Hand to hand combat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Hand to hand combat
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hand to hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H) is a generic term for close quarters fighting, particularly when the outcome is likely to be fatal, as in mêlée military combat or a duel. This distinguishes it from combat sport. Usually the phrase "hand-to-hand" (in Spanish Mano-a-mano) indicates unarmed combat or combat using improvised "field expedient" or muscle-powered weapons such as clubs or knives. Close combat is the common term for combat within close range. It may include lethal and nonlethal methods across a "spectrum of violence" or within a "continuum of force" as established by rules of engagement. Unarmed close combat is sometimes called combatives. Close combat with weapons may be called close quarter battle at the squad level. Current NATO terminology is to use MOUT for higher-level strategic and tactical considerations of urban warfare or MOOTW for "military operations other than war" such as peacekeeping or disaster relief.

Combatives FM 21-150 Figure 41, Vital Targets.

Combatives is a term used to describe various hybrid martial arts, which incorporate techniques from several different martial arts and combat sports. Unlike combat sports, such systems usually have limited sport application and often focus on simple techniques for use in self-defense or combat. As defined by US Army FM 21-150 Combatives: Hand-to-hand combat is an engagement between two or more persons in an empty-handed struggle or with handheld weapons such as knives, sticks, and rifles with bayonets. These fighting arts are essential military skills. Projectile weapons may be lost or broken, or they may fail to fire. When friendly and enemy forces become so intermingled that firearms and grenades are not practical, hand-to-hand combat skills become vital assets. Also known as hand to hand combat, close combat is the most ancient form of fighting known to man. A majority of cultures have their own particular histories related to close combat, and their own methods of practice. There are many varieties including martial arts, boxing, and wrestling. Other variations include the gladiator spectacles of ancient Rome and medieval tournament events such as jousting.

Contents
1 Military History 2 Civilian Instructors 3 See also 3.1 Books of Interest 4 External links

Military History
Military organizations have always taught some sort of unarmed combat for conditioning and as a supplement to armed combat. Even through major technological changes such as the use of gunpowder in the Napoleonic wars, the machine gun in the Russo-Japanese War and the trench warfare of World War I,

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Hand to hand combat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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hand-to-hand fighting methods such as bayonet remained common in modern military training though the importance of formal training declined after 1918. During the Second World War, bayonet fighting was often not taught at all among the major combatants; German rifles by 1944 were even being produced without bayonet lugs (see Cyrus Lee's SOLDAT books).

History of Warfare
Eras
Prehistoric · Ancient · Medieval · Gunpowder · Industrial · Modern

Battlespace
Air · Information · Land · Sea · Space

Theaters
Arctic · Desert · Jungle · Mountain · Urban

Weapons Sometimes called close combat, Close Quarters Combat, or Armoured · Artillery · Biological · Cavalry · Chemical · Electronic · Infantry · CQC, contemporary American combatives was largely codified Mechanized · Nuclear · Psychological · by William Ewart Fairbairn and Eric Anthony Sykes. Also Radiological · Ski · Submarine known for their eponymous Fairbairn-Sykes fighting knife, Tactics Fairbairn and Sykes had worked in the Shanghai Municipal Amphibious · Asymmetric · Attrition · Police (SMP) and helped teach the British armed forces [1] Conventional · Fortification · Guerrilla · (http://www.americancombatives.com/cqchistory.htm) a quick Hand to hand · Invasion · Maneuver · and effective and simple technique for fighting with or without Siege · Total · Trench · Unconventional weapons in melee situations. Similar training was provided to Lists British Commandos, the Devil's Brigade, OSS, U.S. Army Battles · Civil wars · Commanders · Rangers and Marine Raiders. Fairbairn at one point called this Invasions · Operations · Sieges · Tactics · Wars system Defendu and published on it, as did their American colleague Rex Applegate. Fairbairn often referred to the technique as "gutter fighting," a term which Applegate used, along with "the Fairbairn system." In practice, such military systems are the fruit of dozens and even hundreds of dedicated instructors and personnel, known and unknown.

Other combatives systems having their origins in the modern military include Chinese San Shou, Soviet sambo, and Israeli Krav Maga W. Hock Hochheim's The Scientific Fighting Congress. The prevalence and style of combatives training often changes based on perceived need, and even in times of peace, special forces and commando units tend to have a much higher emphasis on close combat than most personnel, as will paramilitary units such as police SWAT teams. De-emphasized in major militaries (except within the United States Marine Corps) after World War II, insurgency conflicts such as the Vietnam War, low intensity conflict and urban warfare tend to encourage more attention to combatives. The general discipline of close-proximity fighting with weapons is often called Close Quarters Battle (CQB) at the platoon or squad level, or Military Operations on Urban Terrain (MOUT) at higher tactical levels. The current Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) replaced the Marine Corps LINE combat system in 2002. The 2002 US Army field manual, written by Matt Larsen, put a much stronger emphasis on techniques such as Brazilian Jiujitsu which could be drilled for consistent individual skill and unit cohesion.

Civilian Instructors
Most civilian instructors in hand-to-hand combat train police, martial artists or combat sport athletes, but some may train civilians for private self-defense. The very things which make combatives well-adapted for military training (simplicity, ease of use, modest physical demands) also make it suitable in many ways for civilian self-defense, and the world's military forces train thousands of combatives instructors every year. Frequently emphasizing their law-enforcement, corrections or military background, many combatives instructors also offer training to law enforcement agencies, the military, private individuals, security guards or companies. Regulated in the United States much as private tutors, health clubs, private gun shops or private security agencies, some combatives systems are expanding into other markets and niches worldwide.

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Hand to hand combat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Some non-military systems may include basic training in edged weapons, baton, stick or firearm techniques such as point shooting. A partial list of such systems might include: Bartitsu (Edward William Barton-Wright's 1890s system) BlitzDefence (Developed in Germany, Based on the Leung Ting WingTsun™ System) Defendo (Bill Underwood's System; AKA Combato and Underwood Systems) Defendu (developed by William E. Fairbairn; AKA Close Quarters Combat System, Gutter Fighting, Fairbairn System) EBMAS (Emin Boztepe Martial Arts System), Kapap (having its origins in Israel, the Haganah movement) Keysi Fighting Method (from Jeet Kune Do) Model Mugging (feminist self-defense, also known as "Impact") Systema (Russian Martial Art) Wing Chun (Scientific-based Chinese Martial Arts System)

See also
Close combat Close quarters battle (CQB) Combat sport Combatives Duel Hybrid martial arts List of martial arts List of modern infantry-related terms and acronyms MCMAP Pugil stick Urban warfare

Books of Interest
Close Combat (MCRP 3-02B), USMC, February 1999. Commercial ISBN 1581600739 Get Tough! by William E. Fairbairn, 1942. Details basic commando techniques. Reprint ISBN 0873640020 Kill or Get Killed by Rex Applegate, 1943. Widely redistributed within the USMC from 1991 as FMFRP 12-80. ISBN 0873640845 In Search of the Warrior Spirit: Teaching Awareness Disciplines to the Green Berets by Richard Strozzi-Heckler. 3rd edition ISBN 1556434251 Fleet Marine Force Manual (FMFM) 0-7, Close Combat, USMC, July 1993. Combatives : FM 3-25.150 Commercial reprint of 2002 U.S. Army manual incorporates Brazilian JiuJitsu. ISBN 1581604483 Training Mission One, Training Mission Two, Training Mission Three Training Mission Four by W. Hochheim are the first four levels of a 10 level book series on Hand, Stick, Knife and Gun Self Defense. Also written by W. Hock Hochheim is Military Knife Combat and Unarmed vs. the Knife. Hock has 80+ dvds on the subject of self-defense and produces dvds by others on many defense topics through High Home Productions. They may all be purchased at www.HocksCQC.com/shop

External links
Excerpts from 1942 War Department FM 21-150 (http://www.bestjudo.com/brfm21-150.shtml) Articles on Self defence (http://www.martialedge.co.uk/) EBMAS (http://www.ebmas.net/) E-Budo forum on U.S .Army FM 3-25.150 (http://www.e-budo.com/forum/showthread.php?t=10166) International Close Combat Instructors Association (http://www.closecombatinstructors.com/closecombat-association.htm) United States Combative Arts Association (http://www.moderncombatives.org/pages/1/index.html)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hand_to_hand_combat

08.07.2006

Hand to hand combat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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U.S. Army 11th Infantry Regiment Combatives Training Center (https://www.infantry.army.mil/combatives/) US Army FM 3-25-150: Combatives (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/3-25-150/) Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hand_to_hand_combat" Categories: Hybrid martial arts | Military tactics

This page was last modified 23:06, 2 July 2006. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hand_to_hand_combat

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