Race, Class, and Gender in the Information Age: The Lack of African-American Women in the Technology Field

Lorita Denise Watson Master of Science in Management and Systems New York University Department of Management

July, 2004

Advisor:

Professor Guldem Gokcek

TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Figures………………………………………………………….. iv Table of Tables …………………………………………………………... v Abstract………………………………………………………………….….vi 1.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………. 1 2.0 Comparison of Workforce ……………………………………………. 5 2.1- Workforce Distribution in the Past …………………………………. 5 2.2- Workforce Distribution Today ………. ………………………… 10 2.3- Comparison of Past and Today ……………………………………… 26 3.0- Globalization …………………………………………………… 29 3.1- Offshore Outsourcing …………………………………… 38 3.2- Increase Your Value, or at Least Prove it …………………… 44 3.3- Government’s Role …………………………………… 45 3.3.1- America’s Investment …………………………………… 45 3.3.2- Policy & Legislation …………………………………….. 47 3.3.3- Who’s Outsourcing? ……………………………….. 50 3.3.4- H1B & L1 Visa Controversy …………………………… 51 3.3.5- Defending American Jobs- Protectionism …………… 53 3.3.6- The Comparative Advantage …………………………… 54 3.4- Impact of Globalization on the IT Workforce …………… 56 3.4.1 - Opponents ……………………………………………. 58 3.4.2 - Security Hazards ……………………………………. 60 3.4.3 - Proponents ……………………………………………. 60 3.4.4 - The Cost of Offshoring ……………………………. 62 3.5- Unchartered Territory …………………………………………… 63 4.0- Growing the IT Industry …………………………………………………….. 65 4.1- Enhancing America’s Infrastructure …………………………….. 67 4.1.1Education ………………………………………… 72 4.1.2 - Transportation …………………………………… 73 4.1.3 - Criminal Justice …………………………………… 75 4.1.3.1 Homeland Security …………………………… 78 4.1.4 Department of Defense …………………………… 80 4.1.5 Health-care …………………………………… 81 5.0- Training & Education Opportunities …………………………………… 84 5.1- Managing an IT Career …………………………… 87 5.1.1- Educational Programs ………………………… 89 5.1.2- Women Resources …………………………… 90 5.1.3- Minorities Resources ………………………… 91 5.1.4- Professional and Trade Associations……………… 92 6.0 - Entrepreneurship …………………………………………………… 97 7.0- Conclusion ……………………………………………………………. 102 7.1- Summary……………… ………………………………… 103 7.2- Originality Section……………………………………….. 108 7.3Contribution to Knowledge……………………………… 109
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(Continued TABLE OF CONTENTS) 7.4- Scope for Future Research Topic ……………………………………110 7.4.1 Limitations of the Study……………………………………..112 Endnotes ……………………………………………………………… ….114 Bibliography …………………………………………………………. 117 Appendix A Scientist & Engineers, Race/ Ethnicity………………….. 122 Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H Appendix I Appendix J Employment by IT Occupation ……………………. 124 Average Annual Wages per worker ………………….. 125 Wages by IT Occupation …………………………… 126 IT Related Occupations ……………………………. 127 IT Training ……………………………………… 130 IT Manufacturing and IT Services Industry Employment …132 African-American Career Tip Sheet ………………….. 133 Identifying and Assessing Needs ………………… 138 Career Resources ……………………………………….. 140

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TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 2-1 Figure 2-2 Figure 2-3 Figure 2-4 Figure 2-5 Educational Attainment by Sex and Race: 2002, Men …………… 11 Educational Attainment by Sex & Race: 2002, Women………………….11 Civilian Labor Force Participation Rate by Sex and Race: 2002…… …..15 Poverty Rate by Sex and Race: 2001……………………………………..18 Poverty Rate by Race: 2001 …..………….………………………………18

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TABLE OF TABLES Table 2-1, Top Ten Industries, Based on the Employment of African- American Women…….24 Table 3-2, Number of U.S. Jobs Moving Offshore ……………………………………………..41 Table 5-1, Projected Changes in Ethnic Composition ……………………………………….. 84 Table 6-1, African- American women owned business in the U.S., 2002……. ………………..98

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ABSTRACT This paper examines the historical context of the African-American Women in the United States workplace and their under-representation in the Information Technology (IT) field in particular. America can no longer afford to alienate its citizens. African-American women in particular with the right encouragement and access to opportunity can do their part to help America compete on the world stage. It further explores how a lucrative career in IT can be mutually beneficial to African-American Women and American corporations. IT expertise is increasingly required in a cross-section of industries. The questions posed are what training and education are required to enter IT. What barriers persist: real and perceived? Moreover, how does one navigate these barriers in order to become successful in the Information Technology field? It further explores Entrepreneurship as an option to advance in the Information Technology field, bypassing the traditional corporate hurdles.

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DECLARATION I grant powers of discretion to the Department, SCPS, and NYU to allow this thesis to be copied in part or in whole without further reference to me. These permission covers only copies made for study purposes or for inclusion in Department, SCPS, and NYU research publications, subject to normal conditions of acknowledgement."

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1.0

INTRODUCTION African-American Women have represented throughout their history as the highest

single, sex- race group in the workforce. They have worked due to their status as slaves from the very beginning, sharing their particular knowledge and expertise of farming and homemaking. Yet, despite their long history as a workforce it was not until the middle of the 20th Century, after the Civil Rights movement of the 1960’s did they start moving out of the traditional labor intensive jobs relegated to them. They moved into more clerical and retail professions; taking advantage of the new policies and educational opportunities presented to them. Today, the African-American women only earns .69/ 1.00 while their white female counterparts earns .80 / 1.00 i compared to the white male; proving that race is still a prevailing factor in the American psyche. African- majors per year. America persists with a pro-corporate policy; migrating

foreign workers into the U.S., while exporting jobs. Most statistics focus on the AfricanAmerican population or the white female population very, few speak to the unique issues of the African-American women. Only one spoke to the issue of African-American women in the workplace and that was Catalyst that reported the “concrete ceiling,” - gender bias and racial discrimination emblematic to the African-American women in the workplace. Race is the

overriding variable in determining policy when converging with gender in the workplace. While white women earn .80/ 1.00 to the while male, African-American women earn only .66/ 1.00. Despite their level of education, African-American women earn less at all three-degree levels. Regardless, educational attainment is vital in order for African-American women to make progress in the workplace, especially in the challenging field of technology.

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A lucrative technology career can provide African-American families with the financial security they need. Technology professionals earn 20% more than non- tech majors do.ii There are many social ills in the black community that can be resolved by better workplace opportunities. African-American women have probably, more than any other group, relied on America’s social contract to improve their lot in life. Black women have advanced with the help of government training programs, anti-discrimination laws, and higher educational opportunities. The Information Age is not only changing business practices but also the way most industries operate. There are many areas of growth possible in need of technology skills/ knowledge as well as industry expertise. There is a lack of African-American female role models in technology. African-American women can use various professional, educational, inhouse programs to acquire or enhance their technology knowledge/ skills. Online resources such as networking, professional associations provide a unique opportunity to gain knowledge that might not otherwise exist for African-American women. To overcome any feelings of alienation as well as isolation in a predominantly white male industry, they should recruit AfricanAmerican women from with in their respective industries to increase the number of AfricanAmerican females in technology. The lucrative IT industry, despite its characteristically upper-class white male dominated population can still provide many opportunities for the African-American women. There exists many opportunities for the African-American women such that I. T. a cross-section of industries rely on IT's enabling technology. The African-American woman can find ways to navigate career success within the Information Technology industry. The African-American woman has the distinction of having to deal with both racist and gender bias. While those schisms are emblematic to African-American women, these schisms should not stop African-American
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women from working towards greater opportunities, even if it calls for moving and operating outside of traditional, mainstream channels. One needs to research and identify the criteria for entry, as well as those barriers particular to African-American women. The African-American women can increase her chances of being successful by acquiring those it skills in demand, influencing workplace, education, and training policy, and networking. The IT industry offers an array of resources such as

professional and trade associations, whereby one can increase their professional development. America’s educational system has fallen short of its goal and expectations for minorities overall. Fifty years after the 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education of Kansas’s decision, schools are still largely segregated. The Court ruled that Segregation of white and Negro children in the public schools of a State solely on the basis of race, pursuant to state laws permitting or requiring such segregation, denies to Negro children the equal protection of the laws. Laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment—although the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors of white and Negro schools may be equal. (a) The history of the Fourteenth Amendment is inconclusive as to its intended effect on public education. (b) The question presented in these cases must be determined not on the basis of conditions existing when the Fourteenth Amendment was adopted, but in the light of the full development of public education, and its present place in American life throughout the Nation. (c) Where a State has undertaken to provide an opportunity for an education in its public schools, such an opportunity is a right, which must be made available to all on equal terms.

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(d) Segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race deprives children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities, even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors may be equal. (e) The "separate but equal" doctrine adopted in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537, has no place in the field of public education. (f) The cases are restored to the docket for further argument on specified questions relating to the forms of the decrees. iii Today, countries like China and India with populations of 2 billion are investing largely in their human capital, turning out high numbers of Engineering / Technology majors per year.
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America is at a disadvantage with a population of only 300 million. If America’s gender and race psychosis continues, it risks losing its comparative advantage in the IT industry. The talent pool shortage in math and science will continue if America continues to support and encourage only a privileged few.v While these skills are not the only skill sets that qualify one for an IT career, the candidate must have sound analytical and quantitative background, or capacity to learn. America psychosis with race and gender may cause IT to lose its comparative advantage in the technology field. African- American women are use to the drudgery of work; they could at least be well for it.

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2.0- Comparison of Workforce 2.1- Workforce Distribution in the Past African-Americans, men, and women, have the distinct history of having arrived in North America as enslaved laborers. Slavery, the labor system that built the South and spurred

industrialization in the North, illustrates the African-American women’s “employment” in manual labor, but also the importance of unpaid labor to regional and national economic growth. Enslaved women regularly engaged in heavy field labor, as well as performing most of the domestic labor of cooking, cleaning and raising children. African-American women have

participated in the labor force at rates higher than that of any other group of American women. Even after, the emancipation of slavery when African-American s became an official part of the labor force, well into the 19th and 20th century, as a means of basic survival. It was not until World War II did African- American women begin to make progress into industry, such success was due to the Civil Rights movement. Later in the late twentieth century, they were able to progress further into professional occupations other than teaching. Black women have always had a significant presence in the workforce. In the late 1970s, 60 percent of all black women living in households together with their husbands had jobs, compared to 48 percent of similarly situated white wives. As part of the competitive workforce, at all education levels, black women’s unemployment rates were higher than those for white women, among high school graduates 12 were v. 5 percent. About 30 percent of black women worked in either private or institutional service; the figure for white women was 18 percent. Moreover, black women worked after marriage and the birth of their first child in greater proportions than white mothers did. women make-up.
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Working has always been part of the African-American

From the late nineteenth century onward, U.S.-born white women enjoyed steadily expanding access to nonagricultural and non-industrial occupations. They increasingly found jobs as office clerks, secretaries, retailing. White, middle-class women in the late nineteenth century benefited from expanded educational opportunities. They entered the professions in growing numbers, initially as teachers, librarians, social workers, and nurses. While later in a variety of career paths such as, fire fighting and police work to the law, medicine, the ministry, higher education, and the corporate world. African-Americans advanced out of the Great Depression by the strong World War II economy. In the post- World War II era, married women and African- American women (who had taken advantage of wartime mobilization to gain footholds in higher paying jobs) fought efforts to return them to prewar status. In the late twentieth century, white women fought for better jobs and better working conditions through the Civil Rights movement and the secondwave of feminism. The Civil Rights Movement’s success during the 1960s resulted in larger Black middleclass. Black women taking advantage of the new opportunities pursued professions in significant numbers. The mid- 1960’s federal legislation has enabled black-working women to finally to gain entrance into the traditional (white) female occupations, such as clerical occupations- jobs that offered better pay and work conditions. Given the opportunity to

compete, African-American women progressed towards those opportunities that were less labor intensive and offered better compensation. The Women Liberation Movement, which followed the Civil Rights movement, sought to free white women from their traditional roles. Two laws passed during the 1960’s that have changed African-American women lives drastically, shaping their lives for generations to come.
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In 1964, Civil Rights Act banned discrimination and Title VII outlawed discrimination in hiring based on “race, color, religion, sex or national origin.” The act further established a compliance body, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), to ensure that the laws were enforced, properly. These laws have had remarkable consequences, between 1965 and 1978 the percentage of black women in the white-collar jobs nearly doubled, and the percentage in service occupation, including private household, jobs declined by nearly 40 percent. In fact, in the beginning of the 1960’s about 34 percent of all black employed women were private household workers.
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By 1970, three-fifths of the black women who were household workers were over 45 years of age; young black women found employment in other occupations. 7.5 percent of employed black women were professional and technical workers in 1960 compared with 11 percent in 1970.
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The new generation of black women greater opportunities were due to

increase access to education and anti-discrimination laws. These changes in policy led to a dramatic shift from domestic to clerical work for the younger generation of black women. The 1970s labor force saw an increase retirement by the older white women; who African-American women replaced. Black women made dramatic gains in college enrollments during the 1960s and 1970s, improving their overall education rate. Educational attainment has been instrumental to the black women’s gains in the workforce. The average number of years of schooling for black women in the labor force increased from 8.1 in 1952 to 12.4 in 1975 compared with 12.1 and 12.6 years in 1952 and 1975 for white women workers. However since mid- 1952 the average number of years of school completed by black women who worked as clerical and salesperson has ranged from 12.5 to 12.7. The educational attainment of this group was almost the same as for white women. Yet, the massive
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shift of black women workers into this occupation, from 9 percent of all black women workers in 1960 to slightly less than 20 percent in 1970 did not occur until the later part of the 1960s.ix Along with the increase in educational opportunities, there has been a large rise in government employment and training programs. Manpower Development and Training Act (MDTA) of 1962, and the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 supported a variety of skill training, job development, work experience, and employability development programs. State and local government agencies under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) have administered these programs since 1973. Black women were the major beneficiaries of many of these employment and training programs. Because of their high participation rates in these programs, African-American women experienced higher average annual earnings in the immediate post-program period than just before their participation. Their differentials on

earnings, wages, and employment became smaller. Due to this success, the federal government was compelled to improve the potential productivity of “disadvantaged” individuals; such as, black women and other minorities and has consequently spent large amounts of money. Between 1960 and 1970 the percent of black women in the clerical and sales sector increased from 3 percent to 11 percent in the South and from 17 percent to 33 percent in the North. Thus with help from the federal government training programs, anti-discrimination laws, and higher educational opportunities black women of the late 1960s into the 1970s begin to increase in the workforce. With this significant reduction in the educational gap and training skills, it also accounted for some of the relative income gain. Yet, "despite their educational attainment, the upgrading of their occupation status, and the significant shift from part-time to full-time work, the earnings of black women workers are the lowest of all workers in the labor market.” Over a period of 37 years, 1939-1976, the salary income of black women who worked year-round, full15

time increased from 38 percent of the income for white women year-round, full-time workers to approximately 94 percent.x African-American women had aggressively progressed in the workforce. Their job

growth during the 1960s and 1970s grew exponentially in non-traditional areas such as department stores, mail-order houses, government offices, banking and insurance, utilities, and hospitals. However, this increase in job opportunities primarily grew close to the ghettos where most black women were living. Therefore, the place of residence affected the ability of young women’s opportunities to get a job. For example, the Bell System became a major employer of black women in the 1960s and 1970s because many of its offices were located in downtown areas. Besides location being a variable on what kind of job a black woman acquired, their looks affected her chances of getting a job for which she was other wise qualified. In the Journal, Race, and Technology: African-American Women in the Bell System, 1945-1980, Green analyzes how technological displacement affected African-American women’s employment possibilities in the post-World War II telephone industry. She discusses the hypothesis that race becomes the overriding variable in determining policy when it converges with gender in the workplace. During the mid-1960s, the Bell System replaced cord switchboard with Traffic Service Position Systems (TSP), computerized equipment. This change reduced the need for switchboard

operators, who were mostly white women. The System hired African-American women at lower wages to work as deskilled adjuncts to TSP after white laborers refused to work for lower wages. White women also refused to work beside their black counterparts. xi

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2.2- Workforce Distribution Throughout the twentieth century racial, ethnic, and class division continued to impede efforts at labor equity. Although women had made occupational gains as the century ended (20th), they continued in many cases to earn less than comparably educated and experienced men. Even economically successful professional and managerial women often found their

progress impeded by the nebulous pattern of biases sometimes called “the glass ceiling.” Moreover, as late as 1997, 51 percent of black women worked full time, compared to 42 percent of white women and 35 percent of Hispanic women. More Black women than Black men aged 25 and over have earned at least a bachelor’s degree. Of the 20.4 million Blacks and 133.4 million non-Hispanic whites 25 and older, a lower percentage of Blacks had earned at least a high school diploma (79 percent and 89 percent, respectively). The proportion of all non-Hispanic Whites with at least a bachelor’s degree (29 percent) was higher than that of all Blacks (17 percent). More Black women than Black men had earned at least a bachelor’s degree (18 percent compared with 16 Percent, see Figure 2-1, 2-2), while among non-Hispanic whites, a higher Proportion of men than women had earned at least a bachelor’s degree (32 percent and 27 percent, respectively).

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Educational Attainment by Sex and Race: 2002
Men
21.5 34.8 31.5 27.3 25.2 16.4 Figure 2-1 31.7

Less Than High School H.S. grad Some College or Associate degree Bachelor or More

11.5

Women
21.1 33.3 34.3 28.2 27.3 17.5 Figure 2-2 27.3 Black White

Less Than High School H.S. grad Some College or Associate degree Bachelor or More

11.1

Source: From U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Demographic Supplement to the March 2002, Current Population Survey.

The National Urban League Institute for Opportunity and Equality conducts research; policy analysis and advocacy focused on issues of critical importance to the African-American
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community and the nation as a whole. The Urban League is the nation’s oldest and largest community-based movement empowering African-American to enter the economic and social mainstream. As the economy turned around, a downturn, there resulted a rise in AfricanAmerican unemployment, double that of the national rate. The economic downturn while harsh for the entire nation has been devastating for African-Americans. For all 2000, the AfricanAmerican unemployment rate stayed below 8.0 percent. It has not been consistently in double figures since 1997. Yet, in 2002, after reaching double digits in March, it has stayed above 9.8 percent. A study released in March, 2003 by the newly created Women of Color policy Network at NYU’s Wagner Graduate School of Public Service has found that the city’s until recently booming economy largely excluded black and Hispanic females. The report, “Women of Color in New York City: The Challenges of the New Global Economy, “studied economic, health and criminal justice statistics for women of color in the city. It focused on data from 1992 to 1997, but also included figures from 1999. The report shows that black and Hispanic women face lower employment rates, greater numbers below the poverty line, reduced access to health care, and accelerated arrest and imprisonment rates in the 1990s. In fact, the report developed by NYU Professor Walter Stafford and members of the Roundtable of Institution of Color found stark racial difference in the unemployment and poverty figures. The arrest and imprisonment rates are of particular concern such that "Prison growth appears to have negative consequences on labor markets in the advanced Western democracies," says John Sutton, a professor of sociology at University of California, Santa Barbara, UCSB. "It is raising rates of unemployment and lowering male labor force participation.” People who spend time in prison have reduced chances for participation in the labor market for the rest of
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their lives, the study says. Additionally, family stability and educational attainment were, also, negatively affected. Groups most affected in each case were racial and ethnic minorities and immigrants.
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In the late 1990s as the economy was expanding, blacks in New York were twice as likely to be in poverty as whites. Black and Hispanic women were twice as likely as white women to be unemployed. The report found that in 1997 the poverty rate for blacks was twice the rate for whites. Among female-headed households with children under 18, poverty rates were even greater, 58% for black female-led families. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics the 1996 unemployment rates for black women was 15.1% the highest since Bureau of Labor Statistics began collecting data in New York City in the late 1970’s. Blacks participate in the labor force at lower rates than non-Hispanic whites. Among the 216.8 million members of the civilian population aged 16 and over in 2002, 25.4 million (12 percent) were Black and 155.1 million (72 percent) were non- Hispanic White. Non-Hispanic White men had a higher civilian labor force participation rate than black men (73 percent compared with 68 percent), and for both groups, men had higher rates than women did.
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However the rate for Black women (62 percent) was higher than that for non-Hispanic white women (60 percent, see Figure 2-3).

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Similar proportions of Black and non-Hispanic White men worked in technical, sales, and

7 3 .6 8 . 1 4

5 9 .6 2 . 3 9 W h it e 5 .7 1 1 .9 B la c k 4 .4 9 .9

M en

Wom en

M en

W om en

F ig u r e 2 - 3
administrative support jobs (about 20 percent). However, Black men were more than twice as likely as non-Hispanic White men to work in service occupations were (19 percent and 8 percent, respectively). They were nearly twice as likely (28 percent compared with 16 percent) to be operators, fabricators, and laborers.

In March 2002, the unemployment rate for Blacks was twice that for non-Hispanic whites (11 percent and 5 percent, respectively). This finding was consistent for both men and women (10 percent compared with 4 percent). National Urban League Institute for Opportunity and Equality recently stated that the bureau of labor statistics figures showed black unemployment continued to rise. They then called for a revised stimulus plan to grow jobs and to protect families hurt most by recession. Figures, released by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, show that while the nation’s unemployment rate remained fixed at 6.0 percent in December 2003; blacks rose to twice the rate of the rest of the nations’.

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What was perhaps most disturbing are the continued disparities in the labor market for highly educated African-Americans. In separate table, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reports year over year changes in unemployment by race and educational attainment for workers over age 25. From December 2001 to December 2002, the unemployment rates for African-American College graduates jumped from 2.7 to 4.0 percent, and for African-American with some college, the rate jumped from 6.2 to 9.0 percent. By comparison, white college graduates had their unemployment hold steady over the year and for those with some college rising slightly from 3.8 to 4.3 percent. Further while the unemployment rate for African –American college graduates stands at 4.0 percent, the overall unemployment rate for all whites over age 25, regardless of educational level, stands at 4.1 percent.
Civilian Labor Force Participation Rate and Unemployment Rate by Sex and Race: 2002 Percent in civilian labor force of population 16 years and over Percent unemployed of civilian labor force

White

59. 62.3 68.1 73.4

Source: From U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Demographic Supplement to the March 2002, Current Population Survey.

Black

Unemployment is higher among Blacks than non-Hispanic whites. In March 2002, the unemployment rate for Blacks was twice that for non-Hispanic Whites (11 percent and 5 percent, respectively). This finding was consistent for both men (12 percent compared with 6 percent) and women (10 percent compared with 4 percent).

4. 5.7 9. 1.9

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Figure2-3

MenWom

Non- Hispanic White women were more likely than Black women to be in managerial and professional specialty jobs (37 percent compared with 26 percent), as well as in technical, sales and administrative support jobs (40 percent and 36 percent, respectively). Conversely, Black women were more likely than non-Hispanic White women to work in service occupations (27 percent compared with 15 percent), such as operators, fabricators, and laborers (9 percent compared with 5 percent) were. For managerial workers, we may see more flexibility (because their jobs are more independent and difficult to supervise) and greater pay, which would offset the compensating differentials.
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There is also a pronounced racial difference in work

schedule flexibility: black workers are much less likely than white workers to be able to exercise any discretion over their work schedules. White men have the most job flexibility. Black women had more control over these decisions than black men did; but blacks generally had much less scheduling flexibility than whites. The racial differences were actually larger than the gender differences.
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Black workers have

more rigid work schedules than white workers of the same sex. Black men have more rigid schedules than black women do, but the difference between white women and white men are statistically insignificant. Heymann found that women were less likely than men in 1995-96 to be able to decide when to take there breaks, change starting and quitting times, and take days off for sick children. Nearly three- fourths of mothers with children under 18 now work for pay. Single mothers handle all the responsibility for work and family on their own and have particularly rigid schedules. Once the nearly exclusive problem of low-income women and women of color, has now spread to the great majority of mothers, and
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some fathers as well. The majority of workers have no workplace authority, union protection, and little luck of obtaining compensation from their employers for unsafe, dirty, or stressful work conditions. These problems are particularly acute for women and people of color. Blacks accounted for about one quarter of the population in poverty in 2001. An estimated 32.9 million people lived below the poverty level in 2001, including 8.1 million Blacks and 15.3 million non-Hispanic Whites. The poverty rate, which was 12 percent for the total population, was 23 percent Blacks and 8 percent for nonHispanic Whites. About 10 percent of all men were below the official poverty line in 2001, but the rate for Black men (20 percent) was nearly three times that for nonHispanic White men (7 percent). In 2001, 13 percent of all women were poor. The Poverty rate for Black women (25 percent) was more than twice that for non-Hispanic White women (9 percent). Families maintained by women with no spouse present have higher poverty rates overall. In 2001, 6.8 million families in the United States had incomes below the poverty level. Of these families, 1.8 million were Black and 3.1 million were white. However, a greater percentage of Black families than of white families were poor; 21 percent compared with 6 percent (Figures 2-4, 2-5).

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Poverty Rate by Race: 2001
22.7

White Total

Black

11.7 7.8

Figure 2-5

Source: From U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Demographic Supplement to the March 2002 Current Population Survey. (Figure 2-4, 2-5)
The Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering and Technology Development, 1998, reports that today only 7% of science, engineering and technology jobs are filled by minorities. BEST (Building Engineering and Science Talent) was launched, in September 2001 as a public-private partnership, to follow through on the September 2000 recommendations of the Congressional Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering and Technology Development. The Commission published a report, “Land of

Plenty: Diversity as America’s Competitive Edge in Science, Engineering, and Technology,” which served as a national call to action to redress the demographic imbalance of the U.S. technical workforce.

Currently, women, African-American s, Hispanics, Native Americans, and persons with disabilities comprise two-thirds of the overall workforce but hold only about one-quarter of the technical jobs that drive innovation. This imbalance threatens the economic future of all Americans.

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The issue is detailed further in BEST’s recently published position paper,” The Quiet Crisis: Falling Short in Producing American Scientific and Technical Talent.” Two findings of interest were:

The educational attainment of scientists and engineers differs

among racial/ethnic groups. Black scientists and engineers have, on average, lower levels of educational attainment than scientists do and engineers of other racial/ethnic groups. Black scientists and engineers, are more likely than white, Hispanic, or Asian scientists and engineers to have a bachelor’s as the terminal degree: 66 percent of black scientists and engineers in the U.S. labor force have a bachelor’s as the highest degree compared to 58 percent of all scientists and engineers in 1995. ( See Appendix A)

Black, Asian, and American Indian scientists and engineers are

concentrated in different fields than white and Hispanic scientists and engineers. Asians are represented less in social sciences than they are in other fields. They are 4 percent of social scientists but 10 percent of engineers and computer scientists. A higher proportion of black scientists and engineers are social, computer, and mathematical sciences than they are in other fields. They are 5 percent of social scientists, 4 percent of computer and mathematical scientists, and roughly 3 percent of physical scientists, life scientists, and engineers. Although the numbers are small, American Indians appear to be concentrated in the social sciences. They are 0.5 percent of social scientists and 0.3 percent or less of other fields. Hispanics were represented more proportionately among other fields.
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They are roughly 2.5 to 3 percent of scientists and engineers in each field.
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One organization working to increase the participation of African-American women in technology is The Digital Sistas Network. Their report, Hanging On in the New Economy- Technology Can Make the Difference, by Carole I. Smith, states African-American women: • • • have over $400 billion in buying power, started over 405,200 businesses generating over $25 billion in sales Employs over 262, 000 people.

In the last decade, the buying power of Black America increased by 15%, and recent studies show that the African-American middle class is spending an increasing amount of their income for online services. Today, there are over 8 million AfricanAmerican women online, 60% of the African-American population is online. America’s economic prosperity has given African-American women the opportunity to work in a number of different areas. They have entered the corporate ranks and non-traditional industries like technology, as well as have become entrepreneurs. The years between 1997- 2000, the number of African-American women owned businesses increased by 50%. Yet, still today while white women earn 80 cents per dollar that of white men, black women earn 69 cents per dollar. Alan Greenspan, chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank, in July 2000, said that the U.S. needed to prepare its workers for jobs in the high-tech industry. “Every citizen must count for opportunities and must be counted for our nation’s well-being,” Greenspan said, speaking to a gathering of U.S. governors.” How well we prepare
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our resources in this area will show in how well-prepared we are as a country.”

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According to a range of numbers, the American workforce is not being well prepared for high-tech jobs. Mr. Greenspan has based his assertions on reports from the Meta Group, a consultancy in Westport, Connecticut, and statistics from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Meta Group reported that 2002 and 1 million by 2003 required 800,000 jobs. The Bureau or Labor Statistics reported that the technology field would create more than 5 million jobs by 2008. The Bureau of Labor Statistics has reported that the gender gap in technology salaries is smaller than that in the overall economy. Women make about 72 percent of what their male counterparts make, according to the data while the “ the average (technology) salary is about $68,000 per year which is 60 percent more than the average household’s income in the United States. xviii While each gender and racial cross group reported earnings premiums for additional education, black women enjoyed the largest increases in wages with more schooling. During 1998, black women with a high school education earned $356 per week, compared with $605 (a 70 percent premium) for black women with a bachelor’s degree and $788 (a 121 percent premium) for black women with an advanced degree.
xix

Despite the larger premiums to education among black women, however, their earnings were still lower than the average for all workers at all three-degree levels. These earnings data, based on 1998 annual averages, are from the Current Population Survey. Further information is available in news release USDL 99-15, "Usual

Weekly Earnings of Wage and Salary Workers Fourth Quarter 1998."
28

Black-owned business firms were up 46 percent over five years, 1987 to 1992, 424,165 to 620,912 as reported in “1992 Black-Owned businesses- Commerce Department’s Census Bureau Report. The District of Columbia had the largest

percentage of African-American -owned firms, followed by Maryland and Mississippi. In 1992, 54 percent of Black-owned firms were in industries that

provide services to individuals, businesses, and others. These firms accounted for 34 percent of all Black-owned business receipts. More recent, 1997 Economic Census data shows, Blacks owned 823,499 of all U.S. non-farm businesses in 1997, employing 718,341 persons and generating $71.2 billion in business revenues. In 1997, Black-owned firms accounted for 4.0 percent of the 20.8 million non-farm businesses in the United States, 0.7 percent of their employment and 0.4 percent of their receipts. Black-owned firms accounted for 4.0 percent of the non-farm businesses in the United States and 0.9 percent of their receipts. Fifty-three percent of all Black-owned firms operated in the service industries, accounting for 36.4 percent of receipts of all Black-owned businesses. This is 4.9 percent of all service businesses in the country. Forty-eight percent of the total number of Black-owned service firms were concentrated in business and personal services. The next largest concentration of Black-owned firms was in the retail trade industry, accounting for 10.6 percent of all Black-owned firms and 19.4 percent of the total receipts.xx Women of color now comprise 14.5 percent of the American workforce, according to a new study from the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
29

(EEOC). The employment of African-American s grew during this period (19902001). “Women of color have made noteworthy gains, both in terms of workplace status, “said Commission Chair Cari M. Dominguez in an EEOC press release stated “still there are some stubborn patterns” needing our attention. Too many women of color are concentrated in certain industries and appear to have plateaued in lower categories. We are also mindful that women of color tend to file more charges of discrimination against a handful of industries.” Of all women of color, African-Americans continue to represent the highest employment at 7.6 percent of the total work force. However, during this period, they have made the smallest gains in total employment and managerial positions. They are over represented in the Nursing and Residential Care Facilities industry, 23.4 %, who employ the largest percentage of women overall (82.5%).
xxi

Table 2-1 lists the 10

industries where African-American women have the highest percentage of employment.

Table 2-1 Top Ten Industries Based on the Employment of African-American Women
INDUSTRY AFRICANAMERICAN WOMEN Nursing & Residential Care Facilities Social Assistance Monetary Authorities - Central Bank Religious/Grantmaki 277,413 49,663 3,842 34,465 EMPLOYMENT AFRICANAMERICAN WOMEN PERCENT 23.39 17.62 15.34 13.69 REPORTS FILLED

TOTAL

1,185,908 281,903 25,041 251,737

7,747 1,839 70 1,462 30

ng/Prof/Like Organizations Ambulatory Health Care Services Transit & Ground Passenger Transportation Textile Mills Apparel Manufacturing Credit Intermediation & Related Activities Broadcasting & Telecommunications

121,779 19,432 28,954 22,906 156,906 155,564

13.39 12.68 12.64 12.25 11.69 11.36

909,656 153,211 229,003 186,951 1,341,891 1,368,854

4,507 861 902 796 6,094 6,585

Source: From EEO-1 Reports for 2001

Minority women are 19 percent of all women in labor force and 4.2 percent of all scientists and engineers in the labor force. Black women are 1.3 percent of scientists and engineers in the labor force. Within every racial / ethnic group women are smaller proportions of the science and engineering labor force than men are. Median annual salaries of minority women are similar those of both white women and minority men, for black women $42,000, for white women $ 38,800. Median salaries for men engineers in the same group ranged from $38,000 to 40,000. Field choices of minority women are more similar to those of white women than they are to those of minority men. Higher proportions of women than men within each racial/ethnic group are in computer or mathematical sciences, life sciences and social sciences and lower proportions are in engineering. Black women scientists and engineers are more likely than women from other racial/ethnic groups to be in the labor force and to be employed full time in a field related to their degree. Seventy-one percent of black women scientists and engineers compared with 61 percent of white women, more white women (15 percent) than black women are
31

employed part time.

The unemployment rate for white women scientists and

engineers is much lower than in the case for other racial/ethnic groups: particularly, for black women which is 2.7%. In Academics, minority women are less likely, than white women, and less likely than men of any racial/ethnic group to be full professors or to have tenure. The numbers are 36 percent of black women compared to 38 percent of white women, and 62 percent of white men. Minority women scientists and engineers in business or industry have, for the most part, similar work activities as white women and minority men. Women, regardless of racial/ethnic group, are more likely than men to work in computer applications and are less likely than men to work in research and development.
xxii

2.3- Comparison of Past and Today Historically, African-American women were excluded, not only from traditional white women’s work, but also from the better paying manufacturing and professional jobs. But, the social and political trends of the 20th century provided for more educational opportunities and anti-discrimination legislation which accounts for the gains African-American women have made. Black women have attended college in greater numbers, than their white counterparts, although; they are underrepresented. Despite their late entree, today’s black women are across a wide

spectrum of careers.

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As the economy has globalized and shifted from the production and distribution of goods to the generation and dissemination of knowledge, higher education has become critical to socioeconomic success. Today, consequently, many African-American women are lawyers, doctors, factory laborers, data processing operators, and hospital workers. Yet, despite this new diversity all black women still face persistent forms of racial and sexual discrimination. Black women have to work harder and longer to get the same rewards as white women do, and even more to obtain that of white men. Catalyst, the leading research and advisory organization working to advance women in business, released a report in February 2004, Advancing African-American Women in the Workplace: What Managers Need to Know. This report reveals that many African-American women in corporate America continue to face the “concrete ceiling” as they work toward career advancement. African-American women experience a “double outsider” syndrome; their gender and race come into question, race usually being the overwhelming consideration. African-American women report exclusion from informal networks and “conflicted “relationships with white women, among the challenges they face. With the help from past federal government, training programs, anti-discrimination laws, and higher educational opportunities, black women have made significant gains. Yet, it becomes apparent that other strategies become necessary for success- such as continued sociopolitical considerations, realizing that education alone will not, in the end significantly affect the social class structure. The Bureau of Labor Statistics study also reports that young black women are under-represented in high-wage fields. While overall women are concentrated in traditional
33

occupations such as; kindergarten and preschool teachers, 85% of librarians, and 84% of legal assistants in 2000.

Further changes in technology, production methods, and business practices such as globalization in the technology industry have eliminated many jobs. While some industries may be growing rapidly overall, opportunities for workers in occupations that affect technological change could be stagnant or even declining. These changes have made African-American women more prone to unemployment or underemployment- without the proper sociopolitical considerations in order to prevail over socioeconomic forces African-American women are particularly vulnerable to socioeconomic forces. Today, African-American women opportunities are broader and

expectations are higher. In order to maintain their foothold African-American women need policy analyzed and corrected to ensure their prosperity. Coupled with traditional sociopolitical concerns and globalization African-American women have considerable challenges ahead. 3.0 GLOBALIZATION

Globalization is an important issue for the African-American community, especially the African-American women. The African-American women did not benefit from the economic, Information Technology, boom, of the 1990’s. There are serious consequences concerning finding jobs in their communities. The 1980’s, when many manufacturing jobs went over seas, demonstrate the devastation that can happen in communities. Many midwestern towns were, left, desolated. Pro-corporate policies threaten to pit laborer against laborer across the world and to lower the protections that laborers have gained. It is extremely important for African-American women to concern themselves with labor policies domestically, as well as internationally. No, group better exemplifies marginalizationsocially, politically, or economically, on the bottom of the social stratification scale, in the
34

American society. Many live in isolated overcrowded, underserved communities, with high crime and low employment rates. However, for all that African-American women do not have, its best to look out side of themselves to see what roles they can play to better labor policy. Clarence Lusane in the Howard Law Journal, Persisting Disparities: Globalization and the Economic Status of African-Americans, wrote that during the economic boom of the 1960s and 1970s, scholar Sidney Wilhelm argued that African-Americans were being made obsolete as workers by new technologies and automation. He wrote with the onset of automation, the Negro moves out of his historical state of oppression into one of uselessness. Increasingly, he is not so much economically exploited as he is irrelevant. The tremendous historical change is taking place in these terms: he is not needed ... white America, by a more perfect application of mechanization and a vigorous reliance upon automation, disposes of the Negro; consequently, the Negro transforms from an exploited labor force into an outcast. With profound insight, Wilhelm notes that an underestimation of the technological revolution can only lead to an underestimation of the concomitant racial revolution from exploitation to uselessness; to misjudge the present as but a continuation of industrialization rather than the dawn of a new technological era, assures an inability to anticipate the vastly different system of race relations awaiting the displaced Negro. What Wilhelm correctly anticipated was the impact of globalized production on the employment and economic life of the black community. De-industrialization is one aspect of a global economic restructuring that has resulted from new productive, information, communication, and computer technologies. In the 1970s and 1980s, while all U.S. manufacturing workers have been affected by factories moving from the United States to
35

other nations, black workers have been especially hard hit in cities such as St. Louis, Detroit, Chicago, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. In these cities, African-Americans comprise a significant percentage of the population. In Philadelphia, 64 percent of the manufacturing jobs were lost, resulting in the elimination of 160,000 jobs. In Chicago, the figure was 60 percent (326,000 jobs), in New York, 58 percent (520,000 jobs), and in Detroit, 51 percent (108,000 jobs). African-Americans are also situated in regions of the nation that have suffered the most from deindustrialization. According to economist Lester Henry, "Plant closings in the 1970s ... were heaviest in the Northeast and in the old South, the two areas of the country where African-American s are most populous." For those, African-Americans who have less than a college education, the loss of manufacturing jobs seriously undermines their opportunities for employment. Researchers John bound and Richard Freeman contend that "up to half of the huge employment declines for less-educated blacks might be explained by industrial shifts away from manufacturing toward other sectors." In recent years, there has been a shift toward reindustrialization in the United States. This development, however, is not necessarily good news for African-American s. A number of scholars have speculated that racial discrimination plays a role in the decisions regarding where new plants (and new jobs) are placed by foreign investors. While evidence is scarce, some believe that new plants are deliberately placed outside of the accessibility range of inner-city residents who are disproportionately African-American in many areas. Political scientist Robert Smith, for instance, points to "[a] study of the location decisions of Japanese firms in the United States and of American auto companies found a fairly consistent pattern of locations in rural and suburban areas about thirty miles from the nearest concentration of
36

blacks, a distance thought to be about the limits of worker commuter time.” Similarly, economist Lester Henry notes, "The pattern of firms, both foreign and domestic, when choosing sites for opening new plants, has been away from predominantly nonwhite areas. The Japanese and other German firms have also shown a similar preference for plant location in suburban and sunbelt areas where few nonwhites reside.” Even if premeditation is not present, the consequences of these site decisions exacerbate the job search crisis growing among the urban black poor. As the General Accounting Office (GAO) noted, however, it was not only in manufacturing that black job loss was disproportionate. In a study on the impact of the changing economy and the recession of the early 1990s on minorities, the GAO noted, "blacks were the only racial group to suffer a net job loss during the 1990-91 economic downturn.” The study covered a wide range of firms and many different levels of occupations from blue-collar to white-collar. In the public sector, black job cuts have also been disproportionate. According to the San Jose Mercury, when the federal government downsized in 1992, blacks were fired at more than twice the rate of whites. The Mercury stated, "blacks who were 17 percent of the executive branch workforce in 1992 were 39 percent of those dismissed. Whites made up 72 percent of the workforce and only 48 percent of those fired.” The newspaper went on to say, It is not that [blacks] have less education, experience, and seniority. The difference has nothing to do with job performance.... Blacks are fired more often because of their skin color.... Rank did not help. Black senior managers were out the door as often as black clerks. It gets worse. The deck is stacked against fired minority workers with legitimate grounds for reinstatement, the study shows. They win only one in every 100 appeals.
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In addition, a GAO study found that African-American’s more than whites or Latinos "experience the longest spells of unemployment among displaced workers who eventually found jobs and showed the largest loss in wages in their new jobs." These general trends have been compounded by recent regional and international trade agreements. While these pacts are not racial in character or construction, they have a racial dimension should not be ignored. NAFTA, GATT, and the proposed MAI have had significant impact on the U.S. economy, and by extrapolation, on the African-American community. Globalization is neither inherently bad nor good. It is a process of development that involves many actors attempting to meet their own interests and objectives in an environment that links local, national, and international concerns. The critical questions confronting all of these constituencies are how will this process be managed and in whose interest will it speak? In this context, African-Americans must raise their voices and participate in the discourses that are shaping global policy, politics, and economics. While race does not necessarily govern, in all instances, the unfolding of globalization, its presence must not be either ignored or silently sanctioned. Labor organizations, environmental groups, and others have called for a revocation and rewriting of NAFTA. Although this is unlikely to occur, future trade pacts must be more democratic in their creation and more sensitive to the issues raised by these groups and other communities who desire "fair" trade and not just free trade policies. Along these lines, African-American activists and intellectuals must engage themselves in the policy construction process regarding foreign economic policy. At a minimum, future trade pacts should include:
38

• •

Provisions for monitoring and correcting racial and gender concerns Provisions for affirmative action and, where appropriate, minority setMechanisms for enforcement of the above

asides •

It is in the interest of the Black community to become familiar with the strategies and tactics of lobbying in this arena. As globalization continues to grow, related issues affecting African-Americans will expand and require political and policy responses. A critical need is to develop cross- national alliances and cooperation with groups in the developed and developing worlds that face similar situations.
xxiii

Globalization has further consequences for the distribution of wealth in this society; already there is an increasing income gap between the rich and poor. There is real consequence for the African-American woman worker. Although marginalized in the American workforce, globalization risks her being made obsolete altogether. Especially, if cheaper, well-educated and trained labor is readily available. Globalization is a key factor in lowering the relative wage of unskilled labor in the advanced industrial economies and that it has important implications for the division of income between capital and labor. While technology certainly plays a role in this process and while the information superhighway, and improvements in communications and transport are undoubtedly important, the most fundamental factor underpinning globalization is policy change rather than technological change. What is happening is a deliberate policy change reversing decades of fundamental policy error in much of the developing world. Jeffrey Sachs at the International Institute for Labor Studies on June 1998 in his speech, Globalization and Employment stated, poised on the brink of a possible global recession, the issue of globalization and employment is necessarily at the forefront of our
39
xxiv

attention. There are, also, longer-term trends and structural problems that require attention and redress, whatever one’s immediate economic prospects. Even before the onset of the current period of financial instability, the number of people out of work in the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) the club of rich countries - was of the order of 40 million (depending on precisely how unemployment is defined). Taking account of poorer nations too, and adding in estimates for under-employment as well as unemployment, the ILO (International Institute for Labor Studies) suggests a global total more than 800 million people. Of those who are in employment, an increasing proportion are in intermittent casual employment, in what economists call a secondary labor market, characterized by low wages and low security. The polarization of living standards between these marginalized workers and those in executive, professional and administrative is of growing concern. So in

addition, is the widening of income inequalities associated with work and non-work, posing potential threats to social cohesion and causing more potentially productive economic resources to be redirected into the processes of social control? As Jeremy Rifkin puts it, 'just outside the new high-tech global village lie a growing number of destitute and desperate human beings, many of whom are turning to a life of crime and creating a vast new criminal subculture'. Not surprisingly in these circumstances, one of the few rapidly growing

categories of employment in many nations is private security guards. Labor market conditions and government policy responses vary from country to country, of course. The United States is perhaps the most striking example of how

deregulated labor markets function- its proponents boast of the low official unemployment rate, while its critics point to the high incarceration rates which keep people out of the
40

workforce and to the very low wages associated with a growth of the 'working poor'. European nations have a more effective social safety net and in some cases are taking important initiatives to try to redistribute the work more equitably, but unacceptably high unemployment rates persist. In African, South American, and Asian countries the problems of the labor markets interact with the general problems of economic underdevelopment. Massive rural-urban migration fuels the labor supply of major metropolitan areas, typically well in excess of labor demand. The old refrain 'how are you going to keep them down on the farm now that they've seen Paris' now applies equally to Seoul, Shanghai and Saigon. Chronic urban unemployment is a predictable outcome. Only in the exceptional city-states of Singapore and Hong Kong does any semblance of labor market balance exist. With the economic collapse following the financial crisis of the South East Asian nations, the problems are compounded. Some contend that Indonesia's effective unemployment rate, for example, could hover around 50% before an economic upturn in Asia sees an improvement.
xxv

Globalization with its inherent risks and opportunities presents a challenge to the United States, especially when considering fair distribution of work. China and India, who have invested highly in educating their future IT workforce, are challenging America’s Information Technology (I.T.) industry. It only requires that a small percentage be up to the challenge with combined populations of 2 billion. While not given the opportunity to

participate in the IT industry in the past, African-American women can do so now. The work is, and will be there, it is a matter of involving oneself on a personal and policy level. There needs to be a concerted effort to shore up skill sets, while working with non- government and government entities to ensure education, training, and job opportunities. The Civil Rights
41

movement serves as a blueprint for activism. There are still many unasked, as well as unanswered questions about globalization. It could have extreme consequences for the

African-American women who are over represented at the low end of the pay scale. The redistribution of work on a global scale is not likely to be to her benefit. There is a strong possibility that as these once high-paying jobs disappear, the few jobs left, however menial, will be deemed choice jobs. The Civil Rights movement and its passage of anti-discrimination laws led to access for African-American women to greater career opportunities. In the 1970’s African-

American women took advantage of their newly found access to education and training and subsequently rose to the occasion. It seems that today, if America is expected to rise to the challenge of globalization, it must provide all its citizens with a level playing field. Unfortunately, 50 years after the Brown vs. Board of Education, America still suffers from large disparities of the quality of education offered to African-American s versus their white counterparts. By not reaching out to minorities and women, and supporting their

development in the IT industry America risks its dominance. African-American women represent 65% of the African-American population can definitely benefit from the higher earnings and professional advancement offered by the IT industry.xxvi A well paying job will go far to ease many of the social ills in the African-American community. And, also considering the security and terrorism concerns after 9/11 it would seem that AfricanAmerican women would be a more logical choice than foreign contractors such that they would be more likely to be loyal and patriotic. The Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science, Engineering and Technology Development in 2000, reported that only 7% of science, engineering and technology jobs are filled by minorities.
42

This is not enough to meet the challenge or demands of the United States Information Technology industry. The IT industry presents a great opportunity for African-American women if education and training policies initiated. African-American women skill sets need to

advance to compete with domestic and international workforce competition, and to meet the corporation’s desire for “cheap qualified labor.” Much like they met the challenge during the 1970s when given the opportunity. They must be encouraged and supported to pursue these challenging opportunities. These jobs are at higher earnings than the traditional industries they work in and more intellectually engaging. America faces a challenge as it did during the 1980’s when the Japanese overtook the auto industry. Although; US automakers came back to an unusual extent, there is no guarantee the U.S. IT industry can afford to let go of its dominance in the IT industry. IT has a business life cycle as short as 2-5 years. America needs to look at developing effective policies across the board; domestically, internationally, and fully invest in all its human capital. Some believe American corporations are being complicit in the exporting of U.S. IT jobs while ignoring other alternatives. Despite the desire for corporate citizens to increase profits, they can not lose sight of their fellow American circumstances. Job losses adversely affect families and communities.

3.1 Offshore Outsourcing Outsourcing is not a new concept; it has been a way for corporate America to chase cheap labor around the globe. It has been happening for decades, making cars in
43

Mexico, plastic toys in Taiwan and shirts in Malaysia. In recent years, the effort has crept into higher gear and income brackets, and it shows no signs of decreasing. The latest victims are white-collar educated professionals, who once felt secure; they are now watching their jobs head overseas during a largely jobless recovery. It is these professions; accounting, engineering, technical support and others that have moved offshore in recent years. Some industry watchers believe as many as

200,000 service jobs could be lost each year for the next 11 years. That has many American job seekers concerned, although others view it as an opportunity.xxvii The numbers concerning outsourcing are unsure; it may be more of a political argument than based in reality. However, the effects for the African-American women who represent such a small percentage of the Information Technology would most likely be adversely affected, disproportionately- “last hired, first fired.” However, still due to the uncertain nature of the field she must practice due diligence to make sure that her skill sets are above par to compete both domestically and internationally. In April 2002, Mr. McCarthy traveled to India in an effort to develop and sell research about offshore outsourcing. He left impressed with the country's ability to win contracts from American companies for white-collar work, such as processing insurance claims. When he returned to his office, he gathered newspaper clippings and pored through Labor Department statistics on 505 white-collar occupations. Based on his own assumptions about the vulnerability of various job categories to outsourcing, he made an educated guess about how many jobs would be shipped offshore by 2015. His number -- 3.3 million jobs representing $136 billion in wages -- fed a growing media and political storm. BusinessWeek highlighted the number in a February 2003 cover story. The Wall
44

Street Journal has referred to it at least five times. Lou Dobbs, a CNN business-news anchor, has made mention of the numbers on several occasions in his criticisms of businesses that move jobs overseas. Sen. John Kerry, the likely Democratic presidential candidate, cited the Forrester research last November when he introduced legislation to regulate the call-center industry, noting in a press release, "this is 2% of the entire work force.” Tom Daschle, the Senate Minority Leader, latched onto Mr. McCarthy's numbers when Democrats introduced legislation in February requiring companies to file disclosures when they send jobs overseas. Mr. McCarthy now says his numbers were hyped and that it "makes me a little mad.” He says the projected loss of jobs and income will occur over a number of years, mostly later in the decade. To date, he says, the actual number of white-collar jobs that have moved offshore is less than 300,000. That equals only about 0.2percentage of the total job market in any given year. "I'm in awe that 18 months later I'm still getting five calls a day" about the report, says Mr. McCarthy. He refers to the increased attention on Indian companies as "this call center baloney." Another widely cited estimate, produced last year by International Data Corp., a market-research company in Framingham, Mass., now appears to be flawed. Last year, an IDC analyst surveyed eight executives at technology-service companies and estimated that 23% of all white-collar tech jobs will be filled offshore by 2007, up from 5% this year. The Associated Press, several midsize daily newspapers, the Los Angeles Times, and the Journal published the statistics, as well, as trade publications.xxviii For those individuals who lose their jobs the consequences can be devastating, especially African-American women who are already at a disadvantage in the workforce.
45

Dartmouth College’s, Matthew Slaughter, associate professor of business administration advocates that the government focus on easing job transition for whitecollar workers. He suggested this be done by making pensions and insurance more portable across jobs, and offering tax credits for older employees who want to be relocated to find a new job, or return to college for retraining. He further stated that if it employees want to stay employed in this new era, they must be willing to accept lower wages, change jobs more frequently, relocate when necessary and consider going back to school to gain new skills. Politicians are beginning to take notice, Democratic

presidential front-runner Sen. John Kerry has already said he will "tear every page from the tax code" that allows "any Benedict Arnold CEO or company to move jobs overseas." That is one possibility, but the future is far from clear because so little comprehensive data exists and because the story is just beginning. The majority of Fortune 1,000 firms, 60 percent, have yet to embrace outsourcing, while 5 percent to 10 percent rely on it as a critical business tool, according to a report from Forrester Research Inc. TABLE 3-2

Number of U.S. jobs moving offshore Job category 2000 2005 Management 0 37,477 Business Computer Architecture Life sciences Legal Art, design Sales Office Total 10,787 27,171 3,498 0 1,793 818 4,619 53,987 102,674 61,252 108,991 32,302 3,677 14,220 5,576 29,064 295,034 587,592

2010 117,835 161,722 276,954 83,237 14,478 34,673 13,846 97,321 791,034 1,591,101

2015 288,281 348,028 472,632 184,347 36,770 74,642 29,639 226,564 1,659,310 3,320,213 46

Source: From U.S. Department of Labor and Forrester Research, Inc. All numbers have been rounded.

According to these figures, America anticipates the lost of over 3 million jobs in the next 12 years. As of 2003, there has been a loss of over 400,000 jobs to offshore outsourcing. Technology jobs are following the same course, as did the manufacturing industry. Millions of manufacturing jobs were sent and, or eliminated in the past 30 years. Consequently, there was a significant drop in the average wages of blue collared low-skilled workers. Technology professionals face the same fate.

“Technology professionals will face the same kind of wage drop, and work could go offshore much faster than manufacturing did “{it work} will move faster because it’s easier to ship work across phone lines and put consultants on airplanes than it is to ship bulky raw material across borders and build factories and deal with tariffs and transportation.”. By the end of 2004, research company Gartner estimates that 1 in 10 IT jobs and 1 in 20 non-IT jobs will go offshore, even eliminating those jobs that outside U.S. contractors use to do. Gartner, Vice President, and Research Director, Diane Morello sees contractors at the highest risk. "If companies can move [work for which they may have employed domestic outsourcing] to the outsourcing model and take advantage of the lower labor costs in a global market, the communication infrastructure enables them to do that."

47

Morello said, "For 10-15 years, IT professionals thought that if they assembled enough skills, they would be intrinsically of a certain value. Any one of them might be, but these skills are becoming more and more transferable."
xxix

Mike Blain, a web developer who serves as editor for the IT worker advocacy site TechsUnite.org, stated, “ the trend is towards more offshoring, more layoffs, [and] fewer career prospects for people in the industry or anyone who's looking to enter the industry," said Blain. The writing on the wall for an U.S. developer, according to the feedback Blain has received, is "there's a good chance [his or her job] is not going to be in this country in 2 to 5 years. These are some of the highest paying, best skilled white collar jobs that you can get in the country.” Agreeing, with the opinion of Morello’s, management consultant, Ian Hayes believes developers must move up the value chain. Mr. Hayes asserts that for those developers who are not contractor workers but highly skilled programmers who are full-time employees, their skills alone may not be enough to assure them job security. "I might be the world's best Java programmer. Someone gives me specs of what they want and I build it," explained Hayes. "In that situation, whether it's somebody here in the U.S. or elsewhere, a Java programmer is a Java programmer. It is a commodity skill [that companies will acquire] wherever the lowest cost is. “While no company can dispute the value of developers (regardless of geographic location) to a wired business world that depends on computers for nearly everything. Offshore outsourcing allows U.S. companies to quantify developer value on a global scale in terms of dollars and cents.” U.S. IT workers are steadily losing jobs. According to the Department of

48

Commerce, Digital 2003 report, 2000-2001, 2001-2002 respectively had total job loss totals of -4.9 and –3.2. See Appendix B

3.2

Increase Your Value, or at Least Prove it With India, being sought due to its English-speaking population and its large

numbers of programmers, offering U.S. companies a 20-30 percent cost benefit, he believes two classes of programmers will emerge: 1. Programmers who manage to move up their particular company's value

chain will continue to earn as much or more than they are now. However, they will be a smaller group. 2. Programmers will be more commodity-skilled. Their salaries will reduce

significantly (20-30 percent), because they will need to be somewhat competitive with offshore worker rates. This new distinction between developers means that one must be proactive in managing and advancing of their careers. Therefore, developers must find ways to move themselves up the value chain in their companies, Hayes says. For example, a programmer at a bank, rather than being concerned only with meeting the requirements of a given project, should try to become an expert on some of the processes at the bank. In addition, bring his or her technical experience to the particular business problems that the bank faces. While Hayes acknowledges that developers tend not to be interested in the business strategies of their employers, he believes this type of involvement can elevate a programmer's skills from commodity to "value-adding.” Morello put it this
49

way: "The more disconnected [developers] are from the top initiatives within the business—driving new revenue, for example, or new products and new services—" the easier it is to move their work to remote locations. In order to stay employed the new developer must be involved in business processes. Mike Blain, a Web developer who serves as editor for the IT worker advocacy site TechsUnite.org simply stated: "it's not about skills. It’s about cost.” Offshore outsourcing is "far and away" the number one issues that members, subscribers, and interested visitors are contacting TechsUnite about, according to Blain. He has seen how little value the people who contact his site believe they have to their companies and the IT industry as a whole. These have been some of the most lucrative jobs in the country. (See Appendix C, and Appendix D)

3.3

Government’s Role 3.3.1 America’s Investment

America, through its government agencies has invested heavily in its infrastructures. One such organization is The National Science Foundation (NSF) which promotes and advances scientific progress in the United States by competitively awarding grants and cooperative agreements for research and education in the sciences, mathematics, and engineering. The future of the nation depends on a strong, competitive science and engineering workforce and a citizenry equipped to function in a complex world (National Science Board, 1999). To achieve this, educational excellence in

mathematics and science at all levels must be a major goal, not just to promote the
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health of science and engineering. Moreover, this enhances every American's life opportunities through productive employment, active citizenship, and continuous learning. To meet this goal, a core need is for all students, particularly, those who have not traditionally participated in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics, to have the opportunity to learn the knowledge and skills that flow from teaching and learning, based on high expectations, linked to world-class standards. The future well being of our country depends not only on how well we educate our children generally, but also on how well we educate them in mathematics and science specifically. The world economy is becoming increasingly knowledge-based and technology-dependent in many ways, making mathematics, science, engineering, and technology even more critical to the future of American students. Yet, according to the National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering (NACME), more than 50 percent of all students plan to drop advanced math and science courses, regardless of their career interests and without knowing the consequences. As women progress through school and into college and graduate school, they drop out of mathematics, science, and/or technology earlier than males do. Math, science, engineering, and technology are particularly important for women, who historically have been under-represented in these fields. Billions, of dollars, were invested in making the best educational infrastructure in the world- at all levels. Students from all over the world attend American universities. In fact, America has been very generous in imparting its knowledge, putting America at risk competitively.
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The government is limited in its scope, exactly what the forefathers intended, especially when one considers the workings of capitalism. Americans expect to work hard and subsequently earn a good living. They are not ready for the prospect of millions of highly educated people being out of work. At the very core of America’s values is the notion that status is fluid: one can move up in the ranks. At the core of this value- system is obtaining an education.

3.3.2

Policy & Legislation

In Congress, Democratic lawmakers bashed top Bush administration economic adviser Dr. Greg Mankiw when he suggested outsourcing could eventually help the economy. However, this Administration is a bit confusing, exporting jobs while migrating foreign workers using H1B & L1 visas. Some lawmakers are being cautious. A protectionism stance violating global trade laws, risks a backlash from America’s trade partners. To assist American workers, Washington Democratic Rep. Adam Smith has introduced pushing a bill that would assist service workers whose jobs go overseas in retraining and income assistance currently reserved for displaced manufacturing workers. Outsourcing has elicited many emotions in the past year, prompting presidential candidates and labor groups to decry its practice and economists and chief executives to defend it as a natural progression of the economy. Some dispute if offshoring saves money and are taking a protectionist attitude toward offshoring. Assisting in development of policy was the IEEE-USA's Career and Workforce Policy Committee who represents a group of U.S. IEEE members with
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expertise in the subject field. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. was created in 1973 to promote the public good while advancing the careers and public-policy interests of the more than 235,000 electrical, electronics, computer and software engineers who are U.S. members. IEEE-USA recommended Congress

examines reports of U.S.-based employers replacing citizens and legal permanent residents with foreign nationals. These nationals were admitted to the United States on L-1 visas; assess the impact on employment opportunities for U. S. workers, advance remedial legislation that will help distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate uses of the L-1 intra-company transfer visa program. recommended legislation that would: • require that the use of the L-1 visa not result in the displacement of U.S. IEEE-USA

workers; • • • • • require that L-1 visa workers in the U.S. be paid prevailing U.S. wages; add other appropriate safeguards for U.S. and foreign workers; establish transparent administrative and enforcement requirements; provide for timely investigation and adjudication of complaints; and, Authorize additional civil and monetary penalties to deter abuses.

The U.S. Immigration and Nationality Act, Section 101(a) (15) (L), provide issuance of L-1, intra-company, transfer visas to qualified aliens employed by corporations to work in the United States. They are good for seven years in an executive or managerial position or five years in a position requiring specialized knowledge, or skills. In September 2003, a report to Congress, from the General Accounting Office, noted that in recent years, employers have increasingly turned to
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the L-1 visa. L-1 visas do not have an annual cap and are not subject to prevailing wage laws." A number of foreign technical services firms with a U.S. presence are utilizing the L-1 visa to move large numbers of non-U.S. engineers and information technology professionals to the United States as a source of lower-cost contract labor. Several foreign corporations have even established U.S. subsidiaries specifically for that purpose. The GAO, cited figures, according to the U.S. Department of State: the number of L-1 visas issued in fiscal year 1998 was 38,307 and rose to 41,739 in fiscal year 1999, peaked in fiscal year 2001 at 59,384, and decreased slightly in fiscal year 2002 to 57,721. Taking advantage of the opportunities created by the current

corporate emphasis on downsizing and outsourcing of technical work. 3.3.3 Who is outsourcing? "We are on the leading edge of just a transformation of what work means around the world," said Hank Queen. He has watched plenty of work go overseas as vice president of engineering and manufacturing at The Boeing Co. a major government contractor. The Boeing Co. has sent many jobs overseas to such places as South Africa, Italy, China, and Russia.
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Boeing’s motivation is not only cheap labor but to place work in countries where it is also trying to sell planes or spread risks on new projects by farming out work to foreign suppliers. Officials seek cheap labor, but sales are more important, Queen said. The company argues it has no choice. It must build planes with fewer and more productive workers to remain competitive. Boeing's longstanding overseas recruiting effort underscores the fact that outsourcing is nothing new. Just as car building once shifted to Japan, financial
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analysis, telemarketing, and software development now heads to India and elsewhere. "We should not view this as something that is revolutionary. It is more evolutionary," said Gus Faucher, a senior economist at Economy.com "To a large extent it is inevitable." Other large technology companies are following the trend. Oracle Corp. has set up a second research center in China. Computer maker Dell Inc. has transferred call centers to India. Bank of America Corp., along with other financial services giants, has been steadily moving technology functions abroad. However, experts warn that outsourcing could do more harm than good. "There is an opportunity to create a lot of value," said Rudy Puryear, a vice president with Bains & Co. "But outsourcing could also destroy a lot of value." Indeed, 66 percent of companies surveyed were disappointed with their outsourcing contracts, said PA Consulting Group. The survey shows only 39 percent of the companies would renew contracts with their existing outsourcing suppliers, and 15 percent planned to bring services back in-house. Lured by the huge market, Accenture Ltd., BearingPoint Inc. and Computer Sciences Corp. have expanded staff in low-cost countries and profited handsomely. While those companies tend to be more experienced in outsourcing, mid-sized companies that plan to deal directly with offshore vendors may have a harder time, said Lakhani. "Most of them don't understand the potential problems," he said. "They feel whatever problems there may arise, they will be easily offset by the savings. That's really not true."

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3.3.4

H1B & L1 Visa The politicizing effect of the offshore outsourcing trend has made issues of the

H-1B and L-1 visas. Many IT professionals are holding their political representative accountable. L-1 visas get around the legal technicalities that Congress placed on the H-1B visa program. Employers are not supposed to use H-1B visas to bring in foreigners to displace U.S. employees or in order to cut costs by paying low wages. H-1B visas are supposed to be used only when there is a shortage of particular skills, and the visa holder is supposed to be paid prevailing U.S. wages. H-1B visas were used to keep employers from raising U.S. wages and summoning a larger supply of the needed skills. Instead of allowing the price system to work in the U.S., H-1B visas simply enlarged the U.S. labor supply to include the entire world. Many American students who invested in obtaining software and IT skills graduated only to discover that there were no careers. They were gone; to foreigners, or outsourced abroad. Americans were displaced using the H-1B

program; several hundred thousand, educated and formerly, high-income earners. Complaints were rising, but before the scandal could break, L-1 visas took over. L-1 visas facilitated intra-company transfers within multinational

corporations. Corporations use them to hire Asians at one-third the salary of their U.S. employees. Then the Asians immigrate to the U.S. where the “downsized” U.S. employees spend their last employed months training their replacements.xxxi To expedite the process even faster more temporary worker visa programs that allow foreign companies to relocate employees here in the United States to coordinate the offshore work. These visas are facing opposition; they are under consideration,
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national, and state bills, to limit such visas. The legislation would decrease the movement of jobs offshore somewhat, but the trend is, expected, to continue. America has already experienced the demise of the blue-collar manufacturing steel industry. We are unsure as to whether or not the IT white-collar industry is to follow. Many IT professionals fear not just the loss of a job, but the whole IT industry here in the States. Outsourcing is creating problems beyond what the individual could solve. It goes beyond just finding a new job.

3.3.5

Defending American Jobs- Protectionism There are also worries that protectionist policies could damage the economy.

But in Congress Americans adversely affected by free trade policies testified to representatives, policymakers, and the media how the policies under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) have devastated them.
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Congress needs to increase domestic worker safeguards, significantly reduce the number of H-1B visas issued, and crackdown on visa violations and fraud. The summer of 2003 met with legislation to repeal the H-1B visa program and close the L-1 visa loophole. Recognizing that science and technology workers can not find jobs, longtime H-1B critic Congressman Tom Tancredo (R-CO) has introduced legislation HR 2688 to end the H-1B visa program. Additionally,

Congresswoman Rosa DeLauro (D-CT) has introduced HR 2702 to close the L-1 visa loophole and "ensure that Americans are given opportunities to work." Safeguards of

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her proposal include capping L-1 visas at 35,000 annually, ending blanket applications and preventing laid-off workers to be replaced with L-1s.” Lawmakers introduced a bill in Congress aimed to deter U.S. companies from outsourcing jobs overseas. The Defending American Jobs Act of 2004, sponsored by more than 50 legislators, proposes to cut federal funding from companies that lay off workers at higher rates in the U.S. than abroad. The legislation would also require companies that apply for federal grants and loans to declare the salaries of employees in the U.S. and abroad said Joel Barkin, spokesman for Rep. Bernie Sanders, I-VT., the principle sponsor of the bill.
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America has traditionally managed to benefit from emerging markets. America’s labor and capital, markets, operates with out government interference. The ability to adjust and adapt without restraints has contributed significantly to its success. When blue collar manufacturing work left America in the 1970s, the U.S. economy reabsorbed those workers into to areas of the economy- primarily in the service sector, says Dartmouth’s Slaughter. The reabsorption effect leads the majority of economists to believe that global competition is ultimately good for the U.S. economy. This resulted in manufacturing companies in the United States being more productive than they were before they faced international competition. Higher

productivity per worker means more corporate profits and higher salaries on average, as long as the workers who are displaced can be reabsorbed into the economy somewhere else. All the while blue-collar, low skilled workers make less in real dollars today than they did in 1973. Now those white-collar jobs are coming under

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the same global competitive pressure, managerial level wages is feeling the same effect.

3.3.6. THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE On January 6, 2004, New York Times op-ed by New York’s senior senator, Charles Schummer and Assistant Secretary of Treasury, Paul Craig Roberts in the Reagan Administration, stated American jobs are being exported to developing countries, specifically, China and India. They stated that David Ricardo’s Theory of Comparative Advantage falters in the modern economy and suggest that America has lost its national comparative advantage. The Comparative Advantage is one that states if each country produces the goods that it is most efficient at producing, and imports everything else from other nations, everyone is better off. Applying this theory, if Chinese and Indian workers can produce a given good or service cheaper than American workers, holding the quality of the good constant then the Comparative Advantage states that American should not make that product. Over the past 200 years, this has happened repeatedly, such as when the textile industry moved from the North to the South and later internationally. Although, today the theory seems to have far more reaching
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consequences, such that higher quality of jobs are moving overseas.

Paul Mrockowski stated in his article Hot Flash that what is of most concern is that America is losing its own comparative advantage. He stated the following arguments; 1) American companies for the most part are the ones that are hiring abroad. 2) The supply of cheap money is not endless. Eventually, upward wage
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pressure will cause the price of labor to rise in developing countries.

3) The

educational systems in these companies are in their infancy. Although, there are more than two billion people combined in China and India, only a tiny percentage of them are equipped to compete with American workers for jobs.

3.4 IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON THE IT WORKFORCE The, Who's Outsourcing?, website demonstrates Americans concerned about the effects of offshore outsourcing on the American economy. It speaks to America's security, the American standard of living with informational resources, and facilitates communication with elected officials and candidates in a position to help. The third quarter of 2003 reported a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of 8.2 percent, and corporate America has recovered from the dot.com bubble and corporate scandals. All except the job, market has rebounded. To judge from the press coverage on the matter, the unemployment rate and basic economics have left many of the experts puzzled.
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As American IT workers continue to lose their jobs that are moving offshore to places like India, and China, perhaps never to return, American public opinion turns against globalization. Some feel if outsourcing continues a white-collar labor movement could arise. Maria Schafer, program director of Meta Group stated “I believe that some sort of e-labor movement is going to rise in it,” the Internet is already the preferred meeting place for disaffected IT workers. Many Americans are starting to see globalization as evil. Forces are being mobilized to encourage boycotting those companies that are perceived as taking
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American jobs- to hold companies accountable for taking jobs from U.S. workers. One particular group is The Organization for the Rights of American Workers (Toraw); a group of displaced, angry American workers laid-off by Connecticut insurance and financial services companies. In June 2002, dozens from Toraw and similar groups from across the country held a two-day demonstration outside the Strategic Outsourcing Conference at the Waldorf Astoria hotel in New York City. The same month, other laid-off workers demonstrated outside an outsourcing conference at the Hynes Convention Center in Boston.
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IT companies like Accenture, IBM global Services, Microsoft, Oracle, American Express, Citibank, Bank of America, DaimlerChrysler, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, Prudential and United Technologies are outsourcing to offshoring and, or expanding their development centers out of the country. Some CIOs

reported having experienced backlash against outsourcing within their own company; morale is negatively affected. Many CIOs, such as Jeff Campbell of Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway sees offshoring as inevitable in order to provide American shareholder with increased returns. Due to the emotional issue of outsourcing internationally, some companies outsource the transition- the other company takes care of all the immigration and visa issues. The hiring company attempts to be unscathed by the ethical and legal

implications. Ron Hira, Chairman, of the R& D policy committee, the U.S. branch, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), stated that with this trend…, “as the bulk of technology work moves offshore, the deep, experiential knowledge
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that comes from coding applications and solving technology problems-- the solid of technology innovation- could move offshore with it.” U.S. IT services companies do not spend much on R& D, but they are still innovative because they build the U.S, technology infrastructure. The reason {U.S. companies} can innovate without

spending much on R&D is that they are learning each time they do an implementation. You build up that knowledge in those workers, and there is spillover as they move in to other sectors, start new software companies or take a permanent job with a client. If we don’t have that knowledge base here, we will lose out on innovation and spillover.”

3.4.1

OPPPONENTS

Many companies are resistant offshoring, and even those that do are maintaining their core businesses in the states. Companies prefer to have in-house such business practices as user and client interface development, business requirement management, and project management. IT has constantly experienced changes in a fraction of the time that similar changes would occur in other fields. The application developer professional has continuously experienced adapting to change. Moreover, these developers have thus far proven to be agile enough to take these adaptations in stride. Lou Dobbs, CNNMoney has stated: 1. That America is not creating jobs in the private sector, 2. Our trade deficit continues to soar 3. America has lost 3 million jobs in the last 3 years.
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Can the government ensure that a middle class continues to exist in this society? What happened to the wealth that America’s IT industry created? In addition, should not all Americans be the ones benefiting from it? It is arrogant to assume that America’s labor force is better trained, harder working, ingenious, or more innovative than other countries. There is no guarantee that more, lucrative, jobs are going to be created. Rory L. Terry, an associate professor at Fort Hays State University, argues that it is dangerous to blindly pursue outsourcing due to: the number of new non-native Ph.Ds being granted. America’s precarious ranking in the education of math and sciences and the large number of international students enrolled in the most challenging technical degree programs at the most prestigious universities. He states that a problem of

externality exists; this is whereby there is a separation of cost and benefits, and the decision-maker does not have to incur the full cost, but receives the full benefits of the decision. The fact is there is no economic force, no supply and demand equilibrium, and no rational decision process of either business or consumers that will make an externality go away. Thus, the net effect of outsourcing is lower costs, higher revenue, higher profits, higher stock prices, bonuses for management, and the creation of wealth for a subclass that benefits from low taxes at the expense of the rest of America. As a society and as a country, many costs from outsourcing are: the loss of jobs, social costs, and higher costs of raw materials and loss of national sovereignty. America loses its ability to make independent decisions when it depends on foreign debt and foreign manufacturing. The social costs are in a reduced tax base, high unemployment benefit costs, and government retraining costs.

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3.4.2

SECURITY HAZARDS

Pitfalls include security hazards, cultural and language differences, and logistics. Offshore call center operators often try to immerse employees in the American culture to establish a rapport with their customers by educating them about current events and U.S. holidays. Security is another reason some companies pass on offshore outsourcing, particularly if they are dealing with sensitive financial information. Tasks such as manufacturing, software development and maintenance tend to work better offshore. Moving data center infrastructures does not because it is Still to date most The modestly paid

prohibitively expensive to set up a reliable network overseas. technology outsourcing work is domestic, rather than abroad.

programmers in India, Russia and China and the prospects of 24-hour shifts increasingly, attract companies. PROPONENTS Opponents of offshore outsourcing ignore the large benefits that it brings to the U.S. economy, says Sunil Mehta, vice president of the National Association of Software and Service companies (Nasscom) in India. Mehta estimates the U.S. companies will save up to $11 billion in 2004 by outsourcing to India and that India will purchase $3 billion in high-tech imports from the United States in that time. “Mehta argues, that trade protectionism has not helped other American industries. Such as the steel industry, where employment has declined 80 percent since its peak, nor has it helped steel consuming industries in the United States that were forced to pay high prices for steel.”

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It is tempting to write off the threats of offshore outsourcing. The economy will improve, it workers will find new jobs, opposition to offshoring of U.S. jobs will melt, and all will be well. On the other hand, offshore outsourcing will never mature to the point where anything but the most basic development work and maintenance will go offshore. That’s what some economists like Robert Reich think. According to various analyst companies’ predictions, only about 10 percent to 20 percent of IT jobs will go offshore.
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Subscribing to this theory may be dangerous, such that there is no way of knowing if these jobs are going to be replaced with well-paid similar caliber ones. Optimistically, more complex and better paying positions could possibly replace disappearing jobs, such as biotech and other high-tech jobs. The average American IT worker has no protections. According to a May 2003 survey by CIO, 68 percent of the more than 100 IT executives who responded said their offshore contracts would increase this year. In addition, who is to say for sure that something comparable, high wages and complex work will take its place? The IT jobs that are going offshore are going there for good. It is what economists call a structural, as opposed to cyclical change in the labor market. Meanwhile, the number of jobs will continue to increase, but not in the usual way. In the past, workers have been laid off when business was slow, and rehired—usually by the same employer—when things picked up. That is what the classic business cycle was all about? A new study by Erica Groshen and Simon Potter at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York concludes that we are now witnessing structural rather than cyclical shifts in the job market. Most of the industries that have lost jobs are not likely to regain them; new jobs are coming from
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entirely different industries. This puts pressure on workers to relocate and retrain, rather than simply wait for business to return in their old industries.
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3.4.4

The Cost of Offshore Outsourcing

“The primary benefit to moving it offshore is cost, and the only thing that’s holding it back is building up the capabilities offshore to do the work,” says IEEE’s Hira. Until now, offshore outsourcing has been mostly limited to large companies that have large orders of work to send offshore. Peter Harrison, CEO of Induslogic, a global outsourcing company, said ‘this will change such that outsourcing companies have matured, as well as their processes. Now, many of their clients are starting projects with as little as five people. ‘ With these new sets of circumstances, no one is at all sure, who will be affected, adversely or otherwise? IT workers, as well as other high-skilled fields are also under pressure from international competition-accounting, engineering and architecture are already feeling the same kind of pressure as it. As competition for skilled service jobs in the United States increases and low-cost option increases offshore, white-collar wages could begin to drop abroad. Economic statistics show that when people change jobs because of global competition, it usually involves a decline in wages, at least initially.
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Overall, the trend looks to be irreversible. Driven by cost-cutting needs, companies

will increase the amount of work they transfer abroad.

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3.5 Unchartered Territory The General Accounting Office, a research arm of Congress, will bring the problem into greater focus when it releases a study this spring on trends in informationtechnology jobs going overseas. American technology companies in recent years have benefited from sending work to lower-cost operations overseas. The cost advantages of outsourcing have been on the top of the list for many corporate executives. In the past couple of years, the debate over outsourcing has intensified as technology companies reduce costs by sending technical support, software development, quality assurance, and other functions offshore. About 30 percent of Intel's microprocessors are now built overseas, primarily in Ireland and Israel, and four Dell Computers manufacturing facilities are operated outside the United States. Only a few years ago this idea would have been impossible. The world mostly turned to its technology leaders, companies such as Microsoft Corporation when it needed software. However, with the growth of broadband Internet connections and email, technical support staff and software developers can respond to questions with the same speed as in the United States at a fraction of the cost.

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Microsoft operates a software-development center in Hyderabad, India. Technology companies say they need a global work force to compete and that the current wave of outsourcing follows a trend that began when international barriers started tumbling in the 1990s due to NAFTA and WTO. Atul Vashistha, head of outsourcing advisory firm NEOIT, a technology research firm expects worldwide business process revenue to grow 10 percent to $122 billion this year from 2002, and more than 40 percent to $157 billion in 2006.xl

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4.0

GROWING THE IT INDUSTRY Workers, millions, have been replaced by machines since the beginning of the

industrial revolution. Yet, the numbers of jobs have grown almost continuously, as have the real incomes of most people in the industrial world. There is fear that computers and related services, broadly termed information technology, are eliminating jobs in a way different in pace and nature from the past. These fears are because: 1. Information Technology is pervasive, with the potential to displace both manufacturing and service jobs, including those requiring high skills. 2. Information technology is so quick that society has less time than in the industrial revolution to re-train workers and create new jobs. 3. Information technology makes work more portable, making it easy to move jobs to places with low-paid workers. However, fears of information technology are based on the notion that there is only a fixed amount of output (and hence work) to go around. This notion ignores the fact that technology creates new demand, both by increasing productivity and hence real incomes and by creating new goods. Anecdotal evidence so far refutes the fears, too. For example: • The United States invests more in computers and uses more

computers per 100 people than any other country, yet we have only 5.5 percent unemployment compared to 11 percent in Western Europe. • Japan has more industrial robots per worker than any other country

- and the lowest unemployment rate among developed countries.
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A 1988 survey of European employers found that information

technology had created twice as many jobs as IT had eliminated.

The most difficult problem presented by the growth of information

technology is the pace at which employment shifted between old sectors and new ones. Attempts to protect outmoded jobs or industries only make the period of adjustment longer and harder. Strong economic growth and free markets for both labor and products support adjustments that are fast and non-disruptive.
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With that having been said, one question to be asked is how can the AfricanAmerican woman who has had marginal results in the 20th Century workforce, can successfully transition into the 21st Century workforce? The Department of Commerce reports Digital Economy 2003 (DE2003) is the Department’s fifth annual report on conditions in U.S. information technology (IT) industries and the effects of IT on national economic performance. Each of these reports has addressed questions that economists have sometimes found difficult to answer. Early nineteenth-century economists earned a reputation as practitioners of the “dismal science” by underestimating the ability of technological innovation to drive faster than expected economic growth. This year, the basic analytic challenge has been complicated by an atypical recovery. Productivity growth has been remarkably strong, output growth has gathered impressive momentum, and prices remain low. However, employment has lagged. The DE2003 report examines its role in these unusual developments. Important developments that were anticipated (or hoped for) in the 2002 report have occurred. Renewed IT investment and strong if selective growth in IT-producing
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industries have helped the sector reassert its role as an engine of economic growth. In addition, strong productivity growth, during and after the 2001 recession, has answered the challenge posed four years ago by Robert Solow. He suggested that its enduring effects on productivity would be clear only when the economy had weathered its first ITera recession. DE2003 shows that: 1. recovery in IT-producing industries and increased use of IT throughout the

economy are once again helping to drive very rapid productivity and output growth; 2. 3. and 4. Even as we begin to take its presence for granted, IT continues to alter our employment growth in IT industries and IT occupations has yet to recover; highly competitive U.S. IT-producing industries are globally integrated;

lives, expanding our choices, and presenting us with new opportunities and challenges. In short, continuing study shows that the digital era is living up to many of its expectations and hopes. Nevertheless, there is much more to understand about its role in a growing and changing economy.
4.1
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Enhancing America’s Infrastructure

There are questions as to how the American IT workforce can be effectively and efficiently trained and retrained to meet the challenges for the 21st century. This is a major issue for America’s workforce as technology affects almost every job that exists.
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There is an entirely new phenomenon affecting the U.S. economy. Technology is ubiquitous throughout most industries. Although typically thought of as being restricted to those who work for IT organizations or carryout mainstream IT jobs, such as network engineering or help-desk support. The emergence of technology in virtually every area of life offers many opportunities for skilled technology professionals. The U.S. Labor Department's Bureau of Labor Statistics projects technology related careers to have the highestpercentage job growth through the first decade of the 21st century. One-third of the fastest growing jobs will be in information technology related fields, and within that, job opportunities for computer, software, application developers, and network systems administrators are expected to grow the fastest. The Bureau predicts a 100 percent increase in jobs requiring applications development and support and an 82 percent increase in employment openings for skilled networking professionals.
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Computer systems application, development and support have become indispensable for most businesses or organizations. Technology changes the way almost every job is done. IT has ensured that all workers must have updated skills. The challenge is that these skills are not necessarily understanding or comprehending the next operating system or the next new development language or database. IT professionals and workers need to develop their skills beyond the technology. They need to focus more on the high-growth industries that are dependent on technology to take advantage of the new economy and get the jobs of the 21st century. The challenge is to figure out a way to solve the problem of where career advancement exists, where the greatest income earnings potential is and where one may find a
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challenging, interesting career that might not have existed previously. (Appendix E lists the possible career options and descriptions). • • • • • • Private businesses and industries Corporate information technology departments Colleges, universities, and K-12 public school districts Financial institutions Telecommunications companies Federal, state, and local government agencies

There are many opportunities within the field of information technology management; typical employment titles include, • • • • • • • Information Manager Network Administrator Systems Engineer Chief Information Officer Applications Developer Computer Applications Support Specialist Systems Analyst

This field of study is in a constant state of development. As new technologies emerge, new career opportunities develop. The program focuses not only on learning to meet today's challenges, but also on preparing for the learning challenges that go with working in such a dynamic industry.
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America has prospered exponentially over the last decade.

The 1990’s

showed the longest period of economic growth in its history. The United States industry has done well in an increasingly globalized economy, showing that IT can effectively compete. The future of Information Technology industry is unclear, but as an enabling technology, IT will continue to grow. IT is reported that job growth in occupations requiring information technology skills is projected to grow at three times the rate of job growth in the overall economy between 2000 and 2010, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.xlv Information technology has had a phenomenal impact on the U.S. economy. The increased use of information technology has resulted in increased productivity and a better quality of life for most Americans. The future challenge is to ensure that all Americans have the opportunity to benefit from any future growth. America's innovation, technology leadership, economic growth, and highskilled jobs have been the result of public and private investments in education, and policies that encourage innovation, open markets, and entrepreneurship. In order to maintain its international leadership America must continue to invest in the future through policies that set the stage for growth. U.S. competitiveness and economic growth depends largely on public policies and private sector initiatives. There is a lot of work to be had to continue its lead innovatively. In the last few years it’s been seen that the U.S. technological and economic leadership should not be taken for granted. Research & Development, and entrepreneurship are the keystones of America’s continued foothold, to maintain the lead the U.S. must shore up its foundation.
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As the U.S. meets its global challenges, and corporations seek global’ opportunity the U.S. needs to recommit to public policies and private sector initiatives. They have helped to make the U.S. the most competitive and innovative country in the world, creating jobs, and opportunity for all Americans, regardless of persuasion. Information Technology is an enabling technology that can help to solve many of the existing problems that America already has. Many of America’s systems are overwrought with overuse and misuse. Information Technology can enhance, improve, and solve many of the issues and problems facing U.S. The IT industry can solve many of the problems in education, transportation, and criminal and health-care systems to name a few industries. Below are sites whereby the report represents anecdotally resources available in various industries. Further references are available in the Appendixes. As we turn the corner to a new century, sophisticated technology is increasingly significant to our nation's economic, political and social health. Almost every element of society, from music, sports and agriculture is being touched by technology. To prepare for these jobs, we must present science, engineering, and mathematics as unintimidating to every student, so that they will feel encouraged to gain the skills and knowledge necessary for technical careers. As part of the global economy, we must engage the intellectual potential of all young people. The ways of doing science and engineering are changing. Teamwork, and project management are transforming the workings of science from a competitive and hierarchical style to one that is more collaborative. Often considered a "female" style of working,
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collaboration generates a more synergistic effort that results in more ideas and possible solutions. The inclusion of more women will greatly benefit the fields of science and engineering as their diverse intellectual and problem-solving skills are integrated into the workings of a vast array of enterprises. We cannot afford to overlook so much of our nation's intellectual potential.
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These changes in the

workplace present unprecedented opportunity for the African-American woman worker. African-American women can add to their base knowledge and experience in their present fields. They serve as support staff throughout a variety of industries. They can add to their repertoire of expertise Information Technology skills, adding to their value, as well as that of their organization. 4.1.1 Education A

The information technology era has spurred unprecedented change.

business cycle can be as short as 2-5 years. It is apparent one need to update their education, while additional government initiatives are required to stay abreast with this type of change. The government needs to ensure that the American workforce is properly prepared to meet their challenges with an adequate education. Just as

previously, America has invested in the skills of generations of entrepreneurs and innovators it must be even more vigilant. It also has become apparent that the government needs assistance from professionals to direct their efforts appropriately. One such organization is TechNet, an organization who with its members are committed to working with the U.S. Congress and Administration to affect policy: 1. Ensure an excellent U.S. education system and a highly skilled workforce – The technology industries have long fought for a stronger education system
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through high standards, accountability, teacher training, and a renewed emphasis on excellence in math and science education. In addition, the

technology industries have invested substantially in education and training programs. They range from scholarships to encourage minority students to pursue careers in engineering and computer science, to in-house training programs that prepare current employees for the challenges of the future. TechNet will work with Congress and the Administration to develop specific initiatives that ensure that Americans are qualified and prepared for the jobs of the future. 2. Through effective retraining for displaced and unemployed U.S. workers, American workers will be prepared for the high-skill jobs of the future.
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4.1. 2 Transportation • Another fast-emerging field requiring specialized IT skills is the

geospatial industry. The Geospatial Workforce Development Center at the University of Southern Mississippi, defines the geospatial industry as “an information technology field of practice that acquires, manages, interprets, integrates, displays, analyzes or otherwise uses data focusing on the geographic, temporal and spatial context.” A result of the rapid growth in this technical field is a significant lack of professionals and trained specialists to support the industry. “The geospatial technology industry has a current worldwide market of about $5 billion, and is growing by 10 to 13 percent per year; a growth rate
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that is expected to continue throughout this decade, “according to Emily Stover DeRocco, assistant secretary for employment and training at the U.S. Department of Labor. The market is projected to have annual revenues of $30 billion by 2005. A survey of geospatial product and service providers

revealed that 87 percent of respondents said they had difficulty filling positions requiring geospatial technology skills.” This clearly represents a huge opportunity for IT professionals willing to invest in acquiring these specialized skills.

Transportation alternatives analyze and examine the costs and benefits of As

possible improvements directed at solving transportation problems.

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) move into the mainstream, it is important for transportation planners to be able to assess ITS impacts when conducting these analyses. ITS, by providing improved information to

travelers and the ability to adjust traffic control policies in real-time, allows travelers and transportation managers to react to changes in conditions, and to more effectively use transportation capacity. If conditions were always

constant, both managers and travelers would learn the best routes, modes, and strategies, and IT would provide little benefit. However, the reality of modern urban travel is that conditions are variable and unpredictable; and, that choices based on constant conditions are frequently inefficient. For this reason,

traditional approaches to transportation alternatives analysis, which focus on fixed capacities and typical demand, cannot adequately capture the full benefits of ITS.
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4.1.3. Criminal Justice The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC) system was created in 1994 as a component of the National Institute of Justice's (NIJ's) Office of Science and Technology. It serves as the "honest broker"

offering support, research findings, and technological expertise to help State and local law enforcement and corrections personnel perform their duties more safely and efficiently. National and regional advisory councils assist the NLECTC

system its works. The NLECTC system consists of facilities across the country that are co-located with an organization or agency that specializes in one or more specific areas of research and development. Although each NLECTC facility has a different technology focus, they work together to form a seamless web of support, providing technology assistance, support, and information. Below are success stories due to its applications:

U.S. Border Patrol/El Paso Sector The Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) provides science and engineering support to the U.S. Border Patrol/El Paso Sector to address their concern regarding individuals entering the United States illegally through the city's storm drain system. Deterring this illegal form of entry is key to reducing the quantity of illegal contraband smuggled into the United States. BRTC conducted site surveys, presented methods for securing the drains, and demonstrated equipment (including a video
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motion detector and micro-power range grated radar). They, also, provide quotes for equipment: estimates for sensors, cameras, and radio frequency link equipment.

Sullivan County (New York) District Attorney Child Torture/Murder Case Sullivan County District Attorney Stephen Lungen requested that NLECTC-Northeast provide technology assistance in the case of a 3-yearold child who was tortured and murdered. By providing photo

enhancements to the District Attorney (DA), the prosecution was able to prove that the child was intentionally tortured before being killed. Using advanced computer technology, NLECTC-Northeast staff scanned autopsy photographs of the victim's injuries; methodically removed the wounds and manipulated the photographs to look like natural, uninjured skin; and then placed the injuries back into the photographs to illustrate the process in which they had been inflicted. Using these photo enhancements, the DA was able to demonstrate systematic and intentional torture before the child was killed, an aggravating factor under New York State's first degree-murder statute. After the defense attorneys viewed the

presentation, the defendants pleaded guilty to first-degree murder, in exchange for life in prison without the possibility of parole

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Washington County (Washington) Corrections Department NLECTC-Rocky Mountain received a request from a county corrections department in Washington that was concerned about the number of suicides committed in the county's facilities. During the past two years, four inmates committed suicide, three by hanging. NLECTC-Rocky

Mountain staff located a comparable county facility in New Jersey that had a successful track record in suicide prevention. The New Jersey staff agreed to share their suicide prevention plans with the Washington agency. NLECTC-Rocky Mountain also provided contact information for two vendors who specialize in suicide prevention garments and blankets so the county could specifically address the problem of hanging.

Corrections Technology Demonstration at Mock Prison Riot The Mock Prison Riot hosted by the Office of Law Enforcement Technology Commercialization is held annually at the Moundsville Penitentiary in West Virginia. This event showcases emerging corrections and law enforcement technologies, and provides corrections officers and tactical team members with an opportunity to use and evaluate the equipment in a realistic setting. In 2000, more than 1,300 individuals representing 22 States and two foreign countries participated in this 4-day event. Seventy technologies were showcased as well; scenarios ranging

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from cell extraction to hostage negotiations were staged to demonstrate appropriate technologies.
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4.1.3.1 Homeland Security Johnson, Chief Security Officer at the Homeland Security Department said Homeland Security does not have the IT workforce to build the systems it needs and is "absolutely dependent" on help from the research and academic communities. The department contracts a lot of work outside government, he said, but there are a limited number of cleared contractors and high turnover of personnel. Johnson said he and Homeland Security Chief Information Officer Steve Cooper decided soon after the department's creation last year that Johnson would handle the classified material and Cooper the unclassified. Johnson is working on developing the Homeland Security Information Network, which he said would be at the Defense Department "secret level" by year's end. He also said Homeland Security is looking to redesign personnel security to prevent internal cyber attacks. Thomas O'Keefe, deputy director of the Federal Aviation Administration office of information systems security, said more research and development, and more collaboration among researchers and industry, is needed on cybersecurity.
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NSMicrowave has been awarded a classified contract for nearly $3 million. The classified contract is for building, installing, and servicing a

surveillance system for an agency of the government of the United States. Future
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integration with other current systems on site could provide a future award. Due to its classified nature, additional details about the contract or its location will not be disclosed. The project design and installation will commence immediately. Additionally, NS Microwave received a purchase order for $1.6 million as the second installment of a multi-year contract to provide surveillance hardware and associated equipment for another federal agency. The first installment of the contract was announced in September 2003. NS Microwave is an industry leader providing federal, state, and local governments with customized solutions to meet the complex surveillance security challenges confronting the United States in the post-9/11 environment. Another panel at the event discussed ways to get the public and private sectors to improve cybersecurity. "We haven't been able to keep up with

protecting the technology we have been so great at developing," said Ron Ross, project manager at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Congress gave NIST the responsibility of managing cybersecurity for nonnational-security agencies, and Ross oversees that effort. He said it is not

possible to test every part of a product. For instance, a laptop probably has 30 million lines of software code in it, he said. "We're never going to operate in a risk-free environment." Nevertheless, NIST is working on new minimum
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safeguards for federal agencies, he added.

4.1.4 Department of Defense
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The Defense Department is planning acquisition policy changes aimed at improving the quality and security of the software it buys from vendors. A report released by the General Accounting Office (GAO) found that Department of Defense (DOD) software security policies do not address the risk of using foreign suppliers. The software assurance initiative is expected to include evaluation of vendors and their business practices as well as of products for critical software. The software assurance initiative would require three evaluations for high assurance software: 1. Counterintelligence threat assessment of the company, to

determine the level of trust in employees. 2. Business practice assessment, in which the company is checked

against 16 practices to ensure that security is incorporated into the development process. 3. Product evaluation

The rigor of product evaluation will depend in part on the results of the first two assessments.
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4.1.5

Health-care systems

The Health care industry has expansive opportunities for IT professionals who understand the specific technology used is the health care industry. Information

technology touches almost every function within the health care industry today, from ensuring the right drugs are delivered to the right patients to accessing patient records and
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ensuring the security of those records. However, many believe that IT needs to be even more entrenched within the health care industry to ensure quality of care. According to U.S. Human Services Secretary Tommy Thompson, “The nation’s health-care delivery system needs to incorporate business practices used in other industries more widely, especially information technology.” President Bush’s budget proposal requesting $100 million for new business-technology projects related to health care supports this initiative.
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Healthcare IT is impacted by numerous dynamics — patient outcomes, government legislation and regulation, emerging technologies, industry standards and cost/revenue constraints to name but a few. The Joint Healthcare Information Technology Alliance (JHITA) is made of previously formed associations, AHIMA, AMIA, CHIM, CHIME and HIMSS, who joined together with the intent of pursuing a wide variety of objectives related to the common good of the Alliance membership. Two areas of focus are: 1. "To provide appropriate advocacy for legislation/regulation promoting the effective use of technology and its management, telecommunications, and business process re-engineering." 2. "To be a dynamic force in our industry by developing jointly sponsored

offerings including educational programs, market focus groups, research, services and activities relating to information technology and management,

telecommunications, and business process re-engineering." liv

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The Alliance’s advocacy activities focus on identifying issues having the broadest impact on the Alliance membership. The Alliance monitors national legislative and regulatory activities and reports on those activities to the Alliance membership through routine summaries, Advocacy Papers on topics of particular interest to the membership, and presentations at selected Alliance member organization events. As issues of

sufficient interest and concern arise, the Alliance pursues advanced activities, to include meetings with legislators and regulators to convey the position of the Alliance membership. Issues of focus in 2000 include: medical records confidentiality; HIPAA administrative simplification rulemaking; telemedicine; medical errors: and e-health. An additional focus of the Alliance is the continuing professional education of the membership. Our members have access to a wide array of educational events that use the combined assets of the member organizations. The Alliance will serve a valuable role in bringing health care systems professionals together to discuss issues and developments, learn about new methods and tools, and network with others having similar experiences. It will also promote the exchange of experience and knowledge among the colleagues, and assist members in their professional growth. The Alliance has found that this affiliation of organizations to affect common goals and manage common threats is a very powerful mechanism to enhance effectiveness. The Alliance has also found that, when properly focused, the group’s activities for the common good offer a dramatic multiplication of their individual capabilities without a concomitant multiplication of efforts.
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These cross- sections of professions and more, offer the African-American woman plenty of new opportunities for professional development and personal growth.
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5.0

Training & Education Opportunities Alan Greenspan, Federal Reserve chairman, has said a number of times that innovative

technology is required for American workers to become more efficient. In a monetary policy report to Congress, he stated that continued increases in worker efficiency and productivity are needed for our economy to regain substantial growth.
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One can only conclude workers at all

levels and persuasions must advance their skill sets, such that technology is changing every job. IT professionals are particularly feeling the challenge to seek out new opportunities in order to remain competitive. Demographic changes will alter significantly the composition of the population as a whole and of the workforce. In addition, these changes will have a major affect on who has "buying power" and the definition of the markets that will provide growing business opportunities. Table 5-1 PROJECTED CHANGES IN THE ETHNIC COMPOSITION OF THE AMERICAN WORKFORCE (Workforce 2020. Hudson Institute. Indianapolis, IN, 1998) 2000 74% 11% 10% 5% 2010 72% 11% 12% 5% 2020 68% 11% 14% 6%

White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Asian non-Hispanic

The Workforce 2020 study projects that by 2005, (not referenced in the table, 51), all minorities, including minority women, will make up 51 percent of net new entrants
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to the workforce. Looking at women alone, all women (minority and White) will make up 62 percent of new entrants. (Net new entrants to the workforce are calculated as total entrants to the workforce minus those leaving it).
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Workforce needs are changing faster than ever before. The IT profession is a very dynamic profession that affects other industries’ growth as well as its own. As technology has become a part of every industry, it has become essential that IT professional acquire skills beyond the technology itself. The advent of the computer and subsequent information technology industry has bought about many ways in which one can access and share information. This information leads to knowledge that affects their lives, careers, and industries. IT has a broad affect on society. Society can use it to address current needs, as well as their emerging needs. It becomes a challenge as to where and how these skills can be acquired? There are various combinations of educational, professional, and governmental supported entities where one may acquire the necessary skills. However, it is up to the professional to seek out the information to make a knowledgeable decision as to what skill sets would increase their value. It is also up to society to provide opportunities for personal and professional growth. The U.S. Constitution doesn’t guarantee happiness, only the pursuit of it. You have to catch up with it yourself. - Benjamin Franklin For women and minorities meeting these challenges have become more critical, as they have there own inherent gender and race based bias, even in their formative educational careers. They are continuously discouraged from pursuing the challenging math and science curriculum required to enter the IT industry which is dominated by
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upper-class white males. As a society, women and minority can no longer afford to be ignored or discouraged, if America is to compete effectively on a global level. The lack of mentoring opportunities and role models further exacerbates the situation. The research firm Meta Group released the findings of its annual information technology staffing and compensation guide. Three surprises: 1. 2. 3. Fewer companies are using offshore labor than you might think, IT salaries have staying power, and Demand is still very strong for certain IT skills.

The study found that companies pay IT staff an average of 20% more than non-IT , and 45% of companies said they pay premium for critical technical skills which are hard to locate and even harder to retain. This includes wireless technologies like Wi-Fi, security, data management and application development. While demand is strong for certain disciplines, Schafer says that not enough is being done to develop capabilities to meet those needs. The situation could reach a crisis point in five to eight years, she says, as baby boomers retire and there is simply a lack of able bodies in the United States. Within the next five to eight years, "there will be huge reversals in the availability of labor in general.” (SEE Appendix F, shows IT Training processes in the Private-Sector) Right now, the U.S. does not have a consistent national policy in place for dealing with training workers on new technologies, or for the increasing intersection between engineering and basic business. The country also needs to do a better job attracting young students into computer science and engineering fields. Consider that India turns out 500,000 new IT graduates every year, compared with a fraction of that for the U.S.
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India and China are on America’s heels with population of upwards of 2 billion, if slightly successful America is in danger of losing its comparative advantage with in the IT industry. America’s IT industry is being challenged much as the auto industry was challenged by the Japanese during the 1980’s. America risks losing its comparative advantage in IT across the world, by excluding women, and minorities, from a sound education and training in IT. America risks serious economic setbacks in job creation, and tax base. It further risks losing its innovativeness and creativeness in the IT industry, as well as puts America’s infrastructure at risk. America needs a talented pool of individuals to build- on what was already exists. Not, to blindly ship these skill-sets overseas. America needs a sound education policy for the 21st Century. It needs to increase math & science education, across the board as well, as implement strong adult re-training programs. Education will be key to the success of America competing in the 21st Century, as it was for the 20th.

5.1

Managing an IT Career For many, especially minorities, and women in this ever-changing environment it

is becoming managing one’s career is becoming increasingly important. It has been reported one may have as many as five careers in one’s lifetime. The once secure notion of a generation ago of having a lifetime position is gone. Everyone must become their own Career Counselor and keep abreast of changing trends and demands. Nevertheless, the government shares a responsibility of providing the structure for an individual to operate in such a context. The technical professional needs to be a well-rounded

educated person. The IT Manufacturing and IT Services Industry Employment Table,
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Appendix G, is an example of the government keeping track of a trend; it demonstrates an overall slight decline in the industry. Research indicates communication is important among information systems (IS) staff, users, and managers to ensure successful development projects, the ineffective communication skills of IS staff are often cited as a possible cause of failed IS projects. To develop effective systems, communication between IS users and systems developers is important throughout the development process, and effective communication supports the collaborative process in system development. `To investigate the most important communication skills needed by IS staff during the development process, IS staff, IS users, and IS managers who worked on a system development project together were surveyed. Results of the data obtained from the 324 respondents were analyzed in two ways: 1) the most important communication skills needed by IS staff was ranked by each participant category and, 2) models of the 3 communication skill types were developed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Rankings by IS users, IS staff, and IS managers, as presented in this study, indicated that the three stakeholder groups had similar views of critical written, oral, and interpersonal communication skills needed by IS staff in the systems development process. Respondents, consistently, identified the most important writing skill as coherent writing. The two most important oral communication skills: as the ability to ask appropriate questions, and have effective oral, communication skills. In addition, the two most important interpersonal skills as the ability to accomplish assignments and the ability to work cooperatively in a one-on-one situation.lix

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Catalyst the leading research and advisory organization working to advance women in business, the report outlines unique challenges faced by African-American women in business “Concrete Ceiling” Difficult to Shatter; Diversity Programs Need Strengthening. The report, Advancing African-American Women in the Workplace:

What Managers Need to Know, reveals that many African-American women in corporate America continue to face a “concrete ceiling” as they work toward career advancement. African-American women represent an important and growing source of talent, yet they currently represent only 1.1 percent of corporate officers in Fortune 500 companies, a mere 106 African-American women out of a group of 10,092 corporate officers. See Appendix H, Career Action Steps for African-American Women in Corporate Management. As well, the GAO put together a Case Study (Appendix I) that addresses overall career development issues as well as skill-specific training issues. 5.1.1 Education Programs

There are many educational opportunities through interns, fellowships, grants, scholarships, in- house training, and e learning. Many learning opportunities come

through professional associations they include national and local seminars, conferences, career development and training. See also, Appendix J, Career Resources. Below are sites’ description of what they offer, this may be a useful guide in what one should look for in an organization. 5.1.2

Women Resources

MentorNet (http://www.mentornet.net/), works to further women's progress in

scientific and technical fields through the use of a dynamic, technology-supported mentoring program. MentorNet aims to advance women and society, and enhance
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engineering and related sciences, by promoting a diversified, expanded and talented workforce. In partnership with colleges and universities, corporations, government labs and agencies and professional societies, MentorNet is international in scope. Major funding is provided by the National Science Foundation, Alcoa Foundation, AT&T Foundation, IBM Corporation, Intel Foundation, Cisco Systems, and Microsoft Corporation. One of the essay winners, Brenda Liu, described how as an electrical engineering and computer science major, she found it difficult to find a female role model at the University of California at Berkeley. Her undergraduate affairs office recommended that she try MentorNet, as a helpful resource. Soon she found herself corresponding regularly via email with her mentor Zorina. Not only did her mentor give her first-hand knowledge on being a professional woman in the technical workforce, but she "also gave me confidence to continue in my major, knowing that it is not impossible to be a successful professional woman," says Liu.

The Women in Engineering Organization Website, WIEO.org was created

because the field of engineering needs more women who can bring innovative ideas to the industry. Hundreds of colleges, organizations, and businesses have created programs, workshops, and conferences to increase the number of women in the field; yet, all this valuable information is scattered and lost on various and mostly incomplete web sites. There was a need for a unifying resource where people can go to find out more about women in engineering and programs in their area and across the country. 5.1.3 • Minorities Resources

The African-American Women in Technology organization (AAWIT) is a non-

profit organization dedicated to the education, support and advancement of African94

American women in the field of Information Technology.

AAWIT encourages,

promotes, and serves the interest(s) of African-American women in Information Technology, striving to help its members advance their careers and enhance their personal development through special resources and networking opportunities. AAWIT.net is an informative, educational, resourceful, online community and is research, quality, and community oriented. AAWIT is dedicated to becoming the number one, internationally known, online resource for African-American women in the field of Information Technology. Furthermore, be a resource for those who simply wish to enhance their careers and personal development through further training and certification of women employed in the IT field. In addition, efforts are being made to attract African-American women from other professions to the field of Information Technology.

5.1.4 •

Professional and Trade Associations Information Technology Association of America (ITAA) web site. With

the market in 2001 spending over $800 billion, Information Technology (I.T.) is one of America's fastest growing industries; encompassing computers, software, telecommunications products and services. As well as, Internet and online

services, systems integration, and professional services companies, ITAA today is the only trade association representing the broad spectrum of the world-leading U.S. IT industry.

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The ITAA web site provides information about the IT industry, IT issues, association programs, publications, meetings, seminars and more as well as links to other valuable web sites. • The World Information Technology and Services Alliance (WITSA) is a

consortium of 60 information technology (I.T.) industry associations from economies around the world. WITSA members represent over 90 percent of the world IT market. As the global voice of the IT industry, WITSA is dedicated to: − advocating policies that advance the industry’s growth and

development; − facilitating international trade and investment in it products and

services; − strengthening WITSA’s national industry associations through the knowledge, experience, and critical information;

sharing of −

providing members with a vast network of contacts in nearly every

geographic region of the world; − hosting the World Congress on it, the premier industry sponsored

global it event; − − hosting the Global Public Policy Conference; and hosting the Global Information Security Summit.

Founded in 1978 and originally known as the World Computing Services Industry Association, WITSA has increasingly assumed an active advocacy role in international public policy issues affecting the creation of a robust global information infrastructure, including:
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− reform; − −

increasing competition through open markets and regulatory

protecting intellectual property; encouraging cross-industry and government cooperation to

enhance information security; − − and − safeguarding the viability and continued growth of the Internet and bridging the education and skills gap reducing tariff and non-tariff trade barriers to it goods and services;

electronic commerce. WITSA has a real affect the global it environment. It promotes a level playing field by voicing the concerns of the international IT community in multilateral organizations; including the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the G-8 and other international forums where policies affecting industry interests are developed.

Business Technology Professional's Career Page provides information on various

professional concerns: careers, career advancement, salaries, jobs, resumes, certifications, strategy, leadership, management, systems, and research, assisting the professional in making informed decisions to navigate their career. The site profiles some key issues relevant to business, information systems, and information technology careers. There is information related to the CIO and the
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Changing role of the Information Executive. Furthermore, one can expect to find information related to the Restructuring of IS Professionals' Jobs and Related Skill Sets. A glimpse of the future profile may also be gained from the perusal of the skill sets and characteristics that embody the organizations that made it to the Business Week 50, CIO 100, and InformationWeek 500. The Job Surveys & Occupational Outlook and Salary & Compensation Surveys, together, provide a complementary perspective to this delineation of the IS Professional's evolution. Information is also provided on developing resume writing. A selection of

Professional Associations and Career Links to round off the IS Professional's Career Advancement Page. There are also a repository of questions, trends and controversies that have implications for the emerging shape and direction of the business world in general, and MIS in particular. Jobs are posted on ISWorldNet's site. Recruiters can access hi-tech professionals at ISWorldNet's Positions Wanted site.

The Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP) offers

opportunities for Information Technology (I.T.) leadership and education through partnerships with industry, government, and academia. AITP provides quality it related education, information on relevant it issues and forums for networking with experienced peers and other it professionals for nearly 9,000 members. AITP is the Information Technology professional organization of choice for providing leadership opportunities, professional development, and personal growth.

The National Technical Information Service (NTIS) serves the United States as the largest central resource for government-funded scientific, technical, engineering, and
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business related information available today. NTIS offers information on more than 600,000 information products covering over 350 subject areas from over 200 federal agencies.

• ITTC

is 3-day conference traditionally consists of: over 20 Information

Technology Training Sessions; presentations by leading industry experts; several exciting networking events; an Exhibitor EXPO; special sponsorship presentations and demonstrations; famous Keynote Speakers. ITTC provides one with the

opportunity: to gain knowledge; to see the emerging training technologies; to learn about the latest adult learning methods; to network with hundreds of your peers; to meet and have a chance to interact with nationally-known experts; and to see the latest products and services offered by leading IT training vendors. Sessions are organized for different groups of attendees: training directors and managers, trainers, training support management and staff, and anyone interested in learning more about IT training. These conferences are designed to provide specific training and instruction for those involved in managing, overseeing and making decisions about all facets of technology planning, purchase and implementation.

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6.0

Entrepreneurship Nearly 40 percent of African-American -owned businesses surveyed by the

Census Bureau in 1997 were owned by women, writes Karen Robinson-Jacobs. This number is larger than for any other minority group. According to business experts, the relatively high percentage of businesses owned by African-American women reflects the matriarchal nature of many black families. They speculate that it is easier for women who head their own households to leap into a business venture. African-American women, the study found, were more likely to start their firms alone, and to be the sole owner. The study also found that, in the fastest growing firms, 80 percent of the owners started the business out of a desire “to exercise more control over their own destiny.” Other frequently cited goals included using management expertise and education, building personal wealth, serving the community, and overcoming racial barriers. lx While entrepreneurship has its own set of challenges for the African-American woman, it also has its own set of rewards. The report from the National Women's Business Council, entitled "African-American Women and Entrepreneurship," further dispels the persistent stereotype of African-American women as helpless victims dependent upon men for support and unable to advance without help from the government. The report findings are as follows: · African-American Women own 365,110 businesses nationwide, employing 200,000 people and generating nearly $14 billion in sales. · The number of firms owned by African-American women increased 17% in the years between 1997 and 2002.

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· More than 1/3 of all firms owned by African-Americans are owned by women. This 1/3 employs 25% of the workers and generates 15% of the sales. · African-American women are more likely to start a firm alone and be the sole owner. · 80% of African-American women start a business out of a desire "to exercise more control over their own destiny." · 47% of African-American women encounter difficulties obtaining financing for their businesses, compared to 28% of whites, 27% of Hispanics, and 22% of Asian women business owners. · African-American women have a higher propensity for entrepreneurship than white or Hispanic women. · Businesses owned by African-American women are concentrated in California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Virginia. Policymakers and legislators, at the national, state, and local level, can help by easing regulation, lowering taxes, and generally making it easier for all women to start and maintain a business. The message from government should not be “depend on us” but “you go, girl.” The entire nation will be the better for it. Table 6-1
African-American Women-Owned Businesses in the United States, 2002
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Number, Employment and Sales and Percent Change Among African-American Women-Owned Firms by Industry: 1997 –2002 1997 2002 % Change, 1997 101

2002 Total U.S. Number of Firms Employment Sales ($000) Industry Agriculture Number of Firms Employment** Sales ($000) Mining Number of Firms Employment Sales ($000) Construction Number of Firms Employment Sales ($000) Manufacturing Number of Firms Employment Sales ($000) TCPU Number of Firms Employment Sales ($000) Wholesale Trade Number of Firms Employment Sales ($000) Retail Trade Number of Firms Employment Sales ($000) FIRE Number of Firms Employment Sales ($000) Services Number of Firms Employment Sales ($000) 312,884 169,038 13,550,983 1,139 750 56,103 44 D D 3,294 4,971 509,604 2,567 2,975 289,881 7,810 10,011 493,113 1,840 1,974 1,002,928 35,366 17,607 1,961,236 12,671 3,873 632,227 211,353 124,258 7,869,760 365,110 197,151 14,485,453 782 1,417 93,793 14 D D 2,157 3,174 330,408 1,859 1,613 183,597 6,388 44,623 860,677 1,011 793 617,458 26,175 9,924 1,573,200 9,359 2,618 439,425 272,260 178,945 10,951,455 16.7 16.6 6.9 -31.3 89.0 67.2 - 67.4 D D -34.5 -36.1 -35.2 -27.6 -45.8 -36.7 -18.2 345.7 74.5 -45.1 -59.9 -38.4 -26.0 -43.6 -19.8 -26.1 -32.4 -30.5 28.8 44.0 39.2

SOURCE: From U.S. Bureau of the Census and Center for Women’s Business Research.

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Note: TCPU = Transportation, Communications and Public Utilities; FIRE = Finance, Insurance and Real Estate. D = Data withheld by Census Bureau to avoid disclosing data of individual companies. ** Midpoint used to calculate growth. See the methodology note for further information.

The Table 6-1 shows a concentration of African-American women businesses in the services industry, 272,260 of the total, 365,110 firms with revenue gains of 39.2 % in 2002. The TCPU, (Transportation, Communications and Public Utilities), despite a significant loss of firms, 18.2 %, represented by only 6,388 firms shows an impressive increase in revenues, 74.5 % and employees, 345.7%. These figures show that technology is a viable and lucrative business venture for African-American women. African-American Woman in other industries can use technology to grow their business by analyzing trends, professional development, and managing operations. By integrating technology into their overall business plan they can better manage their business more effectively, using census and industry data. They can research trends, manage expenses and vendor relations, increase market share, as well as, do their taxes. They can have better Customer Relationship Management (CRM), considering that the majority of African-American businesses are service related this very is important to their competitive edge. In addition, one can surf the web, http://www.thegrantsguide.com/index.htm, and www.sba.gov to seek minority government business grant information. To be eligible for private sector and government bidding contracts one must certify. One may obtain certification as a MBE, Minority Business Enterprise through: − National Minority Business Council www.nmbc.org − National Minority Supplier Development Council
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www.nmsdcus.org − Minority Business Development Agency www.mbda.gov Various agencies offer free money for underrepresented groups who want to start a business, as well as reach out to various other resources such as Microsoft .com on, how to write a business plan.

7.0

CONCLUSION This thesis brings to the forefront the lack of African- American women in the
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Information Technology (IT) industry and the issues particular to her, gender bias and racial discrimination, barring her participation. It discusses the policies that have affected the African American woman and the continued affects of policy; social, political, educational, and economic, on her status in the workplace. The African American women deal with issues of both race and gender in the workplace and society-at- large which is emblematic to her situation. This affects the lack of opportunities that are presented to her. She has historically been mariginalized and relegated to the lowest status in the workplace. While there are many opportunities in the Information Technology industry, she finds obstacles that prohibit her participation at large. Much has to do with the lack of policies that support her obtaining the required education and experiences necessary to pursue a challenging career in IT. It also explores the IT industry and the effects of globalization. There are many professional opportunities for the African American woman in a cross-section of industries that require IT skills. But, to be available for these opportunities requires that the African American women pursue both professional growth and personal development in order to compete in an increasing global world. This thesis, further, discusses the many directions on how to pursue these many opportunities. This is a comprehensive look at the both the obstacles and opportunities toward professional growth in the lucrative Information Technology industry. 8.0

7.1 Summary
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It explores the historical role of the African- American women in the workforce. It discusses the labor-intensive work forced upon the African –American women, as slaves, and then as domestics. Moreover, it was not until the Civil Rights Movement of 1964 and passage of anti-discrimination laws did she move into retail and clerical positions. The success of these laws led to the government implementation of job wide training and education programs. African American women were greatly benefited by these programs. These programs afforded them the opportunity to move out of highly labor-intensive work. American workers are noted for their creativity and innovation. All the while, here in the 21st Century the African American woman still finds herself relegated in low paying jobs as reported in Table 2-1, Top Ten Industries, Based on the Employment of African-American Women. Today, she is over represented in administrative support and healthcare roles. The African American, women in particular did not reap and significant economic gains during the 1990’s economic boom. Fifty years after Brown versus Board of Education of Kansas in 1954, public education is in crisis. The schools are still largely segregated. Public education lack proper funding in predominantly African American communities and schools are met with additional challenges such as inexperienced teachers, overcrowding as well as a dearth of community involvement. The students themselves are without family support. There are real cultural barriers; there is a disconnect concerning the role of education in the African American community. Success is a dynamic formula with many parts, while education itself it not the only indication of a successful life it is a clear indicator. For the African American woman at all degree- levels has significantly increased her earning potential due to the benefits of increase education. Black women have the largest increases in earnings as she increases her level of
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education than any other sex-group, adding to her value. African-Americans, women, and African-American women in particular are not being prepared in the K-12 grades for the rigorous program of study that a challenging technology career requires. There is no college track for the majority of African Americans. At the post-secondary level, they find college particularly frustrating due to their unpreparedness. In addition, if they meet academic standards many can not meet the financial challenges. Their parents themselves, due to a lack of education are in poor paying jobs and can not afford the extra expense of sending their young adult to college. Moreover, it is expected that the individual will now contribute to the household. Starting at K-12, the government must look at providing a sound education to the masses. The culture of mainstreaming mediocrity should be addressed. In New York City, social

promotion is being challenged, standardized tests are being given to ensure that students have the basic cognitive skills before being promoted as soon as the 3rd grade. Social promotion is a practice by which a student is promoted based on their age and not their competency in basic subject matter. There must be a large increase of qualified students in the pipeline to meet the challenges of the 21st Century. The report further discusses globalization and its implications to the African American

worker. The unemployment rate is twice of that of whites; men, and women regardless of their level of education. African American women face the “concrete ceiling” – gender-bias and racial discrimination in the workforce. After having had marginal success in the 20th Century, globalization may be the way to render her obsolete. Globalization pits workers against each other worldwide. The Chinese, Russian, and Indian governments appear to have excellent results funneling their citizens into the pipeline.
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They are graduating significant amounts of technological, scientific professionals who are challenging America’s dominance. Many educated, white collar, American workers have seen their value decrease as corporation ship their jobs overseas in search for cheap labor. Still, here in the U.S. there exists many opportunities to grow a cross-section of industries. One way to add value to her professionally, throughout out a cross-section of industries is if she were to add information technology to her repertoire of skill-sets. By learning Information Technology African American women can increase their compensation, as well as add value to their organization. There exists still many opportunities for African American women in the Information Technology industry. There are many jobs that can be only done in the United States, due to security concerns. By focusing on one of the many growth areas: education, transportation, criminal justice, military, or health-care one can have a very illustrious career. These areas among others are in need of Information Technology professionals to help manage their industries. There is a large need in Research & Development, to create systems that will make each respective industry more efficient. For the increasing number of African-American women, entrepreneurs there are many government contract-bidding opportunities. Advancing one’s skill sets is not easy. There is a myriad of ways, to enter IT. Working professionals will find it especially challenging. However, it can be equally as rewarding. There is a section devoted to Training & Educational Opportunities; Educational Programs, Women Resources, Minority Resources, and Professional and Trade Association. These are resources to add to ones professional development and personal growth.

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African American women entrepreneurs are growing in numbers. African American women are opening businesses of their own in record numbers. While the majority is concentrated in the service industry, there are still opportunities in the technology industry, which is far more lucrative. There are many concerns for the African- American women, but as the world gets more technologically savvy; she will have to also. One can not ignore progress or its sociopolitical, economic impact. To advance in the workplace one must be proactive and adapt to the environment. Technology has made the wall smaller, and it seems spin faster, change is inevitable. America risks losing its comparative advantage and dominace in the world as an IT leader if it does not properly educate its growing African American, women, and AfricanAmerican workforce. IT has afforded America incredible wealth, does it dare lose it? Can America afford to lose its jobs and increase its welfare roles? The future of the technology industry has tremendous consequences to America. This thesis recommends a dynamic approach to the lack of African American women in I.T. such that the problems are varied, the solutions are varied with the one aim of increasing the number of African American women in the Information Technology industry. The recommendations are as followed:

Many in the African American lower class question why they should get an

education (K-12), such that they will have careers in sports or entertainment (dreams)? Therefore, this thesis suggests making jobs and education seemless. The cultural disconnect should be addressed, schools should serve more of a function to educate for lifetime employment and emphasize that it is the student responsibility to continuously seek out knowledge to grow personally and professionally.
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African American women should advocated for themselves and their children (K-

12) for more math, science, and technology education with an emphasis in Research & Development. • Career transition should be made easier. One should be able to receive additional

training through various sources: college, on- line, on- the job training, as well as, community training programs. Traditional college should not be the only means of advancing oneself. • African American women entrepreneurs need to seek proper certification, MBE,

Minority Business Enterprise, to qualify for government and private sector contracting bidding opportunities.

African American Entrepreneurs and women in particular should develop diverse

collaborative networks. They can share their knowledge, and build on opportunities from private sector and government contracting entities. • African American technologist should expand their mentoring to others at all

levels, by exposing technology to others one may increase the number of African American industry professionals. • African American girls in an environment free of boys, should be encourage to

pursue technology, emphasis should be on exploring knowledge, creativity, and innovation. • African American women need to advocate on their own behalf concerning

globalization and trade policy issues. As well as, advocate for good practical technical training.
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The public education system at the basic level (K-12) should be accountable and

produce qualified applicants for higher learning opportunities. •

7.2 Originality Section The thesis is unique in that it explores the lack of African- American women in the Information Technology Industry. It is different in that it is specific to the challenges she faces; both gender discrimination and racial bias in a white male dominated industry. It concerns itself with the lack of opportunity and rewards presented to the African- American women. She had not benefited during one of the most prosperous times in America, the technology boom of the 1990’s. It discusses the African American women’s exclusion from the industry. As well as basic policy issues: social, political, education and economic that could benefit her progression into the IT industry. This research will be useful to the African American women and those organizations that serve her. It gives validation to the issues of gender bias and racial discrimination that is emblematic to her in the workplace. It also, discusses ways to navigate disparities and ways to become successful despite them. It guides one through professional and educational resources, as well as advocates entrepreneurship, which is becoming increasingly common place among African American women due to the disparities she faces in the workplace. It also, discusses the implications of globalization on the African American communityincreased rates of unemployment. It demonstrates that African American women having been relegated to the bottom of the pay scale is no accident. This report serves as a map to
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African American women, to develop and strategize entry to the Information Technology industry. 7.3 Contribution to Knowledge This research is useful in that it brings to light the historical marginalization of the African- American women in the workplace. It explains the sociopolitical economic

implications of America’s: education, training, social and economic policy on her. It also, examines ways to navigate successfully in the workforce; it is especially particular to the Information Technology industry. African-American women, other minorities and women will find it useful because it provides practical knowledge concerning the lack of women and minorities in IT and the obstacles faced in the industry. It provides guides to standards, as well as suggestions to overcome cultural and workplace situations. Much of the lack of African- American women in Information is due to the lack of educational, and training opportunities, as well as the lack of role models. AfricanAmerican women face the “concrete ceiling,”- racial bias and gender discrimination. Under these circumstances, she finds it difficult to excel in such a demanding field, feeling additional stress due to the politics of her situation. This paper speaks to the lack of qualified African – American women in the pipeline for Information Technology jobs and their overrepresentation in low wage earning jobs. While stating that, education has been a way for the African American women more than any other race, sex group to increase her earnings. This thesis brings to the table a cohesive picture of what challenges are faced by the African – American women when it comes to pursuing and advancing in a challenging, and lucrative arena such as Information Technology. It addresses her particular challenges. It speaks
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of ways for the African- American women to enter the IT industry and the broad cross-section of industries she can pursue. The basic challenge is a good K-12 education, which the public education system has fallen short. In addition, it addresses the tremendous consequences for the United States if it does not invest in educating and re-training its workers.

− •

7.4

Scope for Future Research Topic

Future research should include focus groups with major industry, educational entities, African American women groups, government, and non-government entities. It should look at assessing the needs of the technology industry, as well as where African – American women are in their skill sets. It should look at realistically what plan of action is required to increase their participation. • How can African-American women give voice to their educational, social,

economic and professional concerns with in mainstream society? • What effective roles can they play in the e-labor movement?

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How can African-American women gain the expertise to pursue entrepreneurial

opportunities in IT industry? • How to interest African- American women in Information Technology, as well as to how to support their endeavors? • As well, there needs to be a look at education; on the grade, secondary, and post-

secondary level that would encourage as opposed to discourage them to followthrough with the more challenging curriculum. • There also needs to be a look at the professional obstacles that they face in

Information Technology, there was no documented information outside of the low participation rate. • What cultural disparities exits that discourage African- American women from

pursuing Information Technology careers. • The report discusses Research indicating communication is important among

information systems (IS) staff, users, and managers to ensure successful development projects, the ineffective communication skills of IS staff are often cited as a possible cause of failed IS projects. Cultural diversity role in communication effectiveness could be explored. • How to pursue increased and varied mentoring opportunities, in professional and

personal situations? • How can African American women entrepreneurs navigate government contract

processes? Create a formula for effective contract bidding process. − How to network, and share for greater opportunities?

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− What programs are in place specifically for African Americans, and or women? • • • What is the true experential cost to the U.S. due to sending IT jobs overseas? How far reaching will the effects of globalization be on the American worker? What will be society’s cost for retraining the adult worker? It is important to answer these questions so that African- American woman can have the right tools to meet the challenges of a continuously changing world, her place at home and work, in particularly the Information Technology field. Many of their

challenges are systematic and require a broad structural change in policy: education, social, economic, and political.

7.4.1 Limitations of the Study There is no active research to provide strategy or tactics at the policy and legislation levels to overcome the apparent pitfalls of the America’s gender bias and racial discrimination. Most of the Census statistics spoke to the African American male with his male privilege and the white female with her white privilege. Not much, spoke to the particulars of the African American women, and the challenges she faces concerning gender bias and racial discrimination. For those reasons, the report mostly extrapolates between the two statistics. CAWMSET,

Congressional Commission on the Advancement of Women, & Minorities in Science, Engineering and Technology Development, Land of Plenty, Diversity as America’s Competitive Edge in Science, Engineering, and Technology, September 2000 was decommissioned. This

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commission is one of the few resources that addressed African – American women issues and it no longer exists. There was also no research on the overwhelming tasks at hand for many of the single African- American, professional, mothers, considering that in the U.S., 68% of all births to African American women are to single mothers. How to address family needs while pursuing excellence in work and education? There are limits to, timely and effective, research on cultural disparities in the workplace concerning the African American women and her role at home, and the obstacles to pursuing a education and being promoted in the workforce. Not, being able to be everything to everyone, with her conflicting challenges; how can she pursue excellence at work and school? When so many other responsibilities weigh on her, like most women. As Oprah Winfrey so poignantly put it, you can have everything but not at the same time. In today’s world, there is little time to play catch up. There needs to be sound

educational policies at all levels. The Department of Education did not have statistics, or research that directly addressed the educating of African American women. Given a good K-12 education, they will automatically be qualified to take advantage of higher education. Such that many well paying IT positions require advanced education.

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Page 1 of 2 Appe ndix A

labor force, by occupation, race/ethnicity, and highest degree: 1995
A ll degrees Black 110,200 40,100 33,900 2,500 3,600 9,800 1,500 4,900 100 3,300 8,000 5,600 700 300 300 1,100 16,700 1,200 300 8,500 600 1,100 5,000 35,700 1,700 2,500 3,600 11,900 3,400 5,900 5,900 900 A merica Hispanic n Indian 92,700 23,600 21,100 800 1,700 8,800 1,700 4,900 300 1,900 7,100 2,500 2,200 400 600 1,400 10,100 1,900 600 4,600 200 300 2,500 43,000 3,000 2,400 7,600 13,000 2,100 7,000 6,700 1,100 8,100 1,700 1,300 100 300 700 400 100 100 800 400 300 100 1,500 100 900 100 400 3,400 300 400 900 300 800 600 100 Total White Bachelor's Asian 132,200 47,500 46,100 200 1,100 7,200 700 5,200 200 1,000 7,700 5,500 1,300 200 100 500 2,600 100 400 1,200 300 100 600 67,300 2,600 4,200 12,400 24,900 2,000 11,100 9,300 900 Black 72,400 29,200 26,700 1,200 1,200 4,300 1,100 2,800 100 300 5,600 4,400 300 200 200 600 5,800 400 200 2,900 400 600 1,300 27,500 1,100 1,800 2,900 9,300 3,200 4,700 4,300 200 Hispanic 56,300 17,800 17,000 400 300 4,300 1,000 2,600 200 500 3,100 1,300 1,100 200 400 200 2,000 400 100 1,100 200 100 100 29,000 1,800 1,600 5,300 8,800 1,700 5,200 4,500 100 American Indian 4,800 1,100 1,100 300 100 100 500 300 200 300 200 100 2,500 200 300 800 200 500 500 -

1,883,300 1,616,500 635,400 605,200 16,600 13,500 123,900 24,900 71,300 14,000 13,800 131,000 66,300 37,100 7,400 9,300 11,000 61,600 11,300 5,100 25,900 7,800 3,800 7,600 931,500 43,900 46,600 145,700 249,800 53,900 195,400 190,800 5,300 539,300 514,200 14,200 10,900 107,900 22,000 60,500 13,300 12,000 114,100 54,900 34,100 6,800 8,600 9,700 50,800 10,500 4,300 20,500 6,900 2,900 5,700 804,400 38,100 39,000 124,800 205,900 46,700 173,400 172,300 4,100

Appe ndix A

rs in the U.S. labor force, by occupation, race/ethnicity, and highest degree: 1995
Page 2 of 2 Master's Black 26,200 Hispanic 24,600 A merica n Indian 1,800 Total 425,700 White 342,300 Doctorate Asian 61,300 Black 9,800 Hispanic 10,700 American Indian 1,500

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Appendix table 5-18. Scientists and engineers in the U.S. labor force, by occupation, race/ethnicity, and highest degree: 1995
Page 1 of 2 All degrees Occupation Total White Asian Black Hispanic 92,700 American Indian 8,100 1,700 1,300 100 300 700 400 100 100 800 400 300 100 1,500 100 900 100 400 3,400 300 400 900 300 800 600 100 Total 1,883,300 635,400 605,200 16,600 13,500 123,900 24,900 71,300 14,000 13,800 131,000 66,300 37,100 7,400 9,300 11,000 61,600 11,300 5,100 25,900 7,800 3,800 7,600 931,500 43,900 46,600 145,700 249,800 53,900 195,400 190,800 5,300 White 1,616,500 539,300 514,200 14,200 10,900 107,900 22,000 60,500 13,300 12,000 114,100 54,900 34,100 6,800 8,600 9,700 50,800 10,500 4,300 20,500 6,900 2,900 5,700 804,400 38,100 39,000 124,800 205,900 46,700 173,400 172,300 4,100 Bachelor's Asian 132,200 47,500 46,100 200 1,100 7,200 700 5,200 200 1,000 7,700 5,500 1,300 200 100 500 2,600 100 400 1,200 300 100 600 67,300 2,600 4,200 12,400 24,900 2,000 11,100 9,300 900 Black 72,400 29,200 26,700 1,200 1,200 4,300 1,100 2,800 100 300 5,600 4,400 300 200 200 600 5,800 400 200 2,900 400 600 1,300 27,500 1,100 1,800 2,900 9,300 3,200 4,700 4,300 200 Hispanic 56,300 17,800 17,000 400 300 4,300 1,000 2,600 200 500 3,100 1,300 1,100 200 400 200 2,000 400 100 1,100 200 100 100 29,000 1,800 1,600 5,300 8,800 1,700 5,200 4,500 100 American Indian 4,800 1,100 1,100 300 100 100 500 300 200 300 200 100 2,500 200 300 800 200 500 500 -

Science and engineering total...................................................................................… 3,256,200 2,728,300 315,200 110,200

Computer/mathematical sciences...................................................................................… 23,600 966,200 797,700 102,500 40,100 Computer/information sciences...................................................................................… 21,100 854,800 705,600 92,600 33,900 Mathematical science...................................................................................… 2,500 38,500 32,000 2,700 800 Postsecondary mathematics...................................................................................… 72,900 60,100 7,200 3,600 1,700 Life and related sciences...................................................................................… 311,500 261,900 30,200 9,800 Agricultural/food science...................................................................................… 44,200 38,200 2,700 1,500 Biological science...................................................................................… 172,800 140,400 22,100 4,900 Environmental science...................................................................................… 100 20,700 19,800 300 Postsecondary life science...................................................................................… 73,800 63,400 5,100 3,300 Physical and related sciences...................................................................................… 281,800 238,100 27,700 8,000 Chemistry...................................................................................…15,200 113,900 90,300 5,600 Earth science...................................................................................… 73,100 66,300 3,600 700 Physics...................................................................................… 3,700 30,100 25,600 300 Other physical science...................................................................................… 300 17,300 15,300 1,000 Postsecondary physics...................................................................................… 47,400 40,600 4,100 1,100 8,800 1,700 4,900 300 1,900 7,100 2,500 2,200 400 600 1,400

Social and related sciences...................................................................................… 321,500 281,200 11,900 16,700 10,100 Economics...................................................................................…2,000 34,100 28,900 1,200 1,900 Political science...................................................................................… 9,000 7,300 800 300 600 Psychology...................................................................................… 169,000 151,900 3,200 8,500 4,600 Sociology...................................................................................… 600 16,300 14,800 600 200 Other social sciences...................................................................................…1,100 12,700 10,700 500 300 Postsecondary social science...................................................................................… 2,500 80,300 67,600 4,800 5,000 Engineering...................................................................................… 1,375,200 1,149,300 143,000 35,700 Aerospace engineering...................................................................................… 75,200 64,200 5,900 1,700 Chemical engineering...................................................................................… 2,500 72,900 59,700 8,300 Civil engineering...................................................................................… 203,000 167,300 24,000 3,600 Electrical engineering...................................................................................… 369,600 294,900 48,900 11,900 Industrial engineering...................................................................................… 3,400 71,900 62,000 3,900 Mechanical engineering...................................................................................… 261,200 223,300 23,700 5,900 Other engineering...................................................................................… 289,900 254,300 22,400 5,900 Postsecondary engineering...................................................................................… 31,500 23,600 5,800 900 See explanatory information and SOURCES at end of table. 43,000 3,000 2,400 7,600 13,000 2,100 7,000 6,700 1,100

Appendix table 5-18. Scientists and engineers in the U.S. labor force, by occupation, race/ethnicity, and highest degree: 1995
Page 2 of 2 Master's Occupation Total White Asian Black Hispanic 24,600 American Indian 1,800 400 100 100 200 100 200 100 100 400 100 300 100 Total 425,700 54,600 22,500 7,700 24,500 104,400 9,700 59,500 800 34,500 80,700 26,600 10,600 14,500 2,700 26,100 113,900 7,100 1,200 48,400 3,100 3,000 51,000 White 342,300 42,200 16,900 5,900 19,400 84,700 7,700 45,500 800 30,600 65,700 19,500 9,300 11,900 2,400 22,600 100,500 5,700 1,000 44,600 2,900 2,500 43,800 Doctorate Asian 61,300 9,600 4,700 1,400 3,500 14,800 1,300 11,100 2,400 11,600 5,800 900 2,300 300 2,300 5,400 900 100 900 200 3,300 Black 9,800 1,200 400 100 700 1,900 100 900 900 1,400 600 200 100 500 4,200 100 1,400 100 200 2,300 Hispanic 10,700 1,400 500 300 600 2,800 500 1,800 500 1,700 700 100 200 600 3,100 400 100 1,100 200 1,300 American Indian 1,500 200 100 100 200 200 200 100 700 100 300 400

Science and engineering total...................................................................................… 915,700 743,200 119,500 26,200

Computer/mathematical sciences...................................................................................… 4,500 273,600 214,100 45,100 9,300 Computer/information sciences...................................................................................… 3,600 224,500 172,600 41,500 6,500 Mathematical science...................................................................................… 1,100 14,300 11,900 1,100 100 Postsecondary mathematics...................................................................................… 34,800 29,700 2,600 1,700 800 Life and related sciences...................................................................................… 65,200 54,700 6,500 2,500 Agricultural/food science...................................................................................… 9,600 8,400 700 300 Biological science...................................................................................… 33,600 27,300 4,700 900 Environmental science...................................................................................… 5,900 5,700 Postsecondary life science...................................................................................… 16,300 13,400 1,100 1,300 Physical and related sciences...................................................................................… 69,800 58,000 8,300 1,000 Chemistry...................................................................................… 3,900 20,900 15,800 700 Earth science...................................................................................… 25,400 22,800 1,400 200 Physics...................................................................................… 1,200 8,100 6,900 Other physical science...................................................................................… 5,200 4,300 600 Postsecondary physics...................................................................................…100 10,200 8,200 1,300 Social and related sciences...................................................................................… 138,000 122,800 3,800 6,200 Economics...................................................................................…1,000 15,600 12,700 800 Political science...................................................................................… 2,700 1,900 300 Psychology...................................................................................… 89,900 82,500 1,100 3,700 Sociology...................................................................................… 300 5,500 5,000 100 Other social sciences...................................................................................… 200 4,900 4,400 200 Postsecondary social science...................................................................................… 19,500 16,200 900 1,500 1,100 100 500 100 400 2,200 500 900 100 200 600 4,800 1,200 400 2,200 1,000

126

127

Appendix B
Employment, by IT Occupation, 1999-2002 Percent Percent Percent Education/ Occupation 1999 2000 2001 2002 change change change training Total 6,237,460 6,469,860 6,151,170 5,953,470 3.70% -4.90% -3.20% -Computer and Information Systems Managers 280,820 283,480 267,310 264,790 0.9 -5.7 -0.9 High Engineering Managers 248,210 242,280 214,760 205,390 -2.4 -11.4 -4.4 High Computer and Information Scientists, Research 26,280 25,800 25,620 24,410 -1.8 -0.7 -4.7 High Computer Programmers 528,600 530,730 501,550 457,320 0.4 -5.5 -8.8 High Computer Software Engineers, Applications374,640 287,600 361,690 356,760 30.3 -3.5 -1.4 High Computer Software Engineers, Systems Software 209,030 264,610 261,520 255,040 26.6 -1.2 -2.5 High Computer Support Specialists 462,840 522,570 493,240 478,560 12.9 -5.6 -3 High Computer Systems Analysts 428,210 463,300 448,270 467,750 8.2 -3.2 4.3 High Database Administrators 101,460 108,000 104,250 102,090 6.4 -3.5 -2.1 High Network and Computer Systems Administrators 204,680 234,040 227,840 232,560 14.3 -2.6 2.1 High Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts 126,060 98,330 119,220 133,460 21.2 5.7 5.9 High Computer Hardware Engineers 60,420 63,680 67,590 67,180 5.4 6.1 -0.6 High Electrical Engineers 149,210 162,400 151,300 146,180 8.8 -6.8 -3.4 High Electronics Engineers, Except Computer 123,690 106,830 123,210 126,020 15.8 -0.4 2.3 High Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technicians 242,160 244,570 220,800 194,960 1 -9.7 -11.7 High

INSERT APPENDIX B

128

Average Annual Wages Per Worker, by IT Industry, 2001-2002
Annual Average Wages 2001 2002
$36,160 $68,330 $104,810 $95,050 $89,570 $86,320 $88,530 $82,270 $81,410 $77,540 $78,820 $75,950 $70,240 $70,740 $83,090 $67,190 $64,700 $60,830 $65,750 $61,240 $59,270 $63,620 $58,600 $57,630 P r e tc a g ec n $58,220 hne 1 9 $55,110 9 92 0 - 00 $55,650 $56,970 $52,290 $53,700 $48,060 $49,660 $46,790 $47,950 $43,800 $43,990 $44,210 $42,560 $39,550 $38,680 $35,040 $36,520 $67,440

Rank (2002)

NAICS Code

IT-Producing Industries

Change %Change 2001-02 2001-02
$360 -$890 1.0% -1.3% -5.1% -2.1% 3.0% -1.0% -4.2% 0.7% 1.5% -1.9% -3.7% -1.2% 5.2% 3.1% -16.6% 2.4% 0.4% 5.7% -2.4% 2.9% 2.6% -4.5% 2.2% 3.9% Pr n ec 1.9%e t cag hne 3.0% 0 20- 02 0 12 0.3% -4.6% 2.3% -1.5% 7.4% -0.1% 4.4% 0.1% 1.9% -0.4% -1.0% 2.0% 8.2% 3.5% 7.7%

Average All Private Industries Average All IT-Producing Industries

1 511210 Software Publishers 2 334111 Electronic Computer Manufacturing 3 334611 Software Reproducing 4 333295 Semiconductor Machinery Manufacturing 5 423430 Computer and Software Wholesalers 6 334112 Computer Storage Device Manufacturing 7 334113 Computer Terminal Manufacturing 8 541511 Custom Computer Programming Services 9 334413 Semiconductor and Related Device Manufacturing 10 541512 Computer Systems Design Services 11 334515 Electricity and Signal Testing Instruments 12 334210 Telephone Apparatus Manufacturing 13 518111,12 ISPs and Web Search Portals 14 334119 Other Computer Peripheral Equipment Manufacturing 15 334516 Analytical Laboratory Instrument Manufacturing 16 517410,910 Satellite and Other Telecommunications Services 17 541519 Other Computer Related Services 18 334220 Broadcast and Wireless Communications Equipment 19 517110 Wired Telecommunications Carriers 20 541513 ixD Computer Facilities Management Services Ap n pe d e , b ITOc p t n 1 9 - Office Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing s y 21 u aio , 9 92 0 c 532420 02 22 333313 Office Machinery Manufacturing 23 334411 Electron Tube Manufacturing 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 24 517310 Telecommunications Resellers 25 $ 35 3 518210 Data Processing, Hosting, and95 9 Related Services $ 11 5 4, 4 $ 73 8 4, 2 $ ,4 4 5, 9 26 7517212 Cellular and2 0 44 0 ,3 8, 5 0 Other Wireless Telecommunications 8, 9 38 0 9, 4 04 0 27 8334513 Industrial8 ,4 0 Process Control Instruments 15 0 ,6 5 5 8, 0 89 0 9, 4 57 0 71 0 ,8 7and ,3 7, 7 6 8, 2 05 0 28 6443120 Computer 34 0Software Retailers9 0 49 0 ,6 6 Cable 0 7 6 9 2 6, 9 36 0 29 5335921 Fiber Optic,9 0 Manufacturing,8 0 57 0 ,8 0 0 7 7 2 7 0 3 30 6334613 Magnetic7 ,3 0 and Optical Recording ,3 0 Manufacturing,8 0 Media 6, 3 62 0 7, 9 08 0 7, 9 44 0 7, 4 58 0 31 3334310 Audio and96 0 Equipment Manufacturing Video 94 0 ,1 3, 8 4, 2 19 0 4, 3 23 0 32 5334418 Printed Circuit Assembly 79 0 ,2 6, 1 12 0 6, 1 37 0 6, 0 49 0 33 5811213 Communication Equipment Repair 0 Maintenance 90 0 25 0 ,5 5, 1 58 0 5, 2 84 and 5, 9 5, 9 00 0 5, 9 36 0 5, 4 64 0 5, 2 76 0 34 334415,6,9 Misc. components 57 0 ,1 5and ,9 0 0 6, 0 13 35 5811212 Computer 78 0Office Machine 6 ,3 0 and Maintenance 8 Repair 69 0 ,6 7, 0 7, 1 43 0 7, 5 61 0 36 6517510 Cable and01 0 Program Distribution Other 6, 2 15 0 6, 2 63 0 6, 3 86 0 7, 7 04 0 37 334417 Electronic Connector Manufacturing 6, 1 34 0 6, 9 64 0 6, 1 97 0 7, 1 16 0 38 3334412 Bare Printed1 Circuit Board Manufacturing 93 0 ,9 4, 0 12 4, 2 32 0 4, 2 42 0 39 2334414 Electronic21 0 Capacitor Manufacturing0 10 0 ,7 2, 7 2, 4 27 2, 9 31 0
3, 9 12 0 4, 3 11 0 3, 6 61 0 4, 9 34 0 3, 6 28 0 4, 2 25 0 3, 9 71 0 4, 9 44 0 3, 2 41 0 4, 6 43 0 3, 1 91 0 4, 4 58 0 3, 3 90 0 2, 0 39 0 2, 8 60 0 2, 7 81 0 2, 3 30 0 2, 4 63 0 3, 8 07 0 2, 7 34 0 3, 0 48 0 4, 5 55 0 4, 7 07 0 4, 7 71 0 3, 6 95 0 2, 3 46 0 2, 2 65 0 2, 4 91 0 2, 2 32 0 2, 2 71 0 3, 4 16 0 2, 0 34 0

$99,440 -$5,370 $93,020 -$2,030 $92,260 $2,690 $85,470 -$850 $84,840 -$3,690 $82,810 $540 $82,610 $1,200 $76,080 -$1,460 $75,870 -$2,950 $75,070 -$880 $73,900 $3,660 $72,940 $2,200 $69,270 -$13,820 $68,770 $1,580 $64,980 $280 $64,280 $3,450 $64,200 -$1,550 $63,010 $1,770 $60,810 $1,540 $60,770 -$2,850 $59,860 $1,260 $59,850 $2,220 ec n t $59,350 P r e $1,130 cag hne $56,790 0 -2 0 $1,680 2 0 01 0 $170 87 $55,820 .% 47 .% -$2,640.5 7$54,330 . 8 4 $1,210.0 4$53,500 . 8 4 9$52,870 . 3 4 -$830.8 1 . $51,630 09 3 $3,570.1 69 . 2 $49,590 -$70.9 70 . 51 . $48,850 $2,060.6 07 . 5 $60.1 5$48,010 . 7 4 $850.7 6$44,650 . 2 4 7$43,820 . 2 5 -$170.1 3$43,770 . 9 4 -$440.2 47 . 6 $43,430 $870.0 78 . 35 . $42,790 $3,240 49 . 48 . $40,020 $1,340.9 46 . 4 $37,750 $2,710.6 52 . 2
50 . 34 . 28 . 23 . 63 . 51 . 31 . -. 13 54 . 67 . 45 . 41 . 38 . 43 . 52 . 30 . 26 . 41 . 62 . 37 . 42 . 34 . 46 . 48 .

Eu ai n d c to / t an g rii n r qi e e t e u mn* r 33 .% 78 . 77 . 46 . 13 . 20 . 18 . 10 . 19 . 12 . 21 . 18 . 25 . 27 . 27 . 23 . 20 . 20 . 27 . 42 . 29 . 14 . 30 . 17 . 34 . 08 . 30 . 28 . -. 03 Hh ig Hh ig Hh ig Hh ig Hh ig Hh ig Hh ig Hh ig Hh ig Hh ig Hh ig Hh ig Hh ig Hh ig Hh ig Md r t o eae Md r t o eae Md r t o eae Md r t o eae Md r t o eae Md r t o eae Md r t o eae Md r t o eae Md r t o eae Lw o Lw o Lw o Lw o

Estim ates derived fromBLS Covered Em ploym and Wages data. ent
3, 9 57 0 Department 2, 4 18 0 2, 3 38 0 2, 4 75 0 2, 7 09 0 2, 8 38 0 2, 7 81 0 2, 1 15 0 3, 5 80 0 Commerce,5 2, 0 29 Digital 2, 6 45 0 2, 7 71 0 2, 0 21 0 2, 8 54 0 2, 3 94 0 2, 0 24 0

Source:

of

2003

129

Appendix E
Information Technology- Related Occupations Occupation Engineering managers Description of Duties Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as architecture and engineering or research and development in these fields.

Computer and information systems Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as electronic data managers processing, information systems, systems analysis, and computer programming. Computer and information scientists, research Computer programmers Conduct research into fundamental computer and information science as theorists, designers, or inventors. Solve or develop solutions to problems in the field of computer hardware and software. Convert statements of problems and procedures to flow charts for coding into computer language. Develop and write programs to store, locate, and retrieve data and information. May program web sites. Develop, create, and modify general computer applications software or specialized utility programs. Analyze user needs and develop software solutions. Design software or customize software for client use. May analyze and design databases within an application area. Research, design, develop, and test operating systems-level software, compilers, and network distribution software for a variety of computing applications. (medical, industrial, military, general) Set operational specifications, formulate, and analyze software requirements. Provide technical assistance to computer system users. Answer questions or resolve computer problems for clients in person or via telephone. May provide assistance in the use of computer hardware and software, including printing, installation, word-processing, electronic mail, and operating systems. Analyze science, engineering, business, and all other data processing problems for application to electronic data processing systems. Analyze user requirements, procedures, and problems to automate or improve existing systems. May analyze or recommend commercially available software. Coordinate, test, and implement changes to computer databases using database management systems. May plan, coordinate, and implement security measures to safeguard computer databases. Install, configure, support, monitor, and maintain an organization's local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), and Internet system. May supervise network support and client server specialists and plan, coordinate, and implement network security measures.

Computer software engineers, applications

Computer software engineers, systems software

Computer support specialists

Computer systems analysts

Database administrators

Network and computer systems administrators

130

(Continued Appendix E)
Information Technology- Related Occupations Occupation Network systems and data communications analysts Description of Duties Analyze, design, test, and evaluate network systems, such as local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN), Internet, intranet, and other data communications systems. Research and recommend network and data communications hardware and software. Include telecommunications specialists who deal with the interfacing of computer and communications equipment. May supervise computer programmers. Research, design, develop, and test computer or computer-related equipment for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. May supervise the manufacturing and installation of computer or computer-related equipment and components. Design, develop, test, or supervise the manufacturing and installation of electrical equipment, components, or systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. Research, design, develop, and test electronic components and systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. Design electronic circuits and components for use in fields such as telecommunications, aerospace guidance and propulsion control, acoustics, or instruments and controls. Apply electrical and electronic theory, usually under the direction of engineering staff, to design, build, repair, calibrate, and modify electrical components, circuitry, controls, and machinery for subsequent evaluation and use by engineering design staff. Operate data entry device, such as keyboard or photo composing perforator. Duties may include verifying data and preparing materials for printing. Repair, maintain, or install computers, word processing systems, automated teller machines, and electronic office machines, such as duplicating and fax machines.

Computer hardware engineers

Electrical engineers

Electronics engineers, except computer

Electrical and electronic engineering technicians

Data entry keyers

Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers

Telecommunications equipment Set-up, rearrange, or remove switching and dialing equipment used installers and repairers, except line in central offices. Install and repair telephones and other installers communication equipment. Electrical and electronics repairers, Repair, test, adjust, or install electronic equipment, such as industrial commercial and industrial controls, transmitters, and antennas. equipment

(Continued Appendix E)
131

Information Technology- Related Occupations Occupation Electrical power-line installers and repairers Description of Duties Install or repair cables or wires used in electrical power or distribution systems. May erect poles and light or heavy duty transmission towers.

Telecommunications line installers String and repair telephone and television cable, including fiber optics and repairers and other equipment for transmitting messages or television programming. Electrical and electronic equipment Assemble or modify electrical or electronic equipment, such as assemblers computers, test equipment telemetering systems, electric motors, and batteries. Electromechanical equipment assemblers Semiconductor processors Assemble or modify electromechanical equipment or devices, such as servomechanisms, gyros, dynamometers, magnetic drums, tape drives, brakes, control linkage, actuators, and appliances. Perform any or all of the functions in the manufacture of electronic semiconductors, including loading semiconductor material into furnace; sawing formed ingots into segments; cleaning, polishing, and loading wafers into series of special purpose furnaces, chemical baths, and equipment used to form circuitry. Provide information by accessing alphabetical and geographical directories. Assist customers with special billing requests, such as charges to a third party and credits or refunds for incorrectly dialed numbers or bad connections. Operate telephone business systems equipment or switchboards to relay incoming, outgoing, and interoffice calls. Compile, compute, and record billing, accounting, statistical, and other numerical data for billing purposes. Prepare billing invoices for services rendered or for delivery or shipment of goods. Monitor and control computer and peripheral electronic data processing equipment to process business, scientific, engineering, and other data according to operating instructions. May set controls on computer and peripheral devices. Monitor and respond to operating and error messages.

Communications equipment operators

Billing and posting clerks and machine operators Computer operators

Source: Department of Commerce, Digital 2003, from Bureau of Labor Statistics

132

APPENDIX F Information Technology Training: Practices of Leading Private-Sector Companies Align it training with business goals • • • • • Identify and assess it training needs • • • • • • • Allocate it training resources • • • • • Enlist executive-level champions (sponsorship) to ensure that training strategies are incorporated into corporate decision-making and aligned with business goals Involve critical stakeholders, such as top management, business unit managers, subject matter experts, human capital staff, and end users, in planning it training Address future skill needs and new technologies as part of the planning process Identify and document competencies/skills required for each job description Maintain a current inventory of skills Address overall career development issues as well as skillspecific training issues Perform a gap analysis to determine where training is needed Use self-directed tools, such as individual development plans, to give employees responsibility in assessing their development needs Use a single portal to give staff and managers access to training and career development information Ensure that an investment process is in place to select and manage training projects Consider the benefits and costs associated with various training design and delivery methods—e.g., Internet-based as opposed to classroom training Identify people who have high potential and provide them specialized training opportunities Ensure that resources are allocated for management training—e.g., leadership and project management

(Continued Appendix F) Appendi x I Information Technology Training:
133

Practices of Leading Private-Sector Companies

• Design and deliver it training

Evaluate/demonstrate the value of it training

Provide it trainees with the flexibility to choose among different it training delivery methods • Ensure that on-the-job training is planned and monitored as part of the training process • Consider combining different teaching methods (for example, Web-based and instructor-led) within the same course • Provide just-in-time training • Consider outsourcing training solutions—e.g., university partnerships and external it training and content providers Build courses using reusable components • Collect information on how job performance is affected by training • Validate it content learning by testing and certification of specific skills—e.g., Java or C ++ • Assess evaluation results in terms of business impact.

134

Appendix G IT Manufacturing and IT Services Industry Employment Trends 1993-2002
Employment (000s) 1993 1994 189 34.6 24.2 57.9 24.8 96.7 210.5 16.4 175.9 35.5 24.7 61.6 24.5 102 217 16.7 1995 166.2 37.7 25.8 65.8 24 115.3 231.5 18.2 1996 165.7 38.5 26.1 74.3 22.9 123.8 255.5 17.4 1997 172.6 39.6 26.8 77.8 21.9 132.1 272.9 17 1998 178.3 39 26.6 78.4 20.7 134 279.9 15.9 1999 171.3 40.5 25.5 72.8 20.6 126.5 268 15.2

INSERT APPENDIX G

135

Appendix H- Tip Sheet Career Action Steps for African-American Women in Corporate Management Based on the extensive experience of Catalyst with companies, we know that creating lasting organizational change involves making change on multiple levels: the organizational level, managerial level, and individual level. Based on our knowledge about African-American women in particular, Catalyst has developed the following action steps for individual African-American women to help you succeed as change agents. First, choose your employer with thoughtfulness and care. • Your company determines to what extent you can serve as a change agent. Look carefully at the culture and values of each potential employer, including a demonstrated commitment to the advancement of women and racial/ethnic minorities. • Find out about the representation of women and ethnic minorities in corporate officer Positions or, if you are in a firm, the representation of women and ethnic minority partners. • Solicit input from your informal networks about a company’s reputation, and check if the company ranks in popular press lists, including Fortune magazine’s annual issue on “Best Companies for Minorities” or Working Mother Media’s “Best Companies for Women of Color.” Use the list of web sites included in the report as an additional resource. • To the extent possible, speak with men and women who work there to learn whether the company’s culture supports diversity and those trying to balance work and personal lives. • Once you have narrowed down your choices, find out how the company and the person who would oversee your work handles assignments, performance evaluations, and other issues that are important to you. Establish and communicate your credibility, experience, contributions, and value to your organization. • Successful women tell Catalyst that performance is the bottom line, no matter where you work, no matter what your field—for men and women alike. Delivering more than people expect and impressing them over and over again is how you build a track record and gain influence. When building your credibility, preparation is key. For example, gain support before you actually need it. If you are proposing a new idea at an upcoming meeting, share your ideas with colleagues and gain some buy-in prior to the meeting. Also share your ideas with your peers and mentors before sharing them with management to get useful feedback. In order to communicate your ideas more succinctly during presentations and meetings, prepare and practice what you will say ahead of time. Consider asking a close colleague or peer to observe a practice-run of your presentation and provide you with feedback. (Continued Appendix H- Tip Sheet)
136

In addition to establishing credibility, it is equally important to let your supervisor and the people you’re working for know about your progress, results, and accomplishments. Don’t be afraid to toot your own horn. Tell others about your skills, abilities, career interests, and goals. Increase your visibility by promoting your skills, and do not hesitate to demonstrate your expertise.

TOOL: Be Your Own Mentor 1 1 Sheila W. Wellington and Catalyst, Be your Own Mentor, ( Random House, New York 2001) Address assumptions and biases through small wins. Rather than overt biases—such as inappropriate jokes, hostile confrontations, or overt discrimination—stereotypes, assumptions, and biases most commonly occur in the form of subtle, sometimes unspoken, and often unconscious, devaluing messages. These messages are called “micro-inequities,” and they have a powerful impact on our interactions with others in the workplace. • The first step in addressing micro-inequities and biases in any environment is to become aware of them. Pay attention to the subtle messages you may be sending, as well as those you are picking up from other employees. For example, pay attention to your body language and ask yourself, “What messages am I sending?” • Develop a plan for handling encounters with discrimination and racism in your company. When addressing such encounters, use effective communication to foster cooperation rather than animosity. For example, don’t immediately respond to a stereotypical comment. Instead, take some time to decide whether it is best to respond to the person who made the comment immediately or at a later time, and whether it is best to address them in public or in private. You may gain some understanding of the person who makes these types of comments simply by asking him or her, “Why do you say that?” or “Why do you think that?” • Before acting in response to hostile behavior, try writing your response down or rehearsing it out loud to a friend to see if it addresses the issue professionally rather than emotionally. Similarly, try to develop non-antagonistic responses to remarks you may hear again and again. Always maintain an air of professionalism. • When responding to stereotypical comments or jokes—whether directed at you or someone else— stay within appropriate behavioral boundaries. Try to address the issue without sounding accusatory and focus on dealing with the problem in a rational manner. Honing your communication approach will allow you to influence the culture without compromising your reputation. If such inappropriate jokes are ongoing and reoccurring, inform Human Resources about what’s going on.

(Continued Appendix H- Tip Sheet)
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Be open to people when they ask questions about your culture. Your coworkers may have a genuine interest in or curiosity about your culture—don't assume they intend to be offensive. Try to become more comfortable talking to your colleagues about your culture and background. If a colleague asks a question you feel is phrased in an offensive manner, suggest a better way of asking the question. In certain cases, it may be best to seek assistance from others or to consult with your Human Resources office, especially if you feel the situation is hostile. It may also be helpful to seek out a support group or professional help, as repeated exposure to discrimination can be stressful and detrimental to mental and physical health.

TOOL: Micro-Inequities: The Power of Small 2 Learn the rules of your company. Often times, many of these rules are unspoken. Learn from watching those around you. For example, ask yourself, “What style of clothing do most people wear?” or “Do people openly socialize in the office?” Learn how to balance your ethnic identity with that of the company. Share with others the value, depth, and breadth of your culture. Help inform colleagues about your cultural practices and the diversity within your ethnic group. Become more comfortable inviting your coworkers to learn more about your culture. For example, organize a lunch at your favorite restaurant or recommend a novel for your next book club meeting that represents your culture. 2 For more information on micro-inequities, read “Micro-Inequities: The Power of Small,” Profiles in Diversity Journal (2001, Summer): p. 6 Gain access to networks, mentors, and role models, and develop your relationships with your manager and coworkers. Get involved in a formal network or start your own. Find other African-American women in your company or profession who may be interested in sharing in this effort. This report provides a list of professional associations for help in connecting with other African-American professionals. While it’s important to find network members from your own racial/ethnic group, it is also important to connect with those from other racial/ethnic groups. If you are already involved in an intra-company network, attend another network’s meetings with a few people from your own network, and find ways to work together and build coalitions. Even though many intra-company formal networks may have a targeted membership, it is typical for them to be open to all employees who wish to participate. Network with everyone and become more comfortable stepping outside of your comfort zone. Don’t limit your network to those who share your racial/ethnic background. Simply inviting one person to coffee or lunch is a modest but effective way to build your network.

(Continued Appendix H- Tip Sheet)
138

Take the initiative and introduce yourself to other employees. While formal networks are important, informal networks are also important. Create an informal network outside of your company that you can rely on for social support. This could consist of colleagues working in other companies. Look for informal network members among friends, family, professional associations, sororities, and at conferences. Informal network members can provide advice on task, career, and personal issues. TOOL: Creating Women’s Networks 3 • Become involved in your company’s mentoring program. If your company does not have a mentoring program in place, find your own mentor. Take the initiative; request mentoring or seek out senior-level people who could point you in the right direction. Seek out a mentor who has some power and be patient, as securing a mentor may take some time. A mentor can help you adjust to organizational culture and provide crucial advice for career development. • Remain open-minded when seeking out allies. Sometimes allies can be found in places where you least expect them. Don’t limit yourself to allies who are from the same racial/ethnic background; consider mentoring or being mentored by someone from a group other than your own. Be open to the possibility of having a variety of mentors; search for mentors inside and outside of your organization and from different racial/ethnic and gender groups. When establishing cross-race or cross-gender mentoring relationships, identify your commonalities. • Connect with your company’s diversity task force. This task force can help identify role models or mentors with whom you may not be familiar because they work in another division or location. Rally others to work with your company’s task force to foster and create cultural awareness. Black History Month, which is February, is an opportunity to do so. Establish productive and trusting relationships with the people with whom you work. This is not always easy, especially if different styles are involved. Have discussions with your boss and colleagues about your and their expectations and preferred work styles. Learn to carry out your work in ways that meet the most critical needs of all constituencies while considering each person's preferred work style. • Ask for feedback on your performance so you can learn and grow. When completing assignments ask your manager and/or supervisor for feedback on your performance. Set up meetings to discuss your growth and development within the company. Let your supervisor or manager know what your interests are and if there are any special projects you would like to be considered for or take the lead on. 3 For more information on building a formal network, see Catalyst, Creating Women’s Networks (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999).

(Continued Appendix H- Tip Sheet)

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TOOL: Harvard Business Review’s Managing Your Boss 4 Be an advocate. Being a lever for change involves creating more inclusive behaviors, but moving up the corporate ladder also involves developing others’ professional status. This can be accomplished by being an advocate for a colleague or mentee. • Highlight your colleagues’ accomplishments. • Provide your peers with helpful feedback on their performance. • Encourage other African-American women to pursue opportunities they may not at first see as suitable for them. • Create mentoring opportunities. • Help other African-American women establish broader knowledge bases. • Share Advancing African-American Women in the Workplace: What Managers Need to Know with other African-American women. Encourage them to review these action steps, as well as the business case for developing and advancing African-American women. TOOL: Catalyst Making Change series, “Moving Women of Color Up the Ladder;” and “Becoming a Diversity Champion” 3 For more information, see J.J. Gabarro and J.P. Kotter, Harvard Business Review “Managing Your Boss,” (1993).

Source: From Catalyst

APPENDIX I

140

Identifying and Assessing Needs
Case Study IT Professional Program guides career development. Background The IT department of a manufacturing company found that it needed well-rounded it staff with the skills that allowed them to be effective in the business environment, not just in technical areas. Challenge To develop balanced, well-rounded IT professionals rather than narrowly focused technicians. Solution The company developed the “IT Professional Program,” which creates a career ladder to a technical position at the senior executive level. The program is used to guide and evaluate the career development of it professionals. Competencies are identified in six categories, only one of which is technical: • Leadership (e.g., facilitation capabilities, persuasiveness, developing others) • Innovation (e.g., strategic thinking, applying new skills) • Effectiveness (e.g., teamwork, customer consciousness, prudent risk taking) • Communications (e.g., written and personal communications, negotiation) • Business processes (e.g., corporate-specific processes, it division processes) • Technical and business domain (e.g., job-specific technical skills) Employees advance based on their proficiency in the competencies. Because the objective is to develop balanced, well-rounded staff proficient in nontechnical and technical skills, all six evaluation categories are weighted equally. Salary determination is based on the lowest-scoring category. The company provides formal training through a corporate university, on-line courses, and courses at local colleges, but it also uses on-the-job training, since company staff believe that formal training provides only a small part of what an employee needs to know to perform effectively.

(Continued Appendix I)

141

Reported Result The it Professional Program has helped develop well-rounded it staff who understand the business and can work well with other staff and business units. Other benefits are improved retention and morale, because career ladder steps are well defined, employees understand what they need to do to get promoted, and there is a full career ladder up to a senior level are allocated for management training—e.g., leadership

source: From GAO

142

APPENDIX J Career Resources
American Academy of Environmental Engineers (AAEE) www.enviro-engrs.org American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) www.aaas.org American Ceramic Society (ACERS) - www.acers.org American Council of Engineering Companies (ACEC) - www.acec.org American Institute of Architects (AIA) - www.aiaonline.com American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) - www.asee.org American Society for Healthcare Engineering (ASHE) - www.ashe.org American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) - www.asce.org American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) - www.ashrae.org American Society of Highway Engineers - www.highwayengineers.org American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) - www.asme.org American Society of Naval Engineers - www.navalengineers.org American Society of Plumbing Engineers (ASPE) - www.aspe.org Associated Soil and Foundation Engineers (ASFE) - www.asfe.org Association for Women in Science (AWIS) - www.awis.org Association of Energy Engineers - www.aeecenter.org Association of facilities Engineering (AFE) - www.afe.org Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF) - www.cerf.org Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) - www.ieee.org Institute of Noise Control Engineering (INCE) - http://users.aol.com/inceusa/ince.html Institute of Transportation Engineers (itE) - www.ite.org International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering www.geoinstitute.org
(Continued Career Resources - Appendix J) 143

National Academy of Engineering - www.nae.edu National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) - www.nace.org National Council of Structural Engineers Associations (NCSEA) - www.ncsea.com National Engineers Week - www.eweek.org National Science Foundation - www.nsf.gov

National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) - www.nspe.org Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) - www.same.org

Minoritiy Engineering Organizations American Indian Council of Architects and Engineers (AICAE) - www.aicae.org American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) - www.aises.org American Association of Blacks in Energy (AABE)- www.aabe.org Black Alum of Mit - www. bamit.org Black Data Processor Association, www.bdpa.org National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering (NACME) - www.nacme.org National Association of Black Telecommunications Professionals, www.nabtp.org National consortium for Graduate Degrees for Minorities in Engineering and Science (GEM) - www.nd.edu/~gem National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE) - www.nsbe.org Nation of Islam Student Association – www.noisa.noi.org RedIbis, www.redibis.org Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) www.sacnas.org Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers (SHPE) - www.shpe.org Society of Mexican American Engineers and Scientists (MAES) - www.macs-natl.org
Quality Education for Minorities (QEM) Network - http://qemnetwork.qem.org
Source: From Information Technology of America, ITAA

144

ENDNOTES

145

i

Bureau of Labor Statistic, U.S. Department of Labor, 2003 Forbes_com IT Employees Well-Paid, In Demand.htm, Lisa DiCarlo, June, 8, 2004

ii iii

www.nationalcenter.org /Civil Rights Brown v_ Board of Education I (1954).htm
iv

Education Is No Protection, Bob Herbert, New York Times, January 26, 2004

v

CAWMSET, Congressional Commission on the Advancement of Women, & Minorities in Science, Engineering and Technology Development, Land of Plenty, Diversity as America’s Competitive Edge in Science, Engineering and Technology, September 2000
vi

www.uvm.edu/`klcarpen/schoolwork.html, pg 4 www.uvm.edu/`klcarpen/schoolwork.html, pg2 www.uvm.edu/`klcarpen/schoolwork.html, pg 2

vii

viii

ix

www.uvm.edu/`klcarpen/schoolwork.html, pg 3 www.uvm.edu/`klcarpen/schoolwork.html, pg 3

x xi

http://yildiztur.blogspot.com/2003_10_19_yildiztur_archive.html
xii

Study Unemployment rate may be aggravated by prison population - 2002-08-20 - Silicon Valley-San Jose Business Journal.htm
xiii xiv

Civilian Labor Force data, March 2002.

Fairris, David and Lee J. Alston. 1994 “ Wages and the Intensity of Labor Effort: Efficiency Wages Versus Compensating Payments.” Southern Economic Journal 61(1): 149-60.
xv xvi

McCrate, Elaine, Working Mothers in a Double Bind, Economic Policy Institute, pg. 4

Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering 1998 - Chapter 5 - Employment Minority Scientists and Engineers.htm
xvii xviii

Women, Minorities can fill more High-tech jobs, Network World, 7/17/2000

Vaas, Lisa, As Salaries Slump, Women IT pros Lose Ground, eWeek, Feb. 22, 2002
xix

Current Population Survey. "Usual Weekly Earnings of Wage and Salary Workers, Fourth Quarter 1998."
xx

1997 Economic Census
xxi

Women of Color- Their Employment in the Private Sector: The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, July 28, 2003
xxii

Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering 1998 - Chapter 5 - Employment - Minority Women.htm, www.nsf.gov
xxiii

Clarence Lusane, Persisting Disparities: Globalization and the Economic Status of African-American s , 2 Law Journal 431-450, 436-439 , 450 (Spring 1999)
xxiv

Howard

GLOBALIZATION AND EMPLOYMENT, A Public Lecture by Jeffrey Sachs - International Institute for Labor Studies.htm.gov
xxv

Globalization and Employment,Frank Stilwell.

xxvi

US Census Bureau, The Black Population, March 2002

xxvii

Outsourcing's long-term effects on U.S. jobs at issue, John Cook, Paul Nyhan, SEATTLE POST- INTELLIGENCER REPORTERS, March 10, 2004
xxviii

The Wall Street Journal Classroom Edition - Special Coverage Understanding Outsourcing.htm

xxix

Offshore Outsourcing Global Economy Devalues U_S_ Developers.htm Who's Outsourcing.htm 03-11-03 - The L-1 Visa New Tool To Dispossess Americans.htm, Paul Craig Roberts America's Working Poor Testify on the Impact of Free Trade - CIO Opinion - CIO.htm

xxx

xxxi

xxxii xxxiii

Lawmakers Introduce Anti-Outsourcing Bill.htm
xxxiv

03-11-03 - The L-1 Visa New Tool To Dispossess Americans.htm
xxxv

www.taemag.com/issues/articleID.17875/article_detail.asp, Hot Flash, by Paul Mrockowski
xxxvi

www.cio.com/archive/090103/ backlash.html , Backlash- Offshore Outsourcing – Politics-backlash against globalization London’s Sunday Times on January 18, 2004., Irwin Stelzer
xxxvii

Offshore Outsourcing Global Economy Devalues U_S_ Developers.htm
xxxviii xxxix

www.cio.com/archive/090103/ backlash.html Backlash- Offshore Outsourcing – Politics-Backlash Against Globalization

xl xli

Outsourcing's long-term effects on U_S_ jobs at issue.htm

NCPA EXECUTIVE ALERT MJ95 Technology Creates Jobs.htm
xlii

Dig 2003\Digital Economy 2003.htm, U.S. Deparment of Commerce
xliii

Careers Information Technology Management @ The University of Minnesota, Crookston.htm
xliv

Careers Information Technology Management @ The University of Minnesota, Crookston.htm
xlv

Technet, www.technet.org/technetissues/global_competitiveness/
xlvi

gender\scifaq.htm
xlvii xlviii

Technet, www.technet.org/technetissues/global_competitiveness/ CertMag_com.htm

xliv JUSTNET - Success Stories.htm xlv www_GovExec_com - Shortage of computer security experts hampers agencies (6-10-04).htm vExec_com Official Technology won't stand in way of transfer of threat analysis (6-11-04).htm, William New xlvi www_GovExec_com - Shortage of computer security experts hampers agencies (6-10-04).htm vExec_com - Official Technology won't stand in way of transfer of threat analysis (6-11-04).htm, William New xlvii DOD Moves to Improve Software Assurance.htm

HIMSS (Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society)2.htm xlix JHITA has formed the Public Policy Committee to identify current federal policy issues that effect l jhita.org/index li CertMag_com.htm lii Gaining Competititve Advantage.htm, Richard T. Alpert, Ph.D., President, Diversity Resources, Inc. liii www.Forbes_com, it Employees Well-Paid, In Demand.htm , Lisa DiCarlo liv miller@ulm.edu luse@ulm.edu , Advancing the IS Curricula: The Identification of Important Communication Skills Needed by IS Staff During Systems Development lv CELCEE - Census Finds High Number of Black Female Entrepreneurs.htm lvi CELCEE - Census Finds High Number of Black Female Entrepreneurs.htm lvii U.S. Census 2001

xlix l li lii liii liv lv lvi lvii lviii lix lx lxi

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