n
(x) stnn0
n=1,3,5,
(b) Show that: ]3
2
(x) = _
2
ax
[
stnxxus x
x
(c) Use the generating function of Legendre polynomials to prove that:
(n +1)P
n+1
(x) = (2n +1) x P
n
(x)  nP
n1
(x)
(d) Use the substitution: x = cux z to reduce the differential
equation:
d
2
y
dz
2
+
us z
stnz
dy
dz
+n(n +1) y = to Legendres
equation and hence find its general solution.
2 (a) Find a general solution of:
0
2
u
0x
2

0
2
u
0x dy
+9
0
2
u
0y
2
=
(b) Solve
0u
0t
= 4
0
2
u
0x
2
, u(, t) = 3, u(1, t) = 5, u(x, ) = 2x +4
3 (a) Find the vibrations of a circular drumhead of radius 2 if the governing
equation is
0
2
u
0t
2
= 1[
0
2
u
0r
2
+
1
r
0u
0r
, the initial velocity is 0, and the
initial displacement is f(r) = 4 r
2
.
(b) Solve u
tt
= u
xx
+ u
yy
, where
u(, y, t) = u(a, y, t) = , u(x, , t) = u(x, a, t) = , if
u(x, y, ) = . 1stn3x stn4y . 2 xn 5x xn 12y, u
t
(x, y, ) =
Third Year (Elec.) EMP 301
Engineering Mathematics (4)
Final Term Exam
Jan. 2011
Zagazig University
Faculty of Engineering
Eng. Math.& Physics Dept.
Time Allowed : three hours
Full Marks: ( 100)
Answer All Questions
5M
5 M
5 M
8M
6 M
8 M
5 M
Good Wishes Professor: Salwa Amin PTO
8 M
Solution
1 a) Prove that: xn(xxn 0) = 2 ]
n
(x) stnn0
n=1,3,5,
Let t = c
0

1
t
= c
0
, then t 
1
t
= 2i sin 0 and the generating
function
c
x
2
[t
1
t
= c
x sIn0
= cos(x sin0) +i sin(x sin 0) = [
n
(x)
n=
c
n0
Since [
n
(x) = (1)
n
[
n
(x) then
[
n
(x)c
n0
= (1)
n
[
n
(x) c
n0
[
n
(x)c
n0
+ [
n
(x)c
n0
= [
n
(x)c
n0
+(1)
n
c
n0
]
= _
2 i [
n
(x) sin n0 n = 1, S,
2 [
n
(x) cos n0 n = 2, 4,
cos(x sin0) +i sin(x sin0) =
= [
0
(x) +2 [
n
(x) cos n0 +2i [
n
(x) sinn0
n=1,3,5,
n=2,4,6,
Equating imaginary parts in both sides, then we obtain
sin(x sin0) = 2 [
n
(x) sinn0
n=1,3,5,
1 (b) Show that: ]3
2
(x) = _
2
ax
[
stnxxus x
x
Put n=1/2 in [
n+1
(x) + [
n1
(x) =
2n
x
[
n
(x) , then [3
2
(x) + [

1
2
(x) =
1
x
[1
2
(x)
Since [
1
2
(x) = _
2
nx
sin x, [

1
2
(x) = _
2
nx
cos x, then
[3
2
(x) =
1
x
_
2
nx
sin x 
_
2
nx
cos x =
_
2
nx
_
sinx x cos x
x
]
5 M
5 M
1 (c) Use the generating function of Legendre polynomials to prove that:
(n +1)P
n+1
(x) = (2n +1) x P
n
(x)  nP
n1
(x)
Starting from the generating function
1
12xt+t
2
= P
n
(x)t
n
n=0
and differentiating with respect to t, we get
x t
(1 2xt +t
2
)
32
= n P
n
(x)
n=0
t
n1
===
x t
1 2xt +t
2
= (1  2xt +t
2
) n P
n
(x)
n=0
t
n1
x t
1 2xt +t
2
= (x t)P
n
(x)
n=0
t
n
= (1  2xt + t
2
) n P
n
(x)
n=u
t
n1
x P
n
(x)
n=0
t
n
 P
n
(x)
n=0
t
n+1
= n P
n
(x)
n=0
t
n1
 2nx P
n
(x)
n=0
t
n
+ n P
n
(x)
n=0
t
n+1
Equating the coefficients of t
n
on each side, we find
x P
n
(x)  P
n1
(x) = (n +1) P
n+1
(x)  2nx P
n
(x) + (n 1) P
n1
(x)
which yields the required result: (n +1)P
n+1
(x) = (2n +1) x P
n
(x) nP
n1
(x)
1 (d) Use the substitution: x = cux z to reduce the differential
equation:
d
2
y
dz
2
+
us z
stnz
dy
dz
+n(n +1) y = to Legendres equation and hence
find its general solution.
x = cos z =
dx
dz
= sin z
dy
dz
=
dy
dx
dx
dz
= sin z
dy
dx
d
2
y
dz
2
=
d
dz
[sinz
dy
dx
= jsin z
d
dz
[
dy
dx
+cos z
dy
dx
[ = jsinz
d
2
y
dx
2
dx
dz
+cos z
dy
dx
[ =
j(1 x
2
)
d
2
y
dx
2
x
dy
dx
[
where we have substituted, sin
2
z = 1 cos
2
z = 1 x
2
.
Substitution in the given equation yields the Legendre equation
j(1 x
2
)
d
2
y
dx
2
x
dy
dx
[  x
dy
dx
+n(n +1) y = u , or
(1 x
2
)
d
2
y
dx
2
2x
dy
dx
+n(n +1) y = u
The general solution of Legendre's differential equation can be written as
y(x) = CP
n
(x) +
n
(x), y(z) = CP
n
(cos z) +
n
(cos z)
5 M
5 M
2 (a) Find a general solution of:
0
2
u
0x
2

0
2
u
0x dy
+9
0
2
u
0y
2
=
Assume u = c
ux+b
. Substituting in the given equation, we find
o
2
c
ux+b
 6 ob c
ux+b
+ 9 b
2
c
ux+b
= u
o
2
6ob +9b
2
= u  (o Sb)
2
= u  o = Sb, Sb (repeated roots)
Thus, the solution is given by u = c
b(3x+)
and so u = F(Sx +y) is a
solution. By analogy with repeated roots for ordinary differential equations we
might be led to believe that x G(Sx +y)or y G(Sx +y) to be another
solution. Thus a general solution is
u = F(Sx +y)+ x G(Sx +y) or u = F(Sx +y)+ y G(Sx +y)
6 M
2 (b) Solve
0u
0t
= 4
0
2
u
0x
2
, u(, t) = 3, u(1, t) = 5, u(x, ) = 2x +4
The problem has nonhomogeneous boundary conditions u(u, t) = S, u(1, t) = S in
place of the homogeneous ones.
Let u(x, t) = :(x, t ) +(x) where (x) is to be suitably determined.
The given differential equation becomes
o(:(x, t ) +(x))
ot
= 4
o
2
(:(x, t ) +(x))
ox
2

o:
ot
= 2_
o
2
:
ox
2
+ _,
with the conditions:
_
u(u, t ) = :(u, t ) +(u) = S,
u(1, t ) = :(1, t ) +(1) = S,
u(x, u ) = :(x, u ) +(x) = 2x +4
This can be simplified by choosing:
= u, (u) = S, (1) = S
from which we find
= u 
= c
1
 = c
1
x +c
2
(u) = S = c
2
, (1) = S = c
1
+S  c
1
= 2  (x) = 2x +S
The resulting boundary value problem in :(x, t ) is given by:
t
= 4
2
x
2
,
:(u, t ) = u, :(1, t ) = u, :(x, u ) = u(x, u )
_____
2x+4
(x)
_
2x+3
= 1
Let :(x, t) = X(x) I(t). Then,
o:
ot
= 2
o
2
:
ox
2
 X I
= 2X
I
ddng b 2X1
============
I'
4I
=
X''
X
= c
==
I'
4I
=
X''
X
= z
2
I
i
= 4z
2
I  I(t) = kc
4x
2
t
X'
i
+z
2
X = u  X(x) = o cos zx +b sinzx
:(x, t) = X(x) I(t) = c
2x
2
t
(A cos zx +Bsinzx)
Since :(u, t) = u = c
2x
2
t
(A )  A = u, then :(x, t) = Bc
2x
2
t
sinzx
Since v(1, t ) = 0 = Bc
4x
2
t
sin z,  z = nn, n = 1,2,
:(x, t) = B
n
c
4(nn)
2
t
sin nnx
n=1
, By the initial condition
:(x, u) = B
n
sin nnx
n=1
= 1  B
n
=
2
1
_ sin nnx Jx =
1
0
2
nn
(1 cos nn)
:(x, t) =
2
n
1
n
(1 cos nn) c
4(nn)
2
t
sin nnx
n=1
u(x, t) =
2
n
1
n
(1 cos nn) c
4(nn)
2
t
sin nnx
n=1
+2x +S
8 M
3 (a) Find the vibrations of a circular drumhead of radius 2 if the governing
equation is
0
2
u
0t
2
= 1[
0
2
u
0r
2
+
1
r
0u
0r
, the initial velocity is 0, and the
initial displacement is f(r) = 4 r
2
.
We have: BCs: u(2, t) = u, ICs: u(r, u) = (r) = 4  r
2
, u
t
(r, u) =
u,
Let u(r, t) = R(r) T(t)
I
4
2
I
=
1
R
_R'' +
1
r
R'] = z
2
I
+4
2
z
2
I = u, r
2
R
ii
+r R
i
+z
2
r
2
R = u
I
+4
2
z
2
I = u
== I(t) = A cos 4zt +Bsin 4zt
r
2
R
ii
+r R
i
+z
2
r
2
R = u  R(r) = C [
0
(zr) +
0
(zr)
The functions [
0
and
0
are the Bessel functions of the first and second kind. But
0
becomes infinite at r=0, so D=0  R(r) = C [
0
(zr)
On the boundary r=2 we get R(2)= C [
0
(2z)=0
2z = o
1
, o
2
, o
3
,
= z
n
=
u
n
2
, n = 1, 2, S,
u(r, t) = (A
n
cos 2o
n
t +B
n
sin2o
n
t) [
0
[
o
n
2
r
n=1
Now, apply the second IC: u
t
(r, u) = u,  B
n
=
Applying the first IC: u(r, u) = (r) = 4 r
2
= A
n
[
u
[
o
n
2
r
n=1
A
n
=
2
4]
1
2
(u
n
)
] r (r)
2
0
[
0
[
u
n
2
r Jr =
2
4]
1
2
(u
n
)
] r (4  r
2
)
2
0
[
0
[
u
n
2
r Jr=
=
2
4[
1
2
(o
n
)
2
u
n
_(4  r
2
) _r [
1
[
o
n
2
r__
0
2
+2 _ r
2
2
0
[
1
[
o
n
2
r Jr _ =
=
2
4[
1
2
(o
n
)
_
2
u
n
]
2
j2 r
2
[
2
[
o
n
2
r [
0
2
=
4
o
n
2
[
1
2
(o
n
)
4[
2
(o
n
)
Since [
2
(o
n
) =
2
u
n
[
1
(o
n
) [
0
(o
n
) =
2
u
n
[
1
(o
n
)
Finally we get the solution u(r, t) =
32
u
n
3
]
1
(u
n
)
cos (2o
n
t) [
0
[
u
n
2
r
n=1
8M
3 (b) Solve u
tt
= u
xx
+ u
yy
, where
u(, y, t) = u(a, y, t) = , u(x, , t) = u(x, a, t) = , if
u(x, y, ) = . 1stn3x stn4y . 2 xn 5x xn 12y, u
t
(x, y, ) =
Let: u(x y, t) = X(x) Y (y) T(t). Substitution into PDE gives
X I
= (X'' I +X '' I)
DIvIdIng by X1
============
I
I
=
X''
X
+
''
= z
2
I
+c
2
z
2
I = u
=====I = Acos czt + Bsinczt
X
ii
X
= z
2

ii
= v
2
=====_
X'' +v
2
X = u
ii
+(z
2
v
2
) = u
Let z
2
v
2
= p
2
, or equivalently z
2
= p
2
+v
2
X'' +v
2
X = u
=====X = C cos vx + sinvx
'' +p
2
= u
===== = E cos py + 0 sinpy
u(x, y, t) = (C cos vx + sinvx)(E cos py + 0 sin py)(Acos czt +
Bsinczt
)
BCs: u = 0 on the boundary of the rectangle reads:
u(u, y, t) = u(x, u, t) = u(l, y, t) = u(x, b, t) = u
u(u, y, t) = u
=====C = u
u(x, u, t) = u
=====E = u
u(n, y, t) = u
=====sinvn = u
=====v = n, n = 1,2,S,
u(x, n, t) = u
=====0 sinpn = u
=====p = m, m = 1,2,S,
u(x, y, t) = sinnx sinmy (A
nm
cos z
mn
t + B
nm
sinz
mn
t)
m=1
n=1
,
z
mn
= n
2
+m
2
= , n = 1,2,S, , m = 1,2,S,
The initial velocity condition u
t
(x, y, u) = u  B
nm
= u
From the initial deflection condition
u(x, y, u) = u.1sin Sx sin 4y u.2 sin Sx sin 12y = A
nm
m=1
n=1
sinnx sinmy
A
nm
= u , unles foi (n = S, m = 4, anu hencez
nm
= S , A
nm
= u.1)anu
(n = S, m = 12, onJ bcnccz
nm
= 1S , A
nm
= u.2)
The required solution is:
u(x, y, t) = u.1 sinSx sin4y (cos St) u.2 sinSx sin12y (cos 1St)
8 M