presentations that aim to persuade. so that the audience is kept alert. If you have a choice of subject.Business Communication Unit 6 may have to proceed very tactfully. The key idea. you also need to do a self-analysis to determine your own purpose of making the presentation. you need to assess your feelings about the subject and make sure that you are convinced enough to be able to persuade others as well. will also be conveyed to the audience during the introduction. which will be discussed later. Analysis of the Circumstances This includes taking into consideration any limitations of infrastructure. then it is important to research the subject thoroughly. 4. Preparation of Outline Once the initial groundwork has been done. Finally. if you will be speaking in a small room where the lighting and the acoustics are insufficient. If the presentation is to be made after lunch. Analysis of Yourself as a Speaker Apart from analyzing your audience. Several techniques may be used to command attention. 5. it may have to be made more attention getting. Irrespective of the nature and purpose of the presentation. your style of presentation has to be consistent with that of your team members. it is always better to speak on a subject on which you are an authority. you will need to develop an outline of your presentation. a clear statement of the specific purpose of the presentation should be developed. using brighter visuals and speaking loudly.

Business Communication Unit 6  Body or Main Section – This is where the main points will be presented and elaborated upon. sub points can be developed to expand on each of these. you will need to start gathering the relevant material. Organizing the body consists in identifying the key points that will support your main idea and then selecting an organizational plan to develop these key points. competing products.  7. The main points in this case may be – 1. Collection of Information and Material Once the outline of the presentation has been developed. The information can generally be gathered from existing sources such as magazines. This is a time consuming process and requires a fair amount of research. For example. It is more affordable 3. Once the main points have been determined. It has greater cleaning power than other brands. you may have to conduct a survey to find out how consumers feel about that product concept and also about similar. you may need to do original research in the form of a survey to gather fresh data. newspapers and the internet. It is easier to use than other brands. It is best to limit the number of main points to five. Organization of the Body The body of the presentation should always be prepared before the introduction. a “problem-solution” pattern or plan may be followed. Sometimes. along with concluding remarks would be included in this section. Conclusion – A brief summary of the presentation. if you are making a presentation on a new product. where the customer is Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 8. 2. The next step is to choose an organizational plan to present these main and sub points. where the key idea is to highlight that it is superior to competing brands. The conclusion should have as much “punch” as the attention getter in the introduction. Let us take our earlier example of a sales presentation on a vacuum cleaner to prospective customers. 98 . Example – In the case of a sales presentation such as the above. so as not to overload the listeners with too much information.

followed by a preview of the entire presentation. it should be planned with care.000 mark? Once audience attention has been captured. Example – Do you know that the number of road accidents last year touched the 100. Therefore. so that people know what to expect. by selecting an appropriate style of delivery. using techniques such as humor. 9. Example – Now that you have seen what our vacuum cleaner can do. a quotation or a startling statement. Planning the Conclusion The conclusion of a presentation should be shorter than the introduction and occupy only 5 per cent of the entire presentation. At the outset. The review is essentially a reinforcement of the key idea and a summary of the main points. Planning the Introduction Since the introduction is where you make the first impression. In the case of persuasive presentations. It should take up between 10 and 15 percent of your total speaking time. you also need to ensure that it will be delivered effectively. as in the outline of the presentation. Generally. Selection of a Delivery Style Once your presentation has been adequately prepared in terms of content. the main idea should be stated clearly. 10. walk into our store today to place your order and avail of an early bird discount! 11. The main points can be enumerated.Business Communication Unit 6 confronted with a problem and the product is offered as a solution to the problem. every conclusion should have a review and a closing statement. an interesting story. An attention getting opener should be developed. The closing statement should be as strong as your opening statement. the same techniques used to capture audience attention may also be used to prepare a good closing statement. by showing that you are qualified to speak on the subject of the presentation. so that your audience will remember the presentation. the closing statement can include a call for immediate action. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. you need to try and establish your credibility. dramatic questions. 99 .

it is suited for only expert speakers. It is a method used by government or business officials and may be appropriate when the material to be presented is highly technical or complex. Speaking from Notes – This is generally the most effective style of delivery. While impromptu speeches are delivered on the spot and not rehearsed. without the support of notes or other aids. Reading from Written Notes – This consists in reading the entire presentation from notes. it gives the impression that the speech is very long and heavy. since it comes across as natural and permits eye contact with the audience. the speaker can elaborate on these ideas in his own words and speak for any length of time. Speaking Extemporaneously – This is different from speaking impromptu. since he or she will be unable to speak naturally. but delivered naturally. This is the delivery style used by experienced professionals. If the main ideas are put down briefly on the cards. it prevents the presenter from making eye contact with the audience. simple and direct. Memorizing the Presentation – This is the least appealing style of delivery. Secondly. 100 . Impromptu speeches should be brief. it has some limitations. the speaker is called upon to say a few words without any warning or advance notice. who have sufficient knowledge of the subject to be able to speak without relying on notes. an extemporaneous speech is prepared and rehearsed in advance. First. since it comes across as unnatural and monotonous to the audience.     Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The presentation is likely to be more effective. It consists in jotting down the main ideas in point form on index cards and then referring to these cards merely as a trigger while speaking. However.Business Communication Unit 6 Five different delivery styles are available to speakers –  Speaking Impromptu – In this case. A speaker who memorizes and delivers a presentation word for word will also be at a disadvantage if he forgets a part of the speech. Since there is little or no time given for preparation. compared to prepared speeches.

Business Communication Unit 6 Self Assessment Question 4.  Pie Charts and Graphs – Pie charts help to illustrate percentages of a single item – for example. floor plans.  Photographs – Photographs are true to life and are an effective way of illustrating products and a variety of other images. a sales presentation can be more effective and convince a prospective customer to try a product. Some of the commonly used types of visual aids are –  Product Demonstrations – Since “seeing believes”.3. if it is shown in actual use. shape and structure – for example. age and gender iv) Use of humor v) Trigger words a. comparing last year’s profits with this year’s profits. c. visual aids should be used only where relevant and not just for the sake of it. However.  Lists and Tables – These are an effective way of highlighting facts and figures and of making comparisons – for example. Match the following i) General purpose statement ii) Quantified goal iii) Audience size. the percentage of the total students in each Sikkim Manipal University Page No. graphics help speakers to illustrate ideas and to answer questions. They are highly credible and can be used as proof to support facts. “A picture is worth a thousand words. d. Demographics To persuade Specific purpose statement Speaking from notes Opening and closing statements 6. e. since they may distract the attention of the audience from the speaker’s main message. Visuals have also been found to make the information in presentations more memorable. In addition. As the saying goes. b. A speaker has a wide variety of visual aids to choose from.” Several studies have indicated that presentations made with visual support have been more successful in persuading audiences than presentations without visuals.2 Using Visual Aids to Support Presentations The use of visual aids enhances the effectiveness of a presentation and involves the audience more than a pure oral presentation.  Diagrams – These are two dimensional drawings which can convey information about size. 101 .

the charts can be flipped over to recap the session. 1. The speaker also has to position him or herself in such a way that the projector does not block anyone’s view. by turning the pages. They have the advantages of being easy to prepare. instead of creating them from scratch. However. Once the type of visual aid has been decided. use. they are better suited for large audiences. Unlike other visual aids. Transparencies – These are clear sheets used with an overhead projector to project an image on the screen. They are also clumsy and can become worn out after repeated use. they are unsuited for making a presentation to a large audience. carry and set up. during the presentation. It is possible to transfer text or visuals from other sources on to a transparency. a variety of media are available to the presenter. It is also possible to write directly on the transparency with special marker pens. At the end of the presentation. they are also easier and quicker to produce. or growth in sales and profits over time. You can also write on them as you speak and later erase what you have written and reuse them. 102 . Unlike flip charts. 2. by using a copy machine. Flip charts are commonly used during sales presentations and business meetings. where different pictures are shown on separate charts one at a time.  Use a piece of paper to cover the parts of the transparency that you have not yet discussed. Reveal the information on the transparency as Sikkim Manipal University Page No. The disadvantage of using transparencies is that they are unwieldy and require an overhead projector that may not always function. Graphs are good for illustrating trends. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each of these media and some guidelines for use of these media will be discussed. since you can copy visuals from other sources. Again. the medium for presenting the visual aid needs to be selected. hence the name “flip chart”.Business Communication Unit 6 area of specialization of an MBA program. Transparencies have a number of advantages. Some do’s and don’ts of using transparencies for a presentation are –  Switch off the overhead projector when you are not showing transparencies. Flip Chart – This consists of a large pad of thick chart paper attached to an easel.

Therefore. 5. not over-decorated. Face the audience and point to the transparency on the glass top of the projector. Do not prepare too many or too few slides. Power Point Slides – This is an effective visual aid. Ensure that the style and format used in the slides are consistent. since it lends a touch of sophistication and professionalism to the presentation. Power point slides are easy to store. Make the text on the slide crisp. instead of long sentences. Use a pointer to refer to the information on the transparency as you speak. Add value to what is on the slide. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 2. Pay attention to the font size. It is also possible to transfer photographs.Business Communication Unit 6   and when you discuss that point. The disadvantage of power point is that it tends to be overused for the sake of technology. Make the slides look sober and dignified. Plan to spend about 2 – 3 minutes talking on each slide. power point slides should be prepared carefully and used judiciously. by explaining key points. “gimmickry” and special effects. excluding the title and outline of the presentation. The table below lists some do’s and don’ts of preparing and using power point slides for presentations Checkpoints for Using Power Point Slides 1. 4. Choose key words and phrases. avoiding unnecessary articles and prepositions. 3. Avoid reading directly from the slide. since they are less unwieldy than flip charts and transparencies. This tends to distract the attention of the audience from what the speaker is saying. Do not make the layout of the PPT slides too cluttered or crowded. 6. It is ideal for presentations where technical pictures and elaborate diagrams are needed to illustrate ideas to the audience. 7. 7 words per sentence and 7 lines per slide is a general rule of thumb. 3. so that the audience does not get ahead of you. number of words and number of lines on a slide. logos and other visuals directly on to the slide. 8. 103 . instead of turning your back and pointing to the screen. Around 12 slides should be sufficient for a one hour presentation.

Business Communication Unit 6 9. Attention should also be paid to producing them carefully. One problem with handouts is that the audience may study them during the presentation. 4. which can be shown to the audience to illustrate your ideas. the technical features of the product. 104 . 5. However. if you are making a presentation on a new product. a product demonstration in a TV commercial. One way of overcoming this and using it to make a presentation to a large audience. 11. like other visual aids. For example. This can be avoided by telling them to study it later. Handouts – These are printed details on the topic of the presentation that are distributed to the audience. They also provide extra information which you may not be able to cover during your oral presentation. 10. This is an inexpensive and convenient type of visual aid and requires little effort or advance preparation. 6. However. along with some illustrations. Coordinate your explanation with the slide numbers. Handouts can also reduce the need for the listeners to take notes during your presentation. They have the advantage of providing a permanent record of your ideas. Videotapes – These are audio-visual aids that exploit the attention getting properties of television for maximum impact. Using videotapes to support a presentation can add value when you wish to illustrate action – for example. or a speaker’s gestures. or by distributing them at the end of the session. to show a sportsperson in action. Do not spend too much time on some slides and rush through the rest. Balance the time spent on each slide. Computerized Displays – These are images stored on your own computer screen or laptop. could be included in the handout for the audience to study later. Focus on the main points mentioned in the slides. they should not be used for the sake of entertainment. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. their attention will be completely focused on what you are saying. it is suitable only for small audiences. due to its small size. is to use an LCD projector to project the images on to a big screen. instead of listening to you speaking. to make sure that the quality is of a high standard. Avoid needless frills and trivialities. This way.

make sure that each visual is given an appropriate caption and is numbered. If your ideas are better explained through words. simple graphics created on your own computer or laptop should be sufficient. some basic rules need to be followed when using them – 1. so that the audience can understand them without difficulty. erase. For example. 4. so that the audience can focus attention on what you are saying next. or turn off visuals soon after you have explained them. 3. 105 . Make the Visuals Clear and Large enough – Avoid creating visuals that are so small that that they have to be described. 7. 5. Avoid Too Much Text with Visuals – Visuals should have short captions. blank out. Use Visual Aids only if they Add Value – Make sure that you have a reason to use a visual. For less formal presentations. Give each Visual a Title and Number – For the sake of easy identification. It is better to use no visual support. Show a Visual Only When You Discuss it – Revealing a visual before you are ready to describe it will only distract the attention of the audience from what you are saying now. Remove Visuals After Use – Similarly. depending on your audience. 2. rather than using it for its own sake. Make the Visuals Simple – When creating visuals. 8. the graphics should be extremely polished. avoid the visual. if you are making a presentation to top management. using only key words and simple typefaces. since this will only distract the attention of the audience. 6. so that attention is drawn to the visual alone.Business Communication Unit 6 No matter which type of visual aid you choose to support your presentation. than to use visuals that cannot be seen. avoid making them too intricate and detailed. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Match your Visuals with the Level of the Audience – Your visual aids should be made more or less sophisticated.

based on what was discussed in this unit. 9. 106 . 6. when to show and remove them. when people are separated by distance. Evaluate its effectiveness.Business Communication Unit 6 9. In general. to ensure that the visuals can be shown without any problem. 7. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Check if Visuals will Work Beforehand – Remember to check all the facilities in the presentation room before the session. personal quality.4 Summary The main advantages of oral communication are its high interactivity. What feedback and suggestions would you give the speaker. Two types of visual aids that can make presentations more credible are _______________ and ______________ ____________________. telephone and voice mail) communication. While face-to-face communication is superior in most ways. Activity Attend any presentation of your choice where the speaker uses visual support. Two types of media for presenting visual aids to a small audience are _______________ and ____________________ . _________________ are better suited for large audiences than ____________________. Oral communication may be classified into face-to-face (meetings and presentations) and non face-toface (teleconferencing. visuals should be prepared to match the __________________. without any confusion. possibility of making quick contact. it is also time consuming and expensive. regarding the use of visual aids? Self Assessment Question Fill in the blanks 5. Rehearse Setting Up Visuals – Practice using the visuals before the presentation. 6. immediate feedback and command over the listener’s attention. 10. so that you are familiar with the sequence. Power point slides should not be ____________________ and _______________________. 8.

107 . Voicemail makes it possible to keep a permanent record of the communication and to control the content of a message. computerized displays and videotapes. The guidelines for using these aids should be carefully followed. so as to achieve maximum impact. photographs. pie charts and graphs. since visuals are more attention getting. Several types of visual aids may be used in presentations. They may be made to both internal and external audiences. Oral presentations are of different types and may have different purposes. persuasive and memorable. Oral business presentations are needed when written communication alone cannot do the job.Business Communication Unit 6 Teleconferencing is a good substitute for face-to-face communication and has the same advantages. Irrespective of its nature and purpose. handouts. such as persuading audiences and getting approval for ideas. These aids may also be presented through a variety of media. time and context  Preparing a presentation outline  Collecting information  Organizing the body. In general. Telephone communication makes it possible to contact people who would otherwise be impossible to reach. such as product demonstrations. except that it is unsuitable for certain types of communication. power point slides. Each of the above media has its advantages as well as its limitations and should be used depending on the nature of the presentation and the characteristics of the audience. visual Sikkim Manipal University Page No. the steps involved in preparing a presentation are the same and include the following –  Defining the general and specific purpose  Developing the key idea. or main message  Analyzing the audience – their areas of expertise. introduction and conclusion  Selecting a style of delivery Presentations should try to use visual aids wherever relevant. transparencies. including flip charts. diagrams. lists and tables. demographic characteristics. knowledge levels and attitudes  Analyzing your knowledge and attitude as a speaker  Analyzing the limitations of infrastructure. preferred style of presentation.

5 Terminal Questions 1. 6. 2. 5. Refer 6. flip charts Cluttered/overcrowded. computerized displays Answers to Terminal Questions 1.1 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. over-decorated Audience Flip charts.2 3. 4. Refer 6.3. Develop – a) A general and specific statement of purpose b) The key idea c) Your style of delivery. list out the types of visuals and media for presentation of these visuals that you will select. Select a company of your choice in a sector that you would like to work in. The presentation should be rehearsed to make sure that visuals are displayed at the right time. 2.6 Answers Answers to Self Assessment Questions 1. 3. 108 . v) d Photographs. 6.3. iii) a. iv) e. F F T i) b.Business Communication Unit 6 aids should be used only when they are relevant. yet sophisticated enough. encouraging prospective students to enroll in the SMU MBA program. product demonstrations Transparencies. 7. Refer 6. Taking the same example above.3. to ensure that visuals are kept simple. 9. depending on the audience. 8.1 2. ii) c. 6. Imagine that you have to make a brief presentation on this company to business school students. Why would these visuals and visual aids be most appropriate? 3. Attention should be paid to the design. Prepare an outline of a presentation.

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