Human, All Too Human

1. Often enough, and always with great consternation, people have told me that there is something distinctive in all my writings, from The Birth of Tragedy to the most recently published Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future [subtitle of Beyond Good and Evil]. All of them, I have been told, contain snares and nets for careless birds, and an almost constant, unperceived challenge to reverse one's habitual estimations and esteemed habits. "What's that? Everything is only—human, all too human?" With such a sigh one comes from my writings, they say, with a kind of wariness and distrust even toward morality, indeed tempted and encouraged in no small way to become the spokesman for the worst things: might they perhaps be only the best slandered? My writings have been called a school for suspicion, even more for contempt, fortunately also for courage and, in fact, for daring. Truly, I myself do not believe that anyone has ever looked into the world with such deep suspicion, and not only as an occasional devil's advocate, but every bit as much, to speak theologically, as an enemy and challenger of God. Whoever guesses something of the consequences of any deep suspicion, something of the chills and fears stemming from isolation, to which every man burdened with an unconditional difference of viewpoint is condemned, this person will understand how often I tried to take shelter somewhere, to recover from myself, as if to forget myself entirely for a time (in some sort of reverence, or enmity, or scholarliness, or frivolity, or stupidity); and he will also understand why, when I could not find what I needed, I had to gain it by force artificially, to counterfeit it, or create it poetically. (And what have poets ever done otherwise? And why else do we have all the art in the world?) What I always needed most to cure and restore myself, however, was the belief that I was not the only one to be thus, to see thus—I needed the enchanting intuition of kinship and equality in the eye and in desire, repose in a trusted friendship; I needed a shared blindness, with no suspicion or question marks, a pleasure in foregrounds, surfaces, what is near, what is nearest, in everything that has color, skin, appearance. Perhaps one could accuse me in this regard of some sort of "art," various sorts of finer counterfeiting: for example, that I had deliberately and willfully closed my eyes to Schopenhauer's blind will to morality, at a time when I was already clear-sighted enough about morality; similarly, that I had deceived myself about Richard Wagner's incurable romanticism, as if it were a beginning and not an end; similarly, about the Greeks; similarly about the Germans and their future—and there might be a whole long list of such similarlies. But even if this all were true and I were accused of it with good reason, what do you know, what could you know about the amount of self-preserving cunning, or reason and higher protection that is contained in such selfdeception—and how much falseness I still require so that I may keep permitting myself the luxury of my truthfulness?...Enough, I am still alive; and life has not been devised by morality: it wants deception, it lives on deception—but wouldn't you know it? Here I am, beginning again, doing what I have always done, the old immoralist and birdcatcher, I am speaking immorally, extra-morally, "beyond good and evil." 2. Thus then, when I found it necessary, I invented once upon a time the "free spirits," to whom this discouragingly encouraging book with the title Human, All Too Human, is dedicated. There are no such " free spirits" nor have there been such, but, as already said, I then required them for company to keep me cheerful in the midst of evils (sickness, loneliness, foreignness—acedia, inactivity) as brave companions and ghosts with whom I could laugh and gossip when so inclined and send to the devil when they became bores—as compensation for the lack of friends. That such free spirits will be possible some day, that our Europe will have such bold and cheerful sights amongst her sons of tomorrow and the day after tomorrow, actually and bodily, and not merely, as in my case, as the shadows of a hermit's phantasmagoria—I should be the last to doubt thereof. Already I see them coming, slowly; and perhaps I am doing something to hasten their coming when I describe in advance under what auspices I see them originate, and upon what paths I see them come. 3. One may conjecture that a spirit in whom the type "free spirit" will one day become ripe and sweet to the point of perfection has had its decisive experience in a great liberation and that previously it was all the more a fettered spirit and seemed to be chained forever to its pillar and corner. What fetters the fastest? What bonds are all but unbreakable? In the case of men of a high and select kind they will be their duties: that reverence proper to youth, that reserve and delicacy before all that is honored and revered from of old, that gratitude for the soul

out of which they have grown, for the hand which led them, for the holy place where they learned to worship— their supreme moments themselves will fetter them the fastest, lay upon them the most enduring obligation. The great liberation comes from those who are thus fettered suddenly, like the shock of an earthquake: the youthful soul is all at once convulsed, torn loose, torn away—it itself does not know what is happening. A drive and impulse rules and masters it like a command; a will and desire awakens to go off, anywhere, at any cost; a vehement dangerous curiosity for an undiscovered world flames and flickers in all its senses. "Better to die than to go on living here"—thus resounds the imperious voice and temptation: and this "here," this "at home" is everything it had hitherto loved! A sudden terror and suspicion of what it loved, a lightning-bolt of contempt for what it called "duty," a rebellious, arbitrary, volcanically erupting desire for travel, strange places, estrangement, coldness, soberness, frost, a hatred for love, perhaps a desecrating blow and glance backwards to where it formerly loved and worshipped, perhaps a hot blush of shame at what it has just done and at the same time an exultation that it has done it, a drunken, inwardly exultant shudder which betrays that a victory has been won—a victory? over what? over whom? an enigmatic, question-packed, questionable victory, but the first victory nonetheless: such bad and painful things are part of the history of the great liberation. It is at the same time a sickness that can destroy the man who has it, this first outbreak of strength and will to self-determination, to evaluating on one's own account, this will to free will: and how much sickness is expressed in the wild experiments and singularities through which the liberated prisoner now seeks to demonstrate his mastery over things! He prowls cruelly around with an unslaked lasciviousness; what he captures has to expiate the perilous tension of his pride; what excites him he tears apart. With a wicked laugh he turns round whatever he finds veiled and through some sense of shame or other spared and pampered: he puts to the test what these things look like when they are reversed. It is a matter of arbitrariness with him, and pleasure in arbitrariness, if he now perhaps bestows his favor on what had hitherto a bad repute—if he inquisitively and temptingly haunts what is specially forbidden. Behind all his toiling and weaving—for he is restlessly and aimlessly on his way as if in a desert—stands the question mark of a more and more perilous curiosity. "Can all values not be turned round? and is good perhaps evil? and God only an invention and finesse of the Devil? Is everything perhaps in the last resort false? And if we are deceived, are we not for that very reason also deceivers? must we not be deceivers?— such thoughts as these tempt him and lead him on, ever further away, ever further down. Solitude encircles and embraces him, ever more threatening, suffocating, heart-tightening, that terrible goddess and mater saeva cupidinum ["wild mother of the passions"]—but who today knows what solitude is?... 4. From this morbid isolation, from the desert of these years of temptation and experiment, it is still a long road to that tremendous overflowing certainty and health which may not dispense even with sickness, as a means and fish-hook of knowledge, to that mature freedom of spirit which is equally self-mastery and discipline of the heart and permits access to many and contradictory modes of thought—to that inner spaciousness and indulgence of superabundance which excludes the danger that the spirit may even on its own road perhaps lose itself and become infatuated and remain seated intoxicated in some corner or other, to that superfluity of formative, curative, molding and restorative forces which is precisely the sign of great health, that superfluity which grants to the free spirit the dangerous privilege of living experimentally and of being allowed to offer itself to adventure: the master's privilege of the free spirit! In between there may lie long years of convalescence, years full of variegated, painfully magical transformations ruled and led along by a tenacious will to health which often ventures to clothe and disguise itself as health already achieved. There is a midway condition which a man of such a destiny will not be able to recall without emotion: it is characterized by a pale, subtle happiness of light and sunshine, a feeling of bird-like freedom, bird-like altitude, bird-like exuberance, and a third thing in which curiosity is united with a tender contempt. A "free spirit"—this cool expression does one good in every condition, it is almost warming. One lives no longer in the fetters of love and hatred, without yes, without no, near or far as one wishes, preferably slipping away, evading, fluttering off, gone again, again flying aloft; one is spoiled, as everyone is who has at some time seen a tremendous number of things beneath him—and one becomes the opposite of those who concern themselves with things which have nothing to do with them. Indeed, the free spirit henceforth has to do only with things—and how many things!—with which he is no longer concerned... 5. A step further in convalescence: and the free spirit again draws near to life—slowly, to be sure, almost reluctantly, almost mistrustfully. It again grows warmer around him, yellower, as it were; feeling and feeling for others acquire depth, warm breezes of all kinds blow across him. It seems to him as if his eyes are only now open to what is close at hand. He is astonished and sits silent: where had he been? These close and closest

things: how changed they seemed! what bloom and magic they have acquired! He looks back gratefully— grateful to his wandering, to his hardness and self-alienation, to his viewing of far distances and bird-like flights in cold heights. What a good thing he had not always stayed "at home," stayed "under his own roof" like a delicate apathetic loafer! He had been beside himself: no doubt of that. Only now does he see himself—and what surprises he experiences as he does so! What unprecedented shudders! What happiness even in the weariness, the old sickness, the relapses of the convalescent! How he loves to sit sadly still, to spin out patience, to lie in the sun! Who understands as he does the happiness that comes in winter, the spots of sunlight on the wall! They are the most grateful animals in the world, also the most modest, these convalescents and lizards again half turned towards life:—there are some among them who allow no day to pass without hanging a little song of praise on the hem of its departing robe. And, speaking seriously, it is a radical cure for all pessimism (the well-known disease of old idealists and falsehood-mongers) to become ill after the manner of these free spirits, to remain ill a good while, and then grow well (I mean "better ") for a still longer period. It is wisdom, practical wisdom, to prescribe even health for oneself for a long time only in small doses. 6. At that time it may finally happen that, under the sudden illumination of a still stressful, still changeable health, the free, ever freer spirit begins to unveil the riddle of that great liberation which had until then waited dark, questionable, almost untouchable in his memory. If he has for long hardly dared to ask himself: "why so apart? so alone? renouncing everything I once reverenced? renouncing reverence itself? why this hardness, this suspiciousness, this hatred for your own virtues?"—now he dares to ask it aloud and hears in reply something like an answer. "You shall become master over yourself, master also over your virtues. Formerly they were your masters; but they must be only your instruments beside other instruments. You shall get control over your For and Against and learn how to display first one and then the other in accordance with your higher goal. You shall learn to grasp the sense of perspective in every value judgment—the shifting, distortion, and apparent teleology of the horizons and everything that belongs to perspective; also the amount of stupidity which opposite values involve, and all the intellectual loss with which every every For and Against has to be paid for. You shall learn to grasp the necessary injustice in every For and Against, injustice as inseparable from life, life itself as conditioned by the sense of perspective and its injustice. You shall above all see with your own eyes where injustice is always at its greatest: where life has developed at its smallest, narrowest, neediest, most incipient and yet cannot avoid taking itself as the goal and measure of things and for the sake of its own preservation secretly and meanly and ceaselessly crumbling away and calling into question the higher, greater, richer—you shall see with your own eyes the problem of order of rank, and how power and right and spaciousness of perspective grow into the heights together. You shall"—enough: from now on the free spirit knows what "you shall" he has obeyed, and he also knows what he now can, what only now he—may do... 7. Thus does the free spirit answer himself with regard to the riddle of emancipation, and ends therewith, while he generalises his case, in order thus to decide with regard to his experience. "As it has happened to me," he says to himself, "so must it happen to everyone in whom a mission seeks to embody itself and to 'come into the world.'" The secret power and necessity of this mission will operate in and upon the destined individuals like an unconscious pregnancy—long before they have had the mission itself in view and have known its name. Our destiny rules over us, even when we are not yet aware of it; it is the future that makes laws for our today. Granted that it is the problem of the gradations of rank, of which we may say that it is our problem, we free spirits; now only in the midday of our life do we first understand what preparations, detours, tests, experiments, and disguises the problem needed, before it was permitted to rise before us, and how we had first to experience the most manifold and opposing conditions of distress and happiness in soul and body, as adventurers and circumnavigators of the inner world called "man," as surveyors of all the "higher" and the "one-above-another," also called "man"—penetrating everywhere, almost without fear, rejecting nothing, losing nothing, tasting everything, cleansing everything from all that is accidental, and, as it were, sifting it out—until at last we could say, we free spirits, "Here—a new problem! Here a long ladder, the rungs of which we ourselves have sat upon and mounted—which we ourselves at some time have been! Here a higher place, a lower place, an under-us, an immeasurably long order, a hierarchy which we see; here—our problem!" 8. No psychologist or augur will be in doubt for a moment as to what stage of the development just described the following book belongs (or is assigned to). But where are these psychologists nowadays? In France, certainly;

however. in certain cases. living for others in egoism. Consequently what is needed from now on is historical philosophizing. religious and aesthetic conceptions and sensations. Family failing of philosophers. the sentient in the dead." Historical philosophy. it wants refined and fastidious senses. All we require. Spring 1886 I. and that a mistake in reasoning lies at the bottom of this antithesis: according to this explanation there exists. Now. besides. long before the four thousand years we more or less know about. while some of them. which can no longer be separated from natural science. Friedrich Nice. Of First and Last Things 1." After such a polite answer my philosophy advises me to be silent and not to question further." I have been told. neither an unegoistic action nor completely disinterested contemplation. without being aware of it. for one who in this respect is un-German in disposition and constitution! This German book. by means of which even coy foreign ears are seduced into listening—it is precisely in Germany that this book has been most negligently read. everything essential in the development of mankind took place in primeval times. as a sure measure of things. at bottom no more than a testimony as to the man of a very limited period of time. many. the youngest of all philosophical methods. during these years mankind may well not have altered very much. which has been able to find readers in a wide circle of countries and nations—it has been about ten years going its rounds—and must understand some sort of music and piping art. while some of them would have it that the whole world is spun out of this faculty of cognition. in which the basic element seems almost to have dispersed and reveals itself only under the most painstaking observation. one only remains a philosopher by being—silent. surely. disinterested contemplation in covetous desire. is a chemistry of the moral. which we Germans of today do not possess and therefore cannot give.— All philosophers have the common failing of starting out from man as he is now and thinking they can reach their goal through an analysis of him. just as there are no absolute truths. likewise of all the agitations we experience within ourselves in cultural and social intercourse. strictly speaking. and what can be given us only now the individual sciences have attained their present level. both are only sublimations. except in the customary exaggeration of popular metaphysical interpretations. and indeed even when we are alone: what if this chemistry would end up by revealing that in this domain too the most glorious colors are derived from base. logic in unlogic. assuredly not in Germany. of clearness of sky and heart. "it appeals to men free from the pressure of coarse duties. They will not learn that man has become. what is the reason? "It demands too much. as something that remains constant in the midst of all flux. even take the most recent manifestation of man. Everything the philosopher has declared about man is. for example rationality in irrationality. and with it the virtue of modesty. it needs superfluity—superfluity of time. even certain political events. as the proverb points out.perhaps in Russia. of otium in the boldest sense of the term— purely good things. The chemistry of concepts and sensations. Reasons are not lacking why the present-day Germans could still even count this as an honour to them—bad enough. that the faculty of cognition has become. They involuntarily think of "man" as an aeterna veritas [something everlastingly true]. Nietzsche . and worst listened to.— Almost all the problems of philosophy once again pose the same form of question as they did two thousand years ago: how can something originate in its opposite. indeed from despised materials? Will there be many who desire to pursue such researches? Mankind likes to put questions of origins and beginnings out of its mind: must one not be almost inhuman to detect in oneself a contrary inclination? 2. on the other hand. as the fixed form from which one has to start out. But the philosopher here sees "instincts" in man as he now is and assumes that these belong to the unalterable facts of mankind and to that extent could provide a key to the understanding of the world in general: the whole of teleology is constructed by speaking of the man of the last four millennia as of an eternal man towards whom all things in the world have had a natural relationship from the time he began. Lack of historical sense is the family failing of all philosophers. has discovered in individual cases (and this will probably be the result in every case) that there are no opposites. such as has arisen under the impress of certain religions. truth in error? Metaphysical philosophy has hitherto surmounted this difficulty by denying that the one originates in the other and assuming for the more highly valued thing a miraculous source in the very kernel and being of the "thing in itself. But everything has become: there are no eternal facts.

and as. pose the question (a very unobjective question. 4. enduring. smallest fields of science are treated purely objectively. certain. while the other truths are so beautiful. wishes to render the greatest possible depth and meaning to life and activity. and to what extent a glance full of intelligence can mean more to all of us now than the most beautiful human body and the most sublime edifice. simple. to keep to them is manly. which thinks the heavens revolve around the fate of man. although man likes to believe that here at least he is touching the heart of the world.— It is probable that the objects of religious. not in the whole. or even enrapturing. In this way. men treat the sciences less impersonally as a whole than in their parts. every one is an optimist. its importance lay in spinning out symbols and forms. Eventually. Just as our very arts are becoming ever more intellectual and our senses more spiritual. For this reason. the general. when esteem for unpretentious truths and the scientific spirit first comes to rule. but only because either their eye has not yet been opened to the charm of the simplest form. Now. presumes that that which is essential to his heart must also be the heart and essence of all things. by thinking that knowledge must be accorded the highest usefulness. not only the individual. splendid. at least. and shows bravery. moral. Until now.— The man of the ages of barbarous primordial culture believed that in the dream he was getting to know a second real world: here is the origin of all metaphysics. Here we have the antagonism between individual scientific fields and philosophy. all philosophies have so much high-flying metaphysics and so much wariness of the seemingly insignificant explanations of physics. spiritual beauty is continually deepening and expanding. to be sure. In the sciences. throughout many millennia.3. so that they continue thoughtlessly to imitate old forms (and poorly. great sciences. and aesthetic sensibility likewise belong only to the surface of things. there has been no philosopher in whose hands philosophy has not become an apology for knowledge. but all mankind will be elevated to this manliness. sober. thus the origin of all beliefs in spirits and probably also of the belief in gods. have good reason to mock at first. The admirers of forms. for they appear to the living in dreams": that was the conclusion one formerly drew.— The distinct. and therefore still of consequence for all further knowledge are the higher. that importance of symbols has become the sign of lower culture. like someone who no longer really cares about the matter). and shows the same pride as astrology. one has scorn on his lips for unpretentious truths. lasting knowledge and have lost all belief in inspiration and a seemingly miraculous communication of truths. Previously. by its nature. At first. 6. simplicity. so the forms of our life become ever more spiritual—to the eye of older times uglier. Astrology and the like. On the other hand. All philosophers are tyrannized by logic: and logic. like art. or because men raised in that spirit have not yet been fully and inwardly permeated by it. Because those things make him so deeply happy or unhappy. The scientific spirit is powerful in the part.— It is the mark of a higher culture to value the little unpretentious truths which have been discovered by means of rigorous method more highly than the errors handed down by metaphysical ages and men. the mind was not obliged to think rigorously. restraint. Misunderstanding of the dream. The latter. one would have had no occasion to divide the world into two. he deceives himself. in philosophy—the top of the whole scientific pyramid—the question of the benefit of knowledge itself is posed automatically and each philosophy has the unconscious intention of ascribing to knowledge the greatest benefit. That has changed. But truths that are hard won. Without the dream. likewise the postulation of a life of the soul ["Seelenscheinleib"]. when men finally grow accustomed to the greater esteem for durable. with their standard of beauty and sublimity. will. for example. however. enchanting. Estimation of unpretentious truths. perhaps. The dissection into soul and body is also connected with the oldest idea of the dream. taken as a whole. "The dead live on. too. . to be sure): what for? to what benefit? Because of this concern about benefit. is optimism. but only because it is unable to see how the realm of internal. one seeks knowledge and nothing more—whatever the consequences may be. For the importance of knowledge for life ought to appear as great as possible. The moral man. 5. that which is sensually pleasant to the ear is judged quite differently now than a hundred years ago. which blind us and make us happy. even apparently discouraging. as if they could offer no match for the others: they stand so modest.

terrible. standing upon it. he conceived rather that with words he was expressing supreme knowledge of things. so it stands too in regard to nature—in fact much worse. while the question nonetheless remains what of the world would still be there if one had cut it off." We are in the realm of idea. a place it took to be so firmly set that. 8. it would be a thing with negative qualities. and one still comes upon vestiges of allegorical and mystical interpretation in the best-educated society. it is certain that knowledge of it would be the most useless of all knowledge: more useless even than knowledge of the chemical composition of water must be to the sailor in danger of shipwreck. that mankind set up in language a separate world beside the other world. To the extent that man has for long ages believed in the concepts and names of things as in aeternae veritates he has appropriated to himself that pride by which he raised himself above the animal: he really thought that in language he possessed knowledge of the world. The harmlessness of metaphysics in the future. and morality do not enable us to touch the "essence of the world in itself.7. but not to sniff out. which would . to be again put back. that the same thing is identical at different points of time: but this science came into existence through the opposite belief (that such conditions do obtain in the real world). it is the belief that the truth has been found out of which the mightiest sources of energy have flowed. the worst of all methods of acquiring knowledge. 9. Happily. Just as we have by no means overcome bad interpretive art in regard to books. delightful to them.— The significance of language for the evolution of culture lies in this. but all that has hitherto mad metaphysical assumptions valuable. When one has disclosed these methods as the foundation of all extant religions and metaphysical systems one has refuted them! Then that possibility still remains over. The sculptor of language was not so modest as to believe that he was only giving things designations. and morality have been described. but one can do absolutely nothing with it. Here. Language as putative science. 10.— For one could assert nothing at all of the metaphysical world except that it was a being-other. language is. which depends on this belief. 11. or even presume. art. This occurred in the Socratic schools: out of a concern for happiness man tied off the veins of scientific investigation—and does so still today.— It is true. a double meaning. Metaphysical world. — Metaphysics explains nature's scriptures as if pneumatologically. there could be a metaphysical world. the way the church and its scholars used to explain the Bible.— Even if the existence of such a world were never so well demonstrated. Very much subsequently—only now—it dawns on men that in their belief in language they have propagated a tremendous error. in fact. the absolute possibility of it is hardly to be disputed. not the best of all. so that one can explain them fully without resorting to the use of metaphysical intervention at the beginning and along the way. With complete calm we will let physiology and the ontogeny of organisms and concepts determine how our image of the world can be so very different from the disclosed essence of the world. then one no longer has as strong an interest in the purely theoretical problem of the "thing-in-itself" and "appearance. it could lift the rest of the world off its hinges and make itself master of it.— Logic too depends on presuppositions with which nothing in the real world corresponds. it is too late for the evolution of reason. no "intuition" can carry us further. the first stage of the occupation with science. have taught belief in them. religion. not to speak of letting happiness. all that has begotten these assumptions. error and self-deception. We behold all things through the human head and cannot cut off this head. salvation and life depend on the gossamer of such a possibility.— Philosophy divorced itself from science when it inquired which knowledge of the world and life could help man to live most happily. It is the same with mathematics." For however the case may be. It takes a lot of intelligence to apply to nature the same kind of strict interpretive art that philologists today have created for all books: with the intention simply to understand what the scripture wants to say. Pneumatic explanation of nature. is passion. This is a purely scientific problem and one not very well calculated to bother people overmuch. The troublemaker in science.— As soon as the origins of religion. too. for example on the presupposition that there are identical things. art.

but it is brought back to a state of imperfection. then a belief. Thus there are a hundred occasions for the mind to be surprised and to search for reasons for this excitation: the dream. 13. If we close our eyes. But all of us are like the savage when we dream. into definite figures.) I suppose: as man even now infers in dreams. how he explains them ex post facto through his dream. mankind inferred for many thousands of years also when awake. in our sleep and dreams. and is still developing. if one ties two straps around one's feet. The utter clarity of all dream-ideas.. his mind begins to stagger about. influence his feelings variously. and he produces lies and nonsense simply because he is weary. the nervous system is constantly excited by manifold internal stimuli: almost all the organs secrete and are active. best idea. as it might have been in everyone. because we harbor so much foolishness within. the feet. we have been so well drilled in just this form of fantastic and cheap explanation from the first. however. one may dream that two snakes are coiled around one's feet. as does the different way the whole body is clothed after its daily change and variation. the intestines turn. is the searching for. the blood circulates turbulently. Faulty recognitions and mistaken equations are the basis of the poor conclusions which we are guilty of making in dreams.— Memory is that function of the brain which is most greatly impaired by sleep—not that it relaxes entirely. the first causa that occurred to the mind to explain anything that required explanation sufficed and was considered the truth. i. and all this excites by its unusualness the whole system. In this way dreaming is recuperation for a brain which must satisfy by day the stricter demands made on thought by higher culture. 12. probably as a kind of postlude and echo to all those effects of light which penetrate it by day. am having"—thus judges the mind of the sleeper. But how is it that the mind of the dreamer always errs so greatly.e. without shoes. we go through the work of earlier mankind once more. the brain produces a multitude of impressions of light and colors. the supposed causes. and even now travelers regularly observe how greatly the savage inclines to forgetfulness. so that when we recollect a dream clearly.. how. i. accompanied by a pictorial idea and elaboration: "These snakes must be the cause of that feeling which I. This is at first a hypothesis. and sometimes seized whole communities. that is. Thus everybody knows from experience how quickly one blends a strong sound—e. we take our hypothesis for fully proven. it continually mistakes things on the basis of the most superficial similarities. for it is the basis upon which higher reason developed. their soles not pressing on the floor. savages proceed this way even today. but it was the same arbitrariness and confusion with which the tribes composed their mythologies. and skeptical about hypotheses? Why does he think the first best hypothesis that explains a feeling is enough to believe in it at once? (For when dreaming. while the same mind awake tends to be so sober. when awake and by day.certainly not have come into existence if one had known from the beginning that there was in nature no exactly straight line. however. What is thus inferred to have been the near past becomes the present through the excited imagination. (According to the tales of travelers.— When one sleeps. the position of the sleeper. after he strains his memory briefly. his blankets. we believe in the dream as if it were reality. forms. the toiling of bells or cannon shots—into his dream. the causes for these excited feelings.) This old aspect of humanity lives on in us in our dreams. no real circle. which presupposes an unconditional belief in their reality. in every human: dreams take us back again to distant conditions of human culture and put a means at our disposal for understanding them better. our reason (in league with imagination) immediately works these plays of color. the sleeper. Now. Dream-thought is so easy for us now because.g. Thus. The logic of the dream. Arbitrary and confused as it is. the stomach digests and disturbs other organs with its movements. we are frightened of ourselves. including the brain functions. whole nations simultaneously. no absolute magnitude. Dream and culture. in such a way that he supposes that he experiences first the causal circumstances and then this sound. cause a feeling of unusualness. For example.e. during mankind's immense periods of development. . A related occurrence when we are awake can be viewed as a virtual gate and antechamber to the dream. and the imagining of.. formless in themselves. the placement of the head occasions unusual positions of the muscles. reminds us once again of the state of earlier mankind in which hallucinations were extraordinarily frequent. during mankind's primeval age. careful.

they seem to stir up memory. does the intellect stop to think: and now the world of experience and the thing-in-itself seem so extraordinarily different and separate that it rejects any conclusion about the latter from the former. 16. to this extent he reminds us of an older mankind. which guarantees nothing at all about knowledge except itself. but rather as unities. so philosophers in general apply the concept "inside and outside" to the essence and appearance of the world. just as strong belief proves only its own strength. must be interpreted correctly in order to draw a conclusion as to the being which produced the painting: that is to say. because the mind is used to finding an occasioning cause for every color and every light impression it receives by day. they think. meaningful. and any conclusion from the former to the latter is to be rejected. too. instead of accusing the . one speaks of moral feelings. religious demands on the world. As is so often the case. this world has gradually become so marvelously variegated. In this sense. Thus habitual. moving groups. A feeling is deep because we hold the accompanying thought to be deep. Only late. looked upon it with blind desire. attributes his moods and states to causes that are in no way the true ones. the artist. and can help us to understand it. are eventually no longer felt as complexes. denied any connection between the unconditioned (the metaphysical world) and the world known to us: so that what appears in appearance is precisely not the thing-in-itself. our inherited idea of the world. other people have gathered together all characteristic traits of our world of appearances (that is. Resonance. Something in us remembers and becomes aware of similar states and their origin. consequently also the unconditioning. however. when they follow with lightning speed upon one another. which we call deep. That is. aesthetic. If one subtracts the added elements of thought from the deep feeling. and we live more or less half our lives in this state. and should thus not be regarded as a fixed magnitude from which one might draw a conclusion as to the originator (the sufficient reason) or even reject such a conclusion. in truth they are rivers with a hundred sources and tributaries. where they have no meaning. the actual process is a kind of conclusion from the effect to the cause. as if they were all unities. We can infer from these processes. for example. as the mind inquires about the origin of these light impressions and colors. a rigorous application of cause and effect. after they had strictly established the concept of the metaphysical as that of the unconditioned. with eyes open. as is.— Just as Democritus applied the concepts of above and below to infinite space. and abandoned ourselves to the bad habits of illogical thinking. the unity of the word does not guarantee the unity of the thing. approaches the heart of nature. it demands the abandonment of our intellect. and a sequence can appear to be a synchronism. Here. the imagination keeps pushing images upon the mind. developed. almost imperceptibly. Once again. in an awful. passion or fear. certain complicated groups of thoughts. overlook the possibility that this painting—that which we men call life and experience—has gradually become. of our personal will in order to come to the essential by becoming essential. Both parties. every metaphysical thought.— Philosophers are accustomed to place themselves before life and experience— before that which they call the world of appearance—as if before a painting that has been unrolled once and for all and unchangingly displays almost the same event: this event. 15. or even a reversed sequence. as to the thing-in-itself. Because we have for millennia made moral. 14. All this with an extraordinary speed. even now. the supposed cause is deduced from the effect and imagined after the effect. They seem to be the occasion of those colors and lights. so that. rapid associations of feelings and thoughts are formed. More rigorous logicians. mysterious way. They think that with deep feelings man penetrates deep into the inside. our functions of reason and intelligence reach back instinctively to those primitive forms of deductions. very late. spun out of intellectual errors) and. The poet.landscapes. how late a more acute logical thinking. as with a conjurer. No inside and outside in the world. religious feelings.— All intense moods bring with them a resonance of related feelings and moods. it has acquired color—but we have been the colorists: it is the human intellect that has made appearances appear and transported its erroneous basic conceptions into things. is indeed still fully in process of becoming. using in their production the visual impressions of the day— and this is precisely what dream imagination does. on the other hand. or else. soulful. judgment becomes confused. But the deep thought can nevertheless be very far from the truth. But these feelings are deep only to the extent that they regularly stimulate. then. what remains is intense feeling. it assumes those figures and shapes to be the cause. frightful. which is seen as the sufficient reason for the world of appearance. Appearance and thing-in-itself. not the truth of what is believed. which. On the other hand.

Even now. however. To a plant. in its own being. The steady and arduous progress of science. as the best logicians have determined. the thought of causality is furthest removed. to be something isolated. whose essence consists. as a substance. and at the same time to find things more interesting: that is the twofold benefit which he owes to metaphysics. Between those moments in which we become aware of this relationship (i. If he is dissatisfied with himself. he comes to distrust the whole method of metaphysical explanation. then perhaps he understands that those same effects are to be obtained just as well and more scientifically in another way. the following sentence by an excellent logician will be seen in a new light: "The original general law of the knowing subject consists in the inner necessity of knowing each object in itself. which is here called "original. original error of all that is organic. Metaphysical explanations. how the dull mole's eyes of these organizations at first see everything as identical. we notice no change in it (just as even now. without a context. But it can gradually and step by step illuminate the history of how this world as idea arose—and raise us above the whole thing at least for moments at a time. each thing identical to itself. Rather. will deal decisively with all these views. we organic beings have no interest in a thing. it isolates itself and takes itself to be arbitrary. To the extent that all metaphysics has dealt primarily with substance and freedom of the will. which will ultimately celebrate its greatest triumph in an ontogeny of thought. and have preached salvation from being. Basic questions of metaphysics. man has inherited the belief that there are identical things (only experience which has been educated by the highest science contradicts this tenet). A new. Later. To feel less responsible. Some day the gradual origin of this tendency in lower organisms will be shown. very uncanny character of the world. one may characterize it as that science which deals with the basic errors of man— but as if they were basic truths. Thus the belief in freedom of the will is an initial error of all organic beings. It rises up out of us. when the feeling individual considers himself.. all things are normally quiet. the states of sensation) lie those states of quiet. Its conclusion might perhaps end up with this tenet: That which we now call the world is the result of a host of errors and fantasies which have gradually arisen in the course of the total evolution of organic nature. Rigorous science is in fact able to detach us from this ideational world only to a slight extent (something we by no means desire). From the period of low organisms. he understands that physical and historical explanations bring about at least as much that feeling of irresponsibility. he takes each feeling. but each one with One attribute. third feeling as the result of two preceding feelings is judgment in its lowest form. From the beginning. in short. 17. selfexisting and fundamentally always the same and unchangeable. have attacked the essence of things for causing this real. and that his interest in life and its problems is kindled perhaps even more thereby. in belief. All belief is based on the feeling of pleasure or pain in relation to the feeling subject. with one single relationship to such an organism. when the various stimuli of pleasure and unpleasure become more noticeable. as an object identical with itself. The first stage of logic is judgment. Belief in unconditioned substances and identical things is likewise an old. as old as the existence in them of stirrings of logic. too.e. but do not think initially that the organism wants to be kept alive. each change. have become entwined with one another and are now inherited by us as the accumulated treasure of the entire past—as a treasure: for the value of our humanity depends on it. with no connection to anything earlier or later.— A young person appreciates metaphysical explanations because they show him something highly meaningful in matters he found unpleasant or despicable." This law. of non-sensation. and is actually empty. other than in its relationship to us with regard to pleasure and pain. Then we find the world and every thing in it without interest. something unconditioned. different substances are gradually distinguished." also evolved. we believe fundamentally that all feelings and actions are acts of free will. Perhaps we then recognize that the thing-in-itself is worthy of Homeric laughter: it appeared to be so much. . Initially. In that first stage of logic. 18. We are hungry. the first belief of all organic beings may be that the whole rest of the world is One and unmoved. a person who is intensely interested in something will not notice that someone is passing by him). indeed everything. that feeling seems to assert itself without reason or purpose.intellect. that is to say empty of meaning. his feeling is relieved if he can recognize in that which he so disapproves of in himself the innermost riddle of the world or its misery. how then. that is.— Once the ontogeny of thought is written. in that it is unable to break significantly the power of ancient habits of feeling. of course. that is. eternal. that is.

Whenever we establish something scientifically. 22. the laws of numbers are wholly inapplicable: these are valid only in the human world. even if one were to reject the question of whether Kant and Schopenhauer proved anything metaphysical scientifically. unities. too. and we do not come out of this circle. Disbelief in the "monumentum aere perennius. even here. generally speaking. Once he is at this level of liberation. we are inevitably always reckoning with some incorrect quantities. for if they are tested rigorously. no longer believes in the heavenly angels or original sin. With regard to philosophical metaphysics. 20. metaphysical world and that we could not use any metaphysical explanations of the only world known to us. which occurs repeatedly. but only a few who climb back down a few rungs. our feeling of time and space). it is quite likely that men at some time will become skeptical about this whole subject. Our feelings of space and time are false. To a world that is not our idea. And if one is distrustful of metaphysics."] — One crucial disadvantage about the end of metaphysical views is that the individual looks his own short life span too . in atomic theory. if one did not take this retrograde step. for example. The assumption of multiplicity always presumes that there is something. but not want to stand on it.— The laws of numbers were invented on the basis of the initially prevailing error that there are various identical things (but actually there is nothing identical) or at least that there are things (but there is no "thing"). but which is the summation of a host of errors of the understanding. There we still feel ourselves forced to assume a "thing" or a material "substratum" that is moved. The historical question about mankind's unmetaphysical views remains the same in either case. Presumed triumph of skepticism. they lead to logical contradictions. One can continue to build upon them-up to that final analysis. the same consequences as if metaphysics had been directly refuted and one were no longer permitted to believe in it. but because these quantities are at least constant (as is.— One level of education. Number. the results of science do acquire a perfect strictness and certainty in their relationship to each other. 21. while here. that do not exist." this is wholly true in respect to the concept of nature which we are obliged to attach to nature (nature = world as idea. then we have. for example. as error).— Let us accept for the moment the skeptical starting point: assuming there were no other. we invent entities. He must recognize how mankind's greatest advancement came from them and how. it is useful to do so. how would we then look upon men and things? One can imagine this. as in the hippodrome. however. because the belief in things has been tied up with our essential nature from time immemorial. Here. When Kant says "the understanding does not draw its laws from nature. that is.19. it is necessary to take a turn at the end of the track." ["A memorial lasting longer than bronze (Horace). But this is just where error rules. where the mistaken basic assumptions. come into contradiction with the results. it prescribes them to nature. he must still make a last intense effort to overcome metaphysics. for example. and has stopped talking about the soul's salvation. I now see a number of people who have arrived at the negative goal (that all positive metaphysics is an error). A few rungs down. So one must ask the question: how will human society take shape under the influence of such an attitude? Perhaps the scientific proof of any metaphysical world is itself so difficult that mankind can no longer keep from distrusting it. For according to historical probability. For one should look out over the last rung of the ladder. itself a very high one. has been reached when man gets beyond superstitious and religious concepts and fears and. a retrograde movement is necessary: he must understand both the historical and the psychological justification in metaphysical ideas. while the entire scientific procedure has pursued the task of dissolving everything thing-like (material) into movements. our feeling distinguishes that which is moving from that which is moved. those constant errors. Those who are most enlightened can go only as far as to free themselves of metaphysics and look back on it with superiority. one would rob himself of mankind's finest accomplishments to date. Then.

once and for all. Age of comparisons. progress in the sense of the old culture.— The less men are bound by their tradition. original folk cultures) it is in any event borrowing that image from the past: its thinking and imagining in this area lack all originality. cultures are compared and experienced next to one another. can in time become so large (in the dietetics of health. and by means of it. In the meanwhile. accordingly. man has to set himself ecumenical goals embracing the whole earth. the contrast between our excited ephemeral existence and the long-winded quiet of metaphysical ages is still too strong. Then posterity will bless us for it—a posterity that knows it has transcended both the completed original folk cultures. The individual is furthering his salvation when he endows a church. the polyphony of strivings. the individual runs through too many inner and outer evolutions himself to dare to set himself up permanently. But men can consciously decide to develop themselves forward to a new culture. which.squarely in the eye and feels no strong incentives to build on enduring institutions. 25. which outlast all storms of skepticism and all disintegration. Even if romantic fantasizing still uses the word "progress" about its goals (e. 24. led an unconscious animal-and-vegetable life. Let us not be afraid of this sorrow! Instead. so too are all stages and kinds of morality. I mean to say. he has a feeling as if he were walling himself up alive in a mausoleum. Such an age gets its meaning because in it the various world views. cultures. its truest allies must be doubt and distrust. it is premature and almost nonsensical to believe that progress must of necessity come about. the greater the internal stirring of motives. man's increased aesthetic feeling will decide definitively from among the many forms which offer themselves for comparison. for example. demanded of the individual actions which one desired of all men: that was a very naive thing. it is work on the eternal salvation of his soul. the sum of indisputable truths. customs. their nourishment. when there was always a localized rule for each culture. to build a house.. customs. the whirling flow of men. awaken such a belief in its results? To be sure. we will conceive the task that this age sets us to be as great as possible. for example). a selection is now taking place among the forms and habits of higher morality. he is right. whereas formerly they developed unconsciously and by chance. Now. it also kills the distrust of progress: progress is possible. trees that are destined to overshade long successions of generations. for example.— When a scholar of the old culture vows no longer to have anything to do with men who believe in progress. whose goal can be none other than the downfall of baser moralities. upbringing. instruction. is leading mankind gloriously upward. completed. as well as the culture of comparison. Possibility of progress. as if everyone knew without . He wants to pick the fruit from the tree he has planted himself. Can science. the external unrest.— Since belief has ceased that a God broadly directs the destinies of the world and that. because the two ages are still too close to each other. It will let most of them (namely all those that it rejects) die out. seen as a whole. can weigh the strengths of men. for even the span of his own life. Private and public morality. that one can decide on that basis to found "eternal" works. he thinks it will be credited to him and repaid in his soul's eternal afterlife. The former morality. too. For metaphysical views lead one to believe that they offer the conclusive foundation upon which all future generations are henceforth obliged to settle and build. designed for the ages.g. When a wholly modern man intends. is not even conceivable. which was not possible earlier. just as all artistic styles were bound to place and time. Similarly. 23. or a monastery. For the old culture has its greatness and goodness behind it. and therefore no longer likes to plant those trees which require regular care over centuries. with gratitude. they can administer the earth as a whole economically. The new. To deny this requires an intolerable obtuseness or an equally insufferable enthusiasm. and employ them. namely Kant's. conscious culture kills the old culture. all the apparent twists and turns in its path notwithstanding. but that looks back on both kinds of culture as on venerable antiquities. but how could one deny that it is possible? Conversely. the greater. one against the other. Now they can create better conditions for the generation of men. This is the age of comparisons! That is its pride—but also by rights its sorrow. Who today still feels a serious obligation to bind himself and his descendants to one place? Who feels that anything is seriously binding? Just as all artistic styles of the arts are imitated one next to the other. Nevertheless. and an historical education forces one to admit that it can never again be fresh.

too. Voltaire. the banner with the three names: Petrarch. they can be weakened and exterminated. that unpleasure is greater than pleasure. of all Christian dogmas. 28. given that he himself is goodness and perfection? What thinking person still needs the hypothesis of a god? Nor is there cause for a pessimistic confession. Herein lies the tremendous task facing the great spirits of the coming century. the whole Renaissance appears like an early spring. But who worries about theologians these days (except the theologians)? . only babblers still cannot do without them. despite the defeat. for easing a heart overburdened with feelings. Science could not yet raise her head.— Away with those tedious. it is a theory like that of free trade.— One thinks he is speaking well of philosophy when he presents it as a substitute religion for the people. we have taken a step forward. well-known "metaphysical need. it is right to recommend philosophy. those ideas are entertained much less by art than by a metaphysical philosophy. it must first of all attain to a hitherto altogether unprecedented knowledge of the preconditions of culture as a scientific standard for ecumenical goals. juvenescent. who are nevertheless backward. that Christian distress of mind that comes from sighing over one's inner depravity and care for one's salvation—all concepts originating in nothing but errors of reason and deserving. Erasmus. delicate. the theologians or the theologizing philosophers. Out of reaction. History and justice benefit greatly. For example. they conjure up once again a past phase of mankind. Schopenhauer's metaphysics proved that the scientific spirit is still not strong enough. powerful forms of contemplating the world and men. But in our century. that the world is a botched job. It is preferable to use art for this transition. dangerous leap. I believe that without Schopenhauer's aid. Perhaps some future survey of the requirements of mankind will show that it is absolutely not desirable that all men should act in the same way. if one does not have an interest in irritating the advocates of God. not satisfaction. something inadvisable. those conjurers would be opposed more effectively. A philosophy can be useful either by satisfying those needs or by eliminating them. His teaching is infused with much science. but obliteration. 26. In spiritual economy. violent. They serve as proof that the new tendencies which they are opposing are still not strong enough. to attempt to do so based on the Christianity still existing today is impossible. perhaps under certain circumstances even evil tasks imposed upon them. worn-out words "optimism" and "pessimism. but what rules it is not science but rather the old. Luther's Reformation proves that in his century all the impulses of freedom of the spirit were still uncertain. may we once again carry onward the banner of the Enlightenment. based on assumptions that contradict those of science. only after we have corrected in such an essential point the historical way of thinking that the Enlightenment brought with it." Every day there is less and less cause to use them. transitional spheres of thought are indeed necessary occasionally. Reaction as progress. the manifestation of an evil will to life.further ado what mode of action would benefit the whole of mankind. presupposing that universal harmony must result of itself in accordance with innate laws of progress. Consider. For why in the world should anyone want to be an optimist if he does not have to defend a God who must have created the best of all possible worlds. no one today could so easily do justice to Christianity and its Asian cousins. for example. one can more easily move on to a truly liberating philosophical science.— In any event. Only after this great triumph of justice. Indeed. otherwise.— Sometimes there appear rough. what actions at all are desirable. and energetically asserting the opposite claim. long since achieved. Substitute for religion. which almost gets snowed away. for they are acquired needs. But in the end one also has to understand that the needs that religion has satisfied and philosophy is now supposed to satisfy are not immutable. Beginning with art. Disreputable words. To that extent. to which other paths could not so readily lead us. for the transition from religion to scientific contemplation is a violent. that is. Thus. and impetuous spirits. that something is lacking there. 27. namely that evil reigns. temporally limited. but rather that in the interest of ecumenical goals whole tracts of mankind ought to have special." Certainly one of the greatest and quite inestimable benefits we gain from Schopenhauer is that he forces our feeling for a time back to older. if mankind is not to destroy itself through such conscious universal rule. in Schopenhauer's teaching the whole medieval Christian worldview and feeling of man could again celebrate a resurrection.

delicate. Man cannot experience a drive to or away from something without the feeling that he is desiring what is beneficial and avoiding what is harmful. can be combined just as well with a practical affirmation of the world as with its opposite. the higher he esteems himself. as they are generally used. and this we can know: it is one of the greatest and most insoluble disharmonies of existence. and third. wonderful. This he does indeed through science. but by no means nearer to the root of the world than is its stem. it must be true.— Among the things that can drive a thinker to despair is the knowledge that the illogical is necessary for man and that much good comes from it. the nearer he will come to the true essence of the world and knowledge of it. however close he is to us." in the sense of the useful. which. the farther his distance from the other animals (the more he appears as the genius among animals). it must be wrong." but now in the sense of the logically valid. a flower of civilization. for example. in the fact that every separate part of the material again results. 29. who comes to know all too well the error of this sort of deduction and has to suffer from its consequences. the more delicate his feelings. often succumbs to the temptation of making contrary deductions. and generally in everything which endows life with value. but he thinks he does it more through his religions and arts. if its effect is good. All evaluations are premature. Finally. deep. The reversal of the proposition is: if a thing cannot prevail and maintain itself. if there were degrees of approximation to this goal. Error has made man so deep. it in itself must be good and true. just as does all inclination. which are in general naturally just as false: if a thing cannot prevail. Only the very naive are capable of thinking that the nature of man can be transformed into a purely logical one. 32. let alone the best or the worst. We are from the start illogical and therefore unfair beings. Furthermore. Bad habits in making conclusions. to be sure. if an opinion troubles and disturbs. and providing the cause with the same predicate "good. in religion. can be so complete that we would have a logical right to evaluate him in toto.— The ship of mankind. without having disinclinations and inclinations! For all disinclination depends upon an evaluation. and must be so. yet we would have to know ourselves to be a fixed gauge if we were to evaluate fairly the relationship of any one thing to ourselves. it is self-evident that the world is not good and not evil. our own nature. therefore it is legitimate. that one cannot extricate it without doing irreparable harm to these beautiful things. Unfairness necessary. This conclusion leads to a philosophy of the logical denial of the world. 31. in art.— All judgments about the value of life have developed illogically and therefore unfairly. Whoever revealed to us the essence of the world would disappoint us all most unpleasantly. that is. is no unchangeable quantity. The free spirit. The impurity of the judgment lies first in the way the material is present (that is very incompletely). Here one is attributing to the effect the predicate "gladdening. in speech. but the world as idea (as error) that is so rich in meaning. without evaluating knowingly the merit of the goal. if only one could live without evaluating. Intoxicated by the blossoms' fragrance.— The most common false conclusions of men are these: a thing exists. if an opinion makes us glad. it is thought. 30. it must be true. It is not the world as a thingin-itself. Pure knowledge would have been incapable of it. These are.All theology and its opposition aside. has an ever greater draft. by the way. it must be good." "good. second. his illogical basic attitude to all things. Perhaps it will follow from all this that one ought not to judge at all. and legitimacy from functionality. as is absolutely necessary. Perhaps even there. they are not justified: we must in every case dispense with both the reviling and the glorifying view of the world. how much would not have to vanish along this path! Even the most rational man needs nature again from time to time. and that these concepts "good" and "evil" make sense only in reference to men. the more it is laden. pregnant with happiness and unhappiness. although nearly everyone is of that opinion. the gauge by which we measure. One does not understand the essence of things through art and religion. inventive as to bring forth such blossoms as religions and arts. we have moods and vacillations. . it is believed that the deeper man thinks. it must be false. Here one is concluding functionality from viability. but. if an opinion tortures and agitates. It is so firmly lodged in the passions. in the way it is assessed. The illogical necessary. No experience of a man. from impure knowledge.

Most men tolerate life without grumbling too much and believe thus in the value of existence. If one knows how to keep his attention primarily on exceptions.— But does not our philosophy then turn into tragedy? Does not truth become an enemy of life. and basically cheerful soul. on the great talents and pure souls. the individual cannot pull it out of this well without growing profoundly annoyed with his entire past. Error about life necessary for life. which would give rise to a life much more simple. But if one nevertheless wants more from him. has no goal and consequently. then one may believe in the value of life—for one is overlooking other men. one renunciation. everything extrapersonal escapes his notice entirely. a man from whom the ordinary chains of life have fallen in such measure that he continues to live on only to better his knowledge must be able to renounce without envy and chagrin much. essentially determine.33. Knowledge can allow only pleasure and unpleasure. in everything he does. he would collapse with a curse against existence—for mankind. have to do with errors (to the extent that inclination and disinclination. man cannot find his comfort and support in it. with a . but precisely because everyone wills himself alone and stands his ground alone. is a feeling above all feelings. or seems at the most a faint shadow. his own activity acquires the character of squandering in his eyes. although the aftereffect described above is possible in some natures. and he therefore participates in their vicissitudes and suffering as little as possible. as we have said. The great lack of fantasy from which he suffers keeps him from being able to empathize with other beings. indeed almost everything. He. Rather.— Every belief in the value and worth of life is based on impure thinking and is only possible because the individual's sympathy for life in general. But to feel squandered as mankind (and not just as an individual). considering the whole affair. one self-denial the more. Thus the value of life for ordinary. with despair as a personal end and a philosophy of destruction as a theoretical end? I believe that a man's temperament determines the aftereffect of knowledge. and believe to this extent in the value of life—in this case. that other men value. to be sure. and without opposing scorn and disdain to the passions that urge one on to the future and to the happiness in it. and their very unfair measurements. that is. as I said. on the other hand. and its expressions would have neither a growling tone nor sullenness—those familiar bothersome traits of old dogs and men who have lain a long time chained up. without finding his present motives (like honor) senseless. or that one was more than nature. inherited habit. But whichever is the case. as valid and excuses mankind in respect to its other drives. I could just as well imagine a different one. too. overzealousness. laws and the traditional evaluations of things. Even uncommon men who think beyond themselves at all do not focus on life in general. 34. which is for him the most desirable of states. a good temperament would be necessary—a secure. if he were able to grasp and feel mankind's overall consciousness in himself. as whole. One would be free of appearance and would no longer feel the goading thought that one was not simply nature. reproaches. But how will these motives come to terms with the feeling for truth? These motives. as motives. through impurity of thought. he considers the ultimate aimlessness of men. He is glad to communicate his joy in this state. everyday man is based only on his taking himself to be more important than the world. but rather on limited parts of it. such a disposition would not need to be on guard for tricks and sudden explosions. And likewise. benefit and harm. which is. Some reassurance. is very weakly developed. and does not step out of himself as do those exceptional men. if one does focus on all men. more free of affects than the present one. as we see the single blossom squandered by nature. mild. customs. All human life is sunk deep in untruth. if one had to do so. and for the suffering of mankind. every bit as much as religion. is there only one way of thought left. such a stance makes one an exception among men. delighting in many things as in a spectacle that one formerly had only to fear. whether death would not be preferable? For there is no "ought" anymore. Finally one would live among men and with oneself as in nature. The old motives of intense desire would still be strong at first. then too one can hope something about mankind as a whole. our pleasure and unpleasure). fearless hovering over men. but rather his despair. and perhaps he has nothing else to communicate. the less egoistical type. Morality to the extent that it was an "ought" has been destroyed by our way of reflection. if one takes their coming into existence to be the goal of all world evolution and rejoices in their activity. but takes only one type of drive. Of course. but they would gradually grow weaker under the influence of cleansing knowledge. He must be content with that free. due to old. which is to say. If. who would be truly able to participate in it would have to despair about the value of life. an enemy of what is better? A question seems to weigh down our tongues. too. and yet not want to be uttered: whether one is capable of consciously remaining in untruth. thinking impurely. If this is true. without praise. But who is capable of it? Certainly only a poet—and poets always know how to comfort themselves. or.

has not been challenged by it himself. II. and palliatives? Might one be so persuaded of the unpleasant consequences of this art as to intentionally divert the student's gaze from it? Indeed. but more in the judging of public events and personalities. the free man of action. most of all we lack the art of psychological dissection and calculation in all classes of society. but none at all about man. help humanity forward. they react like typical viewers of cameos. known—in earlier centuries. for not even the finest mind is capable of adequate appreciation of the art of the polished maxim if he has not been educated to it. and dullness in this area generally. to the dearth of psychological observation? Not particularly in novels. which is helpful in isolated instances. Psychological error. may really be more desirable for a man's overall happiness than the trait of psychological sharpsightedness. that from the thorniest and unhappiest phases of one's own life one can pluck maxims and feel a bit better thereby: this was believed. Why do people let the richest and most harmless source of entertainment get away from them? Why do they not even read the great masters of the psychological maxim any more? For it is no exaggeration to say that it is hard to find the cultured European who has read La Rochefoucauld and his spiritual and artistic cousins. for these are the work of exceptional men. indeed. and perhaps not conceal a little scorn: for that man's "freedom" is another matter entirely. "psychological observation") is one of the means by which man can ease life's burden. one is not acute enough in discerning what is successful and attractive. and philosophical meditations. And perhaps the belief in goodness. one can secure presence of mind in difficult situations and entertainment amid boring surroundings. remedies.— Or might there be a counterargument to the thesis that psychological observation is one of life's best stimulants. in that it has made them less distrustful.benevolent shake of the head he will indicate his brother. Even more uncommon is the man who knows them and does not despise them. in an abundance of impersonal goodwill in the world has made men better. a kind of shame with respect to the naked soul. The advantages of psychological observation. that by exercising this art. in Germany at least. short stories. But even this unusual reader will probably find much less delight in those artists than their form ought to give him. when many signs point. 36. as the learned phrase goes. For that reason present-day readers of maxims take a relatively insignificant delight in them. a certain blind faith in the goodness of human nature. Without such practical learning one takes this form of creating and forming to be easier than it is. in virtuous men and actions. if not throughout Europe. where one hears a lot of talk about men.— That meditating on things human. but knowledge of the truth might gain more from the stimulating power of an hypothesis like the one La Rochefoucauld places at the beginning of the first edition of . If one imitates Plutarch's heroes with enthusiasm and feels an aversion toward tracing skeptically the motives for their actions. scarcely a mouthful of pleasure. Objection. all too human (or. an inculcated aversion to dissecting human behavior. then the welfare of human society has benefited (even if the truth of human society has not). and quick to admire but even quicker to run away. On the History of the Moral Sensations 35. praising them because they cannot love them. Why has it been forgotten in this century.

who can say?). 1876-7] . of the moral sensations. the black mark of man's nature.— The principal stages in the history of the sensations by virtue of which we make anyone accountable for his actions. But if it is a fact that the superficiality of psychological observation has laid the most dangerous traps for human judgment and conclusions. oppressive burdens for their health's sake. It is true that countless individual remarks about things human and all too human were first detected and stated in those social circles which would make every sort of sacrifice not for scientific knowledge. arrive at through his incisive and piercing analysis of human actions? "The moral man. For now that science rules which asks after the origin and history of moral feelings and which tries as it progresses to pose and solve the complicated sociological problems. 38. since it has been demonstrated in many instances how the errors of the greatest philosophers usually have their point of departure in a false explanation of certain human actions and sensations. and he will perceive diseases which require cold poultices. as others. for science cannot do without it. First of all. And because the scent of that old homeland (a very seductive scent) has attached itself almost inextricably to the whole genre of the moral maxim. who are overly excitable and unstable. 1875] . but the spectator who is guided not by the scientific spirit. which hit the mark again and again."] La Rochefoucauld and those other French masters of soul searching (whose company a German. Their skill inspires amazement. occasionally need heavy. Let him look around meanwhile. which is the imitation of nature in concepts. The fable of intelligible freedom. the older philosophy doesn't even acknowledge such problems and has." Perhaps at some point in the future this principle. Moreover." ["That which the world calls virtue is usually nothing but a phantom formed by our passions to which we give an honest name so as to do what we wish with impunity. the scientific man instinctively shows some suspicion towards this genre and its seriousness. it is a tenet with the most weighty consequences. how an erroneous analysis of so-called selfless behavior. a qui on donne un nom honnete pour faire impunément ce qu'on veut. will eventually curse an art which seems to implant in the souls of men a predilection for belittling and doubt. grown hard and sharp by the hammerblow of historical knowledge.— However credit and debit balances may stand: at its present state as a specific individual science the awakening of moral observation has become necessary. "stands no nearer to the intelligible (metaphysical) world than does the physical man. Which principle did one of the keenest and coolest thinkers. and seeing into the world with that Janus-face which all great insights have. further man's benefit and welfare and achieve what is useful—but likewise without having willed it. Science. for example. so too true science. just as nature sometimes brings about the most useful things without having wanted to. so should not we—the more spiritual men of an age that is visibly being set aflame more and more—reach for all quenching and cooling means available to remain at least as steady. that is to say. of whether psychological observation brings more advantage or harm upon men. and mankind can no longer be spared the cruel sight of the moral dissecting table and its knives and forceps. fruitful and frightful at the same time. How beneficial. we need a sober courage to do such humble work without shame and to defy any who disdain it. and continues to lay them anew. harmless. pebble upon pebble. will sometimes. always avoided investigation of the origin and history of the moral sensations. then what we need now is a persistence in work that does not tire of piling stone upon stone. Whoever feels too wintry in the breeze of this kind of observation has perhaps too little fire in him." he says. But it suffices to point to the outcome: already it is becoming clear that the most serious results grow up from the ground of psychological observation. are as follows. as all overly earnest individuals and peoples have a need for frivolity. with paltry evasions.— Let us table the question. one . and the shadow of these dismal spirits in the end falls even across physics and the entire perception of the world. and men who are so "molded" out of glowing spirit that they have great trouble in finding an atmosphere cold and biting enough for them anywhere. then. and moderate as we now are and thus render service to this age at some future time as a mirror and self-reflection of itself? — 39. the author of Psychological Observations [written by Paul Rée. In any event. takes as little consideration of final purposes as does nature. What is certain is that it is necessary. 37. but for a witty coquetry. the author of the book On the Origin of the Moral Sensations [written by Paul Rée. nay often. has recently joined) are like accurately aimed arrows.his Sentences et maximes morales: "Ce que le monde nomme vertu n'est d'ordinaire qu'un fantome formé par nos passions. can serve as the axe laid to the root of men's "metaphysical need" (whether as more of a blessing than as a curse for the general welfare. Nevertheless. can be the basis for a false ethics. religion and mythological monsters are then in turn called to buttress it. With what consequences is now very clearly apparent. but by the humane spirit. however.

If a man eighty thousand years old were conceivable. according to this philosopher's insight). cannot be accountable. no one for his nature. and from this erroneous conclusion Schopenhauer arrives at his fantastic concept of so-called intelligible freedom. But a feeling of displeasure after a deed is absolutely not obliged to be rational. on the contrary. . the error of accountability. it cannot be. This also applies when the individual judges himself. Then one consigns the being good or being evil to the motives and regards the deeds in themselves as morally ambiguous. then for their actions.— In the strict sense. it is not true that one's character is unchangeable. but man himself acquired his entire nature with this same necessity (which Schopenhauer denies). The proposition is as clear as daylight. One has thereby attained to the knowledge that the history of the moral sensations if the history of an error. moreover. that he feels remorse and pangs of conscience. The unchangeable character. one forgets the origin of these designations and believes that the quality "good" and "evil" is inherent in the actions themselves. to the esse. the tree itself as green—that is to say. From the esse [being]. 40. something one can disaccustom oneself to. to judge is the same thing as to be unjust. too. and finally for their nature. that man can be made accountable for nothing. since it rests precisely on the erroneous presupposition that that deed need not have taken place of necessity. the rational admissibility of this feeling of displeasure. not for his nature. irrespective of their consequences: thus committing the same error as that by which language designates the stone itself as hard. on the other hand. That feeling of displeasure appears to relate to the operari. not because he is free. there must exist a sense of accountability. Schopenhauer believes he can demonstrate a freedom which man must have acquired somehow. not to act thus or thus. however. The over-animal. concluded as follows: because certain actions produce displeasure ("consciousness of guilt"). there follows in his opinion the operari [action. Now one finally discovers that this nature. that is to say. But as it is he has taken himself to be something higher and has imposed stricter laws upon himself. and yet here everyone prefers to retreat back into the shadows and untruth: from fear of the consequences. so that out of him little by little an abundance of different individuals would develop. man would have remained an animal. his character would in fact be absolutely variable. No one is accountable for his deeds. He therefore has a hatred of those stages of man that remain closer to the animal state.— The beast in us wants to be lied to. nor for the effect he produces. This feeling is. which rests on the error of freedom of will. manner of acting]—the sphere of strict causality. a thing. The brevity of human life misleads us to many an erroneous assertion about the qualities of man. by taking for cause that which is effect. nor for his motives. in as much as it is altogether a necessary consequence and assembled from the elements and influences of things past and present: that is to say. however. Thus: it is because man regards himself as free. which is the deed of the free will. this popular tenet means only that during a man's short lifetime the motives affecting him cannot normally cut deeply enough to destroy the imprinted writing of many millennia. to keep it from tearing us apart. which explains why the slave used to be disdained as a nonhuman. for there would be no ground for this feeling of displeasure if not only all human actions were determined by necessity (as they actually do. One goes further and accords the predicate good or evil no longer to the individual motive but to the whole nature of a man out of whom the motive grows as the plant does from the soil. necessity and unaccountability. 41. the basic cause of the existence of an individual: man becomes that which he wills to become. Thus one successively makes men accountable for the effects they produce. rather. then for their motives.calls individual actions good or bad quite irrespective of their motives but solely on account of their useful or harmful consequences. and many people do not feel it at all in respect of actions which evoke it in others. Schopenhauer. morality is a white lie. to be sure—to that extent it is an error—in truth. Soon. From the fact of that feeling of displeasure. nor for his actions. not in respect of his actions but in respect to his nature: freedom to be thus or thus. It is a very changeable thing. the sphere of freedom and accountability. tied to the evolution of morality and culture and perhaps present in only a relatively brief span of world-history. Without the errors inherent in the postulates of morality. Here the erroneous conclusion is drawn that from the fact of a feeling of displeasure there can be inferred the justification. his willing precedes his existence.

That is why every community of the good.42. 45. the bad a mass like grains of sand. and frighten us. which have been left over. 43. yet by the standard of the present culture he is immoral. It is a milder form of revenge. As a good man one belongs to the "good. Here every other man. that is to say. ruthless. goodness is hereditary. more spiritual motives which the new culture of the time has brought with it. counts as inimical. To prefer a low good (sensual pleasure. saying that he struck the good man with blindness and madness. he who is powerless and cannot requite counts as bad. Then in the soul of the subjected. the man of power would have appeared unpowerful and thenceforth counted as such. In Homer the Trojan and the Greek are both good. but only in degree. because of various possible accidents of heredity. by way of requital. whether he be noble or base. of their tribes and races. for example) to one esteemed higher (health. in their case. Gratitude and revenge. Swift suggested that men are grateful in the same degree as they are revengeful. finer.— The concept good and evil has a twofold prehistory: firstly in the soul of the ruling tribes and castes. the higher. sympathy are received fearfully as a trick. The hierarchy of the good. indeed for every living being one supposes to exist. for example. . the powerless. The good are a caste. the mountain range of humanity shows openly its deeper formations. It is not he who does us harm but he who is contemptible who counts as bad. which otherwise lie hidden. is near. one resorts to excuses. a means of confusing and outwitting. there must be grooves and bends which correspond to that state of mind. nevertheless an action is judged moral or immoral according to the prevailing determination. If someone prefers revenge to justice. Twofold prehistory of good and evil. His benefactor has. In the community of the good. As a bad man one belongs to the "bad. for a god. at best the most rudimentary form of community: so that wherever this conception of good and evil reigns the downfall of such individuals. for example. through the help he has given him. The hierarchy itself is not established or changed from the point of view of morality. the man of power in turn lays hands on the sphere of his benefactor through the act of gratitude. They show us what we all were. based on how a low. too. have not yet developed much delicacy or versatility. Cruel men as backward. In our brain. If he did not have the compensation of gratitude. a prelude with a dreadful termination. evil. for example) is taken for immoral. is not fixed and identical at all times." a community which has a sense of belonging together because all the individuals in it are combined with one another through the capacity for requital." to a swarm of subject. however. cunning. 44. decides today about morality or immorality. it is impossible for a bad man to grow out of such good soil. It indicates a backward nature. They are backward men whose brains. higher. as it were laid hands on the sphere of the man of power and intruded into it: now.— The reason the man of power is grateful is this. or a most high egoism desires that thing or the other. that is to say originally the powerful. in short as refined wickedness. or not felt strongly enough.— The accepted hierarchy of the good. Evil is the characterizing expression for man. evil with evil. But they themselves are as little responsible as a piece of granite for being granite. one blames God. human. likewise to prefer comfort to freedom. good with good. one does not regard the enemy as evil: he can requite. benevolence. master and slave. Good and bad is for a long time the same thing as noble and base. "Immoral" then indicates that someone has not felt. ready to take advantage. grateful and revengeful—is called good. divine mean the same thing as diabolical. powerless people who have no sense of belonging together.— We must think of men who are cruel today as stages of earlier cultures. Signs of goodness. He who has the power to requite. places gratitude among its first duties. On the other hand. But these grooves and bends are no longer the bed in which the river of our feeling courses. cruel. he is moral by the standard of an earlier culture. When this disposition exists in the individual a community can hardly arise. Should one of the good men nevertheless do something unworthy of good men. Morality and the ordering of the good. and also actually practices requital—is. just as there are said to be reminders of the fish state in the form of certain human organs.

inasmuch as they see that. we feel it more painfully than when we ourselves do it.Our present morality has grown up in the soil of the ruling tribes and castes. For pity. . Only the boldest utopians would dream of the economy of kindness. when he advises them to leave it to those common people who need passions (because they are not directed by reason) to bring them to the point of helping the sufferer and intervening energetically in a misfortune. called pity. but only as a euphemism) is touched more intensely by his guilt than is his selflessness. and courtesy of the heart are ever-flowing tributaries of the selfless drive and have made much greater contributions to culture than those much more famous expressions of this drive. Good nature.— Among the small but endlessly abundant and therefore very effective things that science ought to heed more than the great. every official brings this ingredient to what he considers his duty. and self-sacrifice. in that he has to feel the bad consequences of his fault more intensely. how they wait for the moment when their condition will be noticed. the spectacle of their misfortune. our selflessness (this word must never be taken literally. is goodwill. Of course one ought to express pity. there is a Christian hypochrondria which befalls those lonely. Economy of kindness. are such precious finds that one would hope these balsamlike remedies would be used as economically as possible. for example. 47. its cumulative force is among the strongest of forces. is not basically aimed at hurting those present. Especially within the narrowest circle. that smile of the eye. Perhaps one can warn even more strongly against having pity for the unfortunate if one does not think of their need for pity as stupidity and intellectual deficiency. but rather as something quite different and more dubious. But we tend to underestimate them. Desire to arouse pity. Thus our love for him (probably because of this very belief) is more intense than his own love for himself. that ease which usually envelops nearly all human actions.— Kindness and love. a kind of mental disorder resulting from their misfortune (this is how La Rochefoucauld seems to regard it). Hypochondria. weakens the soul.— There are people who become hypochondriacs out of compassion and concern for another. The pity that the spectators then express consoles the weak and suffering. in his (and Plato's) judgment. religious-minded people who continually visualize to themselves the suffering and death of Christ. For we believe in the purity of his character more than he does. so to speak. 46. The sum of these small doses is nevertheless mighty. Even if his egoism suffers more than our egoism. for unfortunate people are so stupid that they count the expression of pity as the greatest good on earth. La Rochefoucauld certainly hits the mark when he warns all reasonable men against pity. if one calculates correctly and does not forget all those moments of ease which are so plentiful in every day of every human life.— There are cases where sympathy for suffering is more painful than actual suffering. friendliness. charity. When one of our friends is guilty of something ignominious. 50. I mean those expressions of a friendly disposition in interactions. Sympathy more painful than suffering. rare things. Similarly. there is much more happiness to be found in the world than dim eyes can see. Similarly. in the family. life sprouts and blossoms only by this goodwill. its rays of light. even the most oppressed. Or live among the ill and depressed. despite all their weakness. the most curative herbs and agents in human intercourse. Observe how children weep and cry. the kind of pity which results is nothing less than a disease. Goodwill. but this is impossible. 48. It is the continual manifestation of our humanity. those handclasps. and question whether their eloquent laments and whimpering. but one ought to guard against having it.— In the most noteworthy passage of his self-portrait (first published in 1658). in which everything grows. Every teacher. so that they will be pitied. and in fact there really is not much about them that is selfless. 49.

" ["Know. expression. with no affectation. The man who always wears the mask of a friendly countenance eventually has to gain power over benevolent moods without which the expression of friendliness cannot be forced—and eventually then these moods gain power over him. his selfimage revives. the horror in the voice. but very small doses. Alleged levels of truth. The point of honesty in deception. if it is evident that others believe in it firmly. malevolence takes effect as one of life's powerful stimulants. this is why many men thirst after society so much: it gives them a feeling of their strength.— Even when in the deepest distress. as he imitates from the outside. the actor ultimately cannot cease to think of the impression he and the whole scenic effect is making. three-quarters of all questions and answers are framed in order to hurt the participants a little bit. but not precisely in his "stupidity. Thus the child believes his parents' judgments. stubbornly and for a long time. he gets a kind of pleasure from it. one thinks that if someone honestly believed in something and fought for his belief and died it would be too unfair if he had actually been inspired by a mere error. who are usually conscious or unconscious hypocrites when they are young men."] 51. and a few men are too good. 52. inherits the habit. they do have those clearer moments. gestures. he will weep over his own distress and the ways in which it expresses itself. among all the preparations. It is this that speaks so miraculously and convincingly to the onlookers.— One common false conclusion is that because someone is truthful and upright toward us he is speaking the truth. If someone wants to seem to be something. using his father's headway. 53. Likewise. So they may try to deny that Prosper Merimée is right when he says. Basically. too. even the artist. Such an occurrence seems to contradict eternal justice. "Sachez aussi qu'il n'y a rien de plus commun que de faire le mal pour le plaisir de le faire. begins with hypocrisy. and then they really are priests. But will there be many people honest enough to admit that it is a pleasure to inflict pain? That not infrequently one amuses himself (and well) by offending other men (at least in his thoughts) and by shooting pellets of petty malice at them? Most people are too dishonest. to know anything about this pudendum [source of shame]. In these countless.— In all great deceivers there occurs a noteworthy process to which they owe their power. It reveals man in the complete inconsideration of his most intimate dear self. The hypocrite who always plays one and the same role finally ceases to be a hypocrite." as La Rochefoucauld thinks. In the actual act of deception. dispensed in the same way throughout the human world. 54. perhaps the son. for there is no eternal justice. and he is benevolent. Or if the father does not get that far. For men will believe something is true. just as goodwill. is the perennially ready cure. even for example at the burial of his own child. . the Christian believes the claims of the church's founders. very infrequently. Perhaps one calls them levels of truth. as his own audience. he eventually finds it hard to be anything else. Priests.they still have at least one power: the power to hurt. that there is nothing more common than to do evil for the pleasure of doing it. Self-deception must be present. Unfortunately. but they usually comfort themselves by foisting these clearer moments off on the evil adversary. copies what is effective. he is still important enough to inflict pain on the world. people do not want to admit that all those things which men have defended with the sacrifice of their lives and happiness in earlier centuries were nothing but errors. How appearance becomes being. amid the striking scenery. In social dialogue. and at the expense of one's fellow men. The profession of almost every man. it is otherwise. when doubt overwhelms them. Thus the thirst for pity is a thirst for self-enjoyment. for example. the belief in themselves overcomes them. finally end by becoming natural. however. Therefore the hearts of sensitive men always decree in opposition to their heads that there must be a necessary connection between moral actions and intellectual insights. The founders of religions are distinguished from those other great deceivers by the fact that they do not come out of this condition of self-deception: or. so that both kinds of deceivers can have a grand effect. When expressions of pity make the unfortunate man aware of this feeling of superiority.

fervent prayers. it is because it is advantageous in ordinary circumstances to say directly: I want this. and so on. however? Are these acts of morality miracles because they are. to use Schopenhauer's phrase. 57. In addition. in the same sense. he will employ the lie naturally. he has rid himself of a number of tormenting ideas. is alien to him and inaccessible. the best food. still numerous. dissembling.— The man who wants to gain wisdom profits greatly from having thought for a time that man is basically evil and degenerate: this idea is wrong. He will no longer want to condemn and root out his desires. it is more convenient: for lies demand imagination. but his single goal. Then. However many "worldly" elements the Catholic Church may have. and memory (which is why Swift says that the man who tells a lie seldom perceives the heavy burden he is assuming: namely. to understand as well as he can at all times. man is loving something of himself. moral and immoral. and whose eye and emaciated body speak of nightly vigils. an offspring. who make life deep and difficult for themselves.— No power can maintain itself if only hypocrites represent it. more than something else of himself." "incapacity for the good": for him they are only the evanescent silhouettes of erroneous thoughts about life and the world.— A good author whose heart is really in his subject wishes that someone would come and annihilate him by presenting the same subject with greater clarity and resolving all the questions contained in it. untiring. by no means a difference of goodness or badness. We recognize that there are no sins in the metaphysical sense. for in the victory of his fatherland his greatest desire is also victorious. first. governing him completely. a thought. neither are there any virtues. The girl in love wishes that she might prove the devoted faithfulness of her love through her lover's faithlessness. A man who desires no more from things than to understand them easily makes peace with his soul and will err (or "sin. Triumph of knowledge over radical evil. too." as the world calls it) at the most out of ignorance. however. If a child has been raised in complicated domestic circumstances. The soldier wishes that he might fall on the battlefield for his victorious fatherland. but hardly out of desire. A feeling for truth. but. To suspect morality because of belief.— Why do men usually tell the truth in daily life? Certainly not because a god has forbidden lying. and how that lighter regimen preached in Jesuit textbooks is certainly not for their own benefit. that he is thus dividing up his being and sacrificing one part for the other? Is it something essentially different when a pigheaded man says. we must then climb over and beyond it. we recognize that this entire realm of moral ideas is in a continual state of fluctuation. and will always say instinctively that which corresponds to his interests.The lie. he must invent twenty other lies to make good the first). would be such good instruments. so admirably self-mastering. "impossible and yet real"? Isn't it clear that. but overlooks what self-conquest each single Jesuit imposes upon himself. one generally tends to treat it unjustly. perhaps even flagellation. a distaste for lying in and of itself. her wealth. a longing." "sinfulness. The mother gives the child what she takes from herself: sleep. its strength rests on those priestly natures. Indeed. that is. I did that. These men shock others and worry them: what if it were necessary to live like that?—this is the horrible question that the sight of them brings to the tongue. he no longer feels anything at the words "pains of hell. "I would rather be shot at once than move an inch to get out of that man's . fasting. in all these cases. By spreading this doubt they keep reestablishing a pillar of their power. Rather it is because. in some instances even her health. 55. will cool him down and soften all the wildness in his disposition. Are all these really selfless states. Thus one speaks of the Jesuits' cunning and their infamous art. Morality as the self-division of man. using their tactics and organization. like its opposite. but for whole periods of time it was predominant and its roots have sunk deep into us and into our world. 56. that there are higher and deeper concepts of good and evil. because the path of obligation and authority is safer than that of cunning. Not even the most freeminded dare to resist so selfless a man with the hard sense for truth. do not deceive others. and so he lies in complete innocence. To understand ourselves we must understand it. and devoted. but rather for the layman's. one might ask if we the enlightened." Only a difference of insight separates them from this man. but if one does not like a thing. and say: "You who are deceived. but to climb higher.

The inclination towards something (a wish, a drive, a longing) is present in all the above-mentioned cases; to yield to it, with all its consequences, is in any case not "selfless." In morality, man treats himself not as an "individuum," but as a "dividuum." [Terms of Scholastic philosophy: individuum: that which cannot be divided without destroying its essence, dividuum: that which is composite and lacks an individual essence.] 58. What one can promise.— One can promise actions, but not feelings, for the latter are involuntary. He who promises to love forever or hate forever or be forever faithful to someone is promising something that is not in his power. He can, however, promise those actions that are usually the consequence of love, hatred, or faithfulness, but that can also spring from other motives: for there are several paths and motives to an action. A promise to love someone forever, then, means, "As long as I love you I will render unto you the actions of love; if I no longer love you, you will continue to receive the same actions from me, if for other motives." Thus the illusion remains in the minds of one's fellow men that the love is unchanged and still the same. One is promising that the semblance of love will endure, then, when without self-deception one vows everlasting love. 59. Intellect and morality.— One must have a good memory to be able to keep the promises one has given. One must have strong powers of imagination to be able to have pity. So closely is morality bound to the quality of the intellect. 60. Desire to avenge and vengeance.— To have thoughts of revenge and execute them means to be struck with a violent—but temporary—fever. But to have thoughts of revenge without the strength or courage to execute them means to endure a chronic suffering, a poisoning of body and soul. A morality that notes only the intentions assesses both cases equally; usually the first case is assessed as worse (because of the evil consequences that the act of revenge may produce). Both evaluations are short-sighted. 61. The ability to wait.— Being able to wait is so hard that the greatest poets did not disdain to make the inability to wait the theme of their poetry. Thus Shakespeare in his Othello, Sophocles in his Ajax, who, as the oracle suggests, might not have thought his suicide necessary, if only he had been able to let his feeling cool for one day more. He probably would have outfoxed the terrible promptings of his wounded vanity and said to himself: "Who, in my situation, has never once taken a sheep for a warrior? Is that so monstrous? On the contrary, it is something universally human." Ajax might have consoled himself thus. Passion will not wait. The tragedy in the lives of great men often lies not in their conflict with the times and the baseness of their fellow men, but rather in their inability to postpone their work for a year or two. They cannot wait. In every duel, the advising friends have to determine whether the parties involved might be able to wait a while longer. If they cannot, then a duel is reasonable, since each of the parties says to himself: "Either I continue to live, and the other must die at once, or vice versa." In that case, to wait would be to continue suffering the horrible torture of offended honor in the presence of the offender. And this can be more suffering than life is worth. 62. Reveling in revenge.— Crude men who feel themselves insulted tend to assess the degree of insult as high as possible, and talk about the offense in greatly exaggerated language, only so they can revel to their heart's content in the aroused feelings of hatred and revenge.

63. The value of belittling.— Not a few, perhaps the great majority of men, find it necessary, in order to maintain their self-respect and a certain effectiveness in their actions, to lower and belittle the image they form of everyone they know. Since, however, the number of inferior natures is greater, and since it matters a great deal whether they have that effectiveness or lose it — 64. Those who flare up.— We must beware of the man who flares up at us as of someone who has once made an attempt upon our life. For that we are still alive is due to his lacking the power to kill. If looks could kill, we would long ago have been done for. It is an act of primitive culture to bring someone to silence by making physical savageness visible, by inciting fear. In the same way, the cold glance which elegant people use with their servants is a vestige from those castelike distinctions between man and man, an act of primitive antiquity. Women, the guardians of that which is old, have also been more faithful in preserving this cultural remnant. 65. Where honesty may lead.— Someone had the unfortunate habit of speaking out from time to time quite honestly about the motives for his actions, motives which were as good and as bad as those of all other men. At first, he gave offense, then he awoke suspicion, and at length he was virtually ostracized and banished. Finally, justice remembered this depraved creature on occasions when it otherwise averted or winked its eye. His want of silence about the universal secret, and his irresponsible inclination to see what no one wants to see—his own self— brought him to prison and an untimely death. 66. Punishable, never punished.— Our crime against criminals is that we treat them like scoundrels. 67. Sancta simplicitas [holy simplicity] of virtue.— Every virtue has its privileges, one being to deliver its own little bundle of wood to the funeral pyre of a condemned man. 68. Morality and success.— It is not only the witnesses of a deed who often measure its moral or immoral nature by its success. No, the author of a deed does so, too. For motives and intentions are seldom sufficiently clear and simple, and sometimes even memory seems to be dimmed by the success of a deed, so that one attributes false motives to his deed, or treats inessential motives as essential. Often it is success that gives to a deed the full, honest lustre of a good conscience; failure lays the shadow of an uneasy conscience upon the most estimable action. This leads to the politician's well-known practice of thinking: "Just grant me success; with it I will bring all honest souls to my side—and make myself honest in my own sight." In a similar way, success can take the place of more substantial arguments. Even now, many educated people think that the victory of Christianity over Greek philosophy is a proof of the greater truth of the former— although in this case it is only that something more crude and violent has triumphed over something more spiritual and delicate. We can determine which of them has the greater truth by noting that the awakening sciences have carried on point for point with the philosophy of Epicurus, but have rejected Christianity point for point. 69. Love and justice.— Why do we overestimate love to the disadvantage of justice, saying the nicest things about it, as if it were a far higher essence than justice? Isn't love obviously more foolish? Of course, but for just that

reason so much more pleasant for everyone. Love is foolish, and possesses a rich horn of plenty; from it she dispenses her gifts to everyone, even if he does not deserve them, indeed, even if he does not thank her for them. She is as nonpartisan as rain, which (according to the Bible and to experience) rains not only upon the unjust, but sometimes soaks the just man to the skin, too. 70. Executions.— How is it that every execution offends us more than a murder? It is the coldness of the judges, the painful preparations, the understanding that a man is here being used as a means to deter others. For guilt is not being punished, even if there were guilt; guilt lies in the educators, the parents, the environment, in us, not in the murderer—I am talking about the motivating circumstances. 71. Hope.— Pandora brought the box with the evils and opened it. It was the gods' gift to man, on the outside a beautiful, enticing gift, called the "box of good fortune." Then all the evils, those lively, winged beings, flew out of it. Since that time, they roam around and do harm to men by day and night. One single evil had not yet slipped out of the box. As Zeus had wished, Pandora slammed the top down and it remained inside. So now man has the box of good fortune in his house forever and thinks the world of the treasure. It is at his service; he reaches for it when he fancies it. For he does not know that the box which Pandora brought was the box of evils, and he takes the remaining evil for the greatest worldly good—it is hope, for Zeus did not want man to throw his life away, no matter how much the other evils might torment him, but rather to go on letting himself be tormented anew. To that end, he gives man hope. In truth, it is the most evil of evils because it prolongs man's torment. 72. Degree of moral inflammability unknown.— Whether or not our passions reach the point of red heat and guide our whole life depends on whether or not we have been exposed to certain shocking sights or impressions—for example a father falsely executed, killed or tortured; an unfaithful wife; a cruel ambush by an enemy. No one knows how far circumstances, pity, or indignation may drive him; he does not know the degree of his inflammability. Miserable, mean conditions make one miserable; it is usually not the quality of the experiences but rather the quantity that determines the lower and the higher man, in good and in evil. 73. The martyr against his will.— In one party, there was a man who was too anxious and cowardly ever to contradict his comrades. They used him for every service; they demanded everything of him, because he was more afraid of the bad opinions of his companions than of death itself. His was a miserable, weak soul. They recognized this and on the basis of those qualities they made him first into a hero and finally into a martyr. Although the cowardly man always said "no" inwardly, he always said "yes" with his lips, even on the scaffold, when he died for the views of his party. Next to him stood one of his old comrades, who tyrannized him so by word and glance that he really did suffer death in the most seemly way, and has since been celebrated as a martyr and a man of great character. 74. Everyday rule-of-thumb.— One will seldom go wrong to attribute extreme actions to vanity, moderate ones to habit, and petty ones to fear. 75. Misunderstanding about virtue.— The man who has come to know vice in connection with pleasure, like the man who has a pleasure-seeking youth behind him, imagines that virtue must be associated with displeasure. On the other hand, the man who has been greatly plagued by his passions and vices longs to find peace and his soul's happiness in virtue. Thus it is possible that two virtuous people will not understand each other at all. 76.

wherever we find them. without the strength to come nearer the actual goal of one's life: this is far less worthy of respect. A valiant army convinces us about the cause for which it is fighting. and the guilt of the one is therefore measured by the pain of the other. Simply the inherited feeling of being a higher being. . 77. In each of these cases. Each has a false idea of the other. and we kill a gnat. So it is no sign of wickedness in Xerxes (whom even all the Greeks portray as exceptionally noble) when he takes a son from his father and has him cut to pieces. Conversely. have everything. they can find almost everything. replete and forever replenishing its stock. the compulsion to prolong life from day to day. But the rich man does not feel nearly so deeply the value of a single possession because he is used to having many: thus he cannot transport himself into the soul of the poor man and has not committed nearly so great an injustice as the latter supposes. 81. Ambition as a surrogate for moral sense. or for which sacrifices are made. Ambitious people make do without it. makes one rather cold.— The ascetic makes a necessity of virtue. assuming that they bring the right kind of coin (admiration) with them. anxiously consulting doctors and accepting the most painful. The injustice of the mighty. because the father had expressed an anxious and doubtful distrust of their entire campaign. he stands too low to be allowed to keep on arousing bothersome feelings in a world ruler. In this case the individual man is eliminated like an unpleasant insect. with higher pretensions. a prince robs a plebian of his beloved) an error arises in the poor man: he thinks the rich man must be utterly infamous to take from him the little that he has. and have almost the same success. none of us feels anything like injustice when there is a great difference between ourselves and some other being. having once lost their moral sense.The ascetic. 80. which as a victory for reason ought fairly to awaken reverence: and did awaken it in those ages when the heads of Greek philosophy and the most upright Roman patriots were accustomed to die by suicide. for example. 82. no cruel man is cruel to the extent that the mistreated man believes. with a journalist who misleads public opinion by little dishonesties. Thus the sons of humble families with no ambition will usually turn into complete cads very quickly. even though they are in themselves perhaps not worth much. is by no means as great as it appears.— When a rich man takes a possession from a poor one (for example. The honor of the person applied to the cause.— Disregarding the demands made by religion one might well ask: why should it be more laudable for an old man who senses the decline of his powers to await his slow exhaustion and dissolution than in full consciousness to set himself a limit? Suicide is in this case a wholly natural obvious action. Indeed. Vanity enriches. 79. It lures customers of every kind. nevertheless. The idea of pain is not the same as the suffering of it. Errors of the sufferer and the doer. cause and effect are experienced in quite different categories of thought and feeling. Religions provide abundant excuses to escape the need to kill oneself: this is how they insinuate themselves with those who are in love with life. Old age and death. it is automatically assumed that the perpetrator and sufferer think and feel the same.— We universally honor acts of love and sacrifice for the sake of one's neighbor.— How poor the human spirit would be without vanity! Instead it is like a warehouse. Indeed.— Any character lacking in ambition must not be without a moral sense. It is the same with an unjust judge. In this way we heighten the value of the things loved in that way. which enrages us most in history. humiliating conditions. 78. without any twinge of conscience. and leaves the conscience at peace.

and then because we want to give others joy (children want to give joy to their parents. and blood vessels are enclosed by skin.] — He who humbleth himself wants to be exalted. but they are ashamed when they imagine that others might believe them capable of these dirty thoughts. In the vain man. but the mighty habituation to authority (which is as old as man) also leads many to base their own belief in themselves upon authority. in that he either misleads them to a false opinion about himself or aims at a degree of "good opinion" that would have to cause them all pain (by arousing their envy).— Men are not ashamed to think something dirty. and that they go so far as to neglect their own interests thereby. . but at the expense of his fellow men. which makes the sight of a man bearable.— We praise or blame according to whether the one or the other offers a greater opportunity for our power of judgement to shine out. Refinement of shame. Usually the individual wants to confirm the opinion he has of himself through the opinion of others and strengthen it in his own eyes.— Most men are much too concerned with themselves to be malicious. 88. 84. so the stirrings and passions of the soul are covered up by vanity: it is the skin of the soul. then. that is. 83. In this case. Luke 18:14. Only when someone holds the good opinion of others to be . Malice is rare. and then he adheres to their authority. 87. but no justice according to which we take his death: that is nothing but cruelty. [Luke 18. They trust other people's powers of judgment more than their own. improved.— There is a justice according to which we take a man's life.important without regard to his interests or his wish to give joy. men of good will to all other men). only for the sake of having pleasure in themselves. 85. to overvalue him greatly.The skin of the soul. flesh. 14: for every one that exalteth himself shall be abased. reaches such a peak that he misleads others to assess him wrongly. to accept it only from the hand of others. selfenjoyment. and thus destructive toward them. 86. 90. One must admit. for they are often concerned to make their fellow men ill-disposed. intestines. envious. and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.— We care about the good opinion of others first because it is profitable.— Just as the bones. but also themselves. his wish to please himself. he brings about the error and then believes in it. Prevention of suicide. pupils to their teachers.— When virtue has slept. hostile. The sleep of virtue. that vain men want to please not only others. 89. the man wants to give joy to himself. The index of the scales. interest in himself. she will get up more refreshed. Vanity. do we speak of vanity.

at the highest stage of morality until now. as Thucydides correctly grasped (in the terrible colloquy between the Athenian and Melian ambassadors): where there is no clearly recognizable superiority of force and a contest would result in mutual injury producing no decisive outcome the idea arises of coming to an understanding and negotiating over one another's demands: the characteristic of exchange is the original characteristic of justice. Each man gives the other what he wants. that raises him high above the phase in which he is guided only by personal usefulness. quantum potentia valet" (or. "quantum potentia valere creditur"). Thus there is a kind of equalization.— How much pleasure we get from morality! Just think what a river of agreeable tears has flowed at tales of noble. burn the city. A still higher state is reached when man acts according to the principle of honor. Preservation is to the enemy's advantage. Tractatus Politicus. ch. by means of which he finds his place in society. imitated. How little moral would the world appear without forgetfulness! A poet could say that God has placed forgetfulness as a doorkeeper on the threshold of the temple of human dignity. Rights originally extend just as far as one appears valuable. to keep henceforth. essential. as all valuations do: for something highly valued is striven for. and the like.— Justice (fairness) originates between parties of approximately equal power.Limit of human love. invincible. that is. submits under certain conditions to a greater power. Thus the famous dictum: "unusquisque tantum juris habet. generous actions. multiplied through sacrifice. thus to the egoism of the reflection: "to what end should I injure myself uselessly and perhaps even then not achieve my goal?" So much for the origin of justice. Rights exist between slaves and masters to the same extent. Justice goes back naturally to the viewpoint of an enlightened self-preservation. on the basis of which rights can be established. more exactly. Since.— If one party.— Any man who has once declared the other man to be a fool. Justice is thus requital and exchange under the presupposition of an approximately equal power position: revenge therefore belongs originally within the domain of justice. In this regard even the weaker of the two has rights. Moralité larmoyante [tearful morality]. 93. Each satisfies the other in that each gets what he values more than the other. and receives in turn that which he wishes. and especially because children have for millennia been trained to admire and imitate such actions.— The first sign that an animal has become human is that his behavior is no longer directed to his momentary well-being. that is. in accordance with their intellectual habits. [Spinoza. that man has thus become attuned to utility and purpose: then for the first time the free rule of reason bursts forth. it has gradually come to appear that a just action is an unegoistic one: but it is on this appearance that the high value accorded it depends. 92. submitting to commonly held feelings. moreover. he understands his advantage as dependent on his opinion of others and their opinion of him. a city under siege. "as he is believed to have power. 91. exactly insofar as the possession of his slave is profitable and important to the master. This one of life's delights would vanish away if the belief in complete irresponsibility were to get the upper hand. he acts according to his own standard of things and men. a bad fellow. he himself determines for himself and others what is . and grows as the worth of the toil and zeal expended by each individual is added to the worth of the valued thing. to the other. The three phases of morality until now. is annoyed when that man ends by showing that he is not. and this high value is. but rather to his enduring well-being. Finally. Now he shows and wants to be shown—respect. and thus make the power suffer a great loss. continually increasing. Origin of justice. it is an exchange. 2. its reciprocal condition is that this first party can destroy itself. for example. permanent."] 94. Of the right of the weaker. section 8: "each man has as much right as he has power". Gratitude likewise. men have forgotten the original purpose of so-called just and fair actions. though they are more modest.

enough that one submits. the enjoyment of life seems to grow out of it alone. but is rather above all for the purpose of maintaining a community. so that when we hear the word "bad" now. and the individual only as a part of that community). it is preserved because it seems to be highly useful. for to him they represent proven wisdom. to practice bad habits. goodwill. to science. easily. for example. and the like were always felt to be "good for" something. It depends only on what ones understands by one's advantage.— To be moral. This idea of habit as a condition of existence is carried right into the smallest details of custom: since lower peoples and cultures have only very slight insight into the real causality. now when we see with ever greater clarity that precisely in the most personal respect the common good is also greatest. and the respectful recognition of what has common. One does habitual things more easily. we all still suffer from too slight a regard for our own personal needs. this custom is necessary. custom is the union of the pleasant and the useful." but rather adherence to a tradition or law. The immature. 96. to be ethical means to practice obedience towards a law or tradition established from of old. that is. finally the origin becomes sacred and awakens awe. burdensome. They do not know that the same degree of comfort can also exist with other customs and that even higher degrees of ." To be evil is to be "not moral" (immoral). Accordingly. effective. the helpful man. knowing from experience that the habit has stood the test and is useful. Let us admit that our mind has instead been forcibly diverted from it and offered in sacrifice to the state. He has become the lawgiver of opinions. a community will force each individual in it to the same mores. and thus an important source of morality. Morality of the mature individual. but only insofar as we find our own highest advantage in this work.— An important type of pleasure. what is profitable. and thus the morality of piety is in any case much older than that morality which requires selfless acts. enduring value to things of momentary value. however reasonable or stupid it may be. the more it is forgotten. But because. general usefulness to personal usefulness.— Until now man has taken the true sign of a moral act to be its impersonal nature. go against tradition. or at least because he lives his life by means of it. a people. Whether one submits to it gladly or with difficulty makes no difference. skillfully. has been felt primarily as injurious in all moral codes of different times. or an immanent categorical imperative. practice revenge when that is considered moral. the basic opposition is not "egoism" and "selflessness. forces a tradition that it is moral to follow. gladly. however. and gladly. at least concerning good and evil. for he holds it to be the only possibility by which one can feel good. we think particularly of voluntary injury to one's fellow. originating in a coincidence that is interpreted falsely. they make sure. after a long history of inheritance—that is. no less. and it has been shown that in the beginning all impersonal acts were praised and distinguished in respect to the common good. and release from it. harsh. the respect paid to the tradition accumulates from generation to generation. Every superstitious custom. he exercises it to introduce and enforce his mores. 97. To harm one's fellow. each tradition grows more venerable the farther its origin lies in the past. We call "good" the man who does the moral thing as if by nature. one feels a pleasure at them. that everything take the same course. Likewise. He lives and acts as a collective-individual. To release oneself from it is dangerous. in accordance with the ever more refined concept of usefulness and honor. pity. 95. undeveloped. As soon as man can exercise force. in addition. Knowledge enables him to prefer what is most useful. A morality one can live with has been proved salutary. Custom and what is in accordance with it. When men determine between moral and immoral. Might not a significant transformation of these views be at hand. Now too we wish to work for our fellow men. to act in accordance with custom. as if it were something bad which had to be sacrificed. Here is the error: because one feels good with one custom. The origin of the tradition makes no difference. with superstitious fear. Pleasure in custom. Now. as mores changed. good and evil. in contrast to all the as yet unproven new experiments. grows out of habit. it is primarily the man of goodwill. to the needy. crude individual will also understand it most crudely.honorable. who is called "good. To be sure. He is called good because he is good "for" something. whatever it is (he will. no more. even where a custom is difficult. so that now it is precisely the strictly personal action which corresponds to the current concept of morality (as a common profit)? To make a whole person of oneself and keep in mind that person's greatest good in everything one does—this takes us further than any pitying impulses and actions for the sake of others. it requires no thought. useful. it has been poorly developed. as in the older Greek culture). even more injurious for the community than for the individual (because the divinity punishes the whole community for sacrilege and violation of its rights.

and still later free obedience. to which divine right forbade entrance. nor does "giving pleasure in and of itself" (pity. "Giving pain in and of itself" does not exist. the so-called "soul. We would treat the animal the same way today. for a time morality itself is force. Force precedes morality. . Pleasure and social instinct. in the Schopenhauerian sense). shared joy.— All "evil" acts are motivated by the drive to preservation or. for example. Shame. more exactly. where oracles are delivered] of maturity. for example. 100. who would feel horror and fear in their vicinity. as. it gives the individual security. enemies.comfort can be attained. Next one might think of sexual relations. but for requital—that is the result of an erroneous judgment. and is therefore likewise innocent. to sexual relationships. except in the brain of philosophers.) Likewise kingship. indeed. pleasure taken together. heightens this feeling. (This is why this chamber is called the harem. He has the right to do it. that is. whereas we get much less angry at an animal because we consider it irresponsible. there is no right that can prevent it. The individual can. for the good of each individual. except under certain conditions: at first these were spatial areas. the whole deterioration of our imagination. But they do perceive that all customs. and finally almost instinct: then it is coupled to pleasure. In the same way. that wants to take a fruit off a tree before we do. thirst for revenge. subjects the individuals in it. spite. watching over them as guardians in the nuptial chamber. just when we are hungry and running up to the tree. and is now called virtue. they are not evil. In this way he widens significantly the scope of his pleasurable feelings. Pleasurable feeling based on human relations generally makes man better. dissolves distrust and envy: one feels good oneself and can see the other man feel good in the same way. powerful man acts. and that even the severest way of life can become a habit and thus a pleasure." is still a mysterium to all nonphilosophers since from time immemorial it was thought worthy of divine origin. even the harshest. Upon this basis man has built the oldest covenant. divine intercourse: thus it is a sacred mystery and awakens shame. that whole world of inner states. This belief in his choice arouses hatred. so motivated. the feeling of being alike. makes him better-natured. society or the state. when it draws them out of their isolatedness and integrates them into a union. Shared sorrows do it. to which others acquiesce to avoid unpleasure. that he had the choice not to do this bad thing to us. we kill any being. 99. The innocent element in so-called evil acts. treat others harshly and cruelly to intimidate them. Or rather. as a center radiating power and splendor. like all habitual and natural things. in that certain places were not to be trodden upon by the foot of the unconsecrated. who visibly feel pleasure when playing with each other. if we were hiking through inhospitable territory. which were to he removed from the eyes of youth (for its own good). this is a religious concept that was widely prevalent in the older period of human culture. become more pleasant and mild with time." in Turkish. Perhaps some of these feelings have come down to him from the animals.— Shame exists wherever there is a "mysterium". which can still be felt in peoples who are otherwise in no way ashamed. This is how the brutal.— From his relationship to other men. just as the state now takes the right. Later it becomes custom. by the individual's intention of procuring pleasure and avoiding displeasure. Those evil actions which outrage us most today are based on the error that that man who harms us has free will. Many gods were thought to be active in protecting and furthering the observance of these relationships. the original founder of a state. Everywhere there were circumscribed areas. dangers. that is. And thus social instinct grows out of pleasure. Analogous expressions of pleasure awaken the fantasy of empathy. be it ape or man. which make virtually every lass seem interesting to every lad (and vice versa) in view of potential pleasure. "sanctuary. In conditions preceding organized states. it has many aftereffects. in conditions preceding the organized state. 98. which is the same word commonly used for the vestibules of mosques. man gains a new kind of pleasure. to secure his existence through such intimidating demonstrations of his power. is to the humble subject a mysterium full of secrecy and shame. particularly mothers playing with their young. as a privilege and adytum [innermost chamber of a temple. This feeling was frequently carried over to other relationships. who subjects to himself those who are weaker. in addition to those pleasurable feelings which he gets from himself. however. To do harm not out of a drive for preservation. whose purpose is to eliminate and resist communally any threatening unpleasure. The ground for all morality can only be prepared when a greater individual or collective-individual. too: the same storms.

102. one would not have that pleasure in one's own superiority. we assume necessity. That the other suffers must be learned. we intentionally kill a gnat. that is. is mitigated by the observation that the commander and the executor are different people: the former does not witness his cruelty and therefore has no strong impression of it in his imagination. Harmlessness of malice. Is the immoral thing about it.] His was a consistent act. that another person is suffering because of us supposed to make immoral the same thing about which we otherwise feel no responsibility? But if one did not have this knowledge. . For the instinct for justice was not so widely developed then. "Man's actions are always good. in history much that is frightful and inhuman. even intentional injury is not called immoral in all circumstances: without hesitating. which one would almost like not to believe. in a way that seems to him good (useful) according to the degree of his intellect. Socrates and Plato are right: whatever man does.101. of possible displeasure. in teasing. In the first case it is the individual who does harm intentionally. Egoism is not evil. by children and Italians. but rather at our own enjoyment. for self-preservation or simply to avoid discomfort. without being so. and it can never be learned completely. Who has the right to reproach Calvin of Geneva for burning Dr. in the interests of its teachings. that is. loosening stones. the prevailing measure of his rationality. for example. Is the knowledge. for example. but because we have learned to believe in the necessity of the state we are not as sensitive to this cruelty as we are to that cruelty whose justification vie reject. what is the burning of one man compared to the eternal pains of hell for nearly everyone! And yet this much more terrible idea used to dominate the whole world without doing any essential damage to the idea of a god. in some sense it is always a matter of self-preservation. when the injured party or the state representing him leads us to expect requital and revenge. the cruelty in subjugating persons and peoples. flowing out of his convictions. The injustice of slavery. and we feel toward him almost as free and irresponsible as toward plants and stones. most princes and military leaders can easily appear to be harsh and cruel. to have pleasure on the basis of other people's displeasure? Is Schadenfreude [pleasure in another's suffering] devilish. 103."— We do not accuse nature of immorality when it sends us a thunderstorm and makes us wet: why do we call the harmful man immoral? Because in the first case. in the second case the state does the harm. he always acts for the good. Because of a lack of imagination. as Schopenhauer says? Now. because we now find those views so alien. All morality allows the intentional infliction of harm for self-defense. stems from ignorance. But this distinction is in error. this alone can have been the original basis for denying oneself these actions. we intentionally punish the criminal and do him harm. we must be careful not to fall into unjust abuse. Judge not. Cruelty to animals. for example.— Malice does not aim at the suffering of the other in and of itself. the latter is obeying a superior and feels no responsibility. it is just that the views dominant then were wrong and resulted in a consistency that we find harsh. Serveto? [Miguel Serveto (1511-53): Spanish doctor and theologian. Calvin allegedly denounced him to the Inquisition as a unitarian. Every instance of teasing shows that it gives us pleasure to release our power on the other person and experience an enjoyable feeling of superiority. namely. and the Inquisition likewise had its reasons. to protect ourselves and society. in nature. in order to gain awareness of our own strength. when it is a matter of self-preservation! But these two points of view suffice to explain all evil acts which men practice against other men. Furthermore.— When we consider earlier periods. that is. Likewise. we treat political heretics harshly and cruelly. simply because we do not like its buzz. All joy in oneself is neither good nor bad. In our own time. for the idea of one's "neighbor" (the word has a Christian origin and does not reflect the truth) is very weak in us. cannot be measured by our standards. where should the determination come from that to have pleasure in oneself one may not cause displeasure in others? Solely from the point of view of utility. fighting with wild animals. then. the church has placed the animal too far beneath man. we take pleasure in breaking up twigs. and in the second a voluntarily governing free will. a feeling of revenge or a strong nervous excitement. he was burned in Geneva. from consideration of the consequences. Besides. which can reveal itself only in the suffering of the other. man wants to get pleasure or resist unpleasure. then.

we protect ourselves from pain. where cunning and dissimulation are the correct means of self-preservation. To be sure. We conclude by analogy that something hurts another. there coincidence governs. blame and praise affect vanity most acutely. But do we ever completely know how painful an action is to the other person? As far as our nervous system extends." If we were to dispense with punishment and reward. No life without pleasure. there can be no immorality in unintentional injury. Neither punishment nor reward are due to anyone as his. if that consists in giving each his due. breakings of the waves. the degree of pain produced is in any case unknown to us. that is. his assumption that free will exists. each movement can be calculated mathematically.Pity does not aim at the pleasure of others any more than malice (as we said above) aims at the pain of others. we think we see freedom of will and choice in the innumerable turnings. if one were omniscient. 104. the same advantage also requires that vanity continue. the state itself injures from this point of view when it imposes punishment. if the wheel of the world were to stand still for a moment and an omniscient. in addition. it is the pleasure of our satisfaction in the exercise of power. the advantage of man requires that they continue. Of course. exert and strain ourselves to be healthy). The acting man's delusion about himself. the preservation of our well-being? Can there be an injury out of pure malice. in cruelty. a suffering person is very close to us. when it is a matter of our existence or security (preservation of our well-being) is conceded to be moral. each act of malice. is also part of the calculable mechanism. At the waterfall. To do injury intentionally. Whether the individual fights this battle in ways such that men call him good or such that they call him evil is determined by the measure and makeup of his intellect. A rewarding justice. where we cut ourselves in order to cure ourselves. but everything is necessary. Thus it is with human actions. . to provide a motive for subsequent actions: praise is shouted to the runner on the track not to the one who has reached the finish line. thus the child is not malicious or evil to an animal: he examines and destroys it like a toy. rob or kill. calculating mind were there to take advantage of this interruption. 105. when it drives us to act. for him and others. without his justly having any claims on them. we would lose the strongest motives driving men away from certain actions and toward other actions. each error. the struggle for pleasure is the struggle for life. our own strong excitement) the action takes place to preserve the well-being of the individual and thus falls within a point of view similar to that of self-defense or a white lie. when we injure out of so-called malice. and it is to that extent self-enjoyment: first of all. "The wise man rewards not because men have acted rightly. it is the pleasure of the emotion (the kind of pity we find in tragedy) and second. the man who is rewarded does not deserve this reward. men have always placed pity rather low in the hierarchy of moral feelings—and rightly so. For in pity at least two (maybe many more) elements of personal pleasure are contained. and through our memory and power of imagination we ourselves can feel ill at such a thought. windings. he would be able to tell into the farthest future of each being and describe every rut that wheel will roll upon.— If we accept self-defense as moral. But what difference remains between a toothache and the ache (pity) evoked by the sight of a toothache? That is. If. if it extended further. and in that punishment and reward. Thus a reward means only an encouragement. right into our fellow men. we inflict harm. we lie. "The wise man punishes not because men have acted badly. he could not act other than as he did. they are given to him because it is useful. per se.— The man who has fully understood the theory of complete irresponsibility can no longer include the socalled justice that punishes and rewards within the concept of justice. to prevent personal disaster. For the man who is punished does not deserve the punishment: he is only being used as the means to frighten others away from certain future actions. we would not do harm to anyone (except in such cases where we do it to ourselves. each step in the progress of knowledge. but in that we feel pleasure in the action (feeling of our own power. to preserve or protect ourselves. but so they will not act badly. One must say. then we must also accept nearly all expressions of so-called immoral egoism. likewise.— When we see a waterfall. it cannot be malicious. we reduce our own suffering by our acts of pity. the acting man is caught in his illusion of volition. 106." just as it was said. Self-defense. Can there be a kind of intentional injury where it is not a matter of our existence. one would be able to calculate each individual action in advance. for example? If one does not know how painful an action is. Aside from a few philosophers.

The Religious Life 108. conscious of their guilt—these men are the necessary first stage. III. these have no more earned merit than do those inner struggles and crises in which a man is torn back and forth by various motives until he finally decides for the most powerful—as is said (in truth until the most powerful motive decides about us). Everything is innocence: and knowledge is the way to insight into this innocence. the sun of a new gospel is casting its first ray onto the highest mountaintop of the soul. just as he regards a plant. that is. is satisfied in all circumstances: man may act as he can. for self-enjoyment (along with the fear of losing it). pity. Men who are capable of that suffering (how few they will be!) will make the first attempt to see if mankind can transform itself from a moral into a knowing mankind. malice. whether in deeds of vanity. the sense for true and just knowledge. dislikes have thereby become worthless and wrong: the deepest feeling he had offered a victim or a hero was misdirected. that of understanding.107. in each individual. he may no longer praise. vanity are necessary for the generation of moral phenomena and their greatest flower. by reinterpreting the misfortune as a good. distinctions. non-loving. but does not praise it. abundance. knowledge. fluctuating. Good actions are sublimated evil actions. And then. cunning. Everything is necessity: this is the new knowledge. a difference in degree. but afterwards there is consolation. the realm of freedom. revenge. for it is nonsensical to praise and blame nature and necessity. Even if the inherited habit of erroneous esteeming. Indeed. by which man determines his own actions and judges other people's actions. His powers of judgment determine where a man will let this demand for self-enjoyment take him. In each society. and the clash of elements. many actions are called evil. as he must. and are only stupid. Between good and evil actions there is no difference in type. whatever great names we give them. innocent (conscious of their innocence) men as regularly as it now produces unwise. beauty. a hierarchy of the good is always present. nonhating. because the degree of intelligence which chose them was very low. he tears at it. it will grow weaker under the influence of growing knowledge: a new habit. Unaccountability and innocence. and the brightest light and cloudiest dusk lie next to each other. He can admire their strength. have grown out of the same roots which are thought to hold the evil poisons. no longer blame. but not the opposite of those to come. the fog is condensing more thickly than ever. egoism. unfair men. In those individuals. if error and confusion of imagination were the only means by which mankind could raise itself gradually to this degree of selfillumination and self-redemption—who could scorn those means? Who could be sad when he perceives the goal to which those paths lead? Everything in the sphere of morality has evolved. The individual's only demand. at most. it is true: but everything is also streaming onward—to one goal. we can overcome it either by removing its cause or else by changing the effect it has on our feelings. everything is fluid. surveying is gradually being implanted in us on the same ground. loving. that is. so he must regard the actions of men and his own actions. Just as he loves a good work of art.— The complete unaccountability of man for his actions and his nature is the bitterest draught the man of knowledge has to swallow if he has been accustomed to seeing in accountability and duty the patent of his humanity. in a certain sense all actions are stupid even now. whose benefit may only later become clear. evil actions are good actions become coarse and stupid. But all these motives. These pains are birth pangs. All his judgments. The twofold struggle against misfortune. Religion and art (as well as metaphysical philosophy) strive to effect . the agony of the sick man who yearns for recovery. usefulness. and in thousands of years will be powerful enough perhaps to give mankind the strength to produce wise. pleasure. But this standard is continually in flux. and this knowledge itself is necessity. If pleasure.— When a misfortune strikes us. for the highest degree of human intelligence which can now be attained will surely be surpassed. hating continues to govern us. To understand all this can cause great pain. but he may not find any earned merit in them: chemical processes. he rends it: then he is blinded and confused by the unknown light. all our behavior and judgments will appear as inadequate and rash as the behavior and judgments of backward savage tribes now seem to us inadequate and rash. in hindsight. or in deeds of sacrifice. The butterfly wants to break through his cocoon. because it can do nothing about itself. changeable.

Thus all opponents of the Enlightenment claimed that the religions stated sensu allegorico [with the sense of an allegorical representation]. Scene I. an approach to Christianity in any form. and adjudging them to have. each moment. a harmony. But the tragic thing is that we can no longer believe those dogmas of religion and metaphysics. life. even the very deepest understanding of the world. which is unequal to it. would obtain between mankind's oldest sages and all later ones. Byron expressed this in his immortal lines: Sorrow is knowledge: they must mourn the deepest the tree of knowledge [Byron: Manfred. In this way. Those pains may be distressing enough. and the progress of knowledge (should one wish to speak of such a thing) would refer not to its substance but rather to its communication. a deeper. with the aid of the tenet. this is bad for the tragic poets (there being less and less material for tragedy. This whole view of religion and science is erroneous through and through. invincible fate grows ever smaller) but it is even worse for the priests (for until now they fed on the narcotization of human misfortunes). As surely as one can gain much for the understanding . the development of mankind has made us so delicate. the more squarely do men confront the real elimination of the misfortune—of course. each thought. because the realm of inexorable. for a toothache) is also enough for him in more serious suffering. who loves us and wants the best for us in every misfortune—how gladly one would exchange these claims for truths which would be just as salutary.] who o'er is not know the that the fatal of most truth. It was for science to divest this understanding of its dogmatic trappings in order to possess the "truth" in unmythical form. 109.. and woe to him who would try to lead and no longer had that clean conscience! 110. had not Schopenhauer used his eloquence to take it under his protection. at the most. The more a person tends to reinterpret and justify. The more the rule of religions and all narcotic arts decreases. in emotion generally (which is where tragic art has its starting point). There is no better cure for such cares than to conjure up the festive frivolity of Horace.. by treating religions with love or even infatuation. once we have the rigorous method of truth in our hearts and heads. and yet reaches its listeners only after a generation. for example. Truth in religion. and with him to say to yourself: quid aeternis minorem consiliis animum fatigas? cur non sub alta vel platano vel hac pinu jacentes— [why torment your mind. any degree of frivolity or melancholy is better than a romantic regression and desertion.? (Horace: Odes II. at least for the worst hours and eclipses of the soul. that age-old wisdom which is wisdom in and of itself. in part by changing the way we judge experiences (for example. But it is just as certain that in the subsequent opposition to the Enlightenment they went a good piece beyond justice. the less will he confront the causes of the misfortune and eliminate them. who is guardian and witness of each act. there is no doubt of that. philosophy can oppose those errors with other metaphysical fictions (basically also untruths). even identity of views. this eloquence which rings out so loudly. given the present state of knowledge. but without pains one cannot become a leader and educator of mankind. calming. inasmuch as all true modern science has always led to it instead of away from it. sensitive. Act I. why not come and lie under this tall plane tree. 11)] Of course. for example. so the masses would understand. or this pine.a change in our feeling.— How gladly one would exchange the false claims of priests-that there is a God who demands the Good from us. a momentary palliation and narcotization (as used. "Whom the Lord loves. and yet on the other hand. and no one would dare to profess it still today. for one can simply not engage in Christianity.— During the Enlightenment. people did not do justice to the significance of religion. he chastens") and in part by awakening a pleasure in pain. and soothing as those errors! But there are no such truths. with counsel for eternity. Sorrow is knowledge. and ailing that we need the most potent kind of cures and comforts—hence arises the danger that man might bleed to death from the truth he has recognized. without hopelessly soiling his intellectual conscience and abandoning it to himself and to others.

111. although decked out as science. These tricks of theology. neither as a dogma nor as an allegory. if springs suddenly dry up. In this case. they led to the habit of philosophers (particularly those half-men. There is never anything natural about becoming ill or dying. but this is a theologian's trick from the period when a religion is already doubting itself. if all peoples were to agree about certain religious things. in a very late phase of mankind. In India (according to Lubbock [Sir ." lines 3-7.— If we imagine ourselves back in the times when religious life was in fullest flower. however. with the conception of a moira [fate] which reigned over the gods). resembled them in the way children tend to resemble their mothers. has religion yet held any truth. In reality there is no relationship nor friendship nor even enmity between religion and real science: they live on different stars. There is no concept whatsoever of natural causality." they arrived at dogmas that in fact greatly resembled Jewish or Christian or Indian religious doctrines. steeped in philosophy. who all cherished romanticism and had renounced the spirit of the Enlightenment. Because philosophers often philosophized in traditional religious habits. an irrational hand and strength is always at work. death itself. one thinks first of subterranean demons and their mischief. [All the wisest Smile. with the exception spoken of in Goethe's lines: Alle die Weisesten Lächeln und winken und Töricht. he would have found it impossible to speak of the sensus allegoricus of religion. told tales of a family resemblance of all religions and sciences. All illnesses. Origin of the religious cult. he would have done honor to truth. Any philosophy that allows a religious comet to trail off ablaze into the darkness of its last prospects makes suspicious everything about itself that it presents as science. it has to be the arrow of a god whose invisible influence causes a man to drop suddenly. in the innocence of their amazement. the existence of a god for example: the consensus gentium and hominum [unanimous opinion of all mankind] in general can in fairness only pertain to foolishness. For out of fear and need each religion is born. that is. the poetic philosophers and the philosophizing artists) of treating all feelings which they found in themselves as if they were essential to man in general. nod and agree It is foolish to wait for Children of cleverness. then this would only be a counterargument to those things that were maintained. or also fail to appear. creeping into existence on the byways of reason. People in those times do not yet know anything of natural laws. Incidentally. with the words: Never. neither indirectly nor directly. the existence of a god for example (which. so surely was he in error about the value of religion with respect to knowledge. Perhaps at one time. the religion of a scholarly age. or at least under the old inherited power of that "metaphysical need. the rain can come. In this regard he himself was simply the too tractable student of the scientific teachers of his time. Always as fools. as was his wont. Conversely there is no consensus omnium sapientium [unanimous opinion of all the wise] regarding a single thing. —Goethe: "Kophtisches Lied.] aller stimmen Toren habet wie of with fools as der mit zu die sich's all one to regard they grow Zeiten ein: harren! Narren gehört! time thing: wise! fools deserve! Saying it without rhythm or rhyme. the sunshine. neither for the earth nor for the heavens is there a "must": a season. When one rows. born into our present age. When someone shoots with bow and arrow. the whole idea of a "natural development" is lacking (it first begins to dawn on the older Greeks. presumably all this too is religion. are the result of magical influences. we find a fundamental conviction which we no longer share. Even more. auf Bessrung der Kinder der Klugheit. so that it could be found there later. by the way. and because of which we see the gates to the religious life closed to us once and for all: it concerns nature and our interaction with it. o Eben zum Narren auch. the fathers weren't sure of the maternity (as can happen) but rather. is not so in this case). and applying it to our case: it is the consensus sapientium that any consensus gentium is foolishness. rather rowing is simply a magical ceremony by which one compels a demon to move it. led to that superstition about a sensus allegoricus. when endangered by science. it included some fabricated philosophical theory in its system. rather. it is not the rowing that moves the ship. which of course were practiced very early on in Christianity.of Christianity and other religions from Schopenhauer's religious and moral interpretation of men and the world. and thus to the habit of granting their own religious feelings a significant influence on the conceptual structure of their systems.

hearing supplicants. we covered you prettily in gold." they say. if there is a block of stone lying on a lonely heath. The meaning of the religious cult is to direct nature. every individual in those times and conditions feels that his existence. drag it in the streets through heaps of mud and dung: "You dog of a spirit. his axe. for example. religiously productive ancient cultures. a carpenter makes sacrifices to his hammer. with its help one can bind the spirit. The physical furnishes the ways and means by which to catch the spiritual. similar violent measures have also been taken during this century against images of saints or of the Virgin Mary when during plagues or droughts. By entreaties and prayers. of a higher power. by flagellation. an enormous complex of arbitrariness. of demand for protection of property. the more powerfully nature's symmetry affects him. Man is the rule. "we let you dwell in a splendid temple. Everything that has a body is accessible to magic. To him nature—uncomprehended. we all recognize in nature the great means of soothing the modern soul. gratitude. one tries to order them. that is. now big. With such apparatus one can then proceed to do magic. so the weaker man believes he can also direct the more powerful spirits of nature. and cast a spell on her to human advantage. for the spirit too has its physical aspect. all nature is the sum of the actions of conscious and intentioned beings. and thus come finally to an enjoyment of our own selves. harm it. to make those powers as governed by rule as you are yourself?" The thinking of men who believe in magic and miracles is bent on imposing a law on nature. we find them most strongly directed by law. a god. and the magician is older than the priest. In short. Just as man knows how to use the help of a magician to hurt a stronger enemy and keep him afraid.John Lubbock (1834-1913). the success of all enterprises. But much more important is a kind of more powerful pressure through magic. by tradition: the individual is almost automatically bound to it. If a god is virtually bound to his image. The problem that those men set themselves is most closely related to this one: how can the weaker tribe nevertheless dictate laws to the stronger. Just as man now directs man. calculable. All these magical relationships to nature have called into being countless ceremonies. nature is irregularity: in this tenet lies the basic conviction that governs primitive. early tribal states. others must fail to take place. even his picture or his name. Then one can seal contracts. finally when the confusion of them has grown too great. tear it down. the state. depends on those arbitrary acts of nature: some natural events must take place at the right time. for the basic assumption is that there is something physical to everything spiritual. we hear the stroke of the greatest clock with a longing to rest. so that one thinks he is guaranteeing the favorable course of the whole process of nature. thus the stone must have moved itself there." In Catholic lands. it seems impossible that human strength should have brought it there. the religious cult is based on ideas of magic between man and man. English historian]). by which it can be caught. then one can also exert direct pressure against him (by refusing him sacrificial nourishment. puts up pledges and exchanges vows. the religious cult is the result of this thinking. direct it. nails. through tradition and law. the humble people in China entwine his image with rope. compared with it. to become settled and still. The tree and. How can one exercise an influence on these terrible unknowns? How can one bind the realm of freedom? The individual wonders and asks himself anxiously: "Is there no means. and his other tools. enchainment and the like). The main means of all magic is to gain power over something that belongs to the other. and yet you are so ungrateful. particularly the great cycle of the seasons. it must be housing a spirit. including spirits of nature. as if we could drink this symmetry into ourselves. A stone that starts to roll suddenly is the body in which a spirit acts. the more polyphonic he is as a subject. to impose a lawfulness on her. it is also possible to exert pressure on the forces of nature. Formerly it was the reverse: if we think back to primitive. We present-day men experience precisely the reverse: the richer a man feels inwardly. With Goethe. and guide its actions (as they relate to the weaker tribe)? At first one will be reminded of the most harmless kind of pressure. in the same way does a Brahman handle the pencil with which he writes. fed you well. the seed from which it sprang: this puzzling juxtaposition seems to prove that one and the same spirit is embedded in both forms. they did not want to do their duty. some food from his table. by flattering glorifications. his happiness. Now. must be thus and so: we ourselves are what is more or less certain. by a parallel course of a system of proceedings. so he also directs some one spirit of nature. by submissiveness. a seemingly superhuman level of existence. of bestowal of pledges. man wishes to understand the lawfulness of nature in order to submit to it. that pressure one exerts when one has courted someone's affections. now little. of contracts between enemies. he is not necessarily . which she does not have at the start. sacrificed to you. mysterious nature—must seem to be the realm of freedom. In the mind of religious men. man does not confront nature as a powerless slave. But it is likewise based on other and more noble ideas. hair. by making them favorably inclined: love binds and is bound. it presumes a sympathetic relationship of man to man. a mason his trowel. who has left them in the lurch. a worker his plow. To exact the wanting favor of their god. or if we closely observe present-day savages. and moves with the uniformity of a pendulum. and in short. Even in very primitive stages of culture. a soldier his weapons of battle. frightful. destroy it. just as love spells are effective from afar. by committing oneself to regular tributes and gifts. whereas in present times. that is. There is nothing outside ourselves about which we are allowed to conclude that it will become thus and so. that of his family. by which one commits oneself reciprocally to certain behavior. the existence of goodwill. systematize them. of choice.

her involuntary servant: in the Greek stage of religion, especially in the relationship to the Olympian gods, there is the thought of a coexistence of two castes, one nobler and more powerful, the other less noble; but according to their origin both belong together somehow and are of one kind; they need not be ashamed before one another. That is the noble element in Greek religiosity. 112. On viewing certain ancient sacrificial utensils.— The combination of farce, even obscenity, with religious feeling, shows us how some feelings are disappearing: the sensibility that this is a possible mixture is vanishing; we understand only historically that it once existed, in festivals of Demeter and Dionysos, at Christian passion plays and mystery plays. But even we are still familiar with the sublime in league with the burlesque, for example, the sentimental blended with the ludicrous—and this a later age will perhaps no longer understand. 113. Christianity and antiquity.— When we hear the ancient bells growling on a Sunday morning we ask ourselves: Is it really possible! This, for a Jew, crucified 2000 years ago, who said he was God's son? The proof of such a claim is lacking. Certainly the Christian religion is an antiquity projected into our times from remote prehistory; and the fact that the claim is believed—whereas one is otherwise so strict in examining pretensions—is perhaps the most ancient piece of this heritage. A god who begets children with a mortal woman; a sage who bids men work no more, have no more courts, but look for the signs of the impending end of the world; a justice that accepts the innocent as a vicarious sacrifice; someone who orders his disciples to drink his blood; prayers for miraculous interventions; sins perpetrated against a god, atoned for by a god; fear of a beyond to which death is the portal; the form of the cross as a symbol in a time that no longer knows the function and ignominy of the cross—how ghoulishly all this touches us, as if from the tomb of a primeval past! Can one believe that such things are still believed? 114. What is un-Hellenic in Christianity.— The Greeks did not see the Homeric gods above them as masters and themselves below them as servants, as did the Jews. They saw, as it were, only the reflection of the most successful specimens of their own caste, that is, an ideal, not a contrast to their own nature. They felt related to them, there was a reciprocal interest, a kind of symmachia. Man thinks of himself as noble when he gives himself such gods, and puts himself into a relationship similar to that of the lesser nobility to the higher. Whereas the Italic peoples have a regular peasant religion, with continual fearfulness about evil and capricious powers and tormentors. Where the Olympian gods retreated, there Greek life too grew gloomier and more fearful. Christianity, on the other hand, crushed and shattered man completely, and submerged him as if in deep mire. Then, all at once, into his feeling of complete confusion, it allowed the light of divine compassion to shine, so that the surprised man, stunned by mercy, let out a cry of rapture, and thought for a moment that he carried all of heaven within him. All psychological inventions of Christianity work toward this sick excess of feeling, toward the deep corruption of head and heart necessary for it. Christianity wants to destroy, shatter, stun, intoxicate: there is only one thing it does not want: moderation, and for this reason, it is in its deepest meaning barbaric, Asiatic, ignoble, un-Hellenic. 115. Being religious to one's advantage.— There are sober and efficient men on whom religion is embroidered like the hem of a higher humanity. These men do well to remain religious: it beautifies them. All men who have no expertise with any weapon (mouth and pen counting as weapons) become servile: for such men, religion is very useful, for here servility takes on the appearance of a Christian virtue and is surprisingly beautified. People who think their daily lives too empty and monotonous easily become religious: this is understandable and forgivable; however, they have no right to demand religiosity from those whose daily life does not pass in emptiness and monotony.

116. The everyday Christian.— If the Christian dogmas of a revengeful God universal sinfulness election by divine grace and the danger of eternal damnation were true, it would be a sign of weak-mindedness and lack of character not to become a priest, apostle or hermit and, in fear and trembling, to work solely on one's own salvation; it would be senseless to lose sight of ones eternal advantage for the sake of temporal comfort. If we may assume that these things are at any rate believed true, then the everyday Christian cuts a miserable figure; he is a man who really cannot count to three, and who precisely on account of his spiritual imbecility does not deserve to be punished so harshly as Christianity promises to punish him. 117. On the shrewdness of Christianity.— It is a trick of Christianity to teach the utter worthlessness, sinfulness, and despicableness of man in general so loudly that disdain for one's fellow men becomes impossible. "Let him sin as he will, he is essentially no different from me; I am the one who is in all ways unworthy and despicable," the Christian tells himself. But this feeling too has lost its sharpest sting because the Christian does not believe in his individual despicableness: he is wicked simply because he is a man, and calms himself a bit with the tenet: we are all of one kind. 118. Change of cast.— As soon as a religion comes to dominate it has as its opponents all those who would have been its first disciples. 119. Destiny of Christianity.— Christianity came into existence in order to lighten the heart; but now it has first to burden the heart so as afterwards to be able to lighten it. Consequently it shall perish. 120. Proof by pleasure.— An agreeable opinion is accepted as true: this is the proof by pleasure (or, as the church says, the proof by strength), that all religions are so proud of, whereas they ought to be ashamed. If the belief did not make us happy, it would not be believed: how little must it then be worth! 121. Dangerous game.— Whoever allows room in himself again for religious feeling these days must also allow it to grow: he cannot do otherwise. Then his nature gradually changes: it favors that which is dependent on or near to the religious element; the whole range of his judgment and feeling is befogged, overcast with religious shadows. Feeling cannot stand still: be on your guard! 122. Blind pupils.— As long as a man knows very well the strength and weaknesses of his teaching, his art, his religion, its power is still slight. The pupil and apostle who, blinded by the authority of the master and by the piety he feels toward him, pays no attention to the weaknesses of a teaching, a religion, and soon usually has for that reason more power than the master. The influence of a man has never yet grown great without his blind pupils. To help a perception to achieve victory often means merely to unite it with stupidity so intimately that the weight of the latter also enforces the victory of the former. 123. Demolition of churches.— There is not enough religion in the world even to destroy religions. 124.

Sinlessness of man.— Once man has grasped "how sin came into the world" (which is to say, through errors of reason, due to which men take each other—and the individual takes himself for much blacker and more wicked than is actually the case), then his whole mood is greatly improved, and men and world seem at times to be in such a halo of harmlessness as to make him utterly contented. Amid nature, man is always the child per se. This child might once dream an oppressive, terrifying dream, but when he opens his eyes, he always finds himself in paradise again. 125. Irreligiosity of artists.— Homer is so at home among his gods, and takes such delight in them as a poet that he surely must have been deeply irreligious. He took what popular belief offered him (a paltry, crude, in part horrible superstition) and dealt as freely as a sculptor with his clay, that is, with the same openness Aeschylus and Aristophanes possessed, and which in more recent times has distinguished the great artists of the Renaissance, as well as Shakespeare and Goethe. 126. Art and strength of false interpretation.— All the visions, horrors, exhaustions and raptures of the saint are familiar states of illness, which, based on deep-rooted religious and psychological errors, he simply interprets otherwise, that is, not as illnesses. Thus the daemon of Socrates likewise is perhaps a disease of the ear, which he explains in accordance with his prevailing moral thinking, but other than how it would be explained today. It is no different with the madness and ravings of prophets and oracular priests: it is always the degree of knowledge, imagination, ambition, morality in the head and heart of the interpreters that has made so much out of them. One of the greatest effects of men whom we call geniuses and saints is that they exact interpreters who misunderstand them, to the good of mankind. 127. Reverence for madness.— Because it was observed that an excited state would often clear the mind and produce happy ideas, it was thought that through the states of greatest excitement one would partake of the happiest ideas and inspirations. And so the madman was revered as the wise man and oracle giver. This is based on a false conclusion. 128. Promises of science.— Modern science has as its goal the least pain and the longest life possible—that is, a kind of eternal happiness: to be sure, a very modest kind in comparison with the promises of religions. 129. Forbidden generosity.— There is not enough love and goodness in the world for us to be permitted to give any of it away to imaginary things. 130. Continuance of the religious cult in the heart.— The Catholic Church, and before it all the cults of antiquity, commanded the whole range of means by which man is set into unusual moods and torn away from the cold calculation of his advantage, or pure, rational thinking. A church reverberating with deep sounds; muted, regular, restrained invocations of a priestly host that instantaneously transmits its tension to the congregation so that it listens almost fearfully, as if a miracle were in the making; the atmosphere of the architecture that, as the dwelling of a divinity, extends into the indefinite and makes one fear the movings of the divinity in all its dark spaces—who would want to return such goings-on to man, once the assumptions for them are no longer believed? Nevertheless, the results of all that have not been lost: the inner world of sublime, tender, intuitive, deeply contrite, blissfully hopeful moods was begotten in man primarily through the religious cult; what now exists of it in the soul was raised at the time of its sprouting, growing, and flowering.

in that a theology that calls itself free has been up to its bootless mischief in this area. also transitory need). in fact. which is said to follow a selfless way of thinking! But unfortunately it does not go beyond this wish: the dissatisfaction about being unable to satisfy the wish is added to all the other kinds of dissatisfaction that his lot in life generally. And if a philosophy shows us the justification of metaphysical hopes. the intuition "that the essence of things is one"). We notice here how less careful free thinkers actually object only to the dogmas. for the sake of the former. surpasses in horror all other terrors of the imagination? 133. large or small. or the consequences of those actions. in music. he has not lost it to the degree that he would not enjoy encountering religious feelings and moods without any conceptual content as. But basically it is the reverse. and. how he would like to feel full of a good consciousness. in that one wishes or fears it. until now psychological explanations of religious states and processes have been in some disrepute. so abnormally distorted. of a deep peace of the soul to be attained therefrom. he discovers within himself a tendency to these kinds of actions. 132. for from the start. it hurts them to let the latter go.— If we reflect carefully. we simply have the inner wish that it might be so—that is. "free theology" was aiming at the preservation of the Christian religion and the continuance of Christian theologists. we venture to present the following interpretation of the phenomenon in question. for example. speaks of the "whole. we want to avow that man has arrived at this condition not through his "guilt" and "sin. certain gospel in the glance of Raphael's Madonna. which by its prospect of an immeasurable duration of punishment. Of course. and above all a new occupation. This wish misleads us into buying bad reasons as good ones.131. consequently. but it wishes the food. then he would have no reason to be dissatisfied with himself to any special degree. those that are generally esteemed to be the topmost and highest.— However much one thinks he has lost the habit of religion. But he compares himself to a being who is solely capable of those actions called selfless and who lives in the continual consciousness of a selfless way of thinking: God. who were to gain a new anchor. a purely psychological one. Even logicians speak of "intuitions" of truth in morality and art (for example. Between painstakingly deduced truths and such "intuited" things there remains the unbridgeable gap that the former are due to the intellect. that is. he thinks he recognizes its anger. Scientific philosophy has to be very careful about smuggling in errors on the basis of that need (an acquired and. in that it hovers in his imagination as a punishing justice. his own nature appears so clouded. that if his nature . This condition would not be felt so bitterly if man would only compare himself dispassionately to other men. what he wants to give accords with a heart that gladly takes. but rather to hold it to be possible. have aroused in him." Undeterred by such predecessors. the thought of this other being makes him fearful. Because he is looking into this bright mirror. Hunger does not prove that any food to satisfy it exists. Thus he develops a deep discontent and searches for a doctor who might be able to put an end to this discontent and all its causes. as the spirit of its founder Schleiermacher [Frederich Schleiermacher (1768-1834). for example. How he would like to try his luck in that other category of actions. "Intuition" takes us not one step farther into the land of certainty. Protestant theologian] allows us to assume. Religious aftereffects." then we approach such statements and explanations with an especially warm disposition. a tendency that seems to him almost as unchangeable as his whole nature. Man is conscious of certain actions that rank low in the customary hierarachy of actions. its menace." but rather through a series of errors of reason. Who helps him in this danger. Here it is easier for the philosopher to make his proofs. Next. it ought to be possible to arrive at an explanation for the process in a Christian's soul that is called the need for redemption. and he even thinks he has a presentiment of the whiplashes it will deliver as judge and executioner. an explanation that is free of mythology. that what gladdens might be also true. On the Christian need for redemption. Before we present the further consequences of this condition. the latter to need. but know very well the magic of religious feeling. termed evil. "To intuit" does not mean to recognize the existence of a thing to any extent. which should be forbidden them. in the psychological analysis of religious "facts. We believe instinctively that the religiously tinged sections of a philosophy are better proved than the others. he would only be sharing the common burden of human dissatisfaction and imperfection. in every possible experience.

If he previously thought he saw warnings. so now he misinterprets his experiences." if carefully examined. through a false. "si on croit aimer sa maîtresse pour l'amour d'elle. of displeasure generally. and every kind of sign of divine anger in all occurrences. But if a man should want to embody Love. as a stain on a creature consecrated to God. in both cases. one ceases to be a Christian. We love neither father nor mother nor wife nor child. the very imperfect creation of human imagination and powers of judgment. how occasionally there are . to do everything for others. have gained the victory: man loves himself again. taken. If the Christian has. as the saying goes. He understands his mood as the consoling effect of a power governing outside himself. Indeed. 135. seems to be proof that God is merciful. if it is only understood correctly. from a more common sphere: "It is impossible for us to feel for others. too. he must notice with the greatest astonishment how that condition of contempt. The principle sounds harsh. We feel only for ourselves. unscientific interpretation of his actions and feelings. to be sure. as is occasionally assumed. and if he takes this conviction into his flesh and blood. see the above-mentioned investigations On the Origin of the Moral Sensations. namely because of their usefulness rather than their essence. The Christian who compares his nature to God is like Don Quixote. the idea of a God disturbs and humiliates as long as it is believed. but that one has not yet jeopardized the "eternal salvation of the soul" and its relation to the divinity. he interpreted his actions wrongly. to be sure. Then what probably remains is that discontent which is very intimately bound up with and related to the fear of punishment by a secular justice. human statutes and regulations. But if the idea of God disappears. With the insight into this aberration of reason and imagination. that life for his sake. of remorse. in order to endure. so too does the feeling of "sin" as a transgression against divine precepts. seems unbelievable to him. and with insight into that origin. pleasure in oneself and contentment with one's own strength. but discontent from the pangs of conscience. threats. a third. quite like that God. but given the present state of comparative ethnology. has been stopped short when one perceives that through one's actions one may have transgressed against human tradition. and particularly his whole joyful mood." ["if we believe we love our mistress for love of her we are very much mistaken"] For the explanation of why actions of love are evaluated more highly than others. it is already impossible from the start. would not be capable of one single selfless action. another seems to be a helpful hint." Or. on est bien trompé. who underestimates his own bravery because he is preoccupied with the miraculous deeds of heroes out of chivalric novels. is the necessary prerequisite for becoming a Christian and experiencing the need for redemption. If in the end man succeeds in convincing himself philosophically that all actions are unconditionally necessary and completely irresponsible.seemed dark and hateful to him to that degree.hours when it is all blown away from his soul and he feels free and courageous again. As previously. self-redemption. how could he do anything that had no reference to himself. punishments. that which he calls mercy and a prelude to redemption is in truth self-pardon. it assumes the other person is egoist enough to accept those sacrifices. or the fear of men's disrespect. . the standard of measure being used belongs to the realm of fable. It cannot even be imagined clearly because from the start the whole concept of "selfless action. Never has a man done anything that was only for others. appears as divine love. he can see in it only the wholly undeserved downpouring of a merciful light from above. does not last. any being who would be capable of purely selfless actions only is more fabulous than the phoenix. with no inner compulsion (which would have to be based on a personal need)? How could the ego act without ego? A God who conversely is all love. those vestiges of the pangs of conscience disappear. over and over again: so men of love and self-sacrifice have an interest in the continued existence of loveless egoists incapable of self-sacrifice. but rather the agreeable feelings that they give us. which should remind us of a thought of Lichtenberg's. in league with the inevitable weakening of any great excitation. but it is not. its origin can no longer be in doubt. that is. as we said. 134. Next. the love with which he fundamentally loves himself. it would cancel itself out). evaporates into the air. and the highest morality. Thus a certain false psychology. he feels it—but this very love. and that that mirror was his creation. a certain kind of fantasy in interpreting motives and experiences. the belief disappears. First. because he has to do a great deal for himself in order to be able to do anything at all for the sake of others. the sharpest sting in the feeling of guilt. In truth. come to feel self-contempt through certain errors. it was the fault of the mirror. Furthermore. and without any personal motivation. would have virtually to compel the existence of immorality (by which. as La Rochefoucauld says. this new self-esteem. so now he reads divine goodness into his experiences: one event seems to be loving. nothing for himself. in a state of discontent.

rather the other person simply offers the tense heart an opportunity to relieve itself. he wants in any event what is great. insofar as they are not done strictly with regard for other people. when the emotion and the understanding for their deed have faded. science to the extent it is. How can this be? Probably because of the relatedness of everything great and highly exciting: once man has been brought into a state of extraordinary tension. Of Christian asceticism and holiness. it finally occurs to them to tyrannize certain parts of their own being. In truth. he may gather together his enemies' spears and bury them in his own breast. which to examine in the light of a rational explanation would be almost sacrilege and profanation. behaving like high-spirited horsemen who like their horse best only when it has become wild. To be sure. even inaccessibility. the ostensibly miraculous has been successfully traced back to complicated and multiply-conditioned causes. when sober and cool as usual. and in conclusion to imagine them entwined. Mankind had to be educated through long habituation to the idea that there is something great in self-denial. man prays to one part of himself as a god and also finds it necessary to diabolize the rest. first probability one arrives at when considering asceticism and holiness is that their nature is complex: for almost everywhere. man takes. the same volume. and if he notices by chance that to sacrifice his own self satisfies as well or better than to sacrifice the other person. which religions have made so much out of. thus the philosopher confesses to views of asceticism. covered with sweat. This shattering of oneself. while the heart remains at the same pitch. Thus those acts of self-denial are basically not moral either. the unexplained should be thoroughly inexplicable." The general. In each ascetic morality. Man is not equally moral at all times—this is well known. If one judges his morality by his capacity for great sacrificial resolve and self-denial (which. that is what they try for. 137. The triumph over the enemy hardest to conquer. which he. Men who have sobered up and are resting from an emotion no longer understand the morality of those moments. an imitation of nature. The whole morality of the Sermon on the Mount belongs here. Under the influence of the powerful emotion. permits itself to protest at least against the claim of their inexplicability. skittish. it has to do with the exchange of one idea for another. those manifestations are still unexplained. by which light his own image is most grievously made ugly. he can decide as easily to take frightful revenge as to make a frightful break with his need for revenge. the inexplicable thoroughly unnatural. Thus man climbs on dangerous paths into the highest mountains in order to mock his own fearfulness and his shaking knees. man is most moral in affect. it has not yet been successful. Thus some thinkers will confess to views that clearly do not serve to increase or improve their reputation.136. For some men have such an intense need to exercise their strength and love of power that. For in general. all he cares about is the release of his emotion. Others retract earlier opinions and are not afraid to be called inconsistent thereafter. so strong. then he chooses that. if they are also thinkers). this spernere se sperni ["answer contempt with contempt"].— However much individual thinkers have tried to represent the rare manifestations of morality that tend to be called asceticism and holiness as something miraculous. and to this extent it counted as the height of morality. powerful. is holiness). is the temptation to this sacrilege. whereas it would be easy for them to retain respect by being silent. Let us venture first to isolate certain impulses in the souls of saints and ascetics. by that self-denial. a powerful impulse of nature has led men to protest generally against those manifestations. on the contrary. to the great delight of the above-mentioned admirers of the morally miraculous. There exists a defiance of oneself that includes among its most sublime expressions various forms of asceticism. a divinity that sacrifices itself was the strongest and most effective symbol of this kind of greatness. and not only in revenge. pride consoles them. some virtually beg to be despised by others. is actually a very high degree of vanity. on the other hand. Whereas the scientific man sees in this demand the "evil principle. as if they were sections or stages of their selves. . Throughout history. when it has become constant and habitual. — 138. too. perhaps did not think himself capable of. greater excitation offers him new motives. a truly voluptuous pleasure in violating himself by exaggerated demands and then deifying this something in his soul that is so tyrannically taxing. lacking other objects or because they have always otherwise failed. but the admiration of all who witnessed in them supports these men. the sudden mastery of an emotion: that is how this denial appeared. miraculous—so goes the demand in the souls of all religious men and metaphysicians (artists. to relieve his tension. enormous. Actually. as we have said. humility and holiness. this scorn for one's own nature. within both the physical and the moral world. supernatural.

and therefore no agony of regret. the ascetic too is trying to make life easy for himself. After having discovered in many of the more inexplicable actions. with alternating results. expressions of that pleasure in emotion per se. makes his life easier by that complete abandonment of his personality. But in order that the battle appear important enough to arouse continuing interest and admiration in the nonsaints. For him she is the guarantee that strife will not prevail indefinitely. so that he ventured the craziest paradox there can be. This subordination is a powerful means of becoming master of oneself. to this feeling of irresponsibility. It is well known that regularity of sexual intercourse moderates the sensual imagination. Empedocles. simulated madness) a means by which those natures combat the general exhaustion of their life-force (of their nerves): they use the most painful stimulants and horrors in order to emerge. and love of power. present attitude towards the state. that it is unleashed and made dissolute by abstinence or irregularity in intercourse. sensuality had to be more and more calumniated and branded. one is occupied. had an interest in seeing a different opinion in power. Christianity had said that each man is conceived and born in sin. and finds him in the so-called "inner enemy. as we said. To be sure. entertained their brooding minds as finely as the alternation of desire and serenity. to allow himself to see his life as a continuing battle and himself as the battlefield on which good and evil spirits struggle. their bleak life was entertained by it. then. we find there too that an unqualified obedience is more convenient than a qualified one. To do this he needs an opponent. Many Christian saints' imaginations were exceedingly dirty. not even the judgment of all pessimists is the same on this point. In any event. At that time . devil. it is harder to assert one's personality without vacillation or confusion than to free oneself from it in the manner described. after a deed is completed. sin in all things erotic. and a man is fooling himself when he admires that phenomenon as the most heroic feat of morality. human one. and in the insufferable superlative Christianity of Caldéron [Pedro Caldéron de la Barca (1600-82): Spanish dramatist] this thought had been knotted together and tangled up once again. knows nothing of shame. usually by completely subordinating himself to the will of another or to a comprehensive law and ritual. for example." He exploits particularly his tendency to vanity. which is especially unseemly for truth. 140. Practicing Christian pessimists. for. this enemy took flight forever. from that dullness and boredom into which their great spiritual indolence and that subordination to a foreign will described above have so often let them sink. for a time at least. that is. he sees one single salutary and hopeful apparition: Aphrodite. the danger of eternal damnation became so closely linked to these things that quite probably for whole generations. there is no feeling of responsibility. greatest guilt of man In all pessimistic religions.139. 141. but this feeling is by no means a general. I would also discern in self-contempt (which is one of the signs of saintliness) and likewise in self-tormenting behavior (starvation and scourges. One has renounced his own will once and for all. in the well-known lines: the is that he was born. but determines himself at each minute by a holy precept. conversely. as well as his sensual desires. the act of procreation is felt to be bad per'se. It was in their interest that the battle always be entertained to some degree. and this is easier than to renounce it only occasionally. we owe the so instructive honesty of their confessions. indeed. And yet truth is standing on its head here. in vacillation up and down. rather in the way the Brahman leaves absolutely nothing to his own determination. for the loneliness and spiritual desolation of their lives. In some respects. The most common means that the ascetic and saint uses in order to make his life more bearable and entertaining consists in occasionally waging war and alternating victory and defeat. The saint. on the great meadow of calamity. and yet has no willful or passionate impulse. they needed an ever-active and generally recognized enemy. If we remember man's. even almost suppresses it and. just as it is easier to give up a desire entirely than to moderate it. indubitably doing great harm to mankind. by opposing and conquering whom they again and again portrayed themselves to the unsaintly as half-incomprehensible. rather. it also takes much more intellect and thought. ambition. they knew at once how to see their inner self populated by new demons. supernatural beings. as a consequence of their way of life and their destroyed health. but will eventually give the scepter to a gentler daemon. as we said. they did not feel very responsible. thanks to their theory that these desires were real demons who raged in them. dislocation of limbs. The scales of arrogance and humility. When finally. Christians conceived children with a bad conscience. free of boredom.

but rather that he feel as sinful as possible. despair about his own strength. this burnt-out eye. or evolving saint. lacking confidence. so that it changes over into the emotion of the most extreme humiliation. not actually for the many to imitate. it is only the consequence of opinions about things. or with divine beings. And yet this suffering about the natural is in the reality of things totally unfounded. animated. but also to revile it. a continuing repose in the lap of a dull. in a half-wasted body. but rather as a frightening and yet delightful spectacle. animal-like or vegetative indolence. one will find everywhere that the demands have been exaggerated so that man cannot satisfy them. since he cannot take off the dress of nature. clouds his imagination. However. to crucify it. frightful in every way. corresponding to no real sinfulness but rather only to an imagined one. which we have already discussed. but that which he signifies in the minds of nonsaints. even his dreams acquire the flavor of his troubled conscience. sinfulness (as is still his habit in regard to the erotic. so in the age of Christianity an equally immeasurable amount of spirit has been offered up to a different striving: man was to feel sinful in all ways and excited. sometimes his bloated sensibility leaps from the longing to give his passions free rein to the longing to make them collapse like wild stallions. Excite. they can count on admiration. animate. Sometimes he wants the complete cessation of all bothersome. man wanted to consider himself as bad and evil as possible. to scourge it. enters the scene. irritating feelings. by experience and instinct one of the authorities in questions of saintliness. interpreting his inner states incorrectly and divorcing him . The eye of the saint. Novalis. now heavenly gleams of light. after a long life of nature. then the saint and ascetic invented a new category of life-stimuli. even worship—or at least they could count on it in earlier times. overripe. perhaps that voluptuousness in which all others are wound together in one knot. when he yearns for visions. the intention is not that he become more moral.psychology served not only to throw suspicion on everything human. To sum up what we have said: that disposition which the saint. focused on the imminence of the final decision about an endless new life to come. Not that which the saint is. inspired thereby. sometimes he seep out battle and provokes it in himself. where everyone used to think he perceived. conversations with the dead. Everything natural. until the feverish soul shivers aglow and chilled this was the last pleasure which the ancient world invented. have one's fill of it. powerfully driven by a proud soul. the soul had grown tired of them. And finally. under the influence of other than religious ideas. and which gives even the most solitary man a feeling of power. for his most extreme love of power. he sought out fear for the salvation of his soul. Sometimes the saint exercises a defiance against himself. why should he have produced such an idea and been attached to it for so long? As in the ancient world an immeasurable strength of spirit and inventiveness was employed to increase joy in life through ceremonial worship. pronounces the whole secret with naive joy: "It is a wonder indeed that the association of voluptuousness. which is a close relative of the love of power. It is the device of religion. a waking sleep. for example. He scourges his self-deification with self-contempt and cruelty. and with that. overcultivated age? The circle of all natural feelings had been run through a hundred times. and in the sharp pain of sin. It is easy to see how men become worse by labeling the unavoidably natural as bad and later feeling it to be so constituted. the need for redemption. after it had itself grown indifferent even to the sight of animal and human contests. he knows how to set a trap for his emotions. Gradually. If man had not found this feeling agreeable. and his agitated soul is pulled to pieces by this contrast. to which man attaches the idea of badness. made men of the old world tremble to their depths. 142. they show themselves in different colors and then tend to suffer men's censure as intensely as. to yield to it. he feels so oppressed by such a burden of sins that supernatural powers become necessary to lift this burden. now eerie tongues of flame glowing up from the depths." 143. when decorated by religion and the ultimate questions of existence. Because people were mistaken about him. tormenting. lets him quarrel with himself and makes him unsure. gives him his value in worldhistory. If one goes through the individual moral statements of the documents of Christianity. even in the idea of being lost. to have him cast suspicion on nature and to make himself bad. and of those metaphysicians who want to think of man as evil and sinful by nature. enjoys is constituted of elements that we all know quite well. he takes pleasure in the wild uprising of his desires. because boredom holds its yawning visage up to him. inspire at all costs—is that not the watchword of an enervated. which was performed on that border between this world and the afterworld. to sense again the fascination of the spectacle. to look away from with a shudder. They presented themselves to everyone. religion and cruelty has not long ago made men take notice of their intimate relationship and common intention. To look at. makes his glance timid. for he learns thus to experience himself as bad. focused on the meaning of a short earthly life. it is basically a rare form of voluptuousness that he desires. for example) burdens him.

utter freedom from responsibility—a feeling that everyone can now attain through science. superiority to other men by logical discipline and training of thought as a sign of sainthood. the shadowy figure of the saint grew to enormous size. in an imminent Judgment Day. Isolated exceptions to this type stand out. can be opposed by other portraits that might result in a more favorable impression. and to that extent do not represent a pure type. whether by their great gentleness and benevolence. It is self-evident that this portrait of the saint. The queer. he himself understood the script of his moods. ruined health. inclinations. I have also left out the Indian holy men. as for example is the case with the famous founder of Christianity. indeed to such a height that even in our time. or by the magic of their unusual energy. coupled as they were with spiritual poverty. actions by an interpretive art which was as exaggerated and artificial as the pneumatical interpretation of the Bible. in a religious meaning of all existence. Belief in him supported the belief in the divine and the miraculous. who thought he was God's only begotten son. who are an intermediate stage between the Christian saint and the Greek philosopher. 144. and therefore without sin. . as much as the same qualities are rejected and calumniated as a sign of unholiness in the Christian world. there are still plenty of thinkers who believe in the saint. By the evening light of the apocalyptic sun that shone over the Christian peoples. sick elements in his nature. and even less an especially wise man. so that through a fantasy (which one should not judge too harshly. Buddhists demanded knowledge. But he signified something that was to surpass human proportions in goodness and wisdom. he acquired the extraordinary strength with which he could control the imagination of whole peoples. others are attractive in the highest degree because certain delusions diffuse streams of light over their whole being. He was not an especially good man. science (as far as there was one).from themselves as radically as possible as something completely beyond compare and strangely superhuman. which is sketched according to the average member of the whole type. overstimulated nerves. were as hidden from his eye as from the eye of the onlooker. He himself did not know himself. because the whole ancient world is aswarm with sons of gods) he reached the same goal: the feeling of utter sinlessness. whole ages. which no longer believes in God. inadequate knowledge.

but for some moments. Art as raiser of the dead. He is apparently fighting for the higher worthiness and meaning of mankind. it goes without saying. the artist has a weaker morality than the thinker. only a phantom-life that results therefrom. or assist the present to acquire new colours by means of a life which they cause to shine out of the past. only for the moment. but that which slowly filters . however. the continuance of his art of creation as more important than the scientific devotion to truth in every shape.— Art also fulfils the task of preservation and even of brightening up extinguished and faded memories. We still almost feel (for example in a Greek temple such as that at Paestum) that a god must one morning have playfully constructed his dwelling out of these tremendous weights: at other times that a stone suddenly acquired by magic a soul that is now trying to speak out of it. this is his glory and his limitation. From the Souls of Artists and Writers 145. uncertain. the feelings of the first years of life. when it accomplishes this task it weaves a rope round the ages and causes their spirits to return. Hence. and so he may assist this illusion and introduce these elements of rapturous restlessness.— With regard to knowledge of truths. the artist himself must be excused if he does not stand in the front rank of the Enlightenment and progressive masculinization of man. Unconsciously it becomes his mission to make mankind more childlike. the old sensation lives again and the heart beats to an almost forgotten time. which does not make stormy and intoxicating impressions (such a kind easily arouses disgust). so that they can be used as bridges to far distant times and ideas. and defends himself against temperate and simple methods and results. the fantastical. certain drawbacks to their means of lightening life—they appease and heal only temporarily. the belief that genius is something miraculous—he considers. There are. therefore. to dying or dead religions and cultures. 146. inasmuch as they remove and apply palliatives to precisely that passion of discontent that induces to action. 147. Here we are probably still standing under the aftereffect of a primeval mythological invention. the over-valuation of personality. Poets as the lighteners of life. certainly. mythical. either divert his gaze from the wearisome present. of blindly groping disorder. in reality he will not renounce the most efficacious presuppositions for his art. however. most definitely to counter this illusion and to display the bad habits and false conclusions of the intellect by virtue of which it allows the artist to ensnare it. of attentive reverie that attend the beginning of creation into his art as a means of deceiving the soul of the spectator or auditor into a mood in which he believes that the complete and perfect has suddenly emerged instantaneously. 149. 148. at least.— The noblest kind of beauty is that which does not transport us suddenly. Actually they are always and of necessity epigones. The science of art has. extreme. he will on no account let himself be deprived of brilliant and profound interpretations of life. a belief that it came into being with a miraculous suddenness. as out of graves. and has stood still at the point where he was overcome by his artistic impulse. The slow arrow of beauty.— Poets. are acknowledged to be nearer to those of earlier times than to those of the present century.— In the case of everything perfect we are accustomed to abstain from asking how it became: we rejoice in the present fact as though it came out of the ground by magic. What is perfect is supposed not to have become. for the sake of the general usefulness of art. however simple this may appear. inasmuch as they desire to lighten the life of man. The artist knows that his work produces its full effect when it excites a belief in an improvisation. they must in many respects themselves be beings who are turned towards the past. the sense of the symbolical. or like the return in dreams of our beloved dead. It is. they even prevent men from labouring towards a genuine improvement in their conditions.IV. all his life long he has remained a child or a youth. To be able to do this. The artist's sense of truth.

and sighs for the man who will lead back to him his lost darling. we fancy it must bring much happiness with it. earnestness was too well-known to them as pain (the gods so gladly hear the misery of mankind made the theme of song). gloomier aspect. Art makes heavy the heart of the thinker. however. fills our eyes with tears and our hearts with longing. when he has cast off everything metaphysical. But that is a mistake. and which we encounter again in our dreams. 556 to c. it causes various artificialities of speech and obscurities of thought. . Probably this occasionally drove the neighbouring nations to desperation. which we take away with us almost unnoticed. for all poetic nations have such a love of falsehood. the crushing of souls. all the stars seem to shine round him. throw themselves into art. so also in music and poetry: there is an art of the ugly soul side by side with the art of the beautiful soul.— How strong metaphysical need is and how difficult nature renders our departure from it may be seen from the fact that even in the free spirit. moving of stones and humanising of beasts. it may be assumed that the fear of spirits. The animation of art. 468 BC).— Art is confined within too narrow limits if it be required that only the orderly. for instance. be it called religion or metaphysics. well-behaved soul should be allowed to express itself therein. so the "dull" is necessary to lucidity. but they intentionally weave lies round life. As in the plastic arts. which it previously was not able to do. and itself becomes deeper.— Meter casts a veil over reality. Simonides [Simonides (c. lays them to its heart.— The lightness and frivolity of the Homeric imagination was necessary to calm and occasionally to raise the immoderately passionate temperament and acute intellect of the Greeks. and sometimes brings it into prominence. 150. The art of the ugly soul. that at a passage in Beethoven's Ninth Symphony he feels himself floating above the earth in a starry dome with the dream of immortality in his heart. respectable. incense. but which. even broken.into our minds. after having long lain modestly on our hearts. 153. If their intellect speaks. and the mightiest effects of art. How meter beautifies. takes entire possession of us. and yet are innocent withal. thrust by the Enlightenment out of the religious sphere. they were so plagued with the love of romancing that it was difficult for them in everyday life to keep themselves free from falsehood and deceit. Art makes the aspect of life endurable by throwing over it the veil of obscure thought. Playing with life. have perhaps been best achieved precisely by that art. In such moments his intellectual character is put to the test. It takes over many feelings and moods engendered by religion. What is it that we long for at the sight of beauty? We long to be beautiful. even straight into science. Everywhere where human endeavour wears a loftier. If he becomes conscious of this state.— Art raises its head where religions relax their hold. but the growth of the Enlightenment undermined the dogmas of religion and inspired a fundamental mistrust of them—so that the feelings. by the shadow it throws upon thought it sometimes conceals it. the loftiest effects of art can easily produce a resounding of the long silent. however. so that it is capable of transmitting exultation and enthusiasm. in a few cases into political life. 154. and church-shadows have remained attached to it. As shadow is necessary to beauty. more full of soul. Greek poet] advised his countrymen to look upon life as a game. 151. he feels a deep pain at his heart. metaphysical string—it may be. how harsh and cruel does life then appear! They do not deceive themselves. and they knew that through art alone misery might be turned into pleasure. The abundance of religious feelings which have grown into a stream are always breaking forth again and desire to conquer new kingdoms. and the earth to sink farther and farther away. As a punishment for this insight. 152.

mediocre. to humanity.— If one considers that man was for many hundreds of thousands of years an animal in the highest degree accessible to fear and that everything sudden and unexpected bade him prepare to fight and perhaps to die that even later on. to all civilisation. He pipes. This constitutes the familiar deception. In the phenomenon of the tragic. when in one and the same individual are combined the genius of power and of knowledge and the moral genius. The belief in inspiration. which acquires its value through its connection with particularly difficult and remote perceptions (pity in itself is worth but little). unwearied not only in invention but also in rejection. As compensation for this deprivation.155. we laugh much more often than we are profoundly shaken. in certain circumstances. such apparent inspirations are seen elsewhere. passes over into the opposite of fear: the anxious. consequently a miracle. Origin of the comic. the fundamental thought of a philosophy shone down from heaven like a ray of grace. enduring wantonness and high spirits is much rarer among mortals than occasions for fear. just as we now learn from Beethoven's notebooks that he gradually composed the most beautiful melodies. Inspiration again. and yet sometimes his sufferings are really very great. it has not suddenly fallen down from heaven. an extra. greatly expands—man laughs. The learned genius. 156. great. and bad. since. he finds more pleasure in creating than the rest of mankind experiences in all other species of activity. as we have said. socalled inspirations. is usually not so covetous and does not make such an exhibition of his really greater sufferings and deprivations. but only because his ambition and his envy are so great. there is added to the above-mentioned pains that species of pain which must be regarded as the most curious exception in the world. reviewing. the interest of all artists is rather too much concerned. in the continuance of which. but none will dance: can that be tragic? Perhaps. enduring wantonness and great fear and anguish. he offers entertainment but nobody accepts it. as if the idea of a work of art. but his power of judgment. transforming. there comes at last such a sudden outpouring. a comically touching pathos. crouching creature springs up. on the other hand. like Kepler and Spinoza.— If the productive power has been suspended for a length of time. indeed. however. This transition from momentary anxiety to short-lived exuberance is called the comic. may under certain circumstances be come a great improvisatore. In reality the imagination of the good artist or thinker constantly produces good. however. in social relationships all security depended on the expected and traditional in opinion and action then one cannot be surprised if whenever something sudden and unexpected in word and deed happens without occasioning danger or injury man becomes wanton. and in a manner selected them. to all suffering existence. man passes swiftly from great. as if an immediate inspiration were taking place without previous inward working.— It is to the interest of the artist that there should be a belief in sudden suggestions. for he has really no right to force pleasure on men. on what scales can we measure whether or not it is genuine? Is it not almost imperative to be mistrustful of all who speak of possessing sensiblities of this sort? 169. of poetry. but artistic improvisation ranks low in comparison with serious and laboriously chosen artistic thoughts. 170. but if his mind is on a very high plane he does not easily find any one to share his pleasure. there is much more of the comic than the tragic in the world. This gives him.and supra-personal sensibility attuned to a nation. 157. But by what standard. . and arranging. whilst an artist who does this always plays a desperate game that makes his heart ache. rejects and chooses and joins together. He who makes less severe distinctions. In very rare cases. All great men were great workers. The capital has only accumulated. His sufferings are considered as exaggerated. for instance in the realm of goodness. because the sound of his complaints is louder and his tongue more eloquent. He can reckon with greater certainty on future fame and can afford to do without the present. Moreover. most clear and practised. The sufferings of genius and their value. from many different attempts. and has been hindered in its outflow by some obstacle. and willingly abandons himself to imitative memories. of virtue and of vice.— The artistic genius desires to give pleasure.

through practice in satisfying it. and feels in himself the passion of writing. 63: "Whoever is a teacher through and through takes all things seriously only in relation to his students—even himself. that is to say.Artist's ambition. It is possible that in each individual instance fear and pity are mitigated and discharged: they could nonetheless grow greater as a whole through the tragic effect in general. — But what right has our age to offer an answer to Plato's great question . poetized in order to conquer. its periodical alleviation notwithstanding. And in the long run a drive is. then they exact agreement from others as to their own assessment of themselves and confirmation of their own judgment. Artists are often unbridled individuals to the extent that they are not artists: but that is something else. ambition." If the former is lacking and the latter nonetheless still demanded. to abandon self-control. he always thinks of the benefit of his pupils. He no longer thinks of himself but of the writer and his public: he desires insight. and thus Aeschylus and Euripides were for a long time unsuccessful until they had finally educated judges of art who assessed their work according to the standards they themselves laid down. in due time. without reference to a dominating taste or the general opinion as to what constitutes excellence in a work of art. Quiet fruitfulness. [Beyond Good and Evil. not quickly pushed aside by something new. Warning to writers and teachers. susceptible.— Are fear and pity really discharged by tragedy. He who is a teacher is usually incapable of any longer doing anything for his own benefit. their whole art cannot be thought of apart from contest: Hesiod's good Eris. the sensation. But fear and pity are not in this sense needs of definite organs which want to be relieved. in the unconscious feeling that their painted passions will seem more believable if their own life speaks for their experience in this field. a victory before their own seat of judgment. If one is something one rally does not need to make anything—and one nonetheless does very much. one speaks of pride. tearful soul. he is an artist so as to divine much from the little he himself has felt. He regards himself in the end as a thoroughfare of knowledge and as a means and instrument in general. A true writer only bestows words on the emotions and experiences of others. There exists above the "productive" man a yet higher species. 212. Now this ambition demands above all that their work should preserve the highest excellence in their own eyes. so that the auditor goes home colder and more placid? Do ghost stories make one less fearful and superstitious? It is true in the case of certain physical events. they want actually to be more excellent. the enjoyment of love for example. The tragic poet himself would then necessarily acquire a gloomy. 200. one speaks of vanity. passion which gnaws at the individual and often consumes him. so that he has ceased to be serious with regard to himself. the other describes it. as Aristotle has it. disheartened view of the world and a soft. intensified.— The Greek artists. To aspire to honor here means: "to make oneself superior and to wish this superiority to be publicly acknowledged. that with the satisfaction of a need an alleviation and temporary relaxation of the drive occurs.— He who has once written. ambition. and he takes pleasure in knowledge of any kind only insofar as he can teach it. but not for his own private use. the tragedians for example. music or novels. envy."] 210. 211. One has only to let oneself go. If the latter is lacking and its absence not regretted. It is thus they aspire to victory over their competitors as they understand victory. to give rein to one's anger or desires: at once all the world cries: how passionate he is! But deep-rooted passion. gave their genius its wings. Achilles and Homer. The desire to create continually is vulgar and betrays jealousy. Old doubts over the effect of art. and Plato could still be right when he says that through tragedy one becomes generally more fearful and emotional. as they understand excellence.— It is always as between Achilles and Homer: the one has the experience. Artists are by no means men of great passion but they often pretend to be. and it would likewise accord with Plato's opinion of the matter if the tragic poet and with him whole city communities which take especial delight in him should degenerate to ever greater unbridledness and immoderation.— The born aristocrats of the spirit are not too zealous: their creations appear and fall from the tree on a quiet autumn evening unprecipitately. is a thing of some consequence: he who experiences such passion certainly does not describe it in dramas. acquires from almost all he does and experiences only that which can be communicated through writing.

we play and laugh when the expected (which usually makes us fearful and tense) discharges itself harmlessly. not so significant for our inner world. the intellect could suppose such a thing only in an age which had conquered for musical symbolism the entire compass of the inner life. of consecration by magic and the proximity of the divine. in the case of architecture. through song. and indeed something of a higher order of things: this feeling of inexhaustible significance lay about the building like a magic veil.— Music is. that almost everywhere there is happiness there is pleasure in nonsense. the purposive and that which corresponds to our experience which we usually see as our inexorable masters. and they could not have been so without believing in the absolute truth of these errors. A moving tale will one day be told how there once existed such an art. just as we have weaned ourselves from the sound effects of rhetoric. the Gothic cathedrals. presupposes not only a cosmic but also a metaphysical significance in the objects of art. at a primitive stage of music in which sounds made in tempo and at varying volume gave pleasure as such. like the Divina Commedia. It was the intellect itself which first introduced this significance into sounds: just as. that we now suppose it to speak directly to the inner world and to come from the inner world. such an artist's faith. that it can be said to count as the immediate language of feeling. delights us. 218. . 220. nor so profoundly exciting. at least we do not do so nearly as well as we understand music. Beauty entered this system only incidentally. at most beauty mitigated the dread—but this dread was everywhere the presupposition. it likewise introduced a significance into the relations between lines and masses which is in itself quite unknown to the laws of mechanics. without essentially encroaching upon the fundamental sense of the uncanny and exalted. one can say. no music is profound or significant. and no longer imbibe this kind of cultural mother's milk from the first moment of our lives. that species of art can never flourish again which. 215. into the varying strength and volume of musical sounds. but in such a way that this event causes no harm and is imagined as occasioned by high spirits. of the necessary into the arbitrary. but its primeval union with poetry has deposited so much symbolism into rhythmic movement. Pleasure in nonsense. for it momentarily liberates us from the constraint of the necessary. or symbolism of form speaking to the understanding without poetry after both arts had been united over a long course of evolution and the musical form had finally become entirely enmeshed in threads of feeling and concepts. the pictures of Raphael. Dramatic music becomes possible only when the tonal art has conquered an enormous domain of symbolic means.concerning the moral influence of art at all? Even if we possessed art—what influence of any kind does art exercise among us? 213. of and in itself. The Beyond in art. indeed.— In general we no longer understand architecture. Stone is more stony than it used to be. It is the pleasure of the slave at the Saturnalia. the frescoes of Michelangelo. it does not speak of the "will" or of the "thing-in-itself". Men who have remained behind in the evolution of music can understand in a purely formalistic way the same piece of music as the more advanced understand wholly symbolically. of the purposive into the purposeless. Everything in a Greek or Christian building originally signified something. If belief in such truth declines in general. In itself.— It is not without profound sorrow that one admits to oneself that in their highest flights the artists of all ages have raised to heavenly transfiguration precisely those conceptions which we now recognize as false: they are the glorifiers of the religious and philosophical errors of mankind. What is the beauty of a building to us today? The same thing as the beautiful face of a mindless woman: something masklike. if the rainbow-colors at the extreme limits of human knowledge and supposition grow pale. We have grown out of the symbolism of lines and figures.— How can man take pleasure in nonsense? For wherever in the world there is laughter this is the case. "Absolute music" is either form in itself. The overturning of experience into its opposite. opera and a hundred experiments in tone-painting. Music.

and strenuousness of character becomes a birth gift and afterwards is fostered as a habit. a mutilation. the multiplying of stable strength through mental binding in faith and common feeling. the possibility of attaining to higher aims. Deviating natures are of the utmost importance wherever there is to be progress. The danger to these communities founded on individuals of strong and similar character is that gradually increasing stupidity through transmission. it is precisely the weaker nature. For instance. Precisely in this sore and weakened place the community is inoculated with something new. therefore. it is they who attempt all that is new and manifold. Rather must two different things converge: firstly. partial weakening and wounding of the stable strength. the blind man will have a deeper inward sight and will certainly have a keener sense of hearing. of their common faith. the weaker ones help it to evolve. through the fact that there are deviating natures and. which follows all stability like its shadow. Numbers of these perish on account of their weakness. a sickly man in the midst of a warlike and restless race will perhaps have more chance of being alone and thereby growing quieter and wiser. particularly when they have descendants. a physical or moral loss is seldom without its advantage. Tokens of Higher and Lower Culture 224. without having achieved any specially visible effect. In so far it appears to me that the famous struggle for existence is not the only point of view from which an explanation can be given of the progress or strengthening of an individual or a race. thus is learnt the subjection of the individual. but generally. more uncertain and morally weaker individuals that depends the spiritual progress of such communities. the one-eyed man will possess one stronger eye. Ennoblement through degeneration. even a vice and. as the . secondly. Something similar happens in the case of individuals. It is on the more unrestricted. in consequence. The strongest natures preserve the type.— History teaches that a race of people is best preserved where the greater number hold one common spirit in consequence of the similarity of their accustomed and indisputable principles: in consequence. but its general strength must be great enough to absorb and assimilate this new thing into its blood. Thus strength is afforded by good and thorough customs. above all. a deterioration. they flare up and from time to time inflict a wound on the stable element of the community.V. Every wholesale progress must be preceded by a partial weakening.

not the impulse under which it was sought. Moreover." he says. It is exactly as if an accused person in a court of law were to say. "and through faith shall ye be saved. position. what really matters is the possession of it. these latter reproach him. The great aim of statecraft should be duration. For this reason." As an actual fact. the tenets to which they attain in this manner might be truer and more reliable than those of the fettered spirits. he is a Christian. or at least in the averting of inquiries as to reasons.— All states and orders of society. The origin of faith. Then. If the free spirits are right then the fettered spirits are wrong. the dangerous companion of all duration." Because the fettered spirits retain their principles on account of their utility. perhaps. the way in which it was found. required faith and nothing but faith. but from habit. The task of education in a single individual is this: to plant him so firmly and surely that. these reasons may be upset.— We call that man a free spirit who thinks otherwise than is expected of him in consideration of his origin. Christianity. something new and noble can be inoculated into the wounded places. although half-educated people think otherwise. and every father brings up his son in the same way: "Only believe this. 227. however. With regard to the State. however. The restricted spirits do not willingly acknowledge this. authority. that the truth of an opinion is proved by its personal utility. many free spirits are created in one or other of these ways. however. will rise in opposition to this. and feel that it is a pudendum. is able to absorb the infection of what is new and incorporate it to its advantage. and when pain and need have thus arisen. But as he appears to find profitable just the contrary of that which his compatriots or equals . Reasons drawn a posteriori on the basis of consequences. on his side. or else make use of the wounds which fate inflicts. he can no longer be diverted from his path. as a whole. In the knowledge of truth. as a matter of fact. "the form of government is of very small importance. for only see what is the result of his speech: I shall be acquitted. "and you will soon feel the good it does. He is the exception. it is not essential to the free spirit that he should hold more correct views. be it successfully or disastrously. or at least the spirit of truth-investigation." It is only with securely founded and guaranteed duration that continual development and ennobling inoculation are at all possible. Later on. the others demand faith. fettered spirits are the rule. A people that is crumbling and weak in any one part. it pointed to the success of faith: "You will soon feel the advantages of faith. Sometimes it is also said that the cause of such and such free principles may be traced to mental perversity and extravagance. remarked nothing of this pudendum. as he was a Christian and an Englishman. but he found Christianity and England ready-made and accepted them without any reason. Free spirit a relative concept. As a rule. not because he decided for England. the wholesomeness of a doctrine must be a guarantee for its intellectual surety and solidity. law : all these find strength and duration only in the faith which the fettered spirits repose in them—that is. not because he had a comprehension of different creeds and could take his choice. professions. for instance. but that he should have liberated himself from what was customary. they suppose that the free spirit also seeks his own advantage in his views and only holds that to be true which is profitable to him." it suggested. but he is not therefore upset in his whole position. or by reason of the prevailing contemporary views. nor does it believe what it says. and it is a matter of indifference whether the former have reached truth through immorality or the latter hitherto retained hold of untruths through morality. just as one who is born in a wine-country becomes a wine-drinker. in the absence of reasons. however. and office." This implies. however. matrimony. for the free spirit usually bears the proof of his greater goodness and keenness of intellect written in his face so plainly that the fettered spirits understand it well enough. For instance. he discovered a few reasons in favour of his habit. that makes all progress at all possible. 226. however.— The fettered spirit does not take up his position from conviction. inasmuch as it is more valuable than liberty. As a rule. surroundings. and passionately repulsed the demand for reasons. but as a whole still strong and healthy. saying that his free principles either have their origin in a desire to be remarkable or else cause free actions to be inferred—that is to say. the educator must wound him. education. But the two other derivations of free spiritedness are honestly intended.more delicate and free. he demands reasons. which was very simple in its intellectual ideas. The adoption of guiding principles without reasons is called faith. "My counsel speaks the whole truth. but wishes thereby to do an injury. he will have truth. let a fettered spirit be obliged to bring forward his reasons against bigamy and then it will be seen whether his holy zeal in favour of monogamy is based upon reason or upon custom. but only malice speaks thus. actions which are not compatible with fettered morality. Machiavelli says that. which outweighs all else. 225. he is an Englishman. the state pursues the same course.

because in a given case it shows him. he will eventually become useful to his state or rank. but who with unusual energy strives to reach the open in one direction or another. by always placing before him the smallest number of possibilities. The man of strong character lacks a knowledge of the many possibilities and directions of action. the unbending strength. This explains the source of many a brilliant talent. These general remarks on the origin of genius may be applied to the special case. must prove that free spirits always existed. in those who perform them the sensation of a good conscience. that on the whole they are an advantage to the fettered spirits. The origin of genius. in placing itself on the side of the fettered spirits the child first discloses its awakening common feeling. his intellect is fettered and restricted. Firstly: all things that last are right. because this one has to fulfil its own and also another function. The good. and will not perish ineffectually? What is the source of the strong spirit (esprit fort)? This is especially the question as to the production of genius. thirdly: all things that are advantageous for us are right. if these actions accord with the principles of the fettered spirits they are recognised. the familiar manifestation of restriction is called a good character. and has. something new. crippling. The standards and values of the fettered spirits. the endurance with which the one. which habit has made instinct.— There are four species of things concerning which the restricted spirits say they are in the right.find profitable. at least. In a child.— Compared with him who has tradition on his side and requires no reasons for his actions. perhaps. energetic action. but should become a duplicate. who are credited with originality. so that he will. or the loss of some important organ. explains why a war that was begun in opposition to popular feeling is carried on with enthusiasm directly after a sacrifice has been made for it. that free spiritedness is therefore enduring. between these two he must now of necessity choose. with this foundation of common sentiment. The educating surroundings aim at fettering every individual. finally. leads to what is called strength of character. in opposition to accepted ideas. the most cold-blooded and patient employment of every smallest advantage. an uncertain and unpractised hand. especially in action. unprecedented. for he is injurious to us. It has already been said that mutilation. and. he must be turned into something known and precedented.— The ingenuity with which a prisoner seeks the means of freedom.— The restriction of views. nature. for he is acquainted with too many motives and points of view. strong character. The individual is always treated by his educators as if he were. these latter assume that his principles are dangerous to them. the free spirit is always weak. is frequently the cause of the unusual development of another organ. begins it in a dungeon and excites to the utmost its desire to free itself. can teach us of what tools nature sometimes makes use in order to produce genius—a word which I beg will be understood without any mythological and religious flavour. "He must not be right. she. Whence comes the energy. and a good conscience compose what is called strength of character. The last sentence. his actions acquire great energy. who bring their case before the forum of the fettered spirits. the origin of the perfect free spirit. and he does this easily and quickly because he has not to choose between fifty possibilities. for instance. When any one acts from few but always from the same motives. manage to survive. will sometimes discover a new path which nobody knew previously—thus arise geniuses. What means exist of making him strong in spite of this. moreover. 232. Few motives. only two possibilities. fourthly: all things for which we have made sacrifices are right. endeavours to obtain an entirely individual knowledge of the world? 231. 229. secondly: all things that are not burdens to us are right. that it will not become a burden. Esprit fort. therefore. 230. and they produce. If he makes his first appearance as something unknown. Or to give another picture: some one who has completely lost his way in a wood. in accordance with his whole nature." 228. indeed. they say or feel. . The free spirits. It is because they cannot convince the restricted spirits on this last point that they profit nothing by having proved the first and second propositions.

he appears to have suffered terribly from the non-fulfillment of his nature. watered by streams. together with their elucidation. [. . the will. it does not touch many other courses. the Greek philosophers deprived themselves of precisely this myth: is it not as if they wanted to move out of the sunshine into shadows and gloom? But no plant avoids the light. But perhaps we have not heard rightly. that is to say. so now too. scholars.— Active men are generally wanting in the higher activity: I mean that of the individual. thereupon breaks out and leaps over into another domain. The frightful energies—those which are called evil—are the cyclopean architects and road-makers of humanity. that which every Greek wanted to be and what everyone was when he could be. arrived at its summit that science of any kind acquired continuity and constancy. The cyclops of culture. businessmen. the entire Middle Ages was profoundly incapable of a strict philological elucidation. for example. in this regard they are lazy. will spread itself out upon the same spot. but not as distinct individual and unique human beings.Conjecture as to the origin of free-spiritism.— In general.— Only where the radiance of the myth falls is the life of the Greeks bright. hatred. has now finally discovered the correct methods. but their work was nonetheless necessary. throughout whole centuries! Then.] They were tyrants. he says in his poems how he disdained personal tyranny. Pythagoras and Empedocles probably did also. So it is. the myth was not pure. like a stray spark from the terrible energy thereby aroused. for he who . . let no one undervalue it! It was only when the art of correct reading. and desires to carry out practically the manner in which nature usually goes to work. Plato was the incarnate desire to become the supreme philosophical lawgiver and founder of states. in order that later a gentler civilization might raise its house. in the history of mankind: the most savage forces beat a path. men are divided into the slaves and the free. He who could attain to a comprehension of the production of genius. Now. there flames up suddenly the light of genius. not lucid enough for them. 261.] 270. They discovered this light in their knowledge. Perhaps Solon alone constitutes an exception. that is to say. would have to be just as evil and regardless as nature itself. like a horse maddened by the rider's spur. . Principal deficiency of active men. —It is the misfortune of the active that their activity is always a little irrational. Anaximander founded a city. that is to say of a simple desire to understand what the author is saying—to have discovered these methods was an achievement. what the purpose of his restless activity is: it is irrational. They are active as officials. so may a very strong and spreading free-spiritism be a proof that somewhere or other the force of feeling has grown extraordinarily.— Every strong course is one-sided. in obedience to the stupidity of the laws of mechanics. Production and preservation of texts. and are mainly destructive. it approaches the course of a straight line and like this is exclusive. 246. grassy valley. One ought not to ask the cash-amassing banker. Parmenides also gave laws.— As at all times.— Just as the glaciers increase when in equatorial regions the sun shines upon the seas with greater force than hitherto. we think it hardly possible that a time will come when a wooded. and towards the end of his life his soul became full of the blackest gall. too. . that is to say philology. people against people. and rivalry—drives them to desperation. elsewhere it is gloomy. perhaps. history appears to teach the following about the production of genius: it illtreats and torments mankind—calls to the passions of envy. 233. . [. each of them was a warlike brutal tyrant. pursued in a guild for centuries. 283. in that which each of them called his "truth. The voice of history. fundamentally these philosophers were only seeking a brighter sun. as weak parties and natures do so in their wavelike swayings back and forth: one must thus forgive the philologists too for being one-sided. The tyrants of the spirit." [. . that is to say as generic creatures.] These philosophers possesed a firm belief in themselves and their "truth" and with it they overthrew all their contemporaries and predecessors. The art of reading.— When we behold those deeply-furrowed hollows in which glaciers have lain. The active roll as the stone rolls.

— The liberal-minded. The age in which with regret you feel yourself thrown counts you happy on account of this good fortune. outgrow them. He must trust that the genius of justice will put in a word on behalf of his disciple and protégé if accusing voices should call him poor in love. which you sometimes find so displeasing. Whatever labyrinths he may stray through. and no cause for anger. a minor office or an income that just enables them to live.— He too knows the weekdays of unfreedom. Do you believe that such a life with such a goal is too laborious. Prudence of free spirits. This goal is yourself to become a necessary chain of rings of culture and from this necessity to recognize the necessity inherent in the course of culture in general. your own life will acquire the value of an instrument and means to knowledge.— It is probable that even his love for other people will be prudent and somewhat short-breathed. But from time to time he has to have a Sunday of freedom. that nature which rules the whole world through joy: the same life that has its apex in old age also has its apex in wisdom. precisely with aid of these experiences. for in any event you possess in yourself a ladder with a hundred rungs upon which you can climb to knowledge. for example. or that the clouds of affliction hovering over you will yet have to serve you as udders from which you will milk the milk of your refreshment. men who live for the sake of knowledge alone. Then it is time. delusions. official. forgive yourself your own ego. Upon all these things they expend as little energy as possible. You have it in your hands to achieve the absorption of all your experience—your experiments. When your gaze has become strong enough to see to the bottom of the dark well of your nature and your knowledge. one does not understand them. does not overturn their life with it." Turn back and trace the footsteps of mankind as it made its great sorrowful way through the desert of the past: thus you will leatn in the sutest way whither all later mankind can and may not go again. light and almost soundlessly and let the sunshine play down into his very depths. of servitude. if one remains under their spell. businessman.— There is in his way of living and thinking a refined heroism which disdains to offer itself to the veneration of the great masses. as his coarser brother does. a joyful shout of knowledge—your last sound. errors. their definitive position in relation to society and the state. forward on the path of wisdom with a bold step and full of confidence! However you may be. You must likewise be on familiar terms with history and with playing the cautious game with the scales "on the one hand—one the other hand. for he has no wish to get himself entangled with them. 292. and will easily be content with. let him be what he may otherwise: statesman. that many of the most splendid fruits of more ancient cultures grew up? One must have loved religion and art like mother and nurse—otherwise one cannot grow wise. the soil of unclear thinking. Thus they may hope to dive deep and perhaps get a view of the ground at the bottom. so that they may dive down into the element of knowledge with all their accumulated strength and as it were with a deep breath. Do not underestimate the value of having been religious. and tends to go silently through the world and out of the world. perhaps you will also behold in its mirror the distant constellations of future cultures.does not have two-thirds of his day to himself is a slave. of dependence. old age and wisdom. Can you not. for he wants to become involved with the world of affection and blindness only insofar as it is necessary for acquiring knowledge. 291. it calls to you to participate in experiences that men of a later age will perhaps have to forgo. . ridge of life: so did nature will it. will find they soon attain the external goal of their life. or he will find life unendurable. in all the breadth and prolixity of their convolutions. Only when you grow old will you come to realize how you have given ear to the voice of nature. both of them. discover all the reasons by virtue of which you have still had a genuine access to art. that the mists of death should approach. follow with greater understanding tremendous stretches of the paths taken by earlier mankind? Is it not on precisely this soil. Towards the light—your last motion. serve yourself as your own source of experience! Throw off discontent with your nature. he has no love for things in their entirety. And by your desiring with all your strength to see ahead how the knot of the future is going to be tied. scholar. too much lacking in everything pleasant? Then you have not yet learned that no honey is sweeter than that of knowledge.— Of whatever happens to him such a spirit will want to appropriate only the tip. passions. But one must be able to see beyond them. Forward. you will encounter on the same mountain.— And with that. faults. in that gentle sunshine of a constant spiritual joyousness. for they will organize their life in such a way that a great transformation of external circumstances. even an overturning of the political order. your love and your hope—into your goal without remainder. among whatever rocks his stream may make its tortuous way—if he emerges into the open air he will travel his road bright.

Man in Society 293. Lack of intimacy. The most dangerous party member. 299. For that reason. 298. 302. Twofold kind of equality. 295. Preference for specific virtues.— Not infrequently. tripping them up) or by the wish to draw oneself up with everyone else (by appreciating.— Lack of intimacy among friends is a mistake that cannot be censured without becoming irreparable. . excluding. 303.VI.— The best way to come to the aid of someone who is very embarrassed and to soothe him is to praise him resolutely.— To have to reject a gift. On the art of giving. 300.— We can speak very appropriately and yet in such a way that all the world cries out the reverse: that is when we are not speaking to all the world. whether the advice is accepted or rejected. as with paintings. as if we did not see through the motives for their behavior. one encounters copies of important people. 296.— In interaction with people.— In every party there is one who through his all too credulous avowal of the party's principles incites the others to apostasy.— The craving for equality can be expressed either by the wish to draw all others down to one's level (by belittling. embitters us towards the giver. irritable and proud ill people hate advisors even more than their illness. Benevolent dissembling. most people prefer the copy to the original.— We do not place especial value on the possession of a virtue until we notice its total absence in our opponent. 294. 301. helping. a benevolent dissembling is often required.— Whoever gives an ill man advice gains a feeling of superiority over him. 297. taking pleasure in others' success). Copies. and. Advisor to the ill. The speaker. simply because it was not offered in the proper way. Countering embarrassment.

312. Balance of friendship.— If someone assiduously seeks to force intimacy with another person.Why one contradicts. the right balance of friendship is restored when we put a few grains of injustice on our own side of the scale. 308.— Whether a man hides his bad qualities and vices or confesses them openly. The most dangerous doctors. Against trusting people. or even to win his good will. he places little value on intimacy. 307. while actually it is only the tone with which it was advanced that we find disagreeable.— Sometimes in our relationship to another person. When paradoxes are appropriate. 313. Courtesies. his vanity wants to gain an advantage by it in both cases: just note how subtly he distinguishes between those he will hide his bad qualities from and those he will face honestly and candidly. .— At times.— Brave people are persuaded to an action when it is represented as more dangerous than it is.— A sure way to provoke people and to put evil thoughts into their heads is to make them wait a long time. Trust and intimacy. Vanity of the tongue. Means of compensation.— We often contradict an opinion. 305.— We count the courtesies shown to us by unpopular people as offenses. Making them wait. 309.— People who give us their complete trust believe that they therefore have a right to our own. one can win clever people over to a principle merely by presenting it in the form of an outrageous paradox. 311. 304. he usually is not sure whether he possesses that person's trust. If someone is sure of being trusted. 310. How brave people are won over. This conclusion is false: rights are not won by gifts. 314.— If we have injured someone. This gives rise to immorality. 306.— The most dangerous doctors are those born actors who imitate born doctors with perfect deceptive art. giving him the opportunity to make a joke about us is often enough to provide him personal satisfaction.

Motive for attack. The sympathetic. and lives in inadequate society will usually be a good letter-writer. In dull society. simply to become aware of our own strength.— Whoever does not know how to put his thoughts on ice should not engage in the heat of argument. Milieu and arrogance. keeps us only the more awake. 324.— We attack not only to hurt a person.— People who want to flatter us to dull our caution in dealing with them are using a very dangerous tool. they have nothing to do. Flattery. and therefore easily show dissatisfaction. solitude breeds presumption. but wishes to be important.— Sympathetic natures. .— The man who gives a great gift encounters no gratitude. but also. become superfluous. perhaps. Most ugly.— One unlearns arrogance when he knows he is always among men of merit. if it does not put us to sleep. 320. 315.Considerate.— The wish not to annoy anyone or injure anyone can be an equally good indication of a just. as of a fearful disposition. Good letter-writer. Anticipating ingratitude. each of whom is nothing. 319. 325. Relatives of a suicide. thinks a lot.— The relatives of a suicide resent him for not having stayed alive out of consideration for their reputation.— The man who writes no books. for the recipient. 318. Young people are arrogant because they go about with their own kind. 321. to conquer him. are rarely the same ones who share our joy: when others are happy. do not feel in possession of their superiority. like a sleeping potion which. Required for debate. 323. 316. 317.— It is to be doubted whether a well-traveled man has found anywhere in the world regions more ugly than in the human face. always helpful in a misfortune.— No one thanks the witty man for the courtesy of adapting himself to a society in which it is not courteous to display wit. simply by accepting it already has too much of a burden. 322.

Silence. The friend's secret. 331.— Men who do not feel secure in social situations take every opportunity to demonstrate superiority over an intimate to whom they are superior. it is largely a matter of habit whether one decides mainly for or against the other person: both make sense.— We fear the hostile mood of our neighbor because we are afraid that this mood will help him discover our secrets. 326. 336. a crude soul is distressed that it owes thanks. Indication of alienation. the most disagreeable way of responding to a polemic is to be angry and keep silent: for the aggressor usually takes the silence as a sign of disdain.— One is twice as happy to dive after a man who has fallen into the water if people are present who do not dare to.— The humanity of famous intellectuals consists in graciously losing the argument when dealing with the nonfamous. Fear of one's neighbor. . this they do publicly. will not reveal the more secret affairs of their friends.— There will be but few people who.— The clearest sign that two people hold alienated views is that each says ironic things to the other.— For both parties. when at a loss for topics of conversation. 329. Arrogance of the meritorious. 328. In conversation. 330. The danger in our own voice.Presence of witnesses. before the company—by teasing. 332.— In conversation. The inhibited one.— Arrogance on the part of the meritorious is even more offensive to us than the arrogance of those without merit: for merit itself is offensive. 334. 333. 335. but neither of the two feels the other's irony.— Sometimes in the course of conversation the sound of our own voice disconcerts us and misleads us into making assertions which in no way correspond to our opinions. Humanity.— A refined soul is distressed to know that someone owes it thanks. Thanks. for example. 327.

etc. it is the bad behavior of fiery horses who still have carried no rider. When it is advisable to be wrong. or indeed refute him. Often we encounter goodwill which we cannot explain. one can always be in the wrong. on the other hand.— Two people with equally great vanity retain a bad impression of one another after they meet.— Very respected people confer even their censure in such a way as to distinguish us by it. 339. If the latter is the case. or a party. and with some men an assertion thunders down like a heavy cudgel. of course. it offends us. we annoy them by doing so and alienate them. .— The superior spirit takes pleasure in ambitious youths' tactless. finally both notice that their efforts have failed and blame the other for it. but if we understand it.— In the way men make assertions in present-day society. if the accuser would see an even greater wrong on our part were we to contradict him. 341. It is supposed to make us aware how earnestly they are concerned with us. for it shows that one doesn't take us seriously or importantly enough. sometimes one thinks he hears the whir and clatter of blades.— It is good to accept accusations without refuting them.To distinguish by censure. Vexation at the goodwill of others. he will exaggerate. if the veil of deception is torn away. because each one was so busy with the impression he wanted to elicit in the other that the other made no impression on him. and always gain one's point. but those others know us only very superficially. Then he usually narrates the worse. 343. sometimes they handle assertions as poised archers their weapons. finally. Bad manners as a good sign. Too little honored. Clashing vanities. because he is not thinking so much about the story as about himself. or were childish with children. they become casuistic psychologists in order to prove that they were indeed honored sufficiently. they indulge in a rage all the greater. a direction. 342. 337. and. or did sewing. even hostile behavior toward him. for we ourselves know well the degree of our divergence from a person. become the most intolerable tyrant and pest. Women. with the best conscience in the world. and what is true of the individual can also occur in whole classes of society. if they do not achieve their goal. arrogant. The narrator. use superlatives. In this way. and therefore also hate us only superficially.— It is easy to tell whether a narrator is narrating because the subject matter interests him or because he wants to evoke interest through his narrative. even when they do us wrong. and yet will in a short time be so proud to carry him. speak like creatures who sat for thousands of years at the loom.— Very conceited people to whom one has given fewer signs of regard than they expected will try to mislead themselves and others about this for a long time. 338. We quite misunderstand them if we take their censure as a matter of fact and defend ourselves against it. 340.— We are wrong about the degree to which we believe ourselves hated or feared. one often hears an echo of the times when they were better skilled in arms than in anything else. Primeval states echoed in speech.

350. as if it were the only possibility. for example. Now. Unintentionally impolite. 349. . 351.— Whoever reads dramatic poetry aloud makes discoveries about his own character. even though we cannot reproach our own good intentions.— If we unintentionally treat another impolitely. and this at the very moment when you are yourself engaged in betraying him.— Someone thinks of a clever opinion about a matter in order to expound it in company. Trick. if he does not want to be thought inhuman.— It is much more agreeable to offend and later ask forgiveness than to be offended and grant forgiveness. whereas in his usual life. and perhaps all three together. and tries to steer the company to where he can make his remark. or pity can be aroused. sometimes losing his direction. perhaps a bit exaggerated. or because we were silent when we should have spoken. 348. Traitor's tour de force. Reading aloud. because it makes the other person aware of himself and forces him to behave very unsuspiciously and openly for a time. He finds his voice more natural for certain moods and scenes than for others—for everything pathetic or for the farcical.— Why do we feel pangs of conscience after ordinary parties? Because we have taken important matters lightly. a free hand. What will he do? Oppose his own opinion? 346. his incessant consideration of the other opinion usually causes the natural presentation of his own to go awry: it appears more intentional. the bad opinion that we engendered in the other fellow irks us. 345. Pangs of conscience after parties.344.— A man who wishes to demand something difficult from another man must not conceive of the matter as a problem. must forgive.— To express to your fellow conspirator the hurtful suspicion that he might be betraying you. but rather simply lay out his plan. The other. The one who does the former demonstrates his power and then his goodness. finding it again. he must know how to break off the conversation quickly. because we did not on occasion jump up and run away. do not greet him. because we behaved at the party as if we belonged to it. finally reaching the moment. in short. when an objection or contradiction glimmers in the eye of his opponent. A comedy scene which occurs in life. 352. because we have discussed people with less than complete loyalty. his breath almost fails him—then someone from the company takes his words out of his mouth.— When someone contradicts an opinion and develops his own at the same time. or we fear the consequences of ill feeling. this riles us. To offend and be offended. how he continually pushes the conversation toward one destination. for example. pleasure in the other's humiliation is slight. fear. because we do not recognize him. 347. is a tour de force of malice. leaving him no time. giving you. In a dispute. the true traitor. or we are pained at having hurt the other fellow—thus vanity. he may not have had the opportunity to indicate pathos or farce. in a comedy we would hear and see how he sets all sails to get to the point. because of this coercion. cutting.

358. . who. and second. and would they be our friends if they knew us completely? The judgment of disinterested people hurts a great deal. demand first that nothing be held against them. 355. self-sacrificing—and what matter could not be painted thus? It is the sweet candy of their souls: others have another. because it sounds so uninhibited.— There are people. Thus. The parasite. at the expense of others.— He who listens to how he is judged will always be annoyed. . Unrecognized honesty. so that they are the first. Demanding pity as a sign of arrogance. Bait. . in that they demand afterwards that the event or person really must be the way they painted it. almost objective.— Artists and statesmen. On the altar of reconciliation. The relative as best friend. 356. Tyranny of the portrait. they virtually demand that a person be as gifted. whereas it more often stems from precisely the opposite source. are usually unjust. or unjust as he is in their imagination.— If someone quotes himself in conversation ("I used to say ." I find this inexplicable.— There are circumstances when one obtains an object from a person only by offending him and antagonizing him. cunning. charitable. this feeling of having an enemy torments the man so that he gladly seizes the first sign of a milder mood to bring about reconciliation.— It shows a complete lack of noble character when someone prefers to live in dependence. 354. who knew so well what a friend is (they alone of all peoples have a deep. one need only paint it as human. and also much more forgivable (for historical reasons)."). to win certain people to a matter. and on the altar of this reconciliation sacrifices the object which was earlier of such great importance to him that he did not want to give it up at any price. ." "I always say . 359. and thus far are the last.One is judged wrongly. 357. philosophical discussion of friendship.— The Greeks. these same Greeks called relatives by a term that is the superlative of the word "friend. many-sided. For we are sometimes judged wrongly even by those who are closest to us ( "who know us best"). Even good friends release their annoyance in an envious word. and usually with a secret bitterness towards those on whom he is dependent. this gives the impression of arrogance. Human arrogance can go that far. But if we notice that an enemy knows one of our secret characteristics as well as we know ourselves—how great our annoyance is then! 353. .— "Every man has his price"—that is not true. when they become angry and offend others. that they be pitied because they are prey to such violent attacks. or at least from an honesty that does not wish to embellish or adorn the moment with ideas that belong to a previous moment. noble. to consider the friend as a problem worthy of solution). who quickly put together the whole picture of a person or event from individual characteristics. But every one has a bait into which he must bite. in order not to work at any cost. This kind of character is much more common in women than in men.

he often appears pleased about it out of politeness and good will. using the name of Duty or Pity. Miscalculating in society. by the way.— When good friends praise a talented man's nature. Duel. as Socrates had already found out. Curiosity. Now. and cannot be dragged one step out of the sun or shade in which it lies. 367. Perhaps even in the much-celebrated matter of motherly love. and makes associating with them possible. Nobility and gratitude. also occurs in people of low origin or oppressed station: they think a favor shown to them is a miracle of mercy. but one judges just the other way around. This last. by the way. The experience of Socrates. Means of bestialization. while cruder souls resist being bound in any way. without which there can never be any greatness. nothing much would be done for the good of one's neighbor. 364.— It can be said in favor of all duels and affairs of honor. or are later excessive and much too eager in expressing their gratitude. but in truth it is a matter of indifference to him. Such an institution. if a canon of honor exists that allows blood to take the place of death. Curiosity sneaks into the house of the unfortunate and needy. one person needs someone who is definitely and admittedly superior to him.— When one has become a master in some field one has usually. 361. and we would sadden them if we did not take pleasure in their praise.— In order to speak well. a fourth by his isolation—and all of them are miscalculating. educates men to be cautious in their remarks. its greatness as well as its excesses. that if a man is so sensitive as not to want to live if so-and-so said or thought this-and-that about him.— In the struggle with stupidity the fairest and gentlest people finally become brutal.— One person wants to be interesting by virtue of his judgments. because otherwise many human lives would be in danger. another person can speak completely freely and turn a phrase with eloquence only in front of . for by rights the argument against a stupid brow is a clenched fist. they have a fair and gentle disposition.— A noble soul will be happy to feel itself bound in gratitude and will not try anxiously to avoid the occasions when it may be so bound. but men want to give joy by praising. 362. For the person for whom they are putting on the spectacle thinks that he himself is the only spectacle that counts. Perhaps that is the right way for them to defend themselves.— If there were no curiosity. 366. there is a good bit of curiosity. remained a complete amateur in most other things. it will likewise be at ease later in expressing gratitude. Behavior when praised. His real nature is quite sluggish about it. for that very reason. 363. a third by his acquaintances. We cannot argue about his being so sensitive. as we said. The hours of eloquence. another by his likes and dislikes. This is what makes association with masters disagreeable.360. But because. in that regard we are the heirs of the past. But. then he has a right to let the matter be settled by the death of one man or the other. 365. so that the heart is relieved after a duel according to the rules. this means of selfdefense makes their own suffering greater than the suffering they inflict. then this is a great blessing.

not a thing. for the prince's ill humor would otherwise be released on them all. Such a man can be called a circle. In many people. but the salubrious kind that awakens good intentions and bids us offer. neither one accepting them—so that the conversation as a whole would proceed without wit or amiability because each one was offering the other the opportunity to demonstrate wit and amiability. Assuming the colors of the environment. but gradually grow used to the sentiments of our environment. Usually. his court habitually points out to him a single person as the alleged cause. and sometimes it is virtually intolerable for our vanity. The other type is represented by the man who exercises his powers of attraction on very different characters and talents. and because sympathetic agreement and mutual understanding are so pleasant. Now. the gift of having good friends is much greater than the gift of being a good friend. 369.— Irony is appropriate only as a pedagogical tool.— Why are likes and dislikes so contagious that one can scarcely live in proximity to a person of strong sensibilities without being filled like a vessel with his pros and cons? First. Such a man may jokingly be called a ladder. The series of friends that he acquires in this way is only rarely interconnected. as the reason for his failure. For one can avenge oneself on people. It can look like poverty of thought and feeling. that intimate connection of so many different temperaments and natures must somehow be prefigured. 370. Clever men who want to gain someone's favor use this during a conversation. 372. or the one that. thereby winning a whole circle of friends. the other for the same reason vis a vis the lesser man.— After a conversation with someone. The one man is in a continual state of ascent. shame. His injured sensibility is relieved by imagining a person. despite all their diversity. used by a teacher interacting with pupils of whatever sort.— Among men who have a particular gift for friendship. unmanliness. fearfulness. speaks badly or not at all? 368. incidentally. of course. the reason is the same in both cases: each of them speaks well only when he speaks sans gene. One could imagine an amusing conversation between two very clever people. and so we are persuaded at least to take a side. and sometimes discordant and contradictory. out of precisely the same motives. Which of the two categories is the more ambitious: the one that speaks well when ambition is aroused. The talent for friendship. its purpose is humiliation. it is very hard to withhold judgment entirely. Therefore. 371. giving the other person the best opportunities for a good joke and the like. we soon wear all its insignias and party colors. and these come into friendly contact with one another through him.— The man who fails at something prefers to attribute the failure to the bad will of another rather than to chance. take no vengeance on Dame Fortune herself. however (this is the second point). since he can. two types stand out. Releasing ill humor. as . the one because he does not feel the stimulus of rivalry or competition vis a vis the superior man. we are not even aware of the transition from indifference to liking or disliking. and sacrifices this person in the interest of all the courtiers. for in him. Tactics in conversation. perhaps against the direction of our environment if our pride likes this posture better. but one must choke down the injuries of coincidence.someone whom he surpasses. when a prince fails at something. one is best disposed towards his partner in conversation if he had the opportunity to display to him his own wit and amiability in its full splendor. intending to win. and finds an exactly appropriate friend for each phase of his development. quite in accordance with the fact that the later phases in his development invalidate or compromise the earlier phases. there is quite another category of men who speak well only when they speak in competition. Irony. both of whom want to gain the other's favor and therefore toss the good conversational opportunities back and forth.

For in associating with men. the phrase that pleases the one. while the same women in a dialogue become females again and rediscover their mind's gracefulness. awkward. To be sure. An arrogant man can make his real. always miscalculates. does not accord with the character of the other. it is like letter-writing. clever women whom a man has met in society are generally remembered as strange. in marks of respect.— A dialogue is the perfect conversation because everything that the one person says acquires its particular color. he enjoys his momentary success. irony is impolite. in well-meaning intimacy. exposing themselves in all kinds of ways. there is only one single refraction of thought: this is produced by the partner in conversation. its accompanying gesture in strict consideration of the other person to whom he is speaking. 375. the habit of irony. like that of sarcasm. humiliating them. their tactics. finally. For there is arrogance in warmheartedness. along with the author. but for all times. 374. that amount of honor which he demands. not for one time only.— Man should beware of nothing so much as the growth of that weed called arrogance. But they take a nasty vengeance for it. sound. in fact. eventually it lends the quality of a gloating superiority. depending on whether he is writing to this person or to that. but rob the subject matter of that scintillating air of humanity that makes a conversation one of the most agreeable things in the world. The ironic man pretends to be ignorant. that is what I say. who. in confession of errors. But how is it with two. in friendly advice. All ironic writers are counting on that silly category of men who want to feel. to present the facts as they are. great achievement so suspect and petty in the eyes of others that they tread upon it with dust-covered feet. cancel each other out. in all its perceptions and judgments of what is beautiful and good. this is a mistake. or more partners? There the conversation necessarily loses something of its individualizing refinement. does it so well that the pupils conversing with him are fooled and become bold in their conviction about their better knowledge. it is as if the ground bass of all speech were: "That is who I am. and regard the author as the spokesman for their arrogance. However. it is fantasy to believe of ourselves that we have a mile's head start and that all mankind is following our path. and their intention to triumph publicly. and. a doctor. ruins the character. a man interacting with several people is forced to fall back upon himself. a scholar who goes unrecognized may certainly count on the fact that other men will also make the same discovery he did. has also learned to laugh. People make one pay for nothing so dearly as for humiliation. the various considerations clash. they lose caution and reveal themselves as they are —until the rays of the torch that they held up to their teacher's face are suddenly reflected back on them. honor and gratitude to the one who treated us so. it is even worse than not having learned to lie politely. there is no greater foolishness than to bring on oneself a reputation for arrogance. for example. One should not even allow himself a proud bearing. in the pity for others—and all these fine things awaken revulsion when that weed grows among them. besides biting. mankind changes very greatly. Just listen to the tone in which men interacting with whole groups of men tend to speak. and that in the best case a historian will later acknowledge that he . Posthumous fame. Therefore. unless he can be quite sure that he will not be misunderstood and considered arrogant—with friends or wives. or three. the one who wants to be more important than he is or is thought to be. unappealing: it is speaking to and in front of many people that robs them of all intelligent amiability and turns a harsh light only on their conscious dependence on themselves. in caresses. now you think what you will about it!" For this reason. that is. Arrogance. In a dialogue. which ruins every one of our good harvests. Where there is no relation as between teacher and pupil. The arrogant man. out of fear or convenience. superior to all other men. Incidentally. the mirror in which we want to see our thoughts reflected as beautifully as possible. to the extent that the witnesses of his arrogance usually render to him. by subtracting just the amount of excess honor he demands from the value they used to attach to him. where one and the same man shows ten ways of expressing his inner thoughts. a base emotion. 373. Dialogue. one is like a snapping dog.— It makes sense to hope for recognition in a distant future only if one assumes that mankind will remain essentially unchanged and that all greatness must be perceived as great.

and falls apart. Friendship and marriage. and constitute his inner sufferings. and also something much more rare. . even the greatest. the dying wise man shouted.— The best friend will probably get the best wife. but we have just as good reason to turn this feeling against ourselves. but they were brought to you by error and deception about yourself. we bring ourselves into balance with others again. In short. friends. weaknesses. thus learning to despise it a bit. VII. you will say to yourself: "How unsure is the ground on which all our bonds and friendships rest. how lonely is every man!" If someone understands this. About friends. because a good marriage is based on a talent for friendship.— The perfect woman is a higher type of human than the perfect man.— Unresolved dissonances in the relation of the character and disposition of the parents continue to reverberate in the nature of the child. there are no friends!" "Enemies. there is no enemy!" shout I. were they to learn what their most intimate friends really know about them? By knowing ourselves and regarding our nature itself as a changing sphere of opinions and moods. and also that all his fellow men's opinions. their kind and intensity. indeed. how many hundreds of times there is occasion for misunderstanding or hostile flight. one should not speak so quickly in favor of arrogant isolation. or follies that keep our great qualities from being recognized. and they must have learned to be silent in order to remain your friend. indeed that they are never touched upon. since we do in fact bear with ourselves. Parents live on. there are no friends!" Rather. Posterity always interprets lack of recognition as a lack of strength. 379. for almost always. and perhaps each man will some day know the more joyful hour in which he says: "Friends. we have good reason to despise each of our acquaintances. and environment then he will perhaps be rid of the bitterness and sharpness of that feeling with which the wise man called out: "Friends. Woman and Child 377. if he learns to perceive that there is this inner inevitability of opinions. talent. there are exceptions. how near we are to cold downpours or ill weather. After all that. occupation. how divided the opinions. but usually it is our errors.— Just think to yourself some time how different are the feelings. Incidentally. 380. are as inevitable and irresponsible as their actions.already knew this or the other thing but was not capable of winning belief for his theory. Are there men who cannot be fatally wounded. The perfect woman. due to the indissoluble interweaving of character. 376. It is true. how even the same opinions have quite a different place or intensity in the heads of your friends than in your own. And so let us bear with each other. even among the closest acquaintances. 378. the living fool. and once these pebbles are set rolling. such human relationships rest on the fact that a certain few things are never said. he will admit to himself that there are. the friendship follows after. The natural science of animals offers a means to demonstrate the probability of this tenet.

man comes to feel that his father was wrong to beget him. he should acquire one. Refined women's error. Boredom. 383. Fathers and sons. 391.— Fathers have much to do to make amends for the fact that they have sons. or be generally indifferent to them.— The surest aid in combating the male's disease of self-contempt is to be loved by a clever woman. respected children. To correct nature.— Everyone carries within him an image of woman that he gets from his mother. .— Marriages contracted from love (so-called love-matches) have error for their father and need for their mother. Friendship with women.— Many people.From the mother. 390. Usually a mother loves herself in her son more than she loves the son himself. 384. A male's disease. Maternal goodness. some need unhappy children: otherwise they cannot demonstrate their goodness as mothers. because no one wanted to abduct them. Love-matches. 389. A kind of jealousy. that determines whether he will honor women in general.— A few men have sighed because their women were abducted.— Women are quite able to make friends with a man.— If someone does not have a good father.— Mothers are easily jealous of their sons' friends if they are exceptionally successful. 385. Reasonable unreason.— When his life and reason are mature.— Some mothers need happy. 382. most. do not experience boredom. 381. or despise them. because they have never learned to work properly. 387.— Refined women think that a subject does not exist at all if it is not possible to speak about it in society. Different sighs. but to preserve such a friendship —that no doubt requires the assistance of a slight physical antipathy. 386. 388. especially women.

Loving and possessing. To want to be in love. did not advise against it. They would gladly put him under lock and key. No standstill in love. Test of a good marriage. Unity of place.— If spouses did not live together. 401. 397. 393. Usual consequences of marriage. 398.— Women's modesty generally increases with their beauty.— For the sake of love.392.— Women usually love an important man in such a way that they want to have him to themselves. Teaching to command. 396. Proteus nature.— A musician who loves the slow tempo will take the same pieces slower and slower. while wives are somewhat elevated." . and vice 'versa. An element of love. 402. 394. Men who are too intellectual need marriage every bit as much as they resist it like a bitter medicine.— Children from humble families must be educated to command. which wants him to appear important in front of others. when the woman wants to be famous through the man. Modesty. draws downwards. for example. therefore men generally sink somewhat when they take wives. Likewise. as much as other children to obey. calculating advantage.— A marriage in which each wants to attain an individual goal through the other holds together well. something of maternal love appears also. 400.— Fiancés who have been brought together by convenience often try to be in love in order to overcome the reproach of cold. women wholly become what they are in the imagination of the men who love them. those who turn to Christianity for their advantage try to become truly pious. if their vanity. Long-lasting marriage.— In every kind of female love. for in that way the religious pantomime is easier for them. Thus there is no standstill in any love.— A marriage proves itself a good marriage by being able to endure an occasional "exception. good marriages would be more frequent. too.— Every association that does not uplift. 395. 399. and drama. or the man popular through the woman.

they want to be loved without rivals. however you may search them. Gretchens do not suit them for two reasons. so to speak. and utilization of all advantages.— As one scholar very insightfully remarks. and the father furnishes the darker background of will. and whose cunning is prompted by their shrewd mothers.— Those girls who want to owe their whole life's maintenance to their youthful charms alone. want the same thing as courtesans—only the girls are more clever and less honest. if he has a passion for such things. excessive work and ideas.403. but most of the time in interaction is spent in conversation. when that is the case. fiery youths—into copies of their teachers! 410. his science and art. and resent the goals of his ambition. his political duties. Unless he is distinguished because of them: then they hope an amorous tie to him will also make them more distinguished. that he no longer resists any apparently complex matter. later they learn that it means holding a man in low esteem to assume that only a girl is needed to make him happy. Marriage as a long conversation. but rather gives in to it—that is something diplomats and women know.— Inexperienced girls flatter themselves with the notion that it is within their power to make a man happy. 411. 405.— When entering a marriage.— One can so tire and weaken any man. presence of mind. His influence determines the rhythm and harmony. So (to continue the idea). they encourage their lover. Without rivals. 408. Masks. educated men in present-day Germany resemble a combination of Mephistopheles and Wagner. And because they are no longer desired. Girlish dreams.— There are women who. prove to have no content but are purely masks. do not pass our Gymnasium education on to girls too! For it often turns witty. The vanity of women demands that a man be more than a happy husband. inquisitive. one should ask the question: do you think you will be able to have good conversations with this woman right into old age? Everything else in marriage is transitory. fears. by disturbances. Faust and Gretchen dying out. 406. . Girls as Gymnasium students.— Women's intellect is manifested as perfect control.— Women easily notice whether a man's soul is already appropriated. Honor and honesty. but its melody comes from the woman. it seems that they are dying out. yet it is precisely they who are able to arouse the desire of the man most strongly: he seeks for her soul—and goes on seeking. The man who associates with such almost spectral. 409. The female intellect.— For heaven's sake. necessarily unsatisfied beings is to be commiserated with. whom their grandfathers (in their youth at least) felt rumbling within them. 404. to which the new life is to be played out. but certainly not Faust. 407. They bequeath it as their fundamental character to their children. Means to bring everyone to everything.

Just consider the original meaning of this. This is not contradicted by the fact that men actually get so much farther with their intelligence: they have the deeper. it has happened that they have run into their own net and forgotten the reason behind it. these take their intelligence. there is a not insignificant danger when they are entrusted with politics or certain areas of science (history. one sees very clearly how a man is looking for an idealized man. and second. often generous and conciliatory). through submission. almost everywhere. The shortsighted are in love. every party has) and stabbing there: then their rapier-sharp mind performs splendid services for them (while men. women are more dangerous than men.— An indication of the cleverness of women is that. because they are practiced in finding sore spots (which every man. clever women could use even the care of children to excuse their avoiding work as much as possible. the lightning-fast illuminations of personal relationships by their eruptions of liking and disliking.— When feeling hatred. First and foremost because once their hostile feeling has been aroused. 416. become restrained. they are inhibited by no considerations of fairness but let their hatred swell undisturbed to the final consequences.— Those sudden decisions about pro and con which women tend to make. Love. thereby ruining its pure. which is in itself something passive. Even now. for example). if they are really active. forward. they have known how to have others support them. Perhaps all this can change.— Sometimes it requires only a stronger pair of spectacles to cure the lover. so that men tend to overestimate the merit of their activity tenfold. 414. the proofs of female injustice have been enwreathed by loving men with a glow. they know how to make a disconcerting fuss about it. as if they were somehow superior. more often to people. indeed domination. On the emancipation of women. from the disappointment that almost inevitably enters the life of every woman—to the extent that she even has enough fantasy and sense to be able to be deceived and disappointed. when they see wounds. and he who had the imagination to picture a face. and a woman for an idealized woman—that is. When women hate. 417. They themselves are now more deceived than men. in short. a figure twenty years older would perhaps pass through life very undisturbed. as if all women had inspirations of wisdom. and why men do not have women support them. 412. and women for a clever. It is certainly because male vanity and ambition are greater than female cleverness. for. in choosing their spouse. Women are often privately amazed at the great honor men pay to their hearts. Inspiration in the judgments of women. Originally. For what would be more rare than a woman who really knew what science is? The best even nourish in their hearts a secret disdain for it. warmhearted being. But because they have grown accustomed over the centuries to this exaggerated estimation of love. but for the perfection of their own merits. and brilliant being. as housekeepers. even without the Delphic cauldron and the laurel: long afterwards. not for a complement.To say it for those who know how to explain a thing: women have the intelligence. like drones in a beehive. therefore. alert. innocent effect. for the time being it is so. if they are so used to loving.— The idolatry that women practice when it comes to love is fundamentally and originally a clever device. Thus. to feeling immediately pro or con? For this reason they are also less often partial to causes.— Can women be just at all. in that all those idealizations of love heighten their own power and portray them as ever more desirable in the eyes of men. more powerful drives. they immediately become partisan. When men look especially for a profound. and suffer more. for example. 415. but if to a cause. 413. women have known how to secure for themselves the preponderant advantage. men the heart and passion. their statements are interpreted . A judgment of Hesiod's confirmed.

and contorted features. while that other party suffers most at the thought of not having hurt the first enough. As soon as they see up close. it often becomes harmful and promotes a husband's spiritual regression.— Because women are so much more personal than objective. but promote it in the most salutary way. Letting oneself be loved. and she would not only tolerate it. this is a fact. and can they no longer compose it into a unity? We notice that travelers in a strange land grasp correctly the common. Opportunity for female generosity.— Because one of the two loving people is usually the lover. or by living. However. Might parents judge their child wrongly because they have never stood far enough off from him? . if one considers that something positive can be said for any person or cause. It could happen that all of the philosophy in the head of an old woman consists of nothing but such dead places. but not necessary. 420. it is useful.— The grossest errors in judging a person are made by his parents. they stop being farsighted. he might consider whether nature and reason do not dictate that he marry several times in succession. Parents' foolishness.— Not infrequently. one after the other. in continual struggle with a childish and wrathful mother. exceptionally. marriage is a necessary institution. even afterwards. For one's twenties. Who suffers more?— After a personal disagreement and quarrel between a woman and a man. especially. the more they get to know a people. 422. the other the beloved. selfcontempt. distinctive traits of a people only in the first period of their stay. but how is one to explain it? Do the parents have too much experience of the child. passions of all kinds). it happens that vanity convinces each of the two people that he is the one who has to be loved. so that first. the more they forget how to see what is typical and distinctive about it. for one's thirties. the belief has arisen that in every love affair the amount of love is constant: the more of it one of the two grabs to himself. for later life. and accept their systems wholesale. to weigh down the other person's heart. their range of ideas can tolerate tendencies that are logically in contradiction with one another. the one party suffers most at the thought of having hurt the other. for the rest of his life he will never get over knowing who has been in reality his greatest and most dangerous enemy. 423.— Once a man's thoughts have gone beyond the demands of custom. if the man in his thirties made an alliance with a quite young girl. Sometimes. so that both want to let themselves be loved: in marriage. aged twenty-two years. one could say that the nature of things is arranged in such a way that women always win the argument. If one has experienced such struggles. This woman's love would later be completely transformed into maternal feeling. that all matters are not only two-sided. but three or four-sided. 421. who is devoted to pretense and mendacity. he marry an older girl who is spiritually and morally superior to him and can guide him through the dangers of his twenties (ambition.and explained like a sibyl's oracle. Contradictions in female heads. like Lord Byron. hatred. noble-minded and ambitious men have to endure their harshest struggle in childhood. this results in some half-droll. for which reason it tries by tears. half-absurd scenes. then it is almost difficult to go completely astray by such sudden decisions. they tend to be enthusiastic about the representatives of these tendencies. but in such a way that a dead place arises whenever a new personality later gains the upper hand. the less remains for the other person. indeed. Tragedy of childhood. whose education he himself would take in hand. 419. 418. perhaps by having to assert their characters against a low-minded father. and likewise something against it. sobs.

the spiritual friendship of two people of opposite sexes. whose wives were not much more than concubines then. permit only a moderate degree of practical idealization. and of course they will also have to take male weaknesses and vices into the bargain. will be decisive in choosing a wife. 424. but certainly in every other sense.— In the three or four civilized European countries. his wife is also to serve for the sole satisfaction of his sexual need. then we notice that the fibres have become traps. marriage as hoped for by the future. because they desired the delights of a mentally and emotionally liberating sociability. highly improbable. . everything enduring and definitive. and will be intent on standing outside custom in every way. That is why the free spirit hates all habits and rules. after they have given up custom? 426. This much. who should be friend. his soul. still claim predominance over everything they will have learned or achieved? This will be the time when anger will constitute the real male emotion. the mistress of Pericles] as well. But how will we endure the intermediate stage it brings with it. failing which.— Everything habitual draws an ever tighter net of spiderwebs around us. that is. Thus. indeed. one can in a few centuries educate women to be anything one wants. Happiness of marriage. not even to sow dragons' teeth on the same field where he previously emptied the cornucopias of his kindness. mother. From the future of marriage. counter to the goals we have indicated. manager. occasional means for a higher end. the opposite of what happened in Pericles' times in Athens could occur in the future: men. He must learn to love where he used to hate. 425. and simply accept them. and vice versa. politics will be more fantastic and partisan than ever. for reasons of the man's health. For if. 428. helpmate. All human institutions. Women's period of storm and stress. it is perhaps their customary thoughtlessness that makes them judge so mistakenly. even men—not in the sexual sense. A good wife. At some point. they will have taken on all male virtues and strengths. where will they not have to reach to achieve a similar abundance of power again. who perhaps has to run her own business or office separate from her husband. From this one can judge whether he is cut out for the happiness of marriage. turned to Aspasias [Aspasia: an Athenian courtesan. Indeed. probably requires and must be provided with a natural aid: concubinage. childbearer. truth-speaking men of the present. like the prophetic birds of ancient times.A quite different explanation would be the following: men tend to stop thinking about things that are closest to them. the preservers of the old custom. from his body. free-minded women who set themselves the task of educating and elevating the female sex should not overlook one factor: marriage. When parents are required to judge their children. Such a marriage. prefer to fly alone. during which female follies and injustices. of course. 427. its successful education. a false point of view. one can bring about by force. he painfully tears apart the net around him. cannot be a concubine at the same time: it would usually be asking too much of her. crude measures immediately become necessary. again and again. will have become ludicrous in their own eyes. and that we ourselves are sitting in the middle. which itself can last a few centuries.— Will free spirits live with women? In general. entered into for the purpose of begetting and raising a new generation. like a spider that got caught there and must feed on its own blood. even though he will suffer as a consequence from countless large and small wounds—for he must tear those fibres away from himself.— Those noble. head of the family. which uses sensuality as if it were only a rare. as the true-thinking. under such an influence. that is why. as I said. Posterity becomes a coincidental objective. like marriage. anger over the fact that all the arts and sciences will be overrun and clogged up by shocking dilettantism. I believe that. nothing may be impossible for him. bewildering chatter will talk philosophy to death. they must. For if women had their greatest power in custom. Free spirit and marriage. society will be in complete dissolution because women. conceived of in its higher interpretation. which only the grace and spiritual flexibility of women can provide. their ancient birthright.

In fact. storm. and the oppressive feeling of having to be actually grateful because he is waited upon and spoiled like an infant? That is why the milk offered him by the maternal disposition of the women around him can so easily turn to bile.— Significant women bring relief to the lives of their husbands. 434. so wives of very ambitious men cannot bring themselves to see their husbands suffering. the oil-like and calming aspect of their influence on the sea of life. and in that way formed him into Athens' greatest backstreet dialectician. 431. loss. set by a god on the neck of the beautiful horse Athens to keep it from coming to rest. Contemporaries tend to overlook their great men's many mistakes and follies.Too close. who finally had to compare himself to a pesky horsefly. by making his house and home inhospitable and unhomely. by nothing so much as by becoming a vessel. one day we have poor. and therein lies his happiness.— The free spirit will always breathe a sigh of relief when he has finally decided to shake off the maternal care and protection administered by the women around him. happily harmonious existence and society. illness. if only they can find someone whom they may abuse and slaughter as a veritable sacrificial animal to relieve their feelings. women act as if they were removing the stones from the traveling mineralogist's path so that he will not bump his foot against them—whereas he has gone forth so that his foot shall strike against them. dirty paper in our hands and nothing more. or folly more or less in his life matter. and sometimes one loses the pearl of his life in the process. it is as if we kept touching a good etching with our bare fingers. not even the heroism of this free spirit would have gone that far. 432. Voluntary sacrificial animal. A human being's soul is likewise worn down by continual touching. she taught him to live in the back streets. accident. . 429.— If we live in too close proximity to a person. and anywhere where one could chatter and be idle. while perhaps all this is not only the sign that they have chosen their way of life correctly. Dissonance of two consonants. Women always intrigue secretly against their husband's higher soul. One always loses by all-too-intimate association with women and friends. they want to cheat it out of its future for the sake of a painless. Not infrequently a woman finds in herself the ambition to offer herself for this sacrifice. Xanthippe drove him more and more into his strange profession. the peacock-tail fan. and the free spirit wants not to be served. comfortable present. Xanthippe. and therein lies their happiness.— Women want to serve.— Just as mothers cannot really perceive or see more than the perceptible and visible pains of their children. and then the man can of course be very contented—in the case that he is egoist enough to tolerate in his vicinity such a voluntary conductor of lightning. but also the guarantee that their goals will have to be attained sooner or later. in want. and rain. Blind at a distance. The golden cradle. so to speak. What is the harm in the colder draft of air that they had warded off so anxiously? What does one real disadvantage. if the latter are famous and great. compared with the bondage of the golden cradle. Without noticing it. for other people's general ill-will and occasional bad humor. 430. and even disdained. 433. regular.— Socrates found the kind of woman he needed—but not even he would have sought her out had he known her well enough. automatically works against the heroic inner urgency of the free spirit. at least it finally appears that way to us—we never see its original design and beauty again. Pleasant adversaries.— Women's natural inclination to a quiet. debt. even gross injustices.

from time to time there comes to them—what it will certainly be hardest to concede to them but must be conceded to them nonetheless—a moment when they emerge from their silent solitude and again try the power of their lungs: for then they call to one another like those gone astray in a wood in order to locate and encourage one another. whereby much becomes audible. so very seriously and are now and then guilty of an ironic posture. and no less ludicrous when childless people work on the practical laws of a country: they do not have enough ballast in their ship to be able to sail surely into the ocean of the future. Permission to speak!— The demagogic character and the intention to appeal to the masses is at present common to all political parties: on account of this intention they are all compelled to transform their principles into great al fresco stupidities and thus to paint them on the wall. as everyone then says. he is spreading out over his telescope a thick veil. and often enough man's despair. what good is there in doubting it? They want for once to forge for themselves their own fortunes and misfortunes. and if this feeling of self-determination. without even intending to. if the purpose of all politics really is to make life endurable for as many as possible. especially when the husbands convince themselves that it is love that is really spurring the wives on. that sounds ill to ears . their happiness is something quite different. Finally. if they trust to their intellect also to discover the right means of attaining this goal. are speaking. as they did in the prison of Athens. Moreover. always presupposing that this narrow-mindedness does not go so far as to demand that everything should become politics in this sense. and there may also be a degree of pride attached to staying silent when too many. for their seriousness is located elsewhere. VIII. to refrain from politics and to step a little aside: they too are prompted to this by pleasure in self-determination. Finally. that everyone should live and work according to such a standard. Power and freedom. respect of his wife and child. That is why. all is lost. they honor the powers and ideas recognized by society even more. or even just many. For a few must first of all be allowed."] Since this has happened one has to accommodate oneself when an earthquake has displaced the former boundaries and contours of the ground and altered the value of one's property. with their hands folded on their breast. But it seems just as nonsensical if a man who has chosen as his task the acquisition of the most general knowledge and the evaluation of the whole of existence weighs himself down with personal considerations of a family. [It is my opinion.435. too. they drop themselves like a drag onto the wheels of any freethinking. have someone take these women away!" said Socrates at last. and fate usually finds an opportunity to set a cup of this poison to the lips of the free spirit—to "punish" him. which scarcely any rays from the distant heavens are able to penetrate. 437. in fact renders their life so pleasant to them they are happy to bear the calamitous consequences of their narrow-mindedness. then these as-many-as-possible are entitled to determine what they understand by an endurable life.— There are many kinds of hemlock. for in this domain there apply the words of Voltaire: quand la populace se mêle de raisonner. whether by the many one understands nations or social classes. disapproving of any revolt against public power. to be sure. a livelihood. independent striving. pride in the five or six ideas their head contains and brings forth. for thousands of years they have been used to walking bowed over in front of all forms of rule. but rather as if out of instinct. A Glance at the State 438. To disapprove of women's methods arid generously to honor the motives for these methods: that is man's way. Then these few must be forgiven if they fail to take the happiness of the many.— As greatly as women honor their husbands. and in some circumstances make their husbands most impatient. ["When the mob joins in and adds its voice. 436. security. This is no longer alterable. Ceterum censeo. tout est perdu. indeed it would be pointless to raise so much as a finger against it. now more than ever. come to the tenet that in questions of the highest philosophical kind.]— It is ludicrous when a have-not society declares the abolition of inheritance rights. all married people are suspect. there is little to be objected to. So I. "O Crito. their goal is not to be encompassed by any clumsy hand that has only five fingers. moreover. What do the women around him do then? They will cry and lament and perhaps disturb the thinker's twilight peace.

but. it is again still in the wood.— In a better ordering of society the heavy work and exigencies of life will be apportioned to him who suffers least as a consequence of them. as the socialists of the subject caste do. Descent from good ancestors constitutes the real nobility of birth. These latter minds are the more high handed. and that slave labor is very easy labor compared with that of the "laborer. . their contempt of mankind greater than in the case of the first mentioned class. dissolute.— We see that great statesmen.— The fact that we regard the gratification of vanity as of more account than all other forms of well-being (security. and pleasures of all sorts).— Noble (if not particularly judicious) representatives of the ruling class can by all means vow: let us treat men as equals. is never an emanation of justice but of greed. humming and fluttering of the countless insects that live in. though. 458. they also desire more submissive instruments. they either choose with great skill and care the people suitable for their plans. expressed more simply. Pride of descent. that is to say to the most insensible. which in this case practices justice with sacrifices and self-denials.— If one holds up bleeding chunks of meat to an animal and takes them away again until it finally roars: do you think this roaring has anything to do with justice? 456.for which it is not intended. 462. and even keep it in good condition because they have nowhere else to live. sometimes proceed one way and sometimes another. concede to them equal rights. therefore. while every one must acknowledge to himself that in all respects slaves live more securely and more happily than modern laborers. To this extent a socialist mode of thought resting on justice is possible. position. rather. or else they choose badly. 451. Slaves and laborers. on the other hand. but. above and beneath it can again clearly be heard. as aforesaid.— Soon afterwards.— The overturning of opinions does not immediately follow upon the overturning of institutions: the novel opinions continue. 457. To demand equality of rights. 466. that is just our darling vanity which feels non-equality." We protest in the name of the "dignity of man". Every one who talks about his nobility should be asked: "Have you no violent. and inferiority in public estimation. to be the hardest lot of all. Leading minds and their instruments. then let his friendship be sought. destroys the nobility of birth. in fact take whatever comes to hand. because he despises honour—and so Diogenes was for some time a slave and tutor. New opinions in an old house. because they know that the nature of the persons selected impels them precisely to the point where they themselves would have them go. so still that the buzzing. The cynic thinks differently concerning the matter. for every one has that.— A man may be justly proud of an unbroken line of good ancestors down to his father—not however of the line itself. a single break in the chain. My utopia. but out of every piece of clay they form something useful for their purpose. wicked. avaricious. Justice as party call-notes. cruel man amongst your ancestors?" If with good cognizance and conscience he can answer No. is shown to a ludicrous extent by every one wishing for the abolition of slavery and utterly abhorring to put any one into this position (apart altogether from political reasons). one bad ancestor. only within the rules of the ruling class. and thus step by step up to him who is most sensitive to the most highly sublimated species of suffering and who therefore suffers even when life is alleviated to the greatest degree possible. and in general all who have to employ many people to carry out their plans. their knowledge of mankind is usually much smaller. but the machines they construct generally work better than the machines from the workshops of the former. and then leave them a comparatively large amount of liberty. to live on for a long time in the deserted and by now uncomfortable house of their predecessors.

European man and the abolition of nations. it was the Jewish freethinkers. and perhaps the youthful stock-exchange Jew is the most repulsive invention of the entire human race. the possession in common of all higher culture. scholars and physicians who. not without us all being to blame. as is no doubt claimed. through their ancient and tested quality of being the interpreter and mediator between peoples. but so as to hide himself behind its woolly back. at least the European. It is not the interests of the many (the peoples). force and falsehood to maintain a front of respectability. that of European man. have had the most grief-laden history of any people and whom we have to thank for the noblest human being (Christ). that impel to this nationalism. the purest sage (Spinoza). In him these qualities may even be dangerous and repellent to an exceptional degree. The wolf behind the sheep. one should not be afraid to proclaim oneself simply a good European and actively to work for the amalgamation of nations. though they carry with them rocks and rubbish of every kind and ruin the pastures of tenderer cultures. Nonetheless. the Jew will be just as usable and desirable as an ingredient of it as any other national residue.469. under the harshest personal constraint. be forgiven a people who. rational and in any event unmythical elucidation of the world could at last again obtain victory and the ring of culture that now unites us with the enlightenment of GraecoRoman antiquity remain unbroken. once one has recognized this fact. so as then to eat the ram he has stolen. yet this mixing will nonetheless go slowly forward in spite of that temporary countercurrent: this artificial nationalism is in any case as perilous as artificial Catholicism used to be. when the cloudbanks of Asia had settled low over Europe. the mightiest book and the most efficacious moral code in the world. the post and the book-trade. Every nation. must come to preponderate to a degree calculated to arouse envy and hatred. held firmly to the banner of enlightenment and intellectual independence and defended Europe against Asia. consciously or unconsciously. The Germans are. so that as a consequence of continual crossing a mixed race.— Almost every politician has at some time or other such need of an honest man that he breaks into a sheepstall like a ravenous wolf: not. to one's own existence and that of one's friends. could be communicated more surely or strongly than every great war communicates them: the streams and currents that here break forth. must come into being out of them. — Incidentally: the entire problem of the Jews exists only within national states. 475. inasmuch as it is here that their energy and higher intelligence. This goal is at present being worked against. possesses unpleasant. that inarticulate. by the separation of nations through the production of national hostilities. however. that profound impersonal hatred. and of certain classes of business and society. every man. for it is in its essence a forcibly imposed state of siege and selfdefense inflicted on the many by the few and requires cunning.— Scholars who become politicians are usually allotted the comic role of being the good conscience of a party's policy. earthquake-like shuddering of the soul.— Trade and industry.— It is vain reverie and beautiful-soulism to expect much more (let alone only then to expect much) of mankind when it has unlearned how to wage war. War indispensable. 470. Moreover: in the darkest periods of the Middle Ages. it is thanks not least to their efforts that a more natural. rapid changing of home and scene. their capital in will and spirit accumulated from generation to generation in a long school of suffering. For the present we know of no other means by which that rude energy that characterizes the camp. that common fire in the destruction of the enemy. indeed dangerous qualities: it is cruel to demand that the Jew should constitute an exception. Scholars as politicians. in a total accounting. will later under favorable circumstances turn the wheels in the workshops of the spirit with newfound . able to be of assistance. so that in every nation—and the more so the more nationalistic posture the nation is again adopting—there is gaining ground the literary indecency of leading the Jews to the sacrificial slaughter as scapegoats for every possible public or private misfortune. If Christianity has done everything to orientalize the Occident. the nomadic life now lived by all who do not own land—these circumstances are necessarily bringing with them a weakening and finally an abolition of nations. Judaism has always played an essential part in occidentalizing it again: which in a certain sense means making of Europe’s mission and history a continuation of the Greek. but above all the interests of certain princely dynasties. 477. As soon as it is no longer a question of the conserving of nations but of the production of the strongest possible European mixed race. I should like to know how much must. that proud indifference to great losses. that murderous cold-bloodedness with a good conscience.

Culture can in no way do without The one necessary thing. And to repeat. and artier represent their creations). the national good. or a disposition made cheerful by art and knowledge. Either a cheerful disposition by nature.— Convictions are more dangerous enemies of truth than lies. vices and acts of wickedness. in truth so as to bring home with them superfluous energy acquired through adventures and perils of all kinds. A person of character. and yet it would be more reasonable to do this when we find his tenet agreeable. Not too deep. gladiatorial combats and the persecution of Christians. so the great man of action will act with greater calm than could be expected from his violent desire before the deed.— A person must have one or the other. philosophers. cultural interests. Man Alone with Himself 483. 487. IX. as statesmen.— As a waterfall becomes slower and more floating as it plunges. Present-day Englishmen. Topsy-turvy world.— He who directs his passion to things (the sciences. navigations.— People who comprehend a matter in all its depth seldom remain true to it forever. who seem also on the whole to have renounced war. the arts) takes much of the fire out of his passion for people (even when they represent those things.— When the Romans of the imperial era had grown a little tired of war they tried to gain new energy through animal-baiting. 484. undertaken for scientific ends as they claim. One will be able to discover many other such surrogates for war. 486. Calm in action. 482. rather than because he always acts in accord with his principles. 490. and then there is always much to see about it that is bad.— Public opinions—private indolence. Enemies of truth.— We criticize a thinker more sharply when he proposes a tenet that is disagreeable to us. Passion for things. but they will perhaps increasingly reveal that so highly cultivated and for that reason necessarily feeble humanity as that of the present-day European requires not merely war but the greatest and most terrible wars—thus a temporary relapse into barbarism—if the means to culture are not to deprive them of their culture and of their existence itself. For they have brought its depths to the light. seize on a different means of again engendering their fading energies: those perilous journeys of discovery. 488. mountain-climbings. 489. .— It is much more common for a person to appear to have character because he always acts in accord with his temperament. 485.

Privilege of greatness. 492.Idealists' delusion. they feel degraded. The infuriating thing about an individual way of living. and then the one that.— People are always angry at anyone who chooses very individual standards for his life. they do not want to believe that if their cause is to flourish at all. few people about the destination. 498. and thus contains precisely that which acquisitive and successful people so like to treat with superiority and scorn.— Many people are obstinate about the path once it is taken.— It is the privilege of greatness to grant supreme pleasure through trifling gifts. 494. the snake must first become a dragon: otherwise he is lacking his proper enemy. The right profession.— Fellow rejoicing [Mitfreude]. because of the extraordinary treatment which that man grants to himself. now fellow suffering [Mitleiden]. Destination and paths.— If a man wants to become a hero. Self-observation.— To a great degree. Unwittingly noble. Condition for being a hero.— Man is very well defended against himself. against his own spying and sieges. and always to give to them.— All idealists imagine that the causes they serve are significantly better than the other causes in the world. 491. draws us away from it. nobility of mind consists of good nature and lack of distrust. unless friends and enemies turn traitor and lead him there by a secret path. 496. The actual stronghold is inaccessible to him. Using high and low tides. makes the friend. usually he is able to make out no more of himself than his outer fortifications. 500. 493. even invisible. Women do the same with their lovers. after a time. like ordinary beings. 497. one must know how to use that inner current that draws us to a thing. it needs exactly the same foulsmelling manure that all other human undertakings require. Friend. 495.— Men seldom endure a profession if they do not believe or persuade themselves that it is basically more important than all others. Nobility of mind. 499.— A man's behavior is unwittingly noble if he has grown accustomed never to want anything from men. 501.— For the purpose of knowledge. .

as to excuse the fact that we feel consoled so easily. by means of an enterprise. 509. inasmuch as everyone is someone who. 512. Envy and jealousy. society. .— We like to be out in nature so much because it has no opinion about us.— "Delight in an enterprise. 504.— Envy and jealousy are the pudenda of the human soul. The comparison can perhaps be pursued further. The modest one. More troublesome than enemies. Annoyance. as does each person who works in the service of an idea. Representatives of truth.— He who is modest with people shows his arrogance all the more with things (the city. and need therefore feel no shame in allowing himself to be helped.— When someone dies.— The champions of truth are hardest to find. but rather when it is boring. 503. Reasons for consolation. That is his revenge. not when it is dangerous to tell it.— To speak about oneself not at all is a very refined form of hypocrisy.Delight in oneself. it is contrary to his interest even to think it possible to discuss it. 502. 507. 511. The most refined hypocrite. can be of help.. we usually need reasons to be consoled. epoch.— In civilized circumstances. he no longer has time for that.— When some reason (e.— Annoyance is a physical illness that is by no means ended simply by eliminating the cause of the annoyance. not so much to soften the force of our pain. state. but in truth it is delight in oneself. 510. gratitude) obliges us to maintain the appearance of unqualified congeniality with people about whose own congenial behavior we are not entirely convinced. 505. or mankind). everyone feels superior to everyone else in at least one way. this is the basis of the general goodwill. Loyal to their convictions. Everyone superior in one thing. these people torment our imagination much more than do our enemies.g. Indeed.— The man who has a lot to do usually keeps his general views and opinions almost unchanged." they say. 506. Out in nature. 508. He will never test the idea itself any more. under certain conditions.

522. in a narrow sphere. 516. From experience. It is the same with all great minds. but rather because it takes up so many tributaries and carries them onwards: that makes it great. men learn that iron necessity is neither iron nor necessary.— However far man may extend himself with his knowledge. Greatness means: to give a direction.— No river is great and bounteous through itself alone.— One man's greater morality. Danger of our culture. Basic insight.— There is no pre-established harmony between the furthering of truth and the good of mankind. Weak conscience. 514.— Whoever thinks more deeply knows that he is always wrong.— The demand to be loved is the greatest kind of arrogance.— No one dies of fatal truths nowadays: there are too many antidotes.— We belong to a time in which culture is in danger of being destroyed by the means of culture. whatever his acts and judgments. in contrast to another's. often lies only in the fact that his goals are quantitatively larger. 513. Iron necessity. however objective he may appear to himself—ultimately he reaps nothing but his own biography.Morality and quantity.— Over the course of history.— Error has turned animals into men. but rather a condition for it. 518. Human lot. Truth. which the many tributaries must then follow. . 523.— That something is irrational is no argument against its existence. Life as the product of life. 515. Truth as Circe. The other man is pulled down by occupying himself with small things. it does not matter whether he is poorly or richly endowed in the beginning. Wanting to be loved. 517.— Men who talk about their importance for mankind have a weak conscience about their common bourgeois honesty in keeping contracts or promises. 521. might truth be capable of turning man into an animal again? 520. 519. All that matters is that one man give the direction.

— The least ambiguous sign of a disdain for people is this: that one tolerates everyone else only as a means to one's own end. 533. 531.— The unexplained. another because he has learned it with effort. Tyrant-genius. The life of the enemy. the former fears that. not according to the value they have for us. which ceases as soon as it includes the satisfaction of one's vanity) will disappear. pain (as punishment) will follow. 527. Evaluating services rendered.— If the soul stirs with an ungovernable desire to assert itself tyranically. ordinariness) is so great that when someone says. Contempt for people. joy (that pure joy in oneself. Forgetting one's experiences. 526. or not at all. 525. if it is known. The day's length.— If a man has a great deal to put in them. 534. too. 528. "But how happy you must be!" we usually protest. lack of ambition. 529. then even a slight talent (in politicians or artists) gradually becomes an almost irresistible force of nature. More important.— Whoever has brought men to a state of rage against himself has always acquired a party in his favor.— The good deed shuns the light as anxiously as the evil deed: the latter fears that.— The distinction that lies in being unhappy (as if to feel happy were a sign of shallowness. 532. a day will have a hundred pockets. if it is known. Disciples out of disagreement. and is proud of having grasped it: thus both out of vanity.— Whoever lives for the sake of combating an enemy has an interest in the enemy's staying alive. . but not the thoughts that were evoked by them. clear one. and the fire is continually maintained. 530. Shunning the light. obscure matter is taken as more important than the explained. Unhappiness.— We evaluate services someone renders us according to the value that person places on them.— One man adheres to an opinion because he prides himself on having come upon it by himself. Adhering to an opinion.524.— It is easy for a man who thinks a lot—and objectively—to forget his own experiences.

that is why he disdains no means of self-deception and self-outwitting.— When a man tries earnestly to liberate his intellect.— Sometimes we remain true to a cause only because its opponents will not stop being insipid. 545. Embodiment of the spirit. apelike goblin which jumps onto man's back just when he already has the most to bear. he who listens badly hears more than has been said. behind which we are allowed to withdraw when qualms and worries of a general kind attack us. 537. for then it is not possible.535.— Strong currents draw many stones and bushes along with them. Danger of intellectual liberation. In the stream. 539. . 542. Seeing badly and listening badly. does not usually have enough strength to revoke those goals publicly.— A profession makes us thoughtless: therein lies its greatest blessing.— The talent of some men appears slighter than it is because they have always set themselves tasks that are too great. Youth. and then inevitably becomes a hypocrite. Talent. Value of a profession. his passions and desires secretly hope to benefit from it also. to be productive in any sense. and later realizes privately that he is too weak to accomplish them. Value of insipid opponents.— The fantasy of fear is that malevolent.— The vain man wants not so much to predominate as to feel himself predominant. For it is a bulwark. Fantasy of fear. 536. 538. 540.— He who sees badly sees less and less. strong minds many stupid and muddled heads. or not reasonable. 541.— When we think much and sagaciously not only our face but our body too assumes a sagacious appearance. either. What he treasures is not the opinion of others but his own opinion of their opinion. 544. Goals too great. 543.— The time of youth is disagreeable.— Who publicly sets himself great goals. Self-enjoyment in vanity.

547. Hint for party chiefs. 552. until they drop off the tree and come to nothing. we must assume that they always expend the least possible amount of intellect to free themselves from a disagreeable situation. 550. Rope of gratitude. 554. 555. Dangerous helpfulness. Destruction follows in any case. Lower than the animal. for example."— He has no spirit who seeks spirit. he who remains in tradition is its slave.— He who strays from tradition becomes a sacrifice to the extraordinary.— When man howls with laughter. they want to continue to be perceived as consistent. The "rich in spirit. he surpasses all animals by his coarseness. 556. 549. Superficial knowledge.546. but conscientiousness lets them hang too long.— If we can force people to declare themselves publicly for something. Vain exceptionally.— There are slavish souls who carry their thanks for favors so far that they actually strangle themselves with the rope of gratitude. namely when he is physically ill. pleasure goes along with superficial knowledge. 551. The only human right.— He who speaks a bit of a foreign language has more delight in it than he who speaks it well. in that industriousness wants to take the fruits off the tree while still sour. . To the extent that he feels himself diminishing he has to try to recoup himself from outside through the opinion of others.— In order to predict the behavior of ordinary men. 548. Contempt. Trick of the prophet. Industriousness and conscientiousness. we have usually also brought them to the point of declaring themselves for it privately. 553.— There are people who want to make men's lives more difficult for no other reason than afterwards to offer them their prescriptions for making life easier—their Christianity.— Industriousness and conscientiousness are often antagonists.— He who is usually self-sufficient is vain and receptive to fame and commendation on exceptional occasions.— Man is more sensitive to contempt from others than to contempt from himself.

merely because their voice is best suited to a whisper. at the same time. Model for others. Being a target. .— Many men wait all their lives for the opportunity to be good in their way. Some people become conspirators. 565. Danger in multiplicity. In danger. Lacking the circumstances. Many a man owes his friends simply to the fortunate circumstance that he has no cause for envy. which is of great advantage to their own importance. 559. we try to make suspect. Easily resigned. 564. 558. Made an enemy to one's advantage. malicious slanderers. 561.— He who wants to set a good example must add a grain of foolishness to his virtue.557. 562.— Men who are unable to make their merit completely clear to the world seek to awaken an intense enmity towards themselves.— With one talent the more. but expresses their annoyance or ill humor arising from quite different reasons. 560. or schemers. Want of friends. 563.— A want of friends points to envy or arrogance. but are blinded by the fire they themselves carry with them. 566. other people's vicious talk about us is not actually aimed at us. we are most in danger of being run over. The role according to the voice.— He who is forced to speak more loudly than is his habit (as in front of someone hard of hearing. rise above the one being imitated—something which people love.— People whom we cannot tolerate. one often stands less secure than with one talent the less: as the table stands better on three legs than on four. 567. then others can imitate and. Suspicion.— A man suffers little from unfulfilled wishes if he has trained his imagination to think of the past as hateful. or before a large audience) generally exaggerates what he has to communicate. Then they have the comfort of thinking that this stands between their merit and its recognition—and that other people assume the same thing.— Often. Love and hatred.— Love and hatred are not blind.— When we have just gotten out of the way of a vehicle.

Danger of personal influence. indeed must look with favor on his occasional resistance and even bring it about: otherwise he will inevitably make himself an enemy. Profession. or else he perishes by his doctor. that is.— The ordinary man is courageous and invulnerable like a hero when he does not see the danger.— Whoever has established something great with a selfless frame of mind takes care to bring up heirs. but not against pin-pricks.— The flame is not so bright to itself as to those on whom it shines: so too the wise man. 569.— A man is either born for his doctor. in his own prophetic gift. Conversely. 570. believes a bit. Magical vanity. but usually the other person does not forget it. appropriate to our caste. the hero's one vulnerable spot is on his back. A little knowledge. but only the customary one. Our own opinions. .— A profession is the backbone of life. It is the sign of a tyrannical and ignoble nature to see one's opponents in all the possible heirs of one's work and to live in a state of self-defense against them. thus resulting in opinions that are more comprehensible and persuasive. 577.— He who feels that he exercises a great inner influence on another must leave him quite free rein. where he has no eyes. 572.— He who has boldly prophesied the weather three times and has been successful.— The golden fleece of self-sufficiency protects against thrashings.— The first opinion that occurs to us when we are suddenly asked about a matter is usually not our own. Danger in the doctor. 575. We do not dispute what is magical or irrational when it flatters our self-esteem. 571. 578.— A little knowledge is more successful than complete knowledge: it conceives things as simpler than they are.568.— We forget our guilt when we have confessed it to another. Origin of courage. or parentage. Giving the heir his due. Shadow in the flame. at the bottom of his heart. 574. position. Confession. 576. when he has no eyes for it. Self-sufficiency. 573. our own opinions seldom swim near the surface.

if in fact they ever do get a chance to speak completely. the sea—all these speak completely to the heart but once. Residual vanity.— He who thinks much is not suited to be a party member: too soon.— The advantage of a bad memory is that. Causing oneself pain.— Life consists of rare. and all too often troublesome. Only when young people have stopped glowing. but it needs one more drop of water: the good will to passion (which is generally also called the bad will). Only this little point is necessary. springtime. mankind) serve only to keep them going? Machines that are their own end —is that the umana commedia? 586. and are themselves intervals and intermissions in the symphony of real life. do they become useful. Punctum saliens [salient point] of passion. good sides.— The vanity of some people. As long as they smolder and smoke they are perhaps more interesting. or party.— People are like piles of charcoal in the woods. 587. 585. or epoch.— He who is about to fall into a state of anger or violent love reaches a point where his soul is full like a vessel. every beautiful melody. one enjoys the same good things for the first time. because we coincidentally get to see only its superficial side. its stunted aspect. but what good are the machines when all individuals (that is. 581. as charcoal does. during which at best the silhouettes of those moments hover about us. Bad memory. The hour-hand of life. Martyr. Love. 582. 583. and only acquired their belief from others. For many men do not have those moments at all. isolated moments of the greatest significance. To set against or set to work?— We often make the mistake of actively opposing a direction.— Inconsiderate thinking is often the sign of a discordant inner state which craves numbness. 584. Mankind unsparingly uses every individual as material to heat its great machines.— The disciple of a martyr suffers more than the martyr. or to develop them . 580. Bad-tempered thought. who should not need to be vain. the moon. Not suited to be a party member. but it would be better to look for the strong. Then we turn our back on them and seek an opposite direction. and of innumerably many intervals. then the vessel runs over. by begging it in small change. mountains. is the left-over and full-grown habit stemming from that time when they still had no right to believe in themselves.579. several times over. but useless. and carbonized. he thinks himself through and beyond the party. or the inescapable "faults of its virtues"—perhaps because we ourselves have participated to a large degree in them.

only to a much greater degree and indirectly. it will humanize him in small matters.— If we have just partaken of a philosopher's wisdom. and want to please. The more volcanic the earth. The street of one's ancestors. The proud sinner is a familiar figure in all religious sects. whether he approaches life as one who wants only knowledge from existence. his ordeal. To be sure. considerate. ourselves. and makes men doubt his greatness.— The best way to begin each day well is to think upon awakening whether we could not give at least one person pleasure on this day. If this practice could be accepted as a substitute for the religious habit of prayer. Pleasing by displeasing. or as one who rejoices in a difficulty overcome—everywhere he will find some happiness sprouting up next to the trouble.— If a man accounts for a misfortune." 593. this actually proves that he lacks a secure sense of his strength. we go through the streets feeling as if we had been transformed and had become great men.— So long as a man has not yet become the instrument of the universal human good. 588. 589. 590. Thus the saying: "Which street should you take?—that of your ancestors. Most often. but if he has achieved that goal.— People who prefer to be noticed. Growth of happiness. 594. if of necessity he is working like a machine for the good of all. 595. and thus we have to deliver a new. the knowledge that we are not our own creations) does exist. 592. and thereby displease. Arrogance as the last means of comfort. or his illness by seeing them as his predetermined fate. or mysterious punishment for something he had done earlier. or his intellectual inadequacies. and often upon its volcanic earth. One does not hate the great man's immodesty because he is feeling his strength. or as one who yields and resigns himself.— Near to the sorrow of the world. for we encounter only people who do not know this wisdom. we also think we now have to act like judges. Modesty. To this extent. then vanity may enter. cleverness would strongly advise against immodesty. he is thereby making his own nature interesting.— True modesty (that is. unheard-of judgment about everything. treating them imperiously and watching to see how much they can stand. otherwise one is depriving himself of the chance to attain perfection in some one craft. ambition may torment him. but rather because he wants to feel it primarily by wounding others. rather than to penetrate its imperfection and reject it.— It is reasonable to develop further the talent that one's father or grandfather worked hard at. and imagining himself superior to his fellow men. desire the same thing as those who do not want to be noticed. The first thought of the day. 591. Philosophical novices. once ambition has completed the rough work (of making him useful). by means of a . because he particularly can comprehend the thought of his complete lack of responsibility (even for whatever good he creates). our fellow men would benefit by this change. and not switch to something entirely new. and it well suits the great mind. man has laid out his little gardens of happiness. because we have acknowledged a book of laws. the greater the happiness will be— but it would be ludicrous to say that this happiness justified suffering per se. it takes a stronger gaze and a better will to further that which is evolving and imperfect. make him more sociable. Vanity and ambition as educators.

one takes vengeance with a glance. 598. success with his fellow men. it is the time of first ripeness. we need people who unconsciously offer us the service of that railing. learn to be kind. too. and remember with emotion this beautiful time of life. with a good bit of sourness still remaining. The age of arrogance. Deceptive and yet firm. In drawing passion to his side. if they are threatened because of their doctrines with a dire fate. 596. prison. Because they want to have influence and power. not to hold onto (for it would collapse with us at once). if education or chance give us no opportunity to practice these feelings. and. even if it is felt as disagreeable: for they know that the man who has finally gained power pleases in almost everything he does and says. our soul becomes dry and unsuited even to understanding the . when we are young. On the basis of what one feels inside himself. will seek to understand it in its lowest. respect and humility. but rather to achieve the visual image of security. he who refuses the respect of his contemporaries will conceive it in a base way. or a tone of voice. one really seems to be more but the faith in being much has been lost. they display their superiority. or paintings and music.— No one speaks more passionately about his rights than the man who. at the bottom of his heart. who see little or nothing of it.— The prince who discovers a casus belli for an earlier decision to wage war against his neighbor is like a father who imposes a mother upon his child. we need a railing. he wants to deaden reason and its doubts: he thus gains a good conscience. teachers. and this from earliest youth. or execution. Learning to love. it is true that they would not help us if we really were in great danger and wanted to lean on them. 600. experienced men smile about it. Likewise. fathers. doubts them. most vulgar sense. And are not almost all publicly announced motives for our actions such imposed mothers? 597.— He who protests against marriage. he thus makes his renunciation of it and the fight against it easier for himself. persecution. although it is delayed acting.— The true period of arrogance for talented men comes between their twenty-sixth and thirtieth year. 599. friends.— We must learn to love. they rejoice at the thought that this will enable their doctrines to be engraved and branded upon mankind. philosophies. in the manner of Catholic priests. to be henceforth accepted as such. Passions and rights.— When walking around the top of an abyss. they accept it as a painful but potent means to attain power after all. along with it. and because these are not at first forthcoming. in order to use it to please. It is conceivable that the man who is above the applause of his contemporaries is nevertheless unable to refuse himself the satisfaction of little vanities. or crossing a deep stream on a plank. that even when he displeases. unless one remain throughout his life vanity's hopeless fool. Incidentally. an arrogant gesture. 601.step that seems to be distancing them from their goal. This a fine ear and eye will recognize in all the products of those years. Later. he who denies himself much in large matters will easily indulge himself in small matters. Older. but they give us the comforting sensation of protection nearby (for example. as we generally know all three). Both the free spirit and the true believer want power. one demands from other people. The renouncing man's trick. he seems nevertheless to be pleasing. Likewise. be they poems. in which one is angry at his lot of having to be so much and seem so little. Casus belli and the like.

606.— People who go through many spiritual changes retain some views and habits from earlier stages. In contrast. That is why it is impossible. which then jut out into their new thinking and acting like a bit of inexplicable antiquity and gray stonework. There must have been a kind of pleasure in having been beaten with her whip. while precisely the opposite has occurred. too. we want to motivate our annoyance a posteriori by the oversights and inadequacies of others. acknowledges his power. as happens so often. at least in the same time span. so we can lose sight of ourselves. the more moderate feelings appear flat. Prejudice in favor of cold people. following Buddha's precept. giving in to it. who judge themselves without mercy. Likewise. But love acknowledges no power. There has never been a saint who reserves sins to himself and virtues to others: he is as rare as the man who. 604. aching wound. if one wishes to become a proficient hater: otherwise the germ for that. Love and respect.— People who catch fire rapidly quickly become cold. hatred must be learned and nurtured.— When. we let our annoyance out on others.— The casual entertainment of free opinions is like an itch. Cause and effect confused. and in disappearing throws us one last seductive glance. 608. 603.tender inventions of loving people. often ornamenting the whole region. reliable people: they are being confused with those others who catch fire slowly and burn for a long time. or act that way. all those who are always cold. to be loved and respected by the same person. apparently we still prefer a more violent displeasure to a weak pleasure.— When it has gone. finally there is an open. that is. benefit from the prejudice that they are especially trustworthy. Annoyance with others and the world. are also those who have most often spoken ill of mankind in general. Ruins as decoration. nothing that separates. given it stability and certainty. fear avoids. that is. one begins to rub the area. Because the state of being loved carries with it no respect. differentiates. while we are actually feeling it about ourselves. ambitious men secretly or openly balk against it. . so that in the end it looks as if the principles and dogmas had created our character. 602. Religiously strict people. hides his goodness from people and lets them see of himself only what is bad. 605.— Unconsciously we seek out the principles and dogmas that are in keeping with our temperament. in our human relationships. What is dangerous about free opinions. passion leaves behind a dark longing for itself. we are basically trying to cloud and delude our judgment. It seems that our thinking and judging are to be made the cause of our nature after the fact. the free opinion finally begins to disturb and torment us in our attitude to life. he fears it: his condition is one of awe. For the man who respects another. 607. and are therefore by and large unreliable. Desire for deep pain.— Love desires. Therefore. will gradually wither. ranks higher or subordinates. but actually our nature causes us to think and judge one way or the other.

there has been a temporary alienation from our basic character. But because the feelings (of inclination and disinclination) reverberate in them much more strongly than the reasons for these feelings. additional need. rather. look for a thought to fit their rhyme. then. 612. even when it appears plain and simple. Finally. moderately loud. perhaps even the greater our suffering from our needs. in its stead. attitudes. which gains resonance because of the emptiness. but no longer as regulators. Voice of the years. Fully mature intellects. it carries very far. is sometimes overcome by the longing for a third state that relates to play as floating does to dancing. spoken. in some cases it makes it sour. so that everything will harmonize outwardly. or political events. love truth. concentrated strength. ringing tone that indicates the absence or paucity of reasons. relationships that suit those of their earlier life. 611. comes the intention of finding a rhyme.— Young people love what is interesting and odd. as happens in our twenties. a blissful. which now asserts itself as a new. Boredom and play. To escape boredom. and not least the vain desire to be considered consistent through and through. .— Just as bad poets. Age and truth. 610. these influences are used as sources of power. blame. but our basic feeling and basic thinking have the upper hand. The tone of the more mature years is rigorous. the need becomes the greater. work that is designed to quiet no need other than that for working in general. 613.— The tone adolescents use to speak. when they give voice to their feeling again. People as bad poets. For most of what adolescents think has not flowed out of the fullness of their own nature. Instruction from pictures. later seem to be reduced to a fixed measure. like a tone in a vault. finally.And what decides us on this almost unconscious comedy? Laziness and convenience. that muffled. uniform both in character and thought: for this earns us respect. 609. no matter how true or false it is. Thus man's thinking and feeling appear again more in accord with that of his childhood years—and this inner fact is expressed in the external one mentioned above. 614. More mature minds love what is interesting and odd about truth. What is that? It is the habit of working as such. But in those intervals when our needs are quieted and seem to sleep. so people in the second half of their lives. old age often brings a certain gentleness and indulgence to the sound and seems to sugar it: of course. sharply punctuated. boring to the ordinary person. and has no reason to work because of new needs. there arises. our teachers. having become more anxious. but like everything clearly articulated. now overcome again by the man's collected. or invent displeases older people because it is too loud and yet at the same time muffled and unclear. that is. But then they no longer have any powerful thought to rule their life and determine it anew.— Need forces us to do the work whose product will quiet the need. as dancing does to walking. or else he invents play. man works either beyond what his usual needs require. they continue to live and act in us. Certainly. we are habituated to work by the ever-new awakening of needs. praise. look for the actions. praised. brings us trust and power.— If we consider a series of pictures of ourselves from the time of childhood to that of manhood. we are agreeably surprised to find that the man resembles the child more than the adolescent: probably corresponding to this occurrence. the greater our habit of working. too. or blamed around them. He who is tired of play. peaceful state of motion: it is the artist's and philosopher's vision of happiness. boredom overtakes us. which pull us about in our adolescence. This perception agrees with the one that all those strong influences of our passions. in the second half of a line. for they have noticed that truth tends to reveal its highest wisdom in the guise of simplicity. but rather harmonizes and echoes what is thought.

and poisons the arrows he shoots. A second personality. The man of talent must pass through this fire. . whose bitterness makes his general condemnation so sharp. who is touched by everything that grows and evolves. He is relieving himself first as an individual. In the fire of contempt. Sowing and reaping on personal inadequacies. single individuals. A philosophical frame of mind. Comfort for hypochondriacs. When Rousseau laments the depravity and degeneration of society as the unpleasant consequence of culture. each brings its own views with it. Thus we acknowledge and share the life and nature of many by not treating ourselves like rigid. once a man dares to express opinions that bring disgrace on him if he entertains them. the mood of a bellum omnium contra omnes. for which he as a nation's representative must necessarily have a great gift. he may say to comfort himself: "This parasite is feeding and growing from your great strength. a great sacrifice will be preferred to a small one. then even his friends and acquaintances begin to grow anxious.— People like Rousseau know how to use their weaknesses. benefit him too. is showing that he belongs to an earlier stage of culture. Looking at the coast from that perspective.— It is a new step towards independence. beneath the foundations of culture. Sacrifice. 619. one viewpoint for all life situations and events: we usually call that being of a philosophical frame of mind. who shares profusely in others' joy. we may find greater value for the enrichment of knowledge by listening to the soft voice of different life situations. afterwards he is much more his own person. if that strength were less. and is thus a relic. because we compensate ourselves for a great sacrifice with self-admiration. 618. 616. who enjoys other people's honors and successes. deficiencies. 621. The unpleasant personality grows out of times when the unhewn foundation of human intercourse had still to be laid. who flares up violently at divergent opinions. For the way in which he interacts with people was proper and appropriate for the conditions of an age when rule by force prevailed: he is a backward person. or vices as if they were the fertilizer of their talent. Alienated from the present. too. but instead is full of modest skepticism—he is an anticipator who is reaching ahead towards a higher human culture. we have the advantage of understanding it better on the whole than do those who have never left it. and thinks that he is seeking a cure that will directly benefit society.Backward and anticipating people. and makes no claim to the privilege of alone knowing the truth. and this is not possible with a small one. as far away as possible from the wild animal that rages and howls locked up in the cellars.— When a great thinker is temporarily subjected to hypochondriacal self-torments.— The unpleasant personality who is full of mistrust. we survey for the first time its entire shape. 617. 615. 620. and by means of society. and when we near it again. invariable. the other lives on its highest floors.— There are great advantages in for once removing ourselves distinctly from our time and letting ourselves be driven from its shore back into the ocean of former world views. But rather than making oneself uniform.— Generally we strive to acquire one emotional stance." The statesman may speak likewise when his jealousy and vengeful feelings.— If there is a choice. but that will also indirectly. this is based on his personal experience. in short. occasionally intrude into his personal relations and make his life difficult. who reacts with envy to his competitors' and neighbors' successes. you would have less to suffer. who wins friends everywhere.

Solitary people. If a preconceived opinion is overly negative. that overestimation. Profound people. but spin forth their monologue of a life in a calm. joyous mood. it leads to a pleasant disappointment: what was pleasurable in those things in and of themselves is increased through the pleasure of our surprise.— Whoever wants really to get to know something new (be it a person. and make them almost incapable of maintaining presence of mind when their wait is over. a morose temperament will experience the opposite in both cases. By doing this. as often happens. and not be silly enough. In addition. Without melody.— There are people for whom a constant inner repose and a harmonious ordering of all their capabilities is so characteristic that any goal-directed activity goes against their grain. 622. while actually everything else is a gift of the gods (of chance): this. when he finds his higher self. But people themselves deal very differently with this. to the extent that they later keep imitating what they were in those moments. To think too well or too ill of the world. 626. In certain moods. But long-foreseen. But if they are made to compare themselves with others. they tend to a brooding underestimation of their selves: so that they have to be forced to learn again from others to have a good. we will always gain the advantage of reaping a greater pleasure: if our preconceived opinion is too good we are generally investing things (experiences) with more sweetness than they actually possess.— Those people whose strength lies in the profundity of their impressions (they are generally called "profound people") are relatively controlled and decisive when anything sudden happens: for in the first moment the impression was still shallow. we give the author of a book the greatest possible head start. fair opinion of themselves. it has a ghostly freedom of coming or staying away as it wishes. it speaks demandingly. assess and honor a painter according to the highest vision he was able to see and portray. 624.— Everyone has his good day.Love as a device. however. We should. or a book) does well to take up this new thing with all possible love. Traffic with one's higher self. everything about it that he finds inimical. So. for example. to avert his eye quickly from. reason then sets its limits. their presence evokes that rare question: why have melody at all? Why are we not satisfied when life mirrors itself peacefully in a deep lake? . and.— Whether we think too well or too ill of things. as if at a race. into its motive center: and this is what it means to get to know it. And even from this learned opinion they will always want to detract or reduce something. their higher self. to pity them for it. only later does it become profound. virtually yearn with a pounding heart for him to reach his goal. Some regard their ideal with shy humility and would like to deny it: they fear their higher self because. an event. and true humanity demands that we judge someone only when he is in this condition. At any movement from the outside. Incidentally. moving melody. and not in his workdays of bondage and servitude. Thus one must grant certain men their solitude. we penetrate into the heart of the new thing. for that reason it is often called a gift of the gods. however. objectionable. is the man himself. 623. was just a device to entice the soul of a matter out into the open. or false. holding good conversations with themselves. their boat at once gains a new equilibrium on the sea of harmonic euphony. for example.— Some people are so used to solitude with themselves that they never compare themselves to others. even laughing. with no evidence of even the beginning of a structured. Modern people are usually extremely impatient on meeting such natures. who do not become anything though it may not be said that they are not anything. when it speaks. 625. Once we have got that far. that occasional unhinging of the critical pendulum. and often act out the role of their own self. They are like a piece of music consisting entirely of sustained harmonious chords. anticipated things or people excite such natures most. even to forget.

and have always done so. Should we have to guard ourselves against the upsurging of our feeling in order to avoid these pains? Would not the world then become too bleak. as if insatiable for itself. 630. it is as if they wished to say: without passions you have experienced nothing at all. . the outbursts of revenge that have death. nothing human is worth taking very seriously. or voluntary banishment as a consequence. in which one indulges. so melancholy. saying to himself like Goethe: "The best is the deep quiet in which I live and grow against the world. Artists cultivate the esteem for the passions. X 604c] 629. Because we have vowed to be faithful. they also glorify the frightful satisfactions of passion. so terrible and so childish at the same time. to a purely imaginary being. of raging vengeance. to be sure. create nothing out of the world. mutilation.— At sunset in Genoa. of the most varied currents of their time or nation. a priestly order. I heard from a tower a long chiming of bells: it kept on and on. But if that is the case. We do not pass from one period of life to another without causing these pains of betrayal. an artist. act unfaithfully. Seriousness in play. it rang out into the evening sky and the sea air. in coolness and sobriety. and over the noise of the backstreets. To have to acknowledge for all duration the consequences of anger. one meets those perverse wizards who. indeed. we believe fundamentally that no one changes his opinions as long as they are advantageous to him." 627. Let us test how convictions come into being and observe whether they are not vastly overrated: in that way it will be revealed that the change of convictions too is in any case measured by false standards and that until now we have tended to suffer too much from such changes. instead of creating the world out of nothing. we must become traitors. and the resignation of the broken heart. they keep alive curiosity about the passions. too ghostly for us? We want rather to ask ourselves whether these pains at a change of conviction are necessary. Why do we admire the man who remains faithful to his conviction and despise the one who changes it? I fear the answer must be that everyone assumes such a change is caused only by motives of baser advantage or personal fear. like cork: then one is finally tempted to divide mankind into a minority (minimality) of those people who know how to make much out of little and a majority of those who know how to make a little out of much. under the assumption (unstated. no obligation of that kind.— To carry out later.— If one notices how some individuals know how to treat their experiences (their insignificant everyday experiences) so that these become a plot of ground that bears fruit three times a year.The Middle Ages was richer in such natures than we are. or at least as long as they do him no harm. or a thinker. On convictions and justice. of enthusiastic devotion—this can incite a bitterness against these feelings all the greater because everywhere. Then I thought of Plato's words and felt them suddenly in my heart: all in all. or whether they do not depend on an erroneous opinion and estimation. In any event. every sacrifice: are we then inextricably bound? Were we not deceiving ourselves then? Was it not a conditional promise. and especially by artists. even if we perceive that by this faithfulness we do damage to our higher self? No—there is no law. in the state of blind madness that enveloped us in rapture and let those beings appear worthy of every honor. what a man promises or decides in passion: this demand is among the heaviest burdens oppressing mankind. because we have given our heart to a prince. and harvest what they cannot take from me by fire or sword. to be sure) that those beings to whom we dedicated ourselves really are the beings they appeared to be in our imaginations? Are we obliged to be faithful to our errors. and without suffering from them in turn. for instance. perhaps. it bears bad testimony to the intellectual meaning of all convictions. How seldom do we now meet a person who can keep living so peacefully and cheerfully with himself even amidst the turmoil. 628. even. while others (and how many of them!) are driven through the waves of the most exciting turns of fate. nevertheless — — [Republic. a party. Life and experience. That is. precisely these feelings are the object of idol worship. a woman. forsake our ideals again and again. a God. and yet always stay lightly on the surface.

which is forced to struggle with him. a child. in accordance with this lack of education (which always presupposes educability). and from out of them mankind's mightiest sources of power have flowed. unteachable. justified the use of the extremest means. a representative of backward cultures. and that he would have taken recourse to all the means of the Inquisition. had he lived as an opponent of the Reformation. people have lived in such childlike assumptions. for example [in Torquato Tasso]. If only all those people who thought so highly of their conviction. because of just this unchangeability. 631. Essentially. All three assertions prove at once that the man of convictions is not the man of scientific thinking. likewise. who reaches for any means to enforce his opinion because he simply cannot understand that there have to be other opinions. the Inquisition was reasonable. eternally suspect. he could still always malign reason in general and perhaps even raise as a banner of extreme fanaticism the "credo quia absurdum est. because the inquisitors would above all have inquired within themselves."] It is not the struggle of opinions that has made history so violent. he stands before us still in the age of theoretical innocence. the man will cling to him as Tasso finally does to Antonio. that is. This inclination is understandable and its consequences do not entitle us to violent reproaches against the development of human reason. usually we prefer to surrender unconditionally to a conviction held by people of authority (fathers. then how peaceable the history of mankind would appear! How much more would be known! All the cruel scenes during the persecution of every kind of heretic would have been spared us for two reasons: first. and got beyond the arrogant idea that they were defending the absolute truth. like every state of martial law. injudicious. the dogmatic expression of his belief will have been unscientific or half-scientific. 632. that the perfect methods for arriving at them have been found. If one has not passed through various convictions. but only because he powerfully incites opposition: for in that way the new culture's more delicate structure. princes). because the heretics themselves would not have granted such poorly established tenets as those of all the sectarians and "orthodox" any further attention.Conviction is the belief that in some point of knowledge one possesses absolute truth. The man of conviction has in himself a right not to understand the man of cautious thinking. that every man who has convictions makes use of these perfect methods. The countless people who sacrificed themselves for their convictions thought they were doing it for absolute truth. But throughout thousands of years. portrayed in his Antonio. however grownup he might be otherwise." ["I believe it because it is absurd. With a matter of this extreme importance. that wise moderation that is better known in the realm of practical life than in the realm of theoretical life. without gentleness. friends. and which. 633. as an object of animosity for all Tassos. who sacrificed all sorts of things to it and spared neither their honor. namely under the assumption (which we no longer share with those people) that one possessed truth in the church and . then. he makes allowances for him and knows besides that. that is. To let his belief be torn from him meant perhaps to put his eternal happiness in question. has no right to scold him for this. had he lived in other times. on the other hand. body nor life in its service. the struggle of convictions. In this regard. and we have a kind of troubled conscience if we do not do so. how they had arrived at it. the "will" was all too audibly the intellect's prompter. In its time. he clearly betrays that he would have burnt his opponents. he is in all events. but rather the struggle of belief in opinions. teachers. had devoted only half of their strength to investigating by what right they clung to this or that conviction. the theoretical Antonio. once they had investigated them. the scientific man. and second. finally. But actually one wanted to be right because one thought one had to be right. we are still the same people as those in the period of the Reformation—and how should it be otherwise? But we no longer allow ourselves certain means to gain victory for our opinion: this distinguishes us from that age and proves that we belong to a higher culture. Every believer of every persuasion assumed he could not be refuted. and that Goethe. a person lacking scruples. if a man still attacks and crushes opinions with suspicions and outbursts of rage. But eventually the scientific spirit in man must bring forth that virtue of cautious restraint. in certain cases. he is perhaps a source of power. but remains caught in the net of his first belief. and even salutary in cultures grown too free and lax. These days. Such a belief presumes. becomes strong itself. for it meant nothing other than the general martial law which had to be proclaimed over the whole domain of the church. for those unscientific and also passive natures. if the counterarguments proved very strong. Stemming from the time when people were accustomed to believe that they possessed absolute truth is a deep discomfort with all skeptical and relativistic positions on any questions of knowledge. in the manner of men during the Reformation. that absolute truths exist. at least. All of them were wrong: probably no man has ever sacrificed himself for truth. he is harsh.

man proceeded step by step. later the ways and means with which the ostensible truth had been found were mutually criticized. about his being right in the end. in order to find irrefutable principles by which the justice of the claims could be tested and the argument settled. there is also quite another category of genius. more gentle and silent. This advice should be given to women particularly. or at least as a backward person. in between. however much he may believe he is its suitor. one still sees from their conversation. Clever people may learn the results of science as much as they like. To the extent that that kind of genius keeps up the heat of convictions and awakens distrust of the cautious and modest spirit of science. to be sure. At first decisions were made according to authorities. the thinkers' personal struggle sharpened their methods so much that truths could really be discovered. It is its way to avoid with hearty indignation everything which blinds and confuses our judgment about things. who are now the hopeless victims of all hypotheses. to have an opinion means to get fanatical about it and cherish it in their hearts henceforth as a conviction. They do not have that instinctive mistrust of the wrong ways of thinking.had to preserve it at any cost. For them it is enough to find any one hypothesis about a matter." that is. this was to result in everyone's judging that the opponent's conviction contained an error. 637. But now we will no longer concede so easily that anyone has the truth. 636. To be sure. with any sacrifice. women call it "faith")—for the sake of truth. If a matter is unexplained. and that only a slight minority want certainty. scientific methods are at least as important as any other result of inquiry. and how necessary is the most extreme circumspection. all the results of science could not prevent a renewed triumph of superstition and nonsense. or artistic genius. they become excited at the first notion resembling an explanation that enters their brain. Finally. one notices that the majority of all educated people still desire convictions and nothing but convictions from a thinker. 635. 634. for the scientific spirit is based on the insight into methods. In fact. Therefore it places each thing in the best light and walks all around it with an attentive eye. Incidentally. Therefore everyone should have come to know at least one science in its essentials. in order to thus increase their own strength. or energizing. the rigorous methods of inquiry have spread sufficient distrust and caution. the methodical search for truth itself results from those times when convictions were feuding among themselves. he is an enemy of truth. If the individual had not cared about his "truth. be it living or dead. this always has the worst consequences. especially from their hypotheses in conversation. a mistrust which. the latter few have that matter-of-fact interest that ignores personal advantage. then he knows what method is. real or fictive—and to do so it must apprehend it clearly. no method of inquiry would exist at all. The former want to be forcibly carried away. as a consequence of long practice. And in fact. the pathos of possessing truth counts very little today in relation to that other pathos. and I can in no way see fit to esteem that kind lower than any philosophical. political. and the aberrations of earlier methods were exposed to everyone's eye. For them. that of justice. . so that we experience every man who represents opinions violently in word and deed as any enemy of our present culture. but. and were those methods to be lost. has put its roots deep into the soul of every scientific man. a search that does not tire of learning afresh and testing anew. even the above-mentioned increase of strength. thrilling. The former. vastly preponderant class is what the thinker has in view when he takes himself for a genius. if one looks closer. especially those which give the impression of being witty. then they get fired up about it and think that puts an end to it. Finally it will even give its due to its opponent. for it wants to give each thing its due. to blind or shortsighted "conviction" (as men call it. especially in the realm of politics. that they lack the scientific spirit. invigorating. All in all. there was a period when the consequences of the opposing tenet were drawn and perhaps experienced as harmful and saddening. for the salvation of mankind. for seeking the truth. thus it is an enemy of convictions. given the eternal struggle of various individuals' claims to absolute truth. and presents himself as a higher being possessing authority.

and his heart becomes tired of wandering. wanderers and philosophers. we then stride on. from opinion to opinion. — But we who are of a mixed nature. deception. as recompense. when the fire burns us and tries to consume us. shall we do it Amen! and auf Wiedersehn! 2. under trees from whose tops and leafy corners only good and bright things are thrown down to him. and keep his eyes open for everything that actually occurs in the world. — However. if one feels he is of a free. and who are. and solitude. when he is tired and finds closed the gates to the city that should offer him rest. glowing like a divinity of wrath. Redeemed from the fire. through the change of sides. in silence Even nicer. and in the sense of that goddess. uncertainty. together— skies lie growing showing. a louder Until together we reach the Yes. here and there it pulls us away from justice's sacrificial altar. and the city opens up. robbers lead off his pack-animals. ashamed. such a man will have bad nights. wood. transparent. our joyous laughter With our white teeth Am I right? silent let us Am I wrong? laughter be our Make it worse and worse. We honor her as our life's veiled Isis. driven by the spirit. which takes its joy in change and transitoriness. they ponder how the day can have such a pure. laughing Underneath the silken Amidst moss and books. It is the spirit that saves us from turning utterly to burnt-out coals. he strolls quietly in the equilibrium of his forenoon soul. impure. now far. So it may happen sometimes to the wanderer. the gifts of all those free spirits who are at home in mountain.Out of passions grow opinions. he sees in the faces of its inhabitants perhaps more of desert. then he will have no opinions at all in his head. he can prevent this rigidity through constant change. the desert reaches up to the gate. X. and if he is on the whole a veritable thinking snowball. But he does want to observe. perhaps in addition. To be sure. grave.— He who has come only in part to a freedom of reason cannot feel on earth otherwise than as a wanderer—though not as a traveler towards a final goal. Afterwards. as noble traitors to all things that can ever be betrayed—and yet with no feeling of guilt. No Openhearted Grant excuses! and this foolish No cheerful book forgiving! living your together. sometimes contemplative way. dirt. Among Friends: An Epilogue Translation: gersimon © 2001 1. The Wanderer. in their sometimes merry. refrain— wave. sometimes aglow with fire and sometimes chilled by the spirit. for this does not exist. as the only goddess whom we recognize above us. Born out of the mysteries of the dawn. If the morning sun then rises. we want to kneel down before justice. but then. 638. restlessly lively spirit. transfigured and cheerful face between the hours of ten and twelve—they seek the philosophy of the morning. therefore he must not attach his heart too firmly to any individual thing. again?— . like him. remain. than outside the gates—and the day is almost worse than the night. come the ecstatic mornings of other regions and days. never may we touch her hand in this condition. predatory animals howl now near. never will the grave smile of her pleasure lie upon us. Then for him the frightful night sinks over the desert like a second desert. here Friends. a strong wind stirs. Then nearby in the dawning light he already sees the bands of muses dancing past him in the mist of the mountains. or wraps us in an asbestos cocoon. there must be something wandering within him. friends. but rather only certainties and precisely measured probabilities. mental sloth lets these rigidify into convictions. Usually the fire in us makes us unjust. It's nice. we offer her our pain as a penance and a sacrifice. as in the Orient.

detachment. distance. to which this second foreword and forward ["Für.und Vorwort"] is to be dedicated.. what I Has a book contained it Honor in me the guild of From this fools-book How reason to its senses Yes. When I then. expose. To that extent all my writings. first as continuations and appendices of that human-all-too-human "book for free spirits": at the same time as a continuation and duplication of a spiritual cure. with a telltale and melancholy idiom. a farewell. complacency and beggarly speech found in the old David Strauss." Even my commemorative victory speech in honor of Richard Wagner. reveal. and then speak only of that which one has overcome— everything else is chatter. with such pointed and ticklish work. as the contemplator must do. the content of the first Meditation. ego ipsissimum ["ego ipsissimus": my very own self. too.Ear and heart and Believe me. on the occasion of his victory celebration at Bayreuth in 1876—Bayreuth signifies the greatest victory which an artist has ever achieved—a work which itself bears the strongest appearance of being "up-to-date. and actually a liberation. expressed my reverence for my first and only educator. As a book "for free spirits. just like The Wanderer and His Shadow. that is to say just as much in the critique as in the depths of all pessimism hitherto— and already believed "in nothing any more. As long as one still loves. are to be back-dated—they always speak of something "behind me"—some. gave vent to feelings from a long time ago when I. though substantial exception. like the first three Untimely Meditations. yet subsequently identifies and as it were jabs firmly at them with the point of a needle: is it any wonder if.. against the fairest but also most dangerously calm seas of my voyage . My writings speak only of my overcomings: "I" am in them. "exhibit" (or whatever one wants to call it) for the sake of knowledge something experienced and survived. first came to me with the book Human." I said as one who had slowly. my foolish Has never been in What I seek. (Perhaps Richard Wagner was deceived about it? I do not think so. "Even contemplation involves a secret antagonism. on page 342 of the work itself ["Richard Wagner in Bayreuth"]. that of the contrary view"—it is stated in Chapter 7." was in its background an homage and a gratitude set against a piece of my past. if during this the psychologist has blood on his fingers and not always only—on his fingers? ." as people say. All Too Human. possibly some fact or fatum of my life. in the third Untimely Meditation. as a student.. One will surmise: I already have much—beneath me . 2." lack of breeding." something lies upon it from the almost cheerful and inquisitive coldness of the psychologist. who has a lot of painful things beneath him. a little blood occasionally flows as well. But still it always required time.. ego ipsissimus. recovery. laboriously learned to recover from it and who was not at all willing to renounce "history. That sudden outburst against Germanomania. even back before the emergence and experience of the time of a previously published book (The Birth of Tragedy in the given case: as a subtler observer and comparer may uncover). also more personally—I was myself already in the midst of moral skepticism and dissolution. friends. and what I said against the "historical disease. namely of the anti-romantic self-treatment. friends.) The composure needed to be able to speak about the innermost solitude and self-restraint over long intervening years. indeed. shelter! strain vain! discover— ever? fools! learn turned! again?— One should speak only when one may not remain silent. one does not yet "contemplate. one certainly does not paint such pictures. 1886 1. with a single. which was perhaps intended but for few ears." one does not place oneself at a distance.. as my healthy instinct had itself discovered and prescribed for me against a temporary illness of the most dangerous form of . behind him. even if a yet prouder expression be permitted. "literature. had sat in the midst of German culture and cultural philistinism (I make claim on the paternity of the now much used and abused expression "cultural philistine"). together with everything that was hostile to me. "ego ipsissimum": my innermost self]. for the great Arthur Schopenhauer—even now I would express it much more strongly. until the desire stirred within me to exploit. The Mixed Opinions and Maxims were published individually." because he had once suffered from it. not even in Schopenhauer: just at that time I produced the unpublished essay "On Truth and Lie in an Extra-Moral Sense. shall we do it Amen! and auf Wiedersehn! Preface To the Second Edition..

will teach their precepts more strongly and more clearly—precepts of health. inflated. and . the way to "myself. but in truth a decaying and despairing romantic. exploitative desire. youth. subtle. such music unnerves. superhealthy enough to confront that music and in an immortal fashion take revenge on it. I trembled.. which may be recommended to the more spiritual natures of the yet upcoming generation as disciplina voluntatis. Here there is a determination to preserve an equilibrium and composure in the face of life and even a sense of gratitude towards it.. hence a pessimist with goodwill toward pessimism—thus in any case no longer a romantic: what? should a spirit. and also. its "eternal womanly" draws us— downwards! . I spoke of various things that did not concern me in a style that gave the impression that they did. empathy in his conscience. love. who are one and all still in danger of romanticism? And at least show them how it is—done? . It was then that I learned the art of appearing cheerful. soon after I was sick. As I proceeded alone. about the universally wasted energy. as it seems to me today. for this dreadful spectacle? Was I the only one whom—it pained? Enough. I was condemned to mistrust more profoundly. for a long time. did no German have eyes in his head. namely weary from the inevitable disappointment about everything that remained to inspire us modern men. 5. Even today "cave musicam" ["beware music"] is still my advice to all who are man enough to insist on cleanliness in things of the spirit. even indeed for every virtue that would like to protect us from the severity of our most personal responsibility.romanticism.. thoroughly and in principle." to my task. objective. to be more profoundly alone than ever before. At this point. softens. who understands the serpent's cleverness in changing his skin. not be allowed to give the pessimists of today a lesson. feminizes. as it seems to me. which turns us aside from our main purpose. malicious.. this ambiguous.. after six years of convalescence. and not without a sullen wrathfulness. for every premature act of self-constraint. finally and not least of all. I thus. "Illness" is always the answer when we begin to doubt our right to our task—every time we begin to make things easier for ourselves.. more than sick. we have no choice—we must burden ourselves more heavily than we have ever been burdened before . Richard Wagner. it was the prospect that a musician might come—bold. At that time I was first and foremost suspicious and circumspect towards romantic music. My task—where was it? What? did it not seem as if my task had now withdrawn itself from me—as if now. however respectable. work. this unexpected event struck me like lightning and gave me clarity about the place I had left—and also that horror which everybody feels after he has unconsciously passed through a tremendous danger. for every activity. may these same writings stand united. all romantic music. at the whole idealistic deception and pampering of the conscience that had here triumphed once again over one of the bravest. in an invalid. or rather indifferent to the presence of witnesses. At the time it was indeed high time to say farewell: soon after. I received the proof. for every reconciliation with those to whom we do not belong. and if I hoped for something at all from music anymore. — 4. his "good taste"? Nevertheless. suddenly sank down. above all that is healthy and malicious—is this. — It was only then that I learned the hermitical habit of speech understood by only the most silent and suffering. hope. who often enough jumped out of his skin but always knew how to jump back in again. ever vigilant. southerly. for which we for long have no name until at last it proves itself to be our task—this tyrant in us exacts a terrible price for every attempt that we make to escape it or give it the slip. The hidden imperious something. from the grief aroused by an inexorable suspicion—that. helpless and broken.. 3. as the second volume of Human. Henceforth alone and sorely mistrustful of myself. most triumphant. took sides against myself and for everything painful and difficult precisely for me:—thus I again found my way to that courageous pessimism that is the antithesis of all romantic mendacity. How strange and how terrible! It is our alleviations for which we have to make the severest atonement! And if we afterwards want to return to health. before the Christian cross . a subtler eye and empathy will not miss what perhaps constitutes the charm of this writing—the fact that here one who has suffered and abstained speaks in such a way as if he had never suffered or abstained. taken together. At the time. stifling art that deprives the spirit of its severity and cheerfulness and fosters every kind of vague longing and spongy.. inquisitive. I would have no more right to it? What could I do in order to endure this greatest deprivation? — I began by forbidding myself. after this disappointment. here rules a vigorous. weary with disgust at the femininity and ill-bred rapturousness of this romanticism. I spoke without witnesses. weary. A pessimist speaks out of them. All Too Human: perhaps they. to despise more profoundly. so as not to suffer from silence. proud.

letters. you good Europeans! — — 7. and teaches him to stretch out hands and senses to new nourishment." from his cares. light. and alas! to go along it. friends. as physician and patient in one. most courageous ones who must be the conscience of the modern soul and as such must possess its knowledge. and that I engaged in a tedious. just as much for myself as. you rare. a new future. most fleeting gift that life gives us. stupidities and painful memories. send them once more on a journey for an experiment? May I commend them particularly to the ears and hearts of those who are burdened with some sort of "past.. if you will believe me. to a formula: there is a will to the tragic and to pessimism that is as much a sign of severity and of strength of intellect (taste. above all again and again to fly away. together with the pride in being able to live surrounded by these unfavorable circumstances: a little cynicism perhaps.. overcomers of your age. Life itself rewards us for our tenacious will to life. Upper September 1886 Engadine. in order at some future time to have the right to be a pessimist—do you understand that? Just as a physician transfers his patient to totally strange surroundings. ill-humor.. against myself . even for every attentive glance our gratitude accords to even the smallest. an unfettering from all coarser desires. solitude and other morasses. With this will in one's heart one has no fear of the fearful and questionable that characterizes all existence. compelled myself to an utterly different and unexplored clime of the soul. to fly to great heights. most delicate. for it resulted in a convalescence—have been my personal experience alone? And only my human. the failed and defeated. A long process of roaming. in order to displace him from his entire "hitherto.. whose comfort it is to know the way to a new health. a health of tomorrow and the day after. most imperiled. you predestined ones. a new sun. changing followed from this.. poison and danger—whose lot it is that you must be sicker than any other kind of individual because you are not "only individuals" . personal experiences into universal judgments." and have enough spirit left still to suffer from the spirit of their past too? But above all would I commend them to you whose burden is heaviest. towards every blunt affirmation and denial. one even seeks it out. indeed into condemnations of the world . reputed to have lived in a barrel. feeling.]. but just as surely a great deal of capricious happiness. so I. much calm. for I am becoming more and more confident that my travel books were not penned solely for myself. perhaps the greatest thing it is able to give of any kind—we are given our task back. patient campaign against the unscientific basic tendency of all romantic pessimism. which seeks to magnify and interpret individual. Optimism for the sake of restoration. Finally our reward is the greatest of life's gifts.sensitive will. Perhaps this gives our pessimists a signpost to their own self-examination?—for it was then that I hit upon the proposition: "a sufferer has no right to pessimism because he suffers!". a little of the "barrel" [Diogenes the Cynic (400-325 BC). which has undertaken the task of defending life against pain and striking down all those inferences that. for such a long war as I waged against the pessimistic weariness of life. Shall my experience—the history of an illness and a convalescence. — May I now. in short. into strangeness itself. most spiritual. subtler folly. In fact a minimum of life. likewise a dietetic and discipline designed to make it as easy as possible for the spirit to run long distances. you victorious ones. hidden enthusiasm—all this produced in the end a great spiritual strengthening. an independence in the midst of all kinds of unfavorable outward circumstances. . conscience). like poisonous fungi. an increasing joy and abundance of health. capricious cheerfulness. you healthiest ones. it was then that I turned my perspective around. to an inquisitiveness for every kind of strange thing . that is to say the pessimism of the renunciators.— — 6. disappointment. seeking. is it not? a perspective that even today is novel and strange? To this moment I continue to adhere to it and. in whom is concentrated all that exists today of sickness. — This has been my pessimistic perspective from the beginning—a novel perspective. flourish by virtue of pain. pride.. and especially to a curative journey into strange parts. 1. a repugnance towards all staying still.. Behind such a will there stands courage. the longing for a great enemy. after six years of growing confidence. — Finally to reduce my opposition to romantic pessimism. Do you want me to prove this to you? But what else does this long preface—prove? Sils-Maria. you strongest ones. duties.. as sometimes seems to be the case. occasionally at least. all-too-human? Today I would like to believe the reverse.

" a "sometimes". protect and nourish. humble. as if they were individuals with whom one has to struggle. making no impression one upon the other: and we are tickled by the thought of whether here a marriage might not be arranged.— An idealist is incorrigible: if he is thrown out of his heaven he makes an ideal of his hell. because he takes himself more seriously than he does the rest of the world. idea-tending of the sic and poor? For the same reason as he practices justice in traffic with real persons: now out of habit. Incurable. we try another way of testing our autocracy: what. nice and tolerant. they keep concealed behind their back. We have only to spy on ourselves at that moment when we hear or discover a proposition new to us. From the thinker's innermost experience. he transforms himself . a conclusion drawn. in this usually hidden idea-meaning. stroke and feed it. we behold a judgment there. do you at once have to reduce it to the lowest possible price? 6. not regarding one another. If. originally because the true—as also the fair and just—is more useful and more productive of honor than the untrue. 26. Let him be disillusioned and behold!—he will embrace this disillusionment just as fervently as a little while before he embraced his hopes. Knapsack of the metaphysicians."] His work has become for him his ego. inescapable in the fate and character of man. with a certain degree of embarrassment. 12. we hurl it from the throne and immediately raise its opponent in its place. ineluctable. though they be the most abstract.— If you have hitherto believed that life was one of the highest value and now see yourselves disappointed. idea-state founding. that is to say the most arrogant and defiant idea that exists. indeed. Perhaps it displeases us because of its defiant and autocratic bearing. we unconsciously ask ourselves whether we shall not set a counter-proposition as an enemy beside it. person-inventing drive even for a moment. perhaps a certain quantity of spiritualism.— The fantasist denies reality to himself. he is ashamed of the fragility of his material and. because it breaks the personally burdensome tyranny of the unconditional. If. For in the realm of thought. separated from one another. and sinking as it were into the arms of contradiction. whether we can append to it a "perhaps. then one yields and pays it homage as a prince and leader. the products of that scientificality come to light. can we not come to the assistance of this weak creature. power and fame are hard to maintain if erected on the basis of errors or lies: the feeling that such a building could at some time or other fall down is humiliating to the self-conceit of its architect. attended by their blushes: a dear little Lord God. one can get hold of that idea neither by means of defiance and ill-will nor by means of good-will (if one holds it for true—).— Those who boast so mightily of the scientificality of their metaphysics should receive no answer. unless it itself should one day become suspicious to us:—then.To the disappointed of philosophy. whom one has to tend. It is as a consequence of his demand for truth that he embraces belief in personal immortality. not as a person: one might question. Against fantasists. Let one ponder this and then think on a little further: certainly no one will then speak of a "drive to knowledge in and for itself"!— Why then does man prefer the true to the untrue in this secret struggle with idea-persons. united as it is with the hidden thought "pereat mundus. unwearying king-makers in the history of the spirit that we are. on the other hand.— Nothing is more difficult for man than to apprehend a thing impersonally: I mean to see it as a thing. to whom one has to ally oneself. the liar does so only to others. dum ego salvus sim!" ["Let the world perish so long as I am safe. Insofar as his tendency is among the great incurable tendencies of human nature he is able to give rise to tragic destinies and afterwards become the subject of tragedies: for tragedies have to do with precisely what is incurable. in the presentiment that. accords it a seat of honor and speaks of it with pomp and pride: for in its glitter one glitters too. He traffics even with ideas. even the little word "probably" does us good. give it strength and fullness. however. indeed truth and even unconditionality? Can we possibly be parental or knightly or pitying towards it?— Then again. this new proposition approaches in a milder shape. the honor of it will fall not only to the two married judgments but also to those who arranged the marriage. 23. wants to do nothing that is not more enduring than the rest of the world. whether it is at all possible for him to suspend the clockwork of this person-constructing. idea pedagogy. and in any event a whole tangled heap of "wretched poor sinner" and Pharisee arrogance. heredity and training. if one succeeds in opening it. a nice little immortality. if a consequence should proceed from this conclusion. Woe to him who seeks to darken it. it is enough to pluck at the bundle which.

left open must be recognized as useless: none leads outside. approximately. more than an ugly gesture on the part of the defeated idea—perhaps the deaththroes of the despairing and salvation-thirsty heart to which madness whispers: "Behold. he expressed as: "the ultimate and true elucidation of the inner nature of the whole of things must necessarily hang closely together with that of the ethical significance of human behavior"—which is absolutely not "necessary" but. concepts. It is his immeasurable pride which wants to employ only the finest. The desire to be just and the desire to be a judge. may well grow exceedingly ill-humored and curse the salty taste which these apparitions leave behind in the mouth and from which arises a raging thirst—without one's having been brought so much as a single step nearer to any kind of spring. he nonetheless counteracted in his own mind with that prejudice which he still had in common with moral men (not with the moralists) and which. his heart rejoices. the poor wave in the necessary wave-play of becoming—very well: then let the wave-play itself. which stand still.into the intransitory.— Schopenhauer. with independent powers. Many more backdoors. At all times arrogance has rightly been designated the "vice of the intellectual"—yet without the motive power of this vice truth and the respect accorded it would be miserably accommodated on this earth. atonement and expiation: then let God be the sinner and man his redeemer: then let world history be guilt. like Schopenhauer himself.— To the man of science on his unassuming and laborious travels. praise and censure us. the unconditonal unfreedom and unaccountability of the will. the all-defiant. quite innocuously and credulously." This mighty insight. That this knowledge cannot for very much longer be resisted is indicated by the despairing and incredible postures and contortions of those who assail it. there appear those glittering mirages called "philosophical systems": with bewitching. but also honor ourselves in them and involuntarily ascribe to them the capacity to instruct. on the contrary. whose native sense of reality was not a little dimmed by the motley leopard-skin of his metaphysics (which one must first remove from him if one is to discover the real moralist genius beneath it) —Schopenhauer makes that striking distinction which is very much more justified than he really dared to admit to himself: "the insight into the strict necessity of human actions is the boundary line which divides philosophical heads from the others. which from time to time he publicly avowed. despise." as it now exists. that we thus traffic with them as with free intelligent persons. Other natures again. be the sinner: here is free will. which "philosophical heads" have. In Gethsemane. thou art the lamb that beareth the sins of God. which have often before experienced this subjective solace." — This Christianity stood on its head—for what else is it?—is the final lunge in the struggle of the theory of unconditional morality with that of unconditional freedom—a horrible thing if it were anything more than a logical grimace. words. whose great knowledgeability about the human and all-too-human. becoming. thus will the offender become his own judge. that is to say. who still continue to wrestle with it. is how they go on: "What. to be sure. here there can be accusing. deceptive power they show the solution of all enigmas and the freshest draught of the true water of life to be near at hand. could ye not watch with me one hour?" 31." — The error lies not only in the feeling "I am accountable. into the air of free will: every one which has hitherto been slipped through reveals behind it every time a brazen wall of fate: we are in prison. as if bewildered by the fair illusion: the desert swallows them up and they are dead to science. not make ourselves free. so that he involuntarily presses forward. has been rejected by precisely that proposition of the strict necessity of human actions. — This. There are other natures. gives hardly any idea. as equals with equals —it is in this that the strange phenomenon I have called "intellectual conscience" has its roots. that is to say truths or what it takes for truths. 33. is no man accountable? And is everything full of guilt and feeling of guilt? But someone or other has to be the sinner." but equally in that . 29. Philosophical heads will thus distinguish themselves from the others through their unbelief in the metaphysical significance of morality: and that may establish a gulf between them of whose depth and unbridgeability the so much lamented gulf between the "cultured" and the "uncultured. That we are afraid of our own ideas. the judge his own executioner. if it is impossible and no longer permissible to accuse and to judge the individual. self-condemnation and suicide. we can only dream ourselves free. and it seems to the weary traveler that his lips already touch the goal of all the perseverance and sorrows of the scientific life. In the desert of science. — Thus here too something moral of the highest sort has blossomed out of a black root. hardest stones for its work. to be sure. which must often enough be journeys through the desert.— The most grievous thing the thinker can say to the artists is: "What. condemning.

especially over his momentary well-being but also over his enduring advantage and even his continued existence. especially when old people die. hardly does so at all." — This is. but the hour of death itself. Dangerous books. human vanity. The seriousness with which every dying person is treated has certainly been for many a poor despised devil the most exquisite pleasure of his entire life and a kind of indemnification and part-payment for many deprivations. over the advantage of the individual. The exhaustion of expiring existence. also that present enjoyment. unconditionally. but somebody has to be. The philosophy of the sacrificial animal. Power without victories. now unconscious comedy of vanity. 89. very eloquent witness as to that which is called his character. How one dies is a matter of indifference. "judge not!" and the ultimate distinction between philosophical heads and the others would be that the former desire to be just. and so we retain mores and morality—which is no more than the feeling for the whole quintessence of mores under which one lives and has been brought up—brought up not as an individual but as a member of a whole. the irregular or insufficient nourishment of the brain during this last period. his bearing on his deathbed.— The origin of mores lies in two ideas: "society is worth more than the individual" and "an enduring advantage is to be preferred to ephemeral advantage"—from which it follows that the enduring advantage of society must be given precedence. not true that the dying are in general more honest than the living: almost everyone is. not true: teh philosopher thus has to say. tempted by the solemn bearing of the bystanders.— Altered opinions do not alter a man's character (or do so very little). the new and untried nature of the whole condition and all too often the coming and going of superstitious impressions and fears. in fact. as Christ did. It is. sacrifices must be made. is always sounded too late. Whether the individual suffers from an institution that is good for the whole. and whoever had the strength to be nothing but a forger of plans his whole life long would be a very happy man: but he would occasionally have to take a rest from this activity by carrying out a plan—and then comes the vexation and the sobering up. 76. to be sure. but they do illuminate individual aspects of the constellation of his personality which with a different constellation of opinions had hitherto remained dark and unrecognizable. rather. as if dying were a very important thing and bridges of the most terrible description are here being crossed—all this does not permit us to employ dying as evidence as to the living. 58. But such an attitude originates only in those who are not its victims—for they claim in their behalf that the individual may be worth more than many. Interpreting by dreams.antithesis "I am not." But let him only wait and perhaps one day he will admit to himself that this same book has done him a great service by bringing out the hidden sickness of his heart and making it visible. 85.— The whole way in which a person thinks of death during the high tide of his life and strength bears. as a digit of a . 50. however. the moment in paradise. whether it causes him to atrophy or perish— mores must be preserved. the streams of tears and feeling held back or let flow. may have to be valued higher than a pallid continuation of painless or complacent states. 88. moreover. Making plans. the occasional very bad attacks of pain. the others to be a judge. Mores and their victim.— The strongest knowledge (that of the total unfreedom of the human will) is nonetheless the poorest in successes: for it always has the strongest opponent. into a now conscious.— Somebody remarked: "I can tell by my own reaction to it that this book is harmful.— To make plans and project designs brings with it many good sensations.— That which we sometimes do not know or feel precisely while awake—whether we have a good or a bad conscience towards a particular person—the dream informs us of without any ambiguity.

which we feel when we believe in and behold our "truth"—than does the book that speaks of Christ: a perspicacious man can learn from it all the expedients by which a book can be made into a universal book. the happy. If we had not remained to some extent unscientific men what meaning could science possibly have for us? Taken as a whole and expressed without qualification: to a purely cognitive being knowledge would be a matter of indifference. have made their find in Christianity. But if the former should challenge us: then be contented and appear to be contented!—then we might easily reply: "We are. your actions ought continually to render the Bible superfluous. or children. all your apologies for . in their own interests. than science does? — — Thus and in similar ways. The good and the good conscience. with nothing still on the way and as yet uncertain. has a very considerable place in the republic of scientific men. and in any event with a certain amount of play-acting. through you a new Bible ought to be continually in course of creation! As things are. The good conscience has as a preliminary stage the bad conscience—the latter is not its opposite: for everything good was once new. even that honest and industrious ego already mentioned. but did so rather in secret. 90. with the monk's cowl of renunciation! with the humble mien! Much more and much better: that is how our truth sounds! If science were not united with the joy of knowledge and the utility of what is known. "Love"— The subtlest artifice which Christianity has over the other religions is a word: it spoke of love. and gnawed at the heart of its fortunate inventor like a worm. indeed. not to speak of lesser objectives and remunerations. if your belief makes you blessed then appear to be blessed! Your faces have always been more injurious to your belief than our objections have! If those glad tidings of your Bible were written in your faces you would not need to insist so obstinately on the authority of that book: your works. hope and charity did not lead our soul towards knowledge. a friend of everyone. the tyranny of the majority. Away. even if Eros has only paid them a passing visit. Respect. and quite destitute of pathos. even though it is on their account that most have sworn and continue to swear allegiance to the laws of that republic and of science in general. however. Thus it became the lyrical religion (whereas in their two other creations the Semites have given the world heroic-epic religions). and finally to be crucified. — There exists no book that expresses so candidly or contains such an abundance of that which does everybody good once in a while—the joyful enthusiasm. All influential books try to leave behind this kind of impression: the impression that the widest spiritual and psychical horizon has here been circumscribed and that every star visible now or in the future will have to revolve around the sun that shines here.— Do you think that every good thing has always had a good conscience? — Science. what interest would we have in science? If a little faith. ready for any sacrifice. consequently unfamiliar. inventive ego. The shrewdest woman and the commonest man think when they hear it of the relatively least selfish moments of their whole life. and especially that master expedient of representing everything as having already been discovered. of parents. what else would draw us to science? And if the ego does indeed have no place in science. There is in the word love something so ambiguous and suggestive." of their "holy" spirit? Can any religion demand more renunciation. — Must it therefore not be the case that the causes that make such books as this influential will render every purely scientific book poor in influence? Is the latter not condemned to live a lowly existence among the lowly.majority. for it is hardly possible to conduct a defense without employing some degree of play-acting. Honesty and play-acting among unbelievers. contrary to custom. not among the least contented.— Thus it happens constantly that an individual brings to bear upon himself. entered the world without one. sometimes fame and a modest personal immortality are the achievable rewards of this depersonalization. however. and those countless numbers who never experience love. which is certainly something good. may we speak if we have to defend ourselves before believers. by means of his morality. — What distinguishes us from the pious and the believers is not the quality but the quantity of belief and piety. by crooked and indirect paths. draw the egoistic more inexorably out of themselves. especially however the men and women of sublimated sexuality. hooded or masked like a criminal and at least always with the feeling of dealing in contraband. never to rise again? Are all honest men of science not "poor in spirit" by comparison with that which religious men proclaim of their "knowledge. 98. that even the meanest intelligence and the coldest heart still feels something of the luster of this word. 95. something which speaks to the memory and to future hope. Among ourselves. immoral. however. You. or lovers. we must speak more honestly: here we may employ a freedom which. the pleasure of those we wish well or revere. we are contented with less. therefore. everyone is not permitted even to understand.

with your defense plea you inscribe your own bill of indictment.— This fact can never be sufficiently pondered: Christianity is the religion of antiquity grown old. then ponder the experience of two millennia: which. like salt. In favor of critics. man and animal.Christianity have their roots in your lack of Christianity.— When his work opens its mouth. and never loses its savor." so that they are no longer capable of hearing the voice of reason and philosophy. its presupposition is degenerated ancient cultures. 164.— Many a man fails as an original thinker simply because his memory is too good. 137. 140.— Good writers have two things in common. whether it bear the name of Epictetus or of Epicurus: in such ages the cross of martyrdom and the "trumpet of the last judgment" may perhaps still move the peoples to live a decent life. morality and the physical world—it may be possible to recognize a striving for the genius of mankind as a whole.— The worst readers are those who behave like plundering troops: they take away a few things they can use. 224. not our pain. But if you should wish to emerge out of this insufficiency of Christianity. speaks thus: "if Christ really intended to redeem the world. The worst readers. 138. and they do not write for knowing and over-acute readers. clothed in the modesty of a question. they prefer to be understood rather than admired. as even that does. although it serves every time for nourishment: this it is the great paradox of literature. 201. in the building: posterity discovers it in the bricks with which he built and which are then often used again for better building: in the fact. If one thinks of the Rome of Juvenal [Roman satirical poet (60 to 140 AD)]. but because they want to live.— A good aphorism is too hard for the tooth of time and is not consumed by all millennia. in the connected and lively recollection of experience.— Insects sting. according to Schopenhauer's observation. or of seeing wisdom in bodily form. the intransitory amid the changing. the author has to shut his. History perfect and complete would be cosmic self-consciousness. that that building can be destroyed and nonetheless possess value as material. In ages in which eyes and ears are "filled with mud. and revile the whole. 185. 168. on these it could and can act as a balm. that is to say. Shutting his mouth. the food that always remains esteemed. then in the striving for knowledge of the entire historical past—whichever more mightily distinguishes the modern age from all others and has for the first time demolished the ancient walls between nature and spirit. It is the same with critics— they desire our blood. dirty and confound the remainder.— The philosopher believes that the value of his philosophy lies in the whole. Good memory. Balm and poison. Marks of the good writer. Error of philosophers.— If genius consists. must he not be said to have failed?" 122. not from malice. that poison-toad with . Genius of humanity. Praise of aphorisms.

340. when they entered into life. mankind has not now the remotest conception? — Thus it is the same here as everywhere: one does not know. "Will a self. — Here too there still remains another counter-question and the possibility of a counter-reckoning: if it had not been enfeebled by the poison referred to. In parting. What is genius?— To will an exalted end and the means to it.— So long as you are praised think only that you are not yet on your own path but on that of another.— It ranks you far beneath him that you seek to establish the exceptions while he seeks to establish the rule. one comes to respect the quiet Christian community and is grateful that it overran the Graeco-Roman world. to speak the language of Christianity." but as if there hovered before them the commandment: will a self and thou shalt become a self. 313. so silently contemptuous. for example. to be sure. there would have been left to us of Greek culture! of the entire cultural past of the human race!—for the barbarian races untouched by Christianity were capable of doing away with ancient cultures altogether: as. and thus in the longer run a fundamental enfeeblement of such barbarians. a quite tremendous chemical fermentation and decomposition. as things are. the German possibly. On spiritual order of rank. — One must. ask what. 366. 251. 385. a rank exuberance of every kind of fantasy must have been the outcome. what a blessing it must have been to encounter beings who were more soul than body and seemed to be an actualization of the Greek condeption of the shades of Hades: modest. whereas the inactive and contemplative cogitate on what they have already chosen. one learns what it means to confront the "world" with a Cross. When asses are needed. is nothing than to poison it.— Not how one soul comes close to another but how it moves away shows me their kinship and how much they belong together.— Fate seems to have left the choice still up to them. a bell broken and weary yet still sweet-sounding. a confusion of feelings and judgments. . for youthful. When most people were born as though with the souls of slaves and the sensuality of old men. would one or other of these vigorous peoples. elusive.the eyes of Venus. childish and animal soul of the ancient German. 362. Christianity was obliged against its will to assist in making the "world" of antiquity immoral. one of their own. to implant the teaching of sinfulness and damnation into the heroic. without this enfeeblement. on one occasion."— Active. is a balm to the ears even for him who now wanders through these centuries only as a historian: what must it have been for the men of these centuries themselves! — On the other hand. not according to the dictum "know thyself.— You will never get the crowd to cry Hosanna until you ride into town on an ass. was demonstrated with fearful clarity by the pagan conquerors of Romanized Britain. whether God owes more gratitude to the Devil or the Devil more gratitude to God for everything having turned out as it has. for example. vigorous barbarians Christianity is poison. a new one?—of which. benevolent figures living in expectation of a "better life" and thereby become so undemanding. successful natures act. 378. To one who is praised. have perhaps been capable of gradually finding a higher culture for themselves. so proudly patient! — This Christianity as the evening-bell of good antiquity.

The journey to Hades. holding hands—and if the light disappears. though in an even weaker voice than mine. 408. The Wanderer: I believe I understand you. which should be a mystery to any third party. if the sunshine of perception falls upon them—that shadow am I as well. resolve. The Shadow: But shadows are shier than human beings: you won't tell anyone how we have spoken together! The Wanderer: How we have spoken together? Heaven forfend! especially from long drawn-out literary discussions. my beloved shadow: I have not said a word about how pleased I am to see you as well as hear you. or think up for myself and others—on these eight I fix my eyes and see their eyes fixed on me. The Wanderer: Only now do I notice how impolite I am. The Shadow: It's good. That shadow. when I saw two and then five camels in a forest near Pisa. so pale and somber. You should know that I love the shadow as much as I cherish the light. so lusting for life—while these men then seem so alive to me as if now. I would like to give you an opportunity to speak. shadow is as necessary as light. The Shadow: Am I to flatter? The Wanderer: I thought a man's shadow was his vanity. the wisest one becomes once the fool and three times the dullard. inquire—as I did twice already—whether it could speak: it always speaks. Therefore. they may call me right and wrong. like Odysseus."— In the former. which all things cast. If one does not know how to answer. But eternal aliveness is what counts: what matters "eternal life" or any life! The Wanderer and His Shadow SELECTED TEXT Preface The Shadow: Since I haven't heard your voice in so long. then it is already enough to say something—that's the reasonable policy under which I agree to converse. knowledge of human nature has ceased. With longer discussions. Pascal and Schopenhauer. alas. but I don't believe it. they could never again grow weary of life. if our reason stands still: thus we will not become annoying and press each other in conversation when something sounds incomprehensible to us. I love human beings. so restless and. in the latter it has not yet even begun. and shall be there often yet. The Wanderer: Your modesty is not complimentary to your confessor. clarity of speech. that we are both indulgent in the same way. quality and firmness of character. They are not opponents: they are rather affectionate. With these I must come to terms when I have long wandered alone. Goethe and Spinoza. A really . because they are devotees of light and I'm pleased when their eyes shine as they discern and discover knowledge—untiring knowers and discoverers that they are. The Wanderer: That's what I thought. The Shadow: Let's accept it and don't continue to think about it—in one hour it will all be over.— The most senile thing ever thought about man is contained in the celebrated saying "the ego is always hateful". But you were right: good friends give each other—here and there—a cryptic word as a sign of agreement. I hear it. Plato and Rousseau. but his vanity would never ask: "Am I to flatter?" The Shadow: Nor would man's vanity. they would find more pleasure in Plato. but I have not spared my own blood. Let's see what. despite your somewhat shadowy expressions. my shadow speaks. let's dispense with the preliminaries! A few hundred questions press upon my soul. in which I do not believe. to them will I listen when in the process they call each other right and wrong.Anti-theses. after death. And we are good friends. the most childish is the even more celebrated "love thy neighbor as thyself. the shadow slips away after it. The Shadow: And I hate the same thing you hate: the night. Whatsoever I say. The Wanderer: Someone said something—where? and who? It almost seems as if I myself were speaking. in all haste and peaceableness. May the living forgive me that occasionally they appear to me as shades. and the time you have to answer them is perhaps only brief. Four pairs it was that did not deny themselves to my sacrifice: Epicurus and Montaigne. and not only rams have I sacrificed to be able to speak with a few of the dead. The Shadow (after a pause): Are you not happy to have an opportunity to speak? The Wanderer: By God and all things. If Plato had less desire to "spin" his readers. we can agree upon.— I. too. as far as I know. have been in the underworld. For facial beauty.

indivisible flowing: it presupposes that every individual action is isolate and indivisible. while the subjected man. separate from one another. only under this false presupposition that there are identical facts. These four will. seek the freedom of their will precisely where each of them is most firmly fettered: it is as if the silkworm sought the freedom of its will in spinning. each existing in and for itself. since everyone will recognize therein only your opinions—nobody will think of the shadow. perhaps you'll allow me to indicate what we agreed upon? The Shadow: I'm happy with that. envious actions. A philosophical mythology lies concealed in language which breaks out again every moment. so do we also facts: we speak of identical characters. wherein he feels himself animated. as we have said. Now. but also again groups of supposedly identical facts (good. that there exists a graduated order of classes of facts which corresponds to a graduated world-order: thus we isolate. The fundamental errors.amusing discussion—when written down—is merely a painting with false perspectives: everything is too long or too short—nevertheless. Belief in freedom of will—that is to say in identical facts and in isolated facts—has in language its constant evangelist and advocate. my friend! Up to now one assumed in my opinions more of shadow than of me. over a third as a logical conscience. belief in freedom of will is incompatible precisely with the idea of a continuous. The Wanderer: Perhaps you are wrong. however. homogenous. however. it isolates every fact. The Shadow: More shadow than light? Is it possible? The Wanderer: Dear fool.— For man to feel any sort of physical pleasure or displeasure he must be in the grip of one of these two illusions: either he believes in the identity of certain facts. evil. it is an atomism in the domain of willing and knowing. for instance . 9.) —in both cases erroneously. identical facts: neither exists. Of the tree of knowledge. in passion. we think originally that through them we grasp the true in things.— The theory of freedom of will is an invention of the ruling classes. however. or he believes in freedom of will. not only the individual fact.— Just as we understand characters only imprecisely. Now. sympathetic.— Our usual imprecise mode of observation takes a group of phenomena as one and calls it a fact: between this fact and another fact it imagines in addition an empty space. independence and the feeling of living as necessarily coupled. in duty. the slave. How does this happen? Evidently because each considers himself most free where his feeling of living is greatest. Through words and concepts we are still continually misled into imagining things as simpler than they are. 11. etc.— The word and the concept are the most manifest ground for our belief in this isolation of groups of actions: we do not only designate things with them.— Here an experience in the social-political domain has been falsely transferred to the farthest metaphysical domain: in the former the strong man is also the free man. over another as the habit of hearing and obeying. powerfulness in hatred is the property of the rulers and the independent. ***** 1. over a fourth as caprice and a mischievous pleasure in escapades. be serious! My first question requires seriousness. Freedom of will and isolation of facts.— Probability but no truth: appearance of freedom but no freedom—it is on account of these two fruits that the tree of knowledge cannot be confused with the tree of life. in mischievousness respectively. That through which the individual human being is strong. indivisible. however careful one may be otherwise. thus. undivided. certain sensations: in which case he experiences psychical pleasure or displeasure through comparing his present states with past ones and declaring them identical or not identical (as happens in all recollection).— Over one man necessity stands in the shape of his passions. all our doing and knowing is not a succession of facts and empty spaces but a continuous flux. 12. high hope. boldness in desire. the lively feeling of joy and sorrow. Where the theory of freedom of will originated. lives dull and oppressed. we praise and censure. in knowledge. he involuntarily thinks must also always be the element of his freedom: he accounts dependence and dullness. In reality.

on the other hand. the eternal miracle worker whether he does good or ill. whether he was able to employ his intelligence." and likewise gains pleasure or displeasure. etc. according to the prevailing view. the capacity to choose. including the effort it cost to acquire it. 15. The intelligence is not the cause. and the hen that hatched it sat on her egg in a place far removed from reality. moreover." that is to say. he did not see the better reasons.when he thinks "I did not have to do this. because he acted without a reason where he ought to have acted in accordance with reasons.— Before one seeks men one must have found the lantern. unfree and not responsible: except if his lack of knowledge. If. is a result of an intentional neglect to learn. one says. something purposeless and non-rational. occurs as a miracle." without motive. his ignorantia legis [ignorance of the law] for example. because it could not decide against the better reasons? And here one calls "free will" to one's aid: it is pure willfulness which is supposed to decide. but without reason or intention: he certainly failed to employ his intelligence. when he failed to learn what he should have learned he had already preferred the worse reasons to the better and must now suffer the consequences of his bad choice. A fair exchange. in accordance with the first condition of all punishability laid down above. something omitted. Thus the offender is punished because he employs "free will. But how can anyone intentionally be less intelligent than he has to be? Whence comes the decision when the scales are weighted with good and bad motives? Not from error. ought to have permitted no choice. your own principles deny you that right! But these are at bottom nothing but a very peculiar conceptual mythology. and to have had the effect of compulsion and a higher power.— But such a deed too ought. perhaps from dull-wittedness or weakness of mind. arising out of nothing. as impulse is supposed to enter within which motive plays no part. The presupposition that for an offense to be punishable its perpetrator must have intentionally acted contrary to his intelligence—it is precisely this presupposition which is annulled by the assumption of "free will. that every so-called "external compulsion" is nothing more than the internal compulsion of fear and pain. 25. It is this supposed willfulness. how modest man is! 17. in a case in which willfulness ought not to reign.) Whence? one asks again and again." "this could have happened differently. For an offense to be punishable presupposes that its perpetrator intentionally acted contrary to the better dictates of his intelligence. the creature which calls its history world history!— Vanitas vanitatum homo. without origin. Without the errors which are active in every psychical pleasure and displeasure a humanity would never have come into existence—whose fundamental feeling is and remains that man is the free being in a world of unfreedom. prohibition and command." You adherents of the theory of "free will" have no right to punish. The offender certainly preferred the worse reasons to the better. Modesty of man.. The modern Diogenes. together with its sentimental value. in which case. the superbeast and almost-god. which is punished: the rational intelligence. the astonishing exception. whether he acted for reasons and not unconsciously or under compulsion. but not for the purpose of not employing it. As soon as he sets the price with reference to the need of the other he is a . its rarity. Why did he do this? But it is precisely this question that can no longer even be asked: it was a deed without a "for that reason. the time expended. in which the deed. Will it have to be the lantern of the cynic? 23. which knows law. not to be punished! It is not as if something had not been done here.— How little pleasure most people need to make them find life good. not from an external nor from an internal compulsion? (Consider. the intelligence had not been employed: for the omission is under all circumstances unintentional! and only the intentional omission to perform what the law commands counts as punishable. he is punished for having preferred the worse reasons to the better: which he must therefore have known. it is not usual to punish him: he lacked. Where this knowledge is lacking a man is. the meaning of creation which cannot be thought away. he acted as an animal would. the mighty ruler over nature and the despiser of it. from blindness. the solution of the cosmic riddle. If he is punished.— An exchange is honest and just only when each of those participating demands as much as his own object seems worth to him. Have the adherents of the theory of free will the right to punish?— People who judge and punish as a profession try to establish in each case whether an ill-doer is at all accountable for his deed.

rank. his revenge will be more embittered or tamer. he will not think of revenge at all. Finally. By revenge we demonstrate that we do not fear him either: this constitutes the equalization. the other way round. for in that case the feeling for "honor" is not present in him and hence cannot be injured. And so one continues to strive to discover it: just as our economists have not yet wearied of scenting a similar unity in the word "value" and of searching after the original root-concept of the word. friends. wants to prove itself by means of the counterblow. "revenge. This happens in the second type of revenge: reflection on the other person's vulnerability and capacity for suffering is its presupposition. the restoration concerns solely a loss incidental to all these losses. merely in order to get away with life and limb. Nothing therefore seems more different than the inner motivation or the two ways of action that are called by one name. Elements of revenge. as long as one feels the harm immediately: if you want to call this action an act of revenge. asking oneself how one can hurt him the most. a student are quite different things: according to whether he did almost nothing or a great deal to get it. As if every word were not a pocket into which now this. (The intent of showing one's utter lack of fear goes so far in some persons that the danger their revenge involves for them—loss of health or life or other damage—is for them an indispensable condition of all revenge. for example) which have hurt us: the sense of our countermove is to put a stop to the injury by bringing the machine to a halt. If our honor has suffered from our opponent. then revenge can restore it.) In the first type of revenge it is fear that strikes the counterblow. a shopkeeper. this motive is nobler than the other one. he will forgo revenge in the not . is now this. because it cannot demonstrate their lack of fear. the strength of the counterblow must be so strong to succeed in this that it smashes the machine. but where that is too strong to be destructible immediately by an individual. it is also important whether he believes his honor to have been injured in the eyes of others (the world) or only in the eyes of the opponent who insulted him: in the latter case he will prefer secret revenge. but consider that it is only self-preservation that has here put its rational machinery into motion. of course. but later. it is the absence of fear that. now several things at once have been put! Thus "revenge. it does not make good the harm suffered—except in one case.attempt. is so little a consideration for the seeker of such vengeance that he almost regularly brings about further harm to himself and quite often anticipates this in cold blood. as it were. now something more combined. Therefore they choose the means of a duel although the courts offer them help in attaining satisfaction for the insult: but they do not accept an undangerous restoration of their honor as sufficient. One behaves the same way against persons who harm one. now that. children: such losses are not brought back by revenge. each ought to receive little or a great deal in exchange for it: in reality it is. one wants to hurt.— The word "revenge" is said so quickly it almost seems as if it could contain no more than one conceptual and perceptional root.subtler robber and extortioner. the strength of the counterblow is determined solely by what he has done to us. But this has suffered damage in every instance in which suffering has been inflicted on us deliberately. in the former public revenge. an all-out. and that in the last analysis one does not think at all of the harming person in such a case but only of oneself: we act that way without any wish to do harm in return. here we find almost total indifference to what the opponent will do yet. all right. if he lacks this type of imagination entirely." too. Depending on whether he projects himself strongly or weakly into the soul of his opponent and the spectators. here. when he has time to think about the point of his injured honor. now that. on the other hand. Perhaps we have lost through our opponent possessions. Moreover. Distinguish first of all that defensive return blow which one delivers even against lifeless objects (moving machinery." Nevertheless it happens quite frequently that the person seeking revenge is unclear about what really induced him to act: perhaps he delivered the counterblow from fear and in order to preserve himself. he will not think of revenge if he despises the doer and the spectators of the deed—because they. In the first type of revenge it was fear of a second blow that made the counterblow as strong as possible. Protecting oneself against further harm. while the act of revenge of the first type serves only selfpreservation. Time is needed—when instead of concentrating on oneself one begins to think about one's opponent. as I have tried to show. The revenge of restoration does not protect us against further harm. he will nevertheless strike as hard as he can—making. But what has he done? And what use is it to us if he now suffers after we have suffered on his account? What matters is a restoration. Just so. he convinces himself that he avenged himself for his honor's sake—after all. on the other hand. 33.— If money is the exchange object it must be considered that a shilling in the hand of a rich heir. In the great world of money the shilling of the laziest rich man is more lucrative than that of the poor and industrious. being despised. Occasionally. the restoration. cannot accord him any honor and hence also cannot take it away. a day laborer. for our opponent thus demonstrated that he did not fear us.

— The same actions as within primitive society appear to have been performed first with a view to common utility have been performed by later generations for other motives: out of fear of or reverence for those who demanded and recommended them. A kind of cult of the passions. punishment is revenge. has been forgotten.— As members of society we believe we ought not to practice certain virtues from which as private persons we acquire the highest honor and a certain satisfaction.— Where does it come from. or out of habit because one had seen them done all around one from childhood on. Thus: everybody will revenge himself unless he is without honor or full of contempt or full of love for the person who has harmed and insulted him. 34. this is a proof of my power"—and are thus virtues related to pride. As if wherever there have been passions there had also been terribleness! As if this kind of terribleness was bound to persist in the world!— Through a neglect of the small facts. or from vanity because they were commended. . which had great difficulty in asserting itself against all the individual private utilities and making itself more highly respected. he also wants society's revenge on one who does not honor it. to take from the passions their terrible character and thus prevent their becoming devastating torrents. Thus it comes to appear that morality has not grown out of utility.— One should not inflate one's oversights into eternal fatalities. they are performed out of those other motives. Society thus recognizes only those virtues that are advantageous.— In order to raise an accusation against the whole nature of the world. as proof that one would like to be merciful. you dismal philosophical blindworms speak of the terrible character of human passions. however circumscribed. or from benevolence because their performance everywhere produced joy and concurring faces. it also contains that other element of revenge which we described first. that of utility. it desires to deter. Such actions. while it is originally social utility. this hatred of utility which becomes visible here. where all praiseworthy behavior formally excludes behavior with a view to utility?— It is plain that society. but because they are not performed from any conscious reason of utility. Thus judicial punishment restores both private honor and the honor of society—which means. it is you yourselves who first allowed the passions to develop into such monsters that you are overcome by fear at the word "passion"! It was up to you. No bench of judges may conscientiously practice mercy: this privilege is reserved to the king as an individual. have come into existence within society. The virtues that incur loss. has had to struggle too long and too hard against the self-interest and self-will of the individual not at last to rate any other motive morally higher than utility. or at least not harmful to it (those that can be practiced without its incurring loss. even though as a society one absolutely cannot be. They are thus virtues belonging among non-equals. since even now there is opposition to them within every society. The significance of forgetting for the moral sensation. Even when he has recourse to the courts he wants revenge as a private person —but besides. the hearth of all morality and all eulogy of moral behavior. insofar as society uses punishment for its self-preservation and deals a counterblow in self-defense.unusual case in which he loves the doer: to be sure. 40. he thus loses honor in his opponent's eyes and perhaps thus becomes less worthy of being loved in return. whose basic motive. Thus both of these so different elements of revenge are actually tied together in punishment. they are the virtues of bearing the sense: "I am sufficiently powerful to put up with a palpable loss. for example mercy and consideration for transgressors of all kinds—in general any action by which the interests of society would suffer through our virtue. Those virtues that incur loss cannot. But even forgoing all such counterlove is a sacrifice that love is prepared to make if only it does not have to hurt the beloved being: that would mean hurting oneself more than this sacrifice hurts. Indubitably. devised by the superior. through lack of self-observation and observation of those who are to be brought up. and perhaps this is the main support of that above-mentioned conceptual confusion by virtue of which the individual who revenges himself usually does not know what he really wants. 37. are then called moral actions: not because. Punishment desires to prevent further damage. consequently. let us rather work honestly together on the task of transforming the passions of mankind one and all into joys. the individual. being a member of society who thinks further and considers the future. for example justice). and is up to us. one rejoices when he makes use of it. for instance.

the reason for which we do not understand or admit. 67.— The man who has overcome his passions has entered into possession of the most fertile ground.g.— A prohibition. is as stupid as a farmer who stakes out his field besides a torrential stream without protecting himself against it. estrangement. Habit of seeing opposites. all kinds of weeds and devilish nonsense will quickly spring up in this rich soil now unoccupied. 55. One has sunk below the level of equilibrium. his choler and revengefulness. The overcoming itself is only a means. 53. arrogance. Moral prohibitions. are suitable only for an age of subjugated reason: now. 65.48. Only the most acute and active animals are capable of boredom. the sensation most desired being one of predominance and the inspiration of fear. too. the spiritual-moral world. 56.— Every word is a prejudice.— The saying "The Magyar is much too lazy to feel bored" is thought-provoking. not opposites.. "warm and cold") where they are.— The content of our conscience is everything that was during the years of our childhood regularly demanded of us without reason by people we honored or feared.— A theme for a great poet would be God's boredom on the seventh day of creation. or feared as a deception. would have a harmful rather than a useful effect. Content of the conscience. like the colonist who has mastered the forests and swamps. Linguistic danger to spiritual freedom. in terms of such opposites. An unspeakable amount of pain. e. not do that") which does not ask: why must I?— In every case in which a thing is done with "because" and "why" man acts without conscience. such a prohibition as "Thou shalt not kill" or "Thou shalt not commit adultery. That is why the high value pity has come to be accorded presents a problem. It is thus the conscience that excites that feeling of compulsion ("I must do this. and his lusts and attempts to become master in anything else. . To sow the seeds of good spiritual works in the soil of the subdued passions is then the immediate urgent task. 50. and soon there will be more rank confusion than there ever was before. not a goal.— A man who refuses to become master over his wrath. Spirit and boredom. but differences of degree. is almost a command not only for the stubborn but also for those who thirst for knowledge: one risks an experiment to find out why the prohibition was pronounced. Pity and contempt. if it is not so viewed. but not yet for that reason against it." presented without reasons.— To show pity is felt as a sign of contempt because one has clearly ceased to be an object of fear as soon as one is pitied. This bad habit has led us into wanting to comprehend and analyze the inner world. Overcoming of the passions.— The general imprecise way of observing sees everywhere in nature opposites (as. 52. Prohibitions without reasons. frigidity has entered into human feelings because we think we see opposites instead of transitions.— The belief in authorities is the source of the conscience: it is therefore not the voice of God in the heart of man but the voice of some men in man. harshness. What is needed first. like those of the Decalogue. whereas human vanity is not satisfied even with that. just as the praise now accorded selfless disinterestedness needs to be explained: originally it was despised.

That is why everyone who is a good European now has to learn to write well and ever better: this is still so even if he happens to have been born in Germany. the fir tree to wait: and both without impatience—they give no thought to the little people beneath them devoured by their impatience and their curiosity. Paul has remained Saul after all—the persecutor of God. The extreme limit Aristotle allowed for the size of a city—it must be possible for the herald to make himself audible to the whole assembled community—this limit is of as little concern to us as is the city community itself: we want to make ourself understood. 176.78. Learning to write well. . because the age of the city cultures is past. to assist towards making all good things common property and freely available to the free-minded.— A little garden.— The pine tree seems to listen. 87. Belief in the cure which it offered has now been shaken to its deepest roots: but belief in the sickness which it taught and propagated continues to exist. however. 86. where writing badly is regarded as a national privilege.— The age of speaking well is past. to make ourselves accessible to the understanding of those foreigners who learn our language. little cheeses and in addition three or four good friends—these were the sensual pleasures of Epicurus. The persecutor of God. an enemy of all free spirits. it was Christianity which first brought sin into the world. the time will come when one will take up the memorabilia of Socrates rather than the Bible as a guide to morals and reason. to become translatable into the language of one's neighbor. And he also possessed the finer intellect. 194.— If all goes well.— On the rare occasions when our dreams succeed and achieve perfection—most dreams are bungled— they are symbolic chains of scenes and images in place of a narrative poetic language.— Whoever preaches the opposite and sets no store by writing well and reading well—both virtues grow together and decline together—is in fact showing the peoples a way of becoming more and more national: he is augmenting the sickness of this century and is an enemy of all good Europeans.. means at the same time also to think better.. Socrates excels the founder of Christianity in being able to be serious cheerfully and in possessing that wisdom full of roguishness that constitutes the finest state of the human soul. but out over the nations. and that this beautiful world plan was instituted to reveal the glory of God: heaven and hell and humanity are thus supposed to exist—to satisfy the vanity of God! What cruel and insatiable vanity must have flared in the soul of the man who thought this up first. finally.— Paul thought up the idea and Calvin rethought it. 85. The pathways of the most various philosophical modes of life lead back to him. to prepare the way for that distant state of things in which the good Europeans will come into possession of their great task: the direction and supervision of the total culture of the earth. We use up too much artistry in our dreams—and therefore often are impoverished during the day. Dreams. or second.— It was Christianity which first painted the Devil on the world's wall. To write better.. not merely beyond the city. figs. Belief in the sickness as sickness. they circumscribe our experiences or situations with such poetic boldness and decisiveness that in the morning we are always amazed at ourselves when we remember our dreams. The philosopher of sensual pleasure. that for innumerable people damnation has been decreed from eternity. 192.. The patient. continually to invent things more worth communicating and to be able actually to communicate them. Socrates.

— Not every end is the goal. the work of those elders and teachers whom a man of rash honesty once described as nos ennemis naturels. books. . 203. passions must bring with it—those quarter-hours of profoundest contemplation within oneself and nature. Letter. no matter how much they eat. the mediator of impolite incursions. Forgetting our objectives is the most frequent act of stupidity.— As a thinker one should speak only of self-education. duties. Almost every profession is chosen and commenced as a means to an end but continued as an end in itself. 206.— The classically disposed spirits no less than those romantically inclined—as these two species always exist—carry a vision of the future: but the former out of the strength of their time: the latter out of its weakness. and yet: if a melody has not reached its end. Forgetting our objectives. The solitary speaks. 204. The education of youth by others is either an experiment carried out on an as yet unknown and unknowable subject. or a leveling on principle with the object of making a new being. There are no educators. "I have not lived through anything"—is an ass. One ought to have one hour in every eight days for receiving letters. it has not reached its goal. whatever it may be. boredom—such as a solitude without friends. and then take a bath. Positive and negative. 249. 261.— During the journey we commonly forget its goal.— To exercise power costs effort and demands courage.— One receives as a reward for much ennui.— The thinker needs nobody to refute him: for that he suffices himself. The virtues which cloak these faults are called patience and forbearance. Too much and too little.— All men now live through too much and think through too little: they suffer at the same time from extreme hunger and from colic. End and goal. A parable. 267. Not to assert one's rights. That is why so many fail to assert rights to which they are perfectly entitled—because a right is a kind of power but they are too lazy or too cowardly to exercise it. 251. Classical and romantic. He who completely entrenches himself against boredom also entrenches himself against himself: he will never get to drink the strongest refreshing draught from his own innermost fountain. The end of a melody is not its goal.— A letter is an unannounced visit. and therefore become thinner and thinner. conform to the customs and habits then prevailing: in both cases therefore something unworthy of the thinker. Whoever says now. the mailman. despondency. 217.200.

" Rather. 290. and twice rather perish than make oneself hated and feared—this must someday become the highest maxim for every single commonwealth. because. Rather perish than hate and fear. as bad as war and worse. however. only when this kind of need has become greatest will the kind of god be nearest who alone can help here. does not lay down arms.— The most dangerous follower is he whose defection would destroy the whole party: that is to say.— "Stupid as a man" say the women: "cowardly as a woman" say the men. who denies the desire for conquest just as much as does our own state. as it now exists in all countries. out of a height of feeling—that is the means to real peace. This. as is well known. the reasons we give for requiring an army imply that our neighbor. Thus all states are now ranged against each other: they presuppose their neighbor's bad disposition and their own good disposition. when one has long since been educated as the world understands it. distinguished by wars and victories and by the highest development of a military order and intelligence. of course. now the time has come to call on him for assistance—not as an educator but as one who has educated himself and thus knows how it is done. is very dangerous. indeed. We must abjure the doctrine of the army as a means of self-defense just as completely as the desire for conquests. At bottom.— The press." and will smash its entire military establishment down to its lowest foundations. lust for tyranny: as such they are very useful and very boring. 284. And perhaps the great day will come when people. half from fear. the machine. for the neighbor must be thought of as eager to attack and conquer if our state must think of means of self-defense. 278. Rendering oneself unarmed when one had been the best-armed.One day. The unwomanly. many a wise guy has been swallowed. . comes from a cloud—and from up high. also keeps an army only for reasons of self-defense. for his part. and one invokes the morality that approves of self-defense. The most dangerous follower. is inhumane. is a hypocrite and a cunning criminal who would like nothing better than to overpower a harmless and awkward victim without any fight. and accustomed to make the heaviest sacrifices for these things. it attributes immorality to the neighbor and thus provokes a hostile disposition and act. the telegraph are premises whose thousandyear conclusion no one has yet dared to draw. 289. as indeed you know. Moreover. Hundred-year quarantine. by a stroke of lightning: but lightning. From the practice of wise men. the railway. the best follower. half from hatred. This presupposition. whereas the so-called armed peace. as it were. 273. The means to real peace. one discovers oneself: here begins the task of the thinker. is the absence of peace of mind. Stupidity is in woman the unwomanly. it is itself the challenge and the cause of wars. as I have said. and who. One trusts neither oneself nor one's neighbor and. The tree of war-glory can only be destroyed all at once. Premises of the machine age. which must always rest on a peace of mind. one must wish to have certain experiences and run. But this implies one's own morality and the neighbor's immorality. Our liberal representatives. "We break the sword. into their gaping jaws. 298. Rather the army is supposed to serve for defense.— Democratic institutions are quarantine arrangements to combat that ancient pestilence.— No government admits any more that it keeps an army to satisfy occasionally the desire for conquest.— To become wise. will exclaim of its own free will. lack the time for reflecting on the nature of man: else they would know that they work in vain when they work for a "gradual decrease of the military burden.

bear the punishment with the feeling that you are doing good—by deterring others from falling prey to the same folly. people and books? 326. bungle it and make it more difficult for all who come after.— Possessing opinions is like possessing fish. "convictions. How one tries to improve bad arguments. Now. Dying for the "truth. I shall never cease from repeating. To become a thinker. religion and metaphysics. he suffers from having worn his chains for so long. assuming one has a fishpond. but at once tell yourself: remorse would simply mean adding to the first act of stupidity a second. I am speaking of live opinions. to him alone does alleviation of life draw near and salve his wounds. 330. and we need to proceed with the greatest caution. Others are satisfied if they own a cabinet of fossils—and in their heads. Weather prophets.— Never yield to remorse. only he may say that he lives for the sake of joy and for the sake of no further goal. he feels himself to be "man"! 317. please. — We stand now in the midst of our work of removing these chains. so the lightest and freest spirits are in their tendencies foretellers of the weather that is coming. The wind in the valley and the opinions of the marketplace of today indicate nothing of that which is coming but only of that which has been. from being deprived for so long of clean air and free movement:—these chains. But perhaps for this: that we may have and change our opinions. Whoever can't hit the nail on the head should. One has to go fishing and needs some luck—then one has one's own fish.— Some people throw a bit of their personality after their bad arguments."— We should not let ourselves be burnt by our opinions: we are not that sure of them. 333. instead of solving a problem. more joyful. see how you can do good. 324. and in any other mouth his motto would be perilous: Peace all around me and goodwill to all things closest to . more spiritual.— Just as the clouds tell us the direction of the wind high above our heads. Man!— What is the vanity of the vainest man compared with the vanity which the most modest possesses when. are those heavy and pregnant errors contained in the conceptions of morality.— How can one become a thinker if he does not spend at least a third of the day without passions. Only when this sickness from one's chains has also been overcome will the first great goal have truly been attained: the separation of man from the animals. still tries to direct it with gestures. Don't touch!— There are terrible people who." 323. one's own opinions.— Many chains have been laid upon man so that he should no longer behave like an animal: and he has in truth become gentler. 350. however. Opinions and fish.— If you have done harm. Every evildoer who is punished may feel that he is a benefactor of humanity. not hit it at all. in the midst of nature and the world. of live fish. Only the ennobled man may be given freedom of the spirit. more reflective than any animal is.— If you are punished for your actions. Remorse. as if that might straighten their paths and turn them into right and good arguments—just as a man in a bowling alley.302. after he has let go of the ball. however. The golden watchword. 304.

The Wanderer: What am I to do? The Shadow: Step under these spruces and look out at the mountains. The Wanderer: Oh. good will toward I don't even like dogs. As full payment for the complete understanding of man. The Wanderer: Delicately! Very delicately! Oh. but nevertheless we are not servants. ***** Afterword The Shadow: From everything that you said. I would be adverse to the best if I had to share it with someone—I do not want slaves around me. the sun is sinking. and then you abandon us as well. such as you have it. and that you then— The Wanderer: And couldn't I do in all haste something to please you? Don't you have a desire? The Shadow: Nothing. It occurred to me that I've often been at your heels like a dog. the light shuns human beings even more frequently. is it time to part? I had to give you the last blow—and I see that you became darker thereby. so far you have slandered us all too often. nevertheless. The Shadow: I've often abandoned you with sorrow: it remains dark for man since I—being eager for knowledge—cannot always be around. The Wanderer: Slander? But why haven't you ever defended yourselves? You were near to our ear. you call us "obtrusive". and for too long? The Wanderer: Oh. that's what they say. The Shadow: It seemed to us as if we were much too close to be allowed to speak of ourselves. The Shadow: And. The Shadow: Like his shadow. Yet today—have I already followed you too easily.— With this motto for individuals he recalls an ancient great and moving saying intended for all which has remained hanging over all mankind as a sign and motto by which anyone shall perish who inscribes it on his banner too soon—by which Christianity perished. but also become disdainful of your master. we shun them: that's the extent of our freedom. The time has. one very often finds us in the retinue of human beings. nothing has pleased me more than a promise: you want again to become a good neighbor to the things closest to you. except perhaps the same desire that the philosophical "dog" had of the great Alexander: move a little out of the sun. and lead a life of degradation and disgust? Let's be content with this freedom. you shadows are "better human beings" than we are. Thus. The Shadow: I blushed. The Wanderer: Do you know—do I know?—whether you would undergo a sudden change from slave to master? Or remain a slave. When human beings shun the light. admit it. The Wanderer: —Where are you? Where are you? ."— It is still the age of the individual. I would probably be your slave. I see. it seems. lazy tail-wagging parasites that became "doglike" only as servants of man and who are still praised for their faithfulness to their master and follow him in this manner. we understand at least one thing well: to be silent and wait—no Englishman understands it better. in the color that I'm able to blush. you and me! Because the sight of one unfree turns my greatest joys into rancor. Because. still not yet come when all men are to share the experience of those shepherds who saw the heavens brighten above them and heard the words: "On earth peace. This will benefit us poor shadows as well. it's getting too cold for me. It is true.

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