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The Students Ability In Identifying Verbal Sentences And Nominal Sentences In A Reading Text A Case Study At The Eighth Grade Students Of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa

SKRIPSI Submitted in partial fulfillment of The requirement for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan

BY ERLIANI NIM JURUSAN PROGRAM STUDI : 06.04.3.01051 : BAHASA DAN SENI : PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS

DEPARTEMENT OF NATIONAL EDUCATION OF TEACHER TRAINING FACULTY OF SAMUDRA UNIVERSITY 2011

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1

THE BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Language is the primary instrument in our life. We use language to communicate to other people. In every life people use language as an effective communication in social activities. Forvarious purposes and reasons, every individiual uses language both spoken and written to convey their felling. In according oxford learners pocket dictionary language system of sound, word,ect. Used by human to communicate, thought and felling. A language which

function as asymbol of national and identity is by definition not just in language in the sense of being a means of communication in the community in which it is used. According to Samuel (1988 : 28) : Language can be used to say about someone, to report something or situation, without it, we might not communicate with each other. so we can conclude that language may be described as a means of conveying something that the user of language want to convey. In study English, every students would get skill that teach by teach. Skill are got as writing, speaking, reading and listening. Teacher should be able to apply various kind of methods decides to teach the students by using teaching aids. Acccording to Bambang Setia quoted by Mackey (1975 : 157): All teaching, whether good or bad, must include some sort of selection, some sort of gradition, some sort presentation and some sort of repetition. Teaching learning process, for instance,greatly has a big influence, from the performance of teacher in running the process of teaching learning. In according Elliana (2002 : 1), one of the famous educator mentioned in his book that : Teaching is it most commonly occurs involves a face relation between teacher and student. the acts of the teacher are influenced and selected on the basis of the experience gained in the usual teaching situation, which involve face to face contact. There are four skill are writing, listening, speaking and reading. Among skill, reading is the most important one because by reading, someone can get much information about this world from reading. And means is say aloud the words of books, magazine, newspaper ect. With many that we will more

knowlwdge. Reading is activity translate symbol, or word into word and which own meaning someone. According to Padang qouted by Kustaryo (1988 : 1) say that reading is one of most important skill in learning language beside listening, speaking, writing. Reading means getting the text as nearly as possible of the message that the writer puts into the text books. It means that the reader has the purpose in reading. Commonly, the aim of reading is to gain the knowledge and infermation from the text. On the other hand, the readers want to know the autors message. The statement is also support Padang qouted by Kustaryo (1988 : 1) that the fundamental goal for any reading activity is knowing enough science concepts and knowing the language. It means that the reader must understand and comprehened the material to get enough knowledge. According Yulia as quoted by Glend Doman (1988 : 8) Read from one function brain highest human and all creature in the world only get to read. In English we know grammar. Grammar is rules for forming word and making sentences. So we know verbal sentence and nominal sentence. According Hakim (a) Thursan, (2007 : 32) Verbal sentence is sentence contain to verb and nominal sentence is sentence dont contain verb, predicate non verb. But can contain noun, adjective or adverb. Th form of nominal sentence must insert auxiliary verb to be (is, am, are). Based on the explanation above, the writer will decide to conduct a research under the title The Students Ability In Identifying Verbal Sentences And

Nominal Sentences In A Reading Text A Case Study At The Eighth Grade Students Of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa.

1.2

The Problem Of Study Based on the problem of study which the writer shows above, the problem

of study are as follow : 1. What the difficulties the verbal and nominal sentence through reading? 2. What is the effective techique to teach reading in verbal sentence and nominal sentence of the text? 3. Can the students find verbal sentence and nominal sentence in the text?

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The Purpose Of Study The main purpose of study are as follow : 1. To find out difficulties verbal and nominal sentence through reading 2. To know effective technique to teach reading in verbal and nominal sentence of the text 3. To know students ability in finding the verbal sentence and nominal sentence in the text.

1.4

The Scope Of Study This writing is focused only on the ability of the Eighth Garde students of

SMP Negeri 5 Langsa in identifying verbal and nominal sentences.

1.5 1.5.1

Basic Assumption And Hypothesis Basic Assumption Basic assumption is an accepted principle and situation to be used as a

basic for drawing inference. 1. Reading is the skill that recognize and understanding about written language in use. 2. Choose reading materials influence the sucsessful of teaching reading process. 3. The idea of the text is writers want to say to the reader.

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Hypotesis Based the aim of this study the writer in writing thesis has some hypotesis

that can be draw as follow: 1. Some students have difficult to find verbal sentence and nominal sentence in the text. 2. Many students are confused about verbal sentence and nominal sentence in the text. 3. Some of students interest to study reading by using verbal sentence and nominal sentence.

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The Organization Of Study This study will be divided into five chapters:

Chapter one is introduction including the background of study, the problem of study, the purpose of study, the scope of study, the basic assumption, hypothesis and organization of study. Chapter two deals with the review of literature consist of definition of teaching, definition of reading, the reading process, the purpose of reading, advantages and disadvantages from reading, the role of teacher in teaching reading, definition or verbal sentence and nominal sentence. Chapter three concern with research methodology including the general description of research procedure, the application of teaching reading to

identifying nominal and verbal sentence, the procedure of data collection, the research undertaking. Chapter four concern with data analysis including data clasification, data analysis and exam chapter five deal with conclutions and suggestions.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1

Definition Of Teaching According to Nasseh (1996) : Teaching is still viewed as one teacher before

classroom of students with a total control of agenda. Teachers focus should be in improvement of the process of teaching and learning with commitment to the researches in the field. As a teacher, she should have many kind of duty, which must be done according to her profession. The main duty and the important thing. Which

become her responsible is to develop, stimulate and guide the students learning process. Every effort must be planned and done. An effective teacher that runs duty is a teaher who can motivate the students and develop it as optimally as possible. In teaching learning process as a teacher should have a strategy to teach the students to make them learn efficient and effectively, can reach the goal which expected. One of the step for having a good strategy is able to master the techniques presentation, or ussualy called techniques of teaching. Technique of lesson presentation is knowledge of how to teach or how to convey the material to the students in the class, which used by the teachers or instructors. This technique used for motivate the students to use thier knowledge to solve a problem, which they faced by or to answer the qeustions to make them able to think and thier own opinion. In the Oxford Learners pocket dictionary teaching meaning is work of a teacher. Other meaning teaching is a work do the teacher to give knowledge to student in the classroom. Teacher is lead students to process experience to study the means. That in the study, students require result from study that effetive to themselves. That for teacher must help, so at the time teacher must teach effective. We know many kinds of techniques of presentation from traditionally which use from many years ago until modern techniques, which use in recently. And the expert was doing the experiment contiunously to find out the effective techniques presentation to certain lesson.

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2.2

Definition Of Reading Reading is one of the important skill in learning language besides listening,

speaking, and writing. The fundamental goal to any reading activity is to know science concept and to know the language. There are some definition of reading. According to king and Scheiner (1985) reading is an active cognitive process of interacting with print and monitoring comprehension to establish the meaning. According to goodman in Kustaryo 1988 that reading is instantaneous association of these symbols with existing knowledge, and comprehension of the information and ideas communicated when a reader interacts with prints, his prior knowledge combined with print and the visual (written) information results in his comprehending the message. Reading text provides some information about all of events and activities of people in this world. The information that has been read will improve knowledge and science. There are various definition of reading . Here are definition of reading qouted from some book.. Mayer (2005:34) state that Reading comprehension is techniques for improving students success in extracting useful knowledge from a text. As defined by partnership for reading (2005) Reading comprehension is understanding a text that is read, or the process of construction meaning from a text. Comprehension is a construction process because it involves all of the elements of the reading process working together as a text is read to create a presentation of the text in the readers mind.

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Reading is the process of constructing meaning from written text. It is a complex skill requiring the coordination of a number of interrelated sources of information (Anderson reading is the process of constructing meaning through the dynamic interaction among : (1) the readers existing knowledge; (2) the information suggested by the text being read; and (3) the context of the reading situation (Wixson et all: 1987, Citing the new definition of reading for Michigan). From the definition above, the writer concludes that reading comprehension means understanding what has been read, the readers is expected to understand the text completely. It is an active thinking process that depends on not only comprehension skills but also on students prior knowledge to understand the message communicated. Reading is combination of word recognition, intellect and emotion interrelated with pior knowledge to understand the message communicated, and all of them offer usefull insights into intruction, and thus support, decisions developing classroom procedures. Reading comprehension means understanding a written text by extracting the required information as efficiently as possible. Some people realize that to read is not only look for information but also to read is to understand what a writer means. In the other words we can say that reading is an exercise which uses eyes and brain. Both eyes and brain have their own functions. The eyes receive the messages and the brain has to work out the significance of these message.

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For further features of reading, here some key ideas which are proposed by Heilman (1986 : 4) 1. Reading is interacting with the language that has been coded into print 2. Reading is a language process 3. The product of interacting with the printed language should be comprehension 4. Reading is an action on going process that affected directly an individual interaction with his environment 5. Reading ability is closely related to oral language ability. From another statement Smith (1980 : 105) state that the process of reading involved both extraction and the supply of information. The basic skill of reading lies in more than in non- visual information that we supply from inside our head rather than in the visual that bombards us from print. In this case of cognitive process, Callahan and Clark (1988 : 245) defines Reading as a thingking process, since its central aspect is extrading meaning from print. Futhermore, Nunan (1999 : 249) state Reading involves processing ideas generated by other are transmitted through language. It also involves highly cognitive processing operations. Some experts also view reading is an interpretation between the author and reader. Reading defines as The attaining meaning as result of the interplay between perceptions of graphic symbols that represent the language and memory traces of the readers past, verbal and non-verbal experiences by Haris and Sipay (1986 : 27).

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There are many reasons why getting students to read English text is an important part of the teachers job. In the first place, many of them want to able to read text English either for thier careers, for study purposes or simply for pleasure. Anything we can do to make reading easier for them must be a good idea. Reading is useful for other purposes too: any exposure to English (provided student to understand) this is a good thing for students language. At least, some of language sticks in their mind as part of the process of language acquisition and if the reading text is especially intersting and engaging, acquisition is likely to be even more succesful.

2.3

The Reading Process People whose hobby is reading think that reading is one of their daily

activities. When a reader does reading, language information flows from a writer to the reader in the sense that the writer has a message to send and transmit it through a text to the reader who then tries to interprete its meaning. To comprehend the writers message, the reader goes through a process of reading. This reading process, which often depicts the act of reading as a communication event between the writer and the reader, has been developed. It describes the ways that the reader uses language information to construct meaning from the text. Generally speaking, there are three models of reading process: bottom-up, topdown, and interactive. The three models will be briefly explained as follows:

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1) Bottom-up Model of Reading. The first model of reading assumes that the process of translating a text to meaning is initiated by decoding graphic symbols into sounds. Therefore, to apply this model, a reader first identifies features of letters; links these features together to recognize letters; combines letters to recognize words; and then proceeds to sentence, paragraph (Vacca, et al., 1991). Moreover, reading comprehension according to this model is an automatic outcome of accurate word recognition. The followers of this model have argued that reading is essentially the translation of graphic symbols into an approximation of oral language (Harris and Sipay, 1984). 2) Top-Down Model of Reading. As the second model of reading, Top-Down model of reading assumes that the process of translating a text to meaning begins with readers prior knowledge. The process in then initiated by making predictions about the meaning of some unit of the text. The readers decode graphic symbols into sounds to check out hypotheses about meaning they construct (Vacca, et al., 1991). Reading according to this model is a process involving the use of available cues selected from perceptual input on the basis of the readers predictions. As the information is processed, tentative decisions about meaning can be confirmed, rejected, or refined as reading progresses. In addition, meaning is obtained by using as much information as necessary from the graphic, syntactic, and semantic cue systems (Harris and Sipay, 1984; Vacca et al.,1991).

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3) Interactive Models of reading The last model of reading assumes that the process of translating a text to meaning involves the use of both the and the second model of reading. Therefore, both the text and prior knowledge are needed in this model. The reading process using the last model is initiated by making prediction about meaning and/or decoding graphic symbols. The reader then formulates hypotheses based upon the interaction of information from semantic, syntactic, and graph phonemic sources of information (Vacca, et al., 1991).

2.4

The Purpose Of Reading Reading is an activity with a purpose. A person may read in order to gain

information of verify existing knowledge, or in order to critique a writers ideas or writing style. A person may also read for enjoyment, or to enhance knowledge of the language being read. The purpose (s) for reading guide the readerss selection of texts. The purpose for reading also determines the appropriate approach to reading comprehension. A person reading poetry for enjoyment needs to recognize the words the poet uses and the ways they are put together, but does not need to identity main idea and supporting details. However, a person using a scientific to support an opinion needs to know the vocabulary that is used, understand the fact and cause-effect sequences that are presented, and recognize ideas that are presented as hypotheses and givens. It is likely that he uses at leas one of the following group of activities stated by Geddes (1985:2); a). Understand,

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decipher, identify, etc., b). Decode, decipher, identify, etc., c). Articulate, speak, pronunciation, etc. To understand a reading text, reader need not have to read every word in a given piece of writing. The text is not simply a passive object, fed with letters, word and sentences, but is actively working on the text and is able to arrive at understanding without looking at every letter and word. Reading research supports the view that the effeicient reader generally reads in groups of words, not word by word or letter by letter. The word reading is often used to describe both what the beginners do when they are learning to read and what good readers do when they engaged in fluent reading. It should be obvious, that what may be true of reading at some particular level of proficiency may be true of reading at some particular level of proficiency may not be true at much higher or much lower level. Heilman (1986 : 18) states : Appropriateness will helps his reading and give positive effects, the objectives he wants to obtain such as the information on the main idea from whole material. In general, the purpose of reading are from the text into; 1. Getting general information from the text 2. Getting specific information from the text 3. Reading for pleasure According Nunan as quoted by Rivers and Temperly (1978 : 187) suggest that there are seven main purpose for reading : 1. To obtain information for some purpose or because we are curious

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about some topic 2. To obtain instruction on how to perform some task for our work or daily life 3. To act in a play, play a game, do a puzzle 4. To keep in touch with friends by correspondence or to understand businness letters 5. To know when or where something will take place or what is available 6. To know what is happening or has happened 7. For enjoyment or excitement. 2.5 The Principles of Teaching Reading Harmer (1998) has identified six principles of teaching reading which are considered beneficial for teachers. These principles are briefly described as follows: (1) Reading is not a passive skill. Reading is an active process of thinking. To do it successfully, we have to understand what the words mean, see the pictures the words are painting, understand the arguments, and work out if we agree with them. If we do not do these things and if the students do not these things then we only just scratch the surface of the text and we quickly forget it. (2) Students need be engaged with what they are reading. This principle implies that, students who are not engaged with the reading text not actively interested in what they are doing are less likely to benefit from it. Matching

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the reading tasks with the passage is what the teacher should do to bring the students into self-engagement. (3) Students should be encouraged to respond to the content of a reading text, not just to the language. It is important to study reading text for learning language, but the meaning, the message of the text, is just as important so that students should be provided with opportunity to respond to it. Letting students express their feelings about the topic will provoke engagement with the message and the language. (4) Prediction is a major factor in reading. When we read we frequently have good idea of the content before we actually read. Book covers, photographs, and headlines give us hint about the text before we read a word. At the moment we get these hints, our brain starts predicting and the active process of reading is ready to begin. In teaching, teachers should give hints so that the students can predict what is coming. It will make them better and more engaged. (5) Match the tasks to the topic. After selecting reading text for students to read, we need to choose good reading tasks to accompany the text. Good reading, tasks involves the right kinds of questions, engaging and useful puzzles etc. The most interesting text can be undermined by asking boring and inappropriate questions; the most commonplace passage can be made really exciting with imaginative and challenging tasks. (6) Good teachers exploit reading text to the full. Any reading text is full of sentences, words, ideas, descriptions, etc. It does not make sense just to get the

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students to read it and then drop it to move on to something else. Good teachers integrate the reading text into interesting class sequences, using the topic for discussion and further tasks, and using the language for study and later activation.

2.6

The Role Of Teacher In Teaching Reading Mikulecky as quoted by Mahon (1986 : 98-99) states that: Methodology a side, the teacher is the most important element in a reading

class, for her attitude influences students and their perfomance. The teacher of this component (reading) should provide her students. But Mahon left out one essential element of the teachers role, that of model reader. Mikulecky as quoted by Nuttal (1982 : 192) points out, Readers are made by readers. She states : For disadvantaged students, you may be only reader they meet- the only person from whom they can catch reading. It showing that you are a reader means carriying books around with you, referring to books as you teach, reading out brief passages that may interest srudents, talking about what you are reading at the moment, and handling books as if you loved them. Being a reader means reading. Another aspect of is the teachers role as model interpreter is cultural (Van Dijk and Kintch 1983 ; Healt 1984), the teachers modeling of native-speaker- like comprehending is essential, in class during individual conferences with students.

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Still another aspect of this is the teacher as model thinker. Reading is problem problem solving (see, i.e, Olshavsky 1976), and the teacher can serve as a model by thinking aloud as she introduces new rading skill and strategies.

2.7. Principal Parts Part of Verb Allen (1987:75) explains English has three main time division, Past, Present and Future, expressed by the simple tenses. They should be shown as forming three main blocks of tenses, each being subdivided so as express other aspect within its general time. Azar (1993:21) explained: English verbs have four principle form or parts. Simple Past Simple Past Form Participle Finish Finished Finished Regular Stop Stopped Stopped Verbs Wait Waited Waited Play Played Played Try Tried Tried Irregular Verbs See Make Sing Eat Put go Saw Made Sang Ate Put went Seen Made Sung Eaten Put gone

Present Participle Finishing Stopping Waiting Playing Trying Seeing Making Singing Eating Putting Going

1. The simple form The simple form is the form that is found in a dictionary. It is the based form with no endings on it (no final s,-ed,- or ing). 2. The simple past The simple past form ends in ed for regular verb. Most verb are regualar, but many common verbs have irregular past form. 3. The Past Participle The past participle also ends in ed for regular verbs. Some verb are regular. It used in perfect tenses and the passive. 4. The present participle

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5. The present participle ends in ing for both regular and irregular verbs. It is used in progressive tense (e.g., the present progressive tense and past progressive tense.

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Definition Of Verbal Sentence And Nominal Sentences In the English, all sentence must cotain of verb. For sentence do not

contain of verb, must use helping verb. The verbal form of the predicate determines the role of the noun(s) following it. Depending on what the marker in the verb is (e.g. um, in, an, etc.) the nouns that follow are marked as being the actor, object, instrument, etc. (For a detailed discussion of the verb forms, go to the grammar section on verbs.) In the verbal sentence and nominal sentence use 16 tenses. According to Hakim (a) Thursan (2007 : 32) Verbal sentence is sentence the contain of verb. While nominal sentence is sentence non verb. Nominal sentences begin with nominals (nouns, pronouns, etc.) and verbal sentences begin with verbs. (www.seasite.niu.edu/.../Sentences1/verbal_sentences, accessed on October 15th 2010). A more functional definition is that a nominal sentence contains the roles of subject and predicate , whereas a verbal sentence contains the roles of verb and subject. We can study it in the example below : 1. Simple present is used to express habitual or everyday activity. Verbal Sentence Verbal sentence is a sentence has verb: S + V1 + Object + Adverb

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Has, he, it (does) ; they, we, you (do) Example : - Mr. Saleh writes a letter - She loves facebook - You learn english - Mega study with her friends - I drink coffe

Nominal Sentence : Nominal sentence is a sentence has no verb. S + TO BE (is, am, are) + NON VERB + Object + Adverb She, He, it (is); We, You (are); I (am) Example: He is strong She is clever The house is tall He is many money The bread is good

2. Present perfect continous is how event have done and in progress to the present or now. Verbal Sentence : S + Has/ Have + been + V ing + Object + Adverb

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Example : Mando has been eating this morning Nominal Sentence : S + Has/ Have + been + Being + Non Verb + Object + Adverb Example : Mando has been being in dining room this morning

3. Simple Past is an activity or activity or situation that did at a particular time in past. Verbal Sentence : S + V2 + Object + Adverb She, he, it, we, they, you, I (did) Example : Tompuls father died yesterday Nominal Sentence : S + was/were + Non Verb + Object + Adverb She, he, it, I (was); we, they, you (were) Example : Tompul was sad yesterday.

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH PROCEDURE

3.1. The Location and Condition of The School The writer took the research location for Skripsi is at SMP Negeri 5 Langsa. It is located on Jalan Jenderal Ahmad Yani Lorong Pusri Gampong Teungoh Kecamatan Langsa Kota Provinsi Aceh. The school is a famous school in Kota Langsa, like a green school, SMP Negeri 5 Langsa has good performance with its buildings are surrounded by many trees and flowers. SMPN 5 Langsa far away from noisy but it take place is not far from Langsa town.

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3.1.1.The School Background 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name of school Number date of SK Penegrian Status and NSS NRS NPSN Address : SMP Negeri 5 Langsa : 0206/0/1980, 30 July 1980 : Negeri, 2010603033003 : 2075539 : 10105739 : Jln. Jend. A. Yani Lr. Pusri Kp. Teungoh Kec. Langsa Kota 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Province District Number of room Number of class Number of lesson time Number of teacher Number of administration staff Number of students : Aceh : Langsa Kota : 17 rooms : 16 class : 36/week : 50 teachers : 24 staffs : 535 students

3.1.2.The Background of Teacher A good teacher doesnt merely design organize the activities but also the teacher must know how teach in teaching learning process it is what Came and Came (1997: 124) in their book, Educative on The Edge of Possibility states: Teacher sure that the students have potential and students capability to study and to be succesful are something that must be pay attention the good aspect

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of teacher mentality give a big influence to the learning process and students opinion that created by the teahcer and we know that students fell and attitude will involve and give a big influence to the learning process. The statement show that the role of a teacher is very dominate in teaching it depend much on the teacher way of teaching method and behind in forwarding of knowledge to the students. Teachers play an important role in teaching learning process in the classroom. SMP Negeri 5 Langsa is supporting with 50 teachers, a lot of professional teachers in there. They were various thought to transfer their knowledge. A good teacher does not merely imagine that teaching is just to organize a series activities in a group of the students in the classroom but should realize that they are central part of the whole activities. This means that the role of teacher is very dominant in teaching. It depends very much on what the teacher way on method used transferring their knowledge to the students. Beside the appointment of English Teacher must be in accordance with skill and experience, in experience teacher or one who does not have the skill of teaching English will make mistake repeatedly. They not know how to perform the presentation of English subject as good as possible. In order words, the role of teacher in teaching learning situation will determine very much the students ability in mastering the subject or lesson being taught. There are some factors of teacher personality that influence students achievement in mastering lesson, such as: the background of teachers, education and his initiative increasing his knowledge.

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The table below shows us the background of English teachers, education of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa. Table 3.1. The English Teachers at SMP Negeri 5 Langsa and Their Knowledge Background of English Academic Year 2010 - 2011 Name Syafruddin Renniyati, S.Pd Suliantini, S.Pd Eka Trisna Moenandar, S.Pd Education PGLSSP B. Inggris S1 FKIP B.Inggris S1 FKIP B. Inggris S1 FKIP B. Inggris Year of Background 1980 1997 2006 2009

(Source: Monty Report Of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa, 2011).

According to the table above, it is clear about the situation of the English teacher of the school. The background of English knowledge of the teachers task is to teach English lesson can not to manage a motivation a classroom situation. It means that is not good relationship between teacher and students leads the students learning the subject seriously. From the data above we can draw the conclusion that SMP Negeri 5 Langsa has enough the English teacher. So, to get the purpose a good teaching learning process is satisfying.

3.1.3.Staffs There are 24 staffs in SMP Negeri 5 Langsa. It consisted of 7 permanent staffs and the rest about 17 are more most non permanent staffs. The table below is showing the distribution of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa Staff.

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Table 3.2. The Staffs of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa Academic Year 2010- 2011 Status Permanent Staff Non Permanent Staff TOTAL Total 7 17 24

(Source: Monty Report Of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa, 2011).

3.1.4. Students When the research was done academic year 2010- 2011, SMP Negeri 5 Langsa has 535 students. The students are consisted 272 male and 263 female students. The students come from all the areas in Langsa District. Most of students live, far from school, generally they go to school by motorcycle, but some of them go by cycle, bus and foot that is why most of them cant follow the activities as maximal. Further more, the students has the other activity after going home such as English or Computer course. In the teaching learning process, a good teacher doesnt merely design organize the activities it is what Skinner (1986 : 2) state That the teacher play that the active role of the transmitter he save his experience he give and the students take. Table 3.3. The Number of Students of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa Academic Year 2010 2011 Class VII Male Students 96 Female Students 94 Total Students 190

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VIII IX Total

100 76 272

93 76 263

193 152 535

(Source: Monty Report Of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa, 2011)

3.1.5.The Facilities Facilities are very important to support teaching learning process. In addition, the writer will give some information about the school facilities that are available at SMP Negeri 5 Langsa. The school building has one floor which consists of 17 classes for studying. Many facilities had prepared at SMP Negeri 5 Langsa.

3.1.6.Curriculum and Text Book Curriculum include one of the main factors that determines the teaching learning proces, at least the Enligsh teacher know the aims of teaching English at the school. As we know, all materials that are though to students should be based on the English Curriculum. The Curriculum KTSP demand to the teacher have knowledge how to present a material in order to suit the purpose described in curriculum. The teacher must select the topic, method, media of presentation, before standing in front of class. No syllabus can exactly suit any class without being modified to comply with the situations, condition and the necessities of the students hence, we must to learn how to prepare and arrange different types of syllabus complying with each of levels or classes in which you are assigned and you are teaching objectives. From outlining the frame work and content of syllabus to selecting important topics.

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SMP Negeri 5 Langsa is using the curriculum of KTSP, it is the competency based curriculum. The need to support teaching learnig process in the school. Students of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa are using the English text book that have suitable. They use Contextual English 2 text book. The students of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa understand and easy in learning Contextual English text book, because the words use in the book not difficult and use many pictures each theme to give information. Beside Contextual English 2 text book, students use LKS to practice sometimes.

3.2. Population and Sample 3.2.1.Population According to Oxford Learners Pocket Dictionary (2000: 333) Population is number of people living in a particular country, city, etc. The population of this study is students of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa. SMP Negeri 5 Langsa has 16 classrooms, 5 classrooms for the seventh grade, 6 classrooms for the eighth grade and 5 classrooms for the ninth grade. The students total about 535 students.

3.2.2.Sample Talking about the sample, Sax (1979: 80) states A sample is limited number of element from a population to be representative of that population. Because there are so many students it will have to observe or get the data. So, it is quite difficult for the writer to take all of the numbers of population. That is

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why, the writer just took one class as a sample. That is class XI - 4 of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa and those are 38 students.

3.3. Methodology The subject for this study were students of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa. The writer met the English teacher before teaching and giving the test to get the data, which is helpful, the writer conducts the experiment. Before the writer taught in SMP Negeri 5 Langsa, the writer firstly did observation. The writer observed the teaching and learning activities of the students in the classroom to get information about teachers way in teaching. The data for this study were collected test given at the end of the experiment. The writer choose one class of the eighth grade students. The total number of the students who took the test was 38 students. Ability in understanding nominal and verbal sentence is a good way to make students to be active to read English. The writer takes procedure using library and field research. On the library research, the writer searched information from some books to collect any information related to the topic. In field research, the writer did experimental teaching into one class directly in SMP Negeri 5 Langsa. In order to get data and to know the influence of this technique to students, the writer conducted the experimental teaching, observation, interview and gave questionaires to the students.

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3.3.1.Experimental Teaching In this case, the writer will practice analysis of students ability in understanding part of speech to the eight grade studetns who are in the academic year 2010/2011. The writer conducted experimental teaching in order to apply the method and technique in analysis of students ability in understanding part of speech. The writer believes that the students would like this way. Through experimental teaching, the writer hopes the studnets have new perspective about the way to learn and how to increase their ability, particularly English Reading.

3.3.2.Test The writer conducted pre-test to the students in the first meeting and in the end of the experimental teaching as the post-test. The result of the test is to find out how far increase of students understanding about the part of speech after they got experimental teaching and to know the language skill are emphasized in this teaching method.

3.3.3.Observation To get more data, the writer also conducts an observation. Observation had done to the eighth grade students of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa. The writer observed environment of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa because environment influenced teaching learning process. Beside that, the writer observed teaching learning process when

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English teacher that is Mrs. Eka Trisna Moenandar, S.Pd taught there. The writer observed how far the students reading ability are. Based on observation, we can see that the students are enthusiasm to practice English reading.

3.3.4.Interview Interview is one effective technique in getting information about the condition or situation of the school. The writer interviewed the English teachers of that school to find out some information needed about the students ability in reading and also about the techniques and methods that ever used in that school in teaching English. The result of interviewed with the teacher states that a lot of students shy to practice reading English, it caused by their bad pronunciation. This case must make the teacher working hard in English teaching process.

3.3.5.Instruments To process the data, the writer uses a statistical formula by Mueller J.K (1990: 83). P=
F 100% N

Explanation : P F N 100% : Percentage : Frequency : Number of Students : Static Score

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3.4. The Process of Analysis in Identifying Verbal Sentences And Nominal Sentences In A Reading Text To get the data accurately, the experiment was collected at SMP Negeri 5 Langsa. From the beginning on March 9th 2011 the writer teaches at SMP Negeri 5 Langsa. The writers choose eight grade students of the school. The writer gave them to tasks to part of nominal and verbal sentence. They were try about direction and recognize some nominal and verbal sentences from the reading text. The first meeting, the writer introduces myself to the students and told students the purpose doing the research. The writer gave pre-test. Pre test spends any time, because the writer like asked questions about students. The purpose the writer was the students can recognize nominal sentence and verbal sentence from the English text. And then the writer asked to the students about the problem in reading and English grammar practice when their teacher taught in the class. According to Brunfit (1984 : 30) the reading tasks, will help to develop learners skills and they also will contribute to learners linguistic development. In other words, reading tasks are important for both fluency and accurancy. They aid fluency by enabling learners to activate their inguistic knowledge for use in natural and spontaneous language, such as when taking part in a conversation. They contribure to accuracy (i.e. linguistic competence) by enabling learners to discover new linguistic from during the course of communicating and also by increasing their control over already acquired forms. The second meeting, the writer explained to the sudents about how the way taught the writer did. The writer asked to the students about the English Nominal and Verbal sentences. Do you know what is nominal or verbal sentence?, .

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Students said that they know both of nominal or verbal sentence then they gave the sample both of them.. The writer taugth about reading text. A script of the English text is read by the students. The writer chooses a simple of English text to read by students, because the writer thinks that a simple text or story is easy to practice and understand by students. The students can make a conclusions if they are understand about the text read. Then, the students be able to recognize and know about kinds of the sentence built in the text like nominal sentence or verbal sentences. The role of teacher in this study is very important. In this case, teacher is a create in the classroom. The teacher as a monitor, guided during the activities to be done. The writer made the text script that contains the nominal and verbal sentences. Then, the writer asked the students one by one to mention the nominal or verbal sentences that he find from the text script. During the activities, there were some students make mistakes when mentioned it direction. Students mistaken are no problem to the writer, because the important aim was the students not shy to speak out their word eventhough false. Then, they made a good sentences from that words find in the text. As a foreign language, English is still difficult to practice by student, so that way it is no problem when students make mistake in practicing it.

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CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS

4.1. Procedure of Data Collection Procedure of Data Collection is through the method as mentioned in the chapter one that is through library research and field research. In the field research, the writer conducted the experimental teaching directly to the sample that is students of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa were sitting in Academic year of 2010/2011. There were one class of the eight grade students, but in doing the test, the writer

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took one class. The writer get to kinds of result score, there are pre test and post test. The result score and the analysis are as follow : Table 4.1. The Result of the Test No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Name of Students Ade Ivan Ramadhan Agus Mulya diki Alfi Syahri Angga Reza Kusuma Anita Safitri Anita Sahputri Ardi Lesmana Awita Hamdani Cut Firda Arsya Depri Arisandi Eva Handayani Evi Sri Wulandari Fatia Ulfia Putri Habibibullah Ibrahim Intan Permata Sari Irzan Irwansyah Khairul M. Adrianto M. Reyza Khalid Mahyudi Mariani Pre-Test Score 70 60 80 60 80 55 50 50 50 50 50 55 55 60 65 60 60 60 60 65 60 65 Post Test Score 80 85 75 75 70 65 80 70 80 90 60 65 65 60 65 70 70 60 80 60 70 75

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23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

Mistika Ranadani Nasrullah Nurhaliza Puspa Ningrum Putri Nadea Reni Novita Sari Rudian Setiawan Siti Raudatul Jannah Sri Devi Siregar Syahril Ramadhan Syahrul Ramadhan Ulfa Khairani Viki Rangga Pradana Winda Lestari Rara Marsyita Firdaus Total Mean (Source : SMP Negeri 5 Langsa, 2011)

60 60 60 75 60 70 65 50 60 50 50 70 60 65 70 50 2295 60.39 2675 70.39

60 70 60 80 60 70 65 85 65 70 60 80 70 65 75 70

Based on Table above we can see that the highest scores is 80 and the lowest score scores is 50.

The percentage result above, processed by formula (Mueller JK, 1990:83). P=


F 100% N

Explanation : P: F: Percentage Frequency

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Number of Students Static Score

100% :

4.2. The Data Analysis The analysis the score of test, following is the data analysis : 1. Pre Test a. Determine the range of the score RS = Hs - Ls Where Rs Hs Ls : : : : The Range of Score The Highest of Score The Lowest Score

Based on the score result, the range for pre test is: Rs = = = Hs - Ls 80 - 50 30

b. Determine the class K = 1 + 3,3 log N Where : K: N: The number of class interval The number of students

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So, the class interval for pre test is : K = = = = = 1 + 3,3 log N 1 + 3,3 log 38 1 + 3,3 (1,579) 1 + 5.2107 6,2107 (rounded up 6)

Based on the range, the class interval for pre test is: Class interval (1) =
Range Class

= =

30 6

Based on the class interval, the writer could tabulate the score of pre test into the tabulation of frequency as follow : Table 4.2. The Tabulation of Pre Test Score Class Interval (I) 50 - 55 56 - 61 62 - 67 68 - 73 74 - 79 80 - 85 Total Frequency (f) 0 8 7 10 4 9 38 x 52.5 58.5 64.5 70.5 76.5 82.5 405 Fx 0 468 451.5 705 306 742.5 2295 F (%) 0.00 21.05 18.42 26.32 10.53 23.68 100

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c.

Find Out The mean Score M =

Fx
N
2295 38

= = 2. Post Test a.

60,4 (rounded up 6)

Determine the range of the score Based on the score result, the range for post test Rs = = = Hs - Ls 90 - 60 30

b. Determine on the range, the class interval for post test is: Class Interval (I) =
Range Class

30 6

= 5 Based on the clas interval, the writer could tabulate the score of post test into the tabulation of frequency as follow :

Table 4.3. The Tabulation of Post Test Score Class Interval (I) 60 - 65 Frequency (f) 15 x 62.5 Fx 937.5 F (%) 39.47

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66 - 71 72 - 77 78 - 83 84 - 89 90 - 95 Total

10 4 6 2 1 30

68.5 74.5 80.5 86.5 92.5 465

685 298 483 173 92.5 2669

26.32 10.53 15.79 5.26 2.63 100

c.

Find out the mean score Based on the post test score below is mean score of post test is : M =

Fx
N
2669 38

= =

70,24 (rounded up 70)

4.3. The Data Analysis of Questionaire There are some techniques applied in collecting the data about the problems faced by students and teachers. They are interview and questionnaire. Interview is given to the English teacher and students. The questionnaire is given to students of the eight grade students of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa in year of academic 2010/2011. The data are obtained from distribution of the questionnaire to the students. They can be explained in the following tables. The table 4.3, we can know the students opinion about the teaching.

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Table 4.4. Students Opinion About Learning of Nominal Sentence Options a. Difficult b. More Difficult c. Not So Difficult Total Frequency 12 9 17 38 Percentage (%) 31.58 23.68 44.74 100

The table above shows us that there were 12 students (31,58%) who said that learning English verbal sentence is difficult, 9 students (23,68%) who said that learning English nominal sentence is more dfficult and 17 students (44,74%) who said that learning English nominal sentence is not so difficult. Table 4.5. Students Opinion About Learning of Verbal Sentence Options a. Difficult b. More Difficult c. Not So Difficult Total Frequency 9 5 24 38 Percentage (%) 23.68 13.16 63.16 100

The table above shows us that there were 9 students (23,68%) who said that learning English verbal sentence is difficult, 5 students (13,16%) who said that learning English verbal sentence is more dfficult and 24 students (63,16%) who said that learning English verbal sentence is not so difficult.

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Table 4.6. Students Opinion About The Method That They Like In Learning Nominal and verbal Sentence Options a. Made Sentences b. Exercise c. Oral Total Frequency 23 11 4 38 Percentage (%) 60.53 28.95 10.53 100

The table X shows us that there were 23 students (60,53%) who likes learning by made sentences method, 11 students (28,95%) who like exercise method and 4 students (10,53%) who said that they like learning by orally.

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1. Conclusions After pretty long discussion on the topic he has dealt, he would like to end up with some conclusions as follows: 1. This study would hopefully encourage future generatins of students to make a more elaborate, scientific and useful researchers on this matter. 2. The reading text is suitable to improve the English language ability at the eight grade students of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa.

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3. The Students of SMP Negeri 5 Langsa, exactly the eight grade students more active in make English sentences. 4. Reading can increase students ability and motivation in understanding English nominal and verbal sentence, by reading the students feel relax and enjoy able in studying English nominal and verbal sentence.

5.2. Suggestions After seeing the result of the analysis and also the conclusion above, the suggestions were formulated as the following : 1. The teacher of the English should explain better how to recognize English nominal and verbal sentence. 2. The teacher of English should pay more attention to teach English grammar especially when teaching English nominal and verbal sentence. 3. Teacher of English, while teaching English grammar in particular should not forget to learn or discuss the mistakes made by the students. 4. The students must be more motivated to read a lot kinds of the books, magazine or English article. 5. The target teaching learning process will be reach if the students relax and enjoy in the class.

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