MONTESSORI EDUCATION Montessori education is an educational approach developed by Italian physician and educator Maria Montessori.

Montessori education is practiced in an estimated 20,000 schools worldwide, serving children from birth to eighteen years old.[1] Montessori education is characterized by an emphasis on independence, freedom within limits, and respect for a child’s natural psychologicaldevelopment, as well as technological advancements in society. Although a range of practices exists under the name "Montessori", the Association Montessori Internationale (AMI) and the American Montessori Society (AMS) cite these elements as essential:[2][3]  Mixed age classrooms, with classrooms for children aged 2½ or 3 to 6 years old by far the most common  Student choice of activity from within a prescribed range of options  Uninterrupted blocks of work time

A Constructivist or "discovery" model, where students learn concepts from working with materials, rather than by direct instruction

 Specialized educational materials developed by Montessori and her collaborators In addition, many Montessori schools design their programs with reference to Montessori’s model of human development from her published works, and use pedagogy, lessons, and materials introduced in teacher training derived from courses presented by Montessori during her lifetime.

The Edward Harden Mansion in Sleepy Hollow, NY, listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the site of the first American Montessori school in 1911 Contents [hide]

1 History

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1.1 Trademark status

2 Educational theory

2.1 Self-construction, spontaneous activity 2.2 Human tendencies

liberty,

and

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2.3 Prepared environment 2.4 Planes of development
   

2.4.1 First plane 2.4.2 Second plane 2.4.3 Third plane 2.4.4 Fourth plane

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2.5 Education and peace

3 Education practices
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3.1 Ages birth to three 3.2 Ages six to twelve 3.3 Ages twelve to eighteen

• • • •

4 Montessori authenticity 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

[edit]History Montessori began to develop her philosophy and methods in 1897, attending courses in pedagogy at the University of Rome and reading the educational theory of the previous two hundred years.[4] In 1907, she opened her first classroom, the Casa dei Bambini, or Children’s House, in a tenement building in Rome.[5] From the beginning, Montessori based her work on her observations of children and experimentation with the environment, materials, and lessons available to them. She frequently referred to her work as "scientific pedagogy". Montessori education spread to the United States in 1911 and became widely known in education and popular publications. However, conflict

between Montessori and the American educational establishment, and especially the publication in 1914 of a critical booklet, The Montessori System Examined, by influential education teacher William Heard Kilpatrick, limited the spread of her ideas, and they languished after 1914. [6] Montessori education returned to the United States in 1960 and has since spread to thousands of schools there. Montessori continued to extend her work during her lifetime, developing a comprehensive model of psychological development from birth to age 24, as well as educational approaches for children ages 0–3, 3–6, and 6–12. She wrote and lectured about ages 12 to 18 and beyond, but these programs were not developed during her lifetime. [edit]Trademark status The term "Montessori" is in the public domain, so anyone can use the term with or without reference to her work. [edit]Educational theory [edit]Self-construction, liberty, and spontaneous activity Montessori education is fundamentally a model of human development, and an educational approach based on that model. The model has two basic elements. First, children and developing adults engage in psychological selfconstruction by means of interaction with their environments. Second, children, especially under the age of six, have an innate path of psychological development. Based on her observations, Montessori believed that children at liberty to choose and act freely within an environment prepared according to her model would act spontaneously for optimal development. [edit]Human tendencies Montessori saw universal, innate characteristics in human psychology which her son and collaborator Mario Montessori identified as "human tendencies" in 1957. There is some debate about the exact list, but the following are clearly identified:[7]  Self-preservation  Orientation to the environment  Order  Exploration  Communication  Work, also described as "purposeful activity"  Manipulation of the environment  Exactness  Repetition

She saw different characteristics. from twelve to eighteen. The first plane child is seen as a concrete. She believed that . so that only material that supports the child's development is included [edit]Planes of development Montessori observed four distinct periods. Abstraction  Self-perfection  The "mathematical mind" In the Montessori approach. culture. sensorial explorer and learner engaged in the developmental work of psychological self-construction and building functional independence. and developmental imperatives active in each of these planes. sensitive periods. and education should respond to and facilitate their expression. [edit]Prepared environment Montessori's education method called for free activity within a "prepared environment". Absorbent mind: Montessori described the young child's behavior of effortlessly assimilating the sensorial stimuli of his or her environment. Montessori observed that the child undergoes striking physical and psychological development. extending from birth to six years. Montessori introduced several concepts to explain this work. cleanliness of environment  Order  An arrangement that facilitates movement and activity  Limitation of materials. or "planes". the environment should exhibit the following characteristics:[8]  Construction in proportion to the child and his/her needs  Beauty and harmony. and the development of concepts with the term "absorbent mind". meaning an educational environment tailored to basic human characteristics and to the specific characteristics of children at different ages. including the absorbent mind.[9][10] [edit]First plane The first plane extends from birth to around six years of age. and called for educational approaches specific to each period. During this period. learning modes. language. from six to twelve. these human tendencies are seen as driving behavior in every stage of development. and from eighteen to twenty-four. and normalization. In addition to offering access to the Montessori materials appropriate to the age of the children. in human development. The function of the environment is to allow the child to develop independence in all areas according to his or her inner psychological directives. including information from the senses.

[11] Sensitive periods: Montessori also observed periods of special sensitivity to particular stimuli during this time which she called the "sensitive periods". During this period. She identified the following periods and their durations:[12]  Acquisition of language—from birth to around six years old  Order—from around one to three years old  Sensory refinement—from birth to around four years old  Interest in small objects—from around 18 months to three years old  Social behavior—from around two and a half to four years old Normalization: Finally. and is characterized by the ability to concentrate as well as "spontaneous discipline. Physically. Montessori observed in children from three to six years old a psychological state she termed "normalization".[15] . or the tendency to work and socialize in groups. Developmentally. to respond to these new characteristics. but also psychological changes. Montessori believed that the work of the third plane child is the construction of the adult self in society. of moral sense. and that it fades as the child approached age six. [14] [edit]Third plane The third plane of development extends from around twelve to around eighteen years of age. as well as the creative tendencies and the development of "a sense of justice and a sense of personal dignity. Developmentally. She emphasized the psychological instability and difficulties in concentration of this age. she observed the "herd instinct". as well as the powers of reason and imagination. Psychologically. and of social organization. and developed a classroom environment. she observed the loss of baby teeth and the lengthening of the legs and torso at the beginning of the plane. social sentiments of help and sympathy for others. and materials. she believed the work of the second plane child is the formation of intellectual independence. In Montessori education. Montessori observed physical and psychological changes in children." She used the term "valorization" to describe the adolescents' drive for an externally derived evaluation of their worth. encompassing the period of adolescence. and a period of uniform growth following. continuous and happy work.this is a power unique to the first plane. lessons. Montessori characterized the third plane by the physical changes of puberty and adolescence. the classroom environment responds to these periods by making appropriate materials and activities available while the periods are active in the young child."[13] [edit]Second plane The second plane of development extends from around six to twelve years old. Normalization arises from concentration and focus on activity which serves the child’s developmental needs.

and 1951. establishing peace is the work of education. She believed that economic independence in the form of work for money was critical for this age. USA Infant and Toddler Programs: Montessori classrooms for children under three fall into several categories.[19][20] [edit]Education practices [edit]Ages birth to three White Pine Montessori School in Moscow.[18] She received a total of 6 nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize in a three year period: 1949.[17] She felt that children allowed to develop according to their inner laws of development would give rise to a more peaceful and enduring civilization.[16] [edit]Education and peace As Montessori developed her theory and practice. 1950. and felt that an arbitrary limit to the number of years in university level study was unnecessary. she gave a number of lectures and addresses on the subject. with a number of terms being used. serves a small number of children from around two . From the 1930s to the end of her life. she came to believe that education had a role to play in the development of world peace.[edit]Fourth plane The fourth plane of development extends from around eighteen years to around twenty-four years old. Italian for "nest". Montessori wrote comparatively little about this period and did not develop an educational program for the age. saying in 1936. as the study of culture could go on throughout a person's life. Idaho. Preventing conflicts is the work of politics. She envisioned young adults prepared by their experiences in Montessori education at the lower levels ready to fully embrace the study of culture and the sciences in order to influence and lead civilization. A "Nido".

In . after which they may be chosen more or less freely by the children as interest dictates. and the idea that education in the second plane should help the child realize the human role in the interdependent functioning of the universe. and more. after Montessori’s first school. However. or when the child is confidently walking. mathematics. who are then free to follow up with independent work of their own as interest and personal responsibility dictate. materials for the development of the senses. A "Young Child Community" serves a larger number of children from around one year to two-and-a-half or three years old. Some schools also offer "Parent-Infant" classes. Lessons are typically presented to small groups of children.[23] [edit]Ages twelve to eighteen Middle and High School: Montessori education for this level is less welldeveloped than programs for younger children. the Casa dei Bambini in Rome in 1906. Student directed explorations of resources outside the classroom. staffed by one trained teacher and an assistant. Montessori used the term "cosmic education" to indicate both the universal scope of lessons to be presented. language materials. the arts. The scope of lessons and work in the Elementary classroom is quite broad. and can range in size from very small up to 30 or more children. Montessori did not establish a teacher training program or a detailed plan of education for adolescents during her lifetime. the sciences. opportunities to develop movement. Classroom materials usually include activities for engaging in practical skills such as pouring and spooning. in which parents participate with their very young children. are an integral element of the Elementary work. Development of independence in toileting is typically emphasized as well. with classroom materials on child-height shelves throughout the room. typically staffed by a trained teacher and one or more assistants. This level is also called "Primary". Classroom materials and lessons include work in language. music and art materials. and much more. Activities are for the most part initially presented by the teacher.months to around fourteen months. although six. math materials. Classes usually serve mixed-age six. Classrooms are usually outfitted with child-sized tables and chairs arranged singly or in small clusters.[21] Preschool and kindergarten Montessori classrooms for children from twoand-a-half or three to six years old are often called Children’s Houses.to twelve-year old groups are also used.to nine-year old and nine. A typical classroom serves 20 to 30 children in mixedage groups. known as "going out" in Montessori. and activities to develop independence.to twelveyear old groupings.[22] [edit]Ages six to twelve Elementary Classrooms: Classrooms for this age are usually referred to as "Elementary". history. Both environments emphasize materials and activities scaled to the children's size and abilities. a number of schools have extended their programs for younger children to the middle school and high school levels.

"to maintain the integrity of her life’s work. a program applies Montessori's work. However. and Montessori societies to promote her work were formed in many countries. Mario Montessori. Montessori societies were established in the United States and in several European countries during Montessori's lifetime."[28] AMS trains teachers and states on its website that "AMS is the largest Montessori organization in the world. she founded the Association Montessori Internationale (AMI). but teacher training and authenticity remained under Montessori's control. the American Montessori Society (AMS) was formed. the term can be used freely without giving any guarantee of how closely. In 1967." [28] Other smaller organizations offer training as well. According to AMS." [26] AMI continues to train teachers using materials and presentations developed by Montessori and her son. [edit]Montessori authenticity Montessori’s ideas were well received internationally. The Montessori Method explained:  WHO IS MARIA MONTESSORI?  How the Montessori method works . Montessori wrote that.[24] Although a number of Montessori middle schools have incorporated some form of land-based education. Ohio) operates a full boarding program. in the United States and elsewhere. only one (the Hershey Montessori School in Concord Township. if at all. "The two organizations have since reconciled their differences. the US Patent Trademark Trial and Appeal Board ruled that "the term 'Montessori' has a generic and/or descriptive significance. and to ensure that it would be perpetuated after her death. and there is an ongoing controversy in the Montessori world about what constitutes authentic Montessori.[clarification needed] The essential reform of our plan from this point of view may be defined as follows: during the difficult time of adolescence it is helpful to leave the accustomed environment of the family in town and to go to quiet surroundings in the country.[27]In 1960. and now enjoy a collegial relationship of mutual support and respect. Montessori maintained tight control over the use of her name and insisted that only she was able to give authentic training in her methods. close to nature. several Montessori organizations have developed teacher training or orientation courses and a loose consensus on the plan of study is emerging. after a dispute with AMI."[29] Therefore.addition.[25] In 1929.

Her concern with education for peace intensified and she was twice nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. It is the child's way of learning.org The Montessori Method explained:  Who is Maria Montessori?  HOW THE MONTESSORI METHOD WORKS HOW THE MONTESSORI METHOD WORKS .physically. rather than as a "blank slate" waiting to be written upon.infed. This house and those that followed were designed to provide a good environment for children to live and learn. She was invited to set up a classroom at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco. These and other exercises were to function like a ladder . and others. that Dr. Her message to those who emulated her was always to turn one's attention to the child. This entailed developing a concern for others and discipline and to do this children engaged in exercices de la vie pratique (exercise in daily living). Since her death interest in Dr. Source: The Informal Education Encyclopedia/forum. www. It is because of this basic tenet. India. to "follow the child". just this. touching becomes writing. The success of her method then caused her to ask questions of 'normal' education and the ways in which it failed children. education and anthropology. and in doing so passes little from the unconscious to the conscious. Continuous work on these exercises would then lead them to the skills: Looking becomes reading. Dr. all-new to this Montessori method. He learns everything without knowing he is learning it. emotionally. was the first woman in Italy to receive a medical degree. Montessori was as astonished as anyone at the realized potential of these children: "Supposing I said there was a planet without schools or teachers.1952). and yet the inhabitants doing nothing but living and walking about .came to know all things. and the rest of the World Invited to the USA by Alexander Graham Bell. The only two gold medals awarded for education went to this class. She believed that each child is born with a unique potential to be revealed. which seems so fanciful as to be nothing but the invention of a fertile imagination. mentally. She worked in the fields of psychiatry. and the observation guidelines left by her. Montessori's methods have continued to spread throughout the world. This is the path he follows. Maria Montessori developed a teaching program that enabled 'defective' children to read and write. treading always in the paths of joy and love. where spectators watched twenty-one children. The news of the unprecedented success of her work in this Casa dei Bambini soon spread around the world. Dr.allowing the child to pick up the challenge and to judge their progress. behind a glass wall for four months. Thomas Edison. study was unknown. Her main contributions to educating and raising children include:    Preparing the most natural and life supporting environment for the child Observing the child living freely in this environment Continually adapting the environment in order that the child may fulfill his greatest potential -. Montessori was forced into exile from Italy because of her anti-fascist views and lived and worked in India. Montessori spoke at Carnegie Hall in 1915. An emphasis was placed on self-determination and self-realization. Maria Montessori had the chance to test her programme and ideas with the establishment of the first Casa dei Bambini (Children's house or household) in Rome in 1907. but through working on exercises that prepare them to learn skills. taking charge of fifty poor children of the dirty. and the education of young children was altered forever. Montessori's ideas will never become obsolete. is a reality. and spiritually." From Europe To The United States. to carry in their minds the whole of learning: would you not think I was romancing? Well.WHO IS MARIA MONTESSORI? Maria Montessori (1870 . desolate streets of the San Lorenzo slum on the outskirts of Rome. During World War II Dr. She sought to teach them skills not solely through repetition.

a faculty acquired simply by living around people that speak. in his early years. also called the “Directress”. into a whole language and apply it with such ease. he learns to refine his movements. care of environment. becomes conscious of his body and of what his body can do. with all its aspects. Using objects familiar to the child facilitates beginning reading. according to their capabilities and inclinations. simply absorbs a language unconsciously. dimension. Classrooms are called “prepared environments” where children‘s innate zeal for learning is encouraged allowing them opportunities to choose among an array of purposeful activities to work on with the guidance of a trained adult. essentially the 'keeper' of the environment. The Montessori method provides the child with the words in order to help him better express himself. It is through contact and exploration of the environment that the child acquires his store of knowledge and ideas that are necessary for his functioning in society. Through practical life exercises. The sensorial materials then are important tools to the education of the child. among many others. surface. children are able to develop concentration and self-discipline by following the work process outlined by the teacher. A more accurate and refined perception of the environment certainly helps the child adapt better to his environment. As the child goes on. Likewise. Sensorial materials serve as aids to a child’s development. walking. they are basic activities that enable the child to explore his environment and eventually make him one with it. for others. weight. thus helping him in his task of adaptation. care of self. and grace and courtesy. dusting. and with the tools for intelligent and correct speech. The child is given exercises with reading cards to provide opportunity for practice in reading. order. LANGUAGE Language is not taught to a child. His mental mechanism is such that he is able to bring the totality of his mother tongue. providing him with an environment of “speaking people”. He acquires this mass of ideas. polishing. shape. sound. letting children get on with their activities. impressions and information and needs to establish a certain order from this chaos. He learns the ways of social living and becomes comfortable and confident in his society. A unique element of the Montessori program which sets it apart from traditional teaching methods is the “decentralization of the teacher”. He learns how to move and act in a socially accepted manner. Rather than being the center of attention in a classroom. sweeping. classify and catalogue all this information. The training of the senses provides a solid foundation for intellectual training."I have studied the child. The exercises will not improve the senses but rather refine their use. They teach children about color. texture. he is presented with words with increasing . to categorize. “Children live with people who speak. They involve a wide variety of activities such as carrying objects. He has a need to touch. Children progress at their own pace. It is divided into four major areas namely: movement. temperature and form. lacing.” A child. These activities are Montessori’s response to the child’s need for movement. mainly activities that are done in day to day living. to explore and manipulate. SENSORIAL EXERCISES Sensorial Materials provide “training of the senses”. It is something that develops within the child. I have taken what the child has given me and expressed it and that is what is called the Montessori method. and for the environment." The Montessori approach was designed to help children grow by letting them explore the world around them. The sensorial materials provide the child an opportunity to rediscover his environment in a more precise and organized manner. guiding and intervening only when necessary. Through Montessori work. the teacher’s task is to observe and to intervene from the sidelines. independence. These exercises also teach the child to complete a task following a step-by-step procedure. activities in these areas are presented in isolation in order to help the child focus his attention only on a particular task. This sequential ordering of tasks prepares him for the logical task that awaits him in mathematics. The Montessori program has the following activities: PRACTICAL LIFE EXERCISES Practical Life exercises teach children to care for themselves. so naturally they come to speak themselves.

CULTURAL EXTENSIONS Geography. It uses a general approach of introduction. Botany. The Montessori Number Work Progression is divided into 6 major parts namely:       Introduction to Numbers 0 to 10 Introduction to the Decimal System Work with teens and tens Memory Work Passage to Abstraction Fractions The math materials introduce the child to the quantities. Another Montessori approach is to present work with the golden bead material. the stamp game for the 4 operations are given as follow-up exercises. work with the half chart brings the child to a realization of the commutative property.difficulty. Experiences with nature in conjunction with the materials in the environment inspire a reverence for all life. History is presented to the children through art and an intelligent music program. and later on the symbols. Work then moves on to variations of finger charts where the child is given the opportunity to memorize the unit combinations through repetition. The child is then presented with exercises that introduce him to the function of words in a sentence. The child is also encouraged to write down the problems and answers on paper. The materials bring to the child’s awareness that he has already acquired the knowledge he needs to perform the operations and no longer needs the materials to do so. Instead of working with “geometrically” represented quantities. The child may continue to learn the quantities and symbols for numbers succeeding 10 thus moving on to work with teens and tens. . Art and Music are presented as extensions of the sensorial and language activities. In addition. progressing towards creative writing and total reading. The child is given only the basic unit combinations of each operation to memorize. thousands) and their numerical symbols are presented. and paperwork. the child may also be presented with linear counting exercises. The goal is to have the child do mathematical operations solely on paper. Simultaneously. such as the small bead frame for addition and subtraction. 1 . where he realizes that he only needs to memorize half as much combinations. The child then moves on to memory work. creating a sense of solidarity with the global human family and its habitat. Exercises in sentence analysis provide the child with the opportunity to practice identifying the functions of words and how they relate to each other in a sentence. Word study exercises serve as a follow-up activity for words that he has previously learned.10. To reinforce his experience with the golden bead material. The child is now moving to more abstract work. the child moves from a concrete impression to an understanding of abstract mathematical concepts. MATHEMATICS The mathematics materials help the child learn and understand mathematical concepts by working with concrete materials. The approach begins with concrete materials such as the snake game for both addition and subtraction. History. Children learn about other cultures past and present. Biology. The memory game and cards and counters serve as practice for the child as he is required to remember and associate quantity to symbol. With these exercises. introducing the decimal system. Follow-up work with the strip boards are then presented. the child moves on to exercises that will help him towards his passage to abstraction in mathematics. The cards and counters provide practice for the sequence of numbers and also introduce odd and even numbers. the child is presented with a geometric representation of the quantities as well as a concrete and sensorial understanding of the process involved in each arithmetic operation. varying only in color and in the numbers printed on them. The child is given the link between the materials. hundreds. The Montessori approach attempts to make this task less tedious and more meaningful for the child. practice and application. which enables him to mentally perform mathematical operations on paper with understanding and ease. Language exercises prepare the child to move on to further work in grammar and syntax. Zoology. The child is then given the opportunity to relate his knowledge of quantity and symbol with the number rods and cards. and this allows their innate respect and love for their environment to flourish. he is now dealing with stamps of the same kind. The categories of the decimal system (units. As the child gains mastery over the previous material. He is thus prepared for exercises like labeling objects in the environment and work with nomenclature cards. This helps sustain the child’s interest for memory work. Through this number work progression. The spindle boxes clarify the idea that a quantity is made up of separate quantities and introduces zero as no quantity. exercises for the 4 mathematical operations are introduced. With the golden bead material. tens.

independent work habits. awareness of their environment. The child discovers that he can conduct his bodily movements through the direction of his will. This procedure promotes what Montessori calls "integration of the mind and the body" which is the primary foundation for the child's "development of will". this gives the child confidence in facing challenging activities realizing that he can practically accomplish any task as long as he wills it. zipping. Mind-hand coordination is developed as the children exert their efforts to pour in the same manner presented by the teacher. children also hone fine finger motor skills. While doing these exercises. Dressing Frames These individual Dressing Frames present a variety of activities which introduce self-help skills buttoning. When translated to a life skill. provide a sane and wholesome range of activities which allow the children to develop control and coordination of movement.PRACTICAL LIFE EXERCISES Practical Life Exercises are the foundation of the Montessori environment. responsibility. Pouring Exercises Dry Pouring Wet Pouring When presented to the children. as well as enhance focus and concentration. lacing. they are shown how to do pouring without spilling the contents of the vessels. orderly thought patterns. and many other characteristics which can only be attained through spontaneous. purposeful work. all their focus and attention. understand the importance of sequence in tasks. their entire body concentrates to complete "pour without spilling". . etc. Thus.

In doing these exercises. and allows children to clasify their sensorial impressions in an organized. orderly. . develop focus and attention. With independence comes also the building of the child's self-confidence and initaitive which carries out to his attitude towards learning in general. children are able to integrate and practice a variety of skills while gaining a better understanding of the importance of sequence in completing a task. without fear of making mistakes. Washing Hands Exercise The Washing Hands Exercise is only one of the many "Care of the Self" exercises of the Practical Life Area. children learn to improve on their focus on the task and increase their attention span to see the task through its completion. and scientific manner. Since the completeion of this activity requires a series of related steps.Transferring Exercises Spooning Marble Spooning Tongs Exercises (various kinds of tongs ranging from simple to difficult) Transferring Exercises in the Practical Life Area provide interesting opportunities for the child to build eye-hand coordination. Making use of things mostly found around the home. SENSORIAL EXERCISES Sensorial Materials allow for individual work and repetition. becoming comfortable in the fact that errors are essential to the process of learning. which builds in the child the habit of working independently. refine motor skills and hone muscular control. They have a built in control of error. these activities promote learning of skills that also enable them to participate fully and independently in their home life.

The second board helps to coordinate finger movements and builds dexterity. Exploration with this material prepares the child for mathematical concepts in the decimal system. Set of Knobless Cylinders The Knobless Cylinders are the final stage (application) in the dimensional material where the child places in order the sets of cylinders based upon his abilities to discriminate.Rough and Smooth Boards Set This set of three boards forms the introductory materials for development of the tactile sense and prepares the hand for writing. Pink Tower This series of cubes develops visual discrimination of size in three dimensions. The first board introduces the contrast of rough and smooth. The third board introduces gradations of texture from fine to coarse. The cylinders have interrelationships in size that are revealed to the child as he works with the sets in combination. . geometry and volume.

The pairs of tablets are used to cultivate the ability to discriminate thermic qualities. rectangular prism and triangular prism. Error is controlled by the color of the wooden tablets. The set contains one each of the following solids: Cylinder. each of the Thermic Tablets has a different sense of temperature. Geometric Solids The Geometric Solids introduce the child to solid geometry. ellipsoid. While blindfolded. sphere. Baric Tablets The Baric Tablets introduce and refine the concepts of the baric sense. ovoid. cube. cone. triangular-based pyramid. the child endeavors to discern the weight of the tablets of wood.Thermic Tablets When touched. the lightest color being the lightest weight to the darkest color wood being the heaviest weight. square-based pyramid. .

the child also develops concepts in sequence of number. Serves as the child's link to the sensorial exercises as it is very similar to the long rods. Trinomial Cube The Trinomial Cube is a concrete representation of the algebraic formula (a+b+c)3. combinations of 10 and basic arithmetic. the understanding is already there. This indirect preparation for algebra prepares the child for the elementary Montessori class. allowing them to store concepts so that when the time comes to deal exclusively in abstract terms. . The factors of the equation are represented by the cubes and prisms.Binomial Cube The Binomial Cube is a concrete representation of the algebraic formula (a+b)3. MATHEMATICS Math materials allow the children to have a sensorial experience of the abstraction that is mathematics. The factors of the equation are represented by the cubes and prisms. which integrates to form the basis for a further step in the child's understanding of mathematics. Every piece of material isolates one concept. The primary Montessori child explores the Trinomial cube as a sensorial activity of visual discrimination of color and form. This indirect preparation for algebra prepares the child for the elementary Montessori class. The primary Montessori child explores the Binomial Cube as a sensorial activity of visual discrimination of color and form. Through exploration with the material. Number Rods The Number Rods introduce the child to quantity 110 and their corresponding number names.

Spindle Boxes Spindle Boxes provide practice in associating quantity and symbol for the numbers 0-9. The cards and counters provide practice for the sequence of numbers and also introduce odd and even numbers.Sandpaper Numerals The sandpaper numerals introduce the child to symbol 0-9 and their corresponding number names. cards. Cards. Memory Game. By tracing the numerals in the style and direction in which they are written. the child is preparing for writing numbers. and Counters The memory game. The child is then given the opportunity to relate his knowledge of quantity and symbol with the number rods and cards. and counters serve as practice for the child as he is required to remember and associate quantity to symbol. . and introduces zero as no quantity.

100 and 1.000. Quantity and place value of the decimal system are explored by the child in activities in the operations of addition. . subtraction. 10. multiplication and division.Introduction to Decimal Quantity A tray containing Golden bead materials for introducing the decimal quantities of 1. 10. Golden Bead Material The golden bead material introduces the child to the decimal system with concrete representations of the hierarchy of numbers. 100 and 1000 Introduction to Decimal Symbol A tray containing cards that differ in length and color to introduce the values of 1.

In a step towards abstraction. Tens Boards With the Tens Boards. the quantity and symbols of the decimal system are combined and are represented by each "stamp". subtraction. The Hundred Board is used by placing the wooden chips in sequence on the board. . multiplication and division. Hundred Board An enjoyable counting activity that reinforces the sequence of numbers from 1-100. the child explores the number names of the tens and the sequence of numbers 11-99. the Stamp Game provides opportunities for individual practice in the operations of addition. Bead quantities are created from the ten bars and unit beads in the Tens Bead Box and are associated with the corresponding numeral on the Tens Board.Stamp Game After being introduced to the processes of the decimal system using the golden bead materials.

squaring and cubing. . Addition Equations and Sums Box This two-compartment box with lid contains plastic chips. It prepares the child for later activities in multiplication. one set with equations printed on them and one set with the answers to be used with the addition working charts. subtraction and multiplication. Colored Bead Stairs The colored bead stairs are used for activities of addition. These aid the child in practice and memorization of the unit addition combinations. as well as base number work.Bead Material This extensive set of bead material is used for the exercises of linear and skip counting the quantities of the squares and cubes of the numbers 1-10.

and 15 of each vowel in blue. They provide the children with keys to discover something that is beyond what lies on the surface. LANGUAGE Language materials have some essential points in common with Sensorial materials. Sandpaper letters give the shape of the letters. the Movable Alphabet is used by the children for the writing of words. the Movable Alphabet makes it possible to arrange these letters to form words. . Each sandpaper letter is in lower case with the consonants on boards painted pink and the vowels on boards painted blue. and the Metal insets makes it possible for childen to control a writing instrument and later on. in thick plastic letters. put their thoughts on paper. Movable Alphabet After learning the letter sounds with the Sandpaper Letters. Sandpaper Letters The sandpaper letters guide the hand for writing as the child traces the letter shapes in the style and direction that they are written. The set contains 10 of each consonant in red.Addition Snake Game The addition snake game introduces the child to addition combinations of the unit numbers.

which are connected with writing and developed the Metal Insets for directly preparing the child for handwriting. The exercises also advance proficiency in lightness of touch and evenness of pressure through drawing activities.Writing Insets Dr. The first chart and box introduces the predicate. Reading Cards Allows the child to different key letter combinations. The metal insets exercises strengthen the three-finger grip and coordinate the necessary wrist movements. subject. First Chart and Box This material helps the child to analyze the basic parts of a sentence and identify their function. and direct object. Reading Analysis. Montessori analyzed the movements. .

auditory. . order and sequence…. control and refinement of basic movements. care of the environment and grace and courtesy capture the preschool child’s natural interest and innate desire to participate in the affairs of the world around him. sensorial materials can develop a child’s keen attention for details. Family Montessori Preschool of Loyola offers a 3-year pre-elementary curriculum with the following areas of learning: Practical Life Exercises that promote mind and body coordination. each representing a specific part of speech. These exercises in movement.essential foundations for acquiring language and math skills. and develop focus and attention. tactile. transforming these exercises into purposeful activities which build good habits for exploration and learning which extends to the home and even to the larger. Sensorial materials give the child the power to come into contact with his/her world through the use of all his/her available faculties. Only with the guidance of a trained directress. more conventional learning environment. Sensorial Development Exercises are didactic materials that enhance and enrich visual-motor.Grammar Symbols Grammar Symbols help to reinforce sensorially each part of speech. olfactory. There are 15 different symbols. self-help. gustatory and three-dimensional (stereognostic) perceptions.

word building/composition. comprehension. expressive writing and reading. Spiritual Exercises for the development of a fundamental relationship with God. pursue and promote his/her inclinations. both in English and the vernacular. language training. the decimal system and four math operations. These materials “bring the world to the child” and exposes his/her to various topics of interest from which to select. the Montessori Math curriculum places a prime on concrete and meaningful learning of Math concepts with the sensorial materials as its foundation. letter sound and alphabet association. The Montessori language curriculum provides a range of indirect and direct experiences in the meaningful acquisition and use of language. . History and Geography. Cultural Arts Exercises covering selected concepts of Biology. The exercise of silence allows the child a profound realization of self and promotes intra-personal awareness as he/she develops into the person he/she is to become. tens and teens. Math Exercises on the basic concepts of 0-10. nurturing and appreciating relationships with fellow human beings and nature. Developmentally appropriate.Language Exercises on vocabulary enrichment.

However. In this way. Family Montessori Preschool of Loyola runs on a regular June-March school year.Music. Classes are grouped vertically (2 ½ . because the Montessori approach is highly personalized. and tests. social. When your child joins us. Children experience lectures/whiteboard instruction. . R-EDP also prepares the child for entrance exams in traditional schools. and other classroom activities. with various opportunities for spontaneous and vicarious learning. movement exercises and the arts provide opportunities for your child to express his/her own uniqueness and “create” using his/her body.6 years of age) Morning session: 8:00 – 11:00 a. Afternoon session: 12:30 – 3:30 p. children gain valued insights from watching each other work.6 years of age) 8:00 a. dancing. writing quizzes.6 year old). Vertical grouping is characteristic of the Montessori approach in recognition of the fact that children have different rates in physical. with separate summer classes offered in April and May. emotional. workbooks and task sheets. valuable learning moments are not wasted waiting for another semester or a year.m. and facilitates adjustment to a “big school” setting. Movement and Art Exercises for self-expression and creativity.m. Simulates learning in a regular classroom setting. 7-hour Extended Day program (4½ . The child realizes the wonderful potentials of his/her body and grows in loving appreciation of it. Aside from the directress as the sole source of learning.m. your child may enter at any time during the school year.  Regular Extended Day Program (R-EDP) Prepares the child for enrollment in a traditional elementary school. he/she will be presented and guided through materials and learning activities that meet his/her own level of learning and development. Action Singing.m. – 3:00 p. Twice a year. PROGRAMS We offer the following programs: 3-hour Montessori program (2½ . Parent-school communication is facilitated through periodic written update reports sent by the class directress. parents are invited to sit through individual parent-teacher conferences with their child’s directress and the school head. recitation. and cognitive development and thus are more sensibly treated as individuals rather than lumped as a chronological age group.

extensive arts and crafts and even cooking. complement the Montessori activities similar to what they encounter in a Montessori elementary school. Language. opportunities for more hands-on activities such as experimentation. research projects. are already ready for more advanced work in areas such as Mathematics. dramatization. We invite you to visit our school and observe our classes. creative writing. FAQ's (frequently asked questions) . We will be more than happy to share with you essential information about Family Montessori Preschool of Loyola. at the age of 4½. Some children. and Cultural Arts that are currently tackled in his/her morning sessions. Montessori Extended Day Program (M-EDP) Prepares the child for advanced Montessori work. Also.

leading to concentration.General Questions Q.an integral part of Montessori education. 12-15. individual pace and according to their own choice of activities from hundreds of possibilities. Groups form spontaneously or are arranged ahead by special appointment. Note: For more information on the "three-hour work period" see the chapter "My Contribution to Experimental Science" from The Advanced Montessori Method. At the school level many homeschooling and other parents use the Montessori philosophy of following the child's interest and not interrupting concentration to educate their children. work periods each day. Where can I find a good. there are one or two 3-hour. self-discipline. Montessori education is found all over the world. nearly a century after Maria Montessori's first casa dei bambini ("children's house") in Rome. and children are always free to move around the room instead of staying at desks. and socialization. They almost never take precedence over self-selected work. and toys? Providing opportunities for independence is the surest way to build your child's self-esteem. art. Volume I. In school only a trained Montessori teacher can properly implement Montessori education. What is the difference between Montessori and traditional education? A. which is actually an E-book of Montessori philosophy and practice: www. will be being studied. gardening. 9-12. the first woman in Italy to become a physician. Learning is an exciting process of discovery. history. Montessori emphasizes learning through all five senses. not just through listening. Montessori represents an entirely different approach to education. etc." Here social development comes from being in a positive and unique environment with other children -. 6-12 (sometimes temporarily 6-9 and 9-12). Montessori designed a "prepared environment" in which children could freely choose from a number of developmentally appropriate activities. There is constant interaction. and so on). watching. introduction to Montessori from birth through the school years? A. Montessori classes place children in three-year age groups (3-6. Dr. caring for clothes. Children need a sense of belonging. Montessori (pronounced MON-tuh-SORE-ee) education was founded in 1907 by Dr. or contact the Michael Olaf Montessori Company at michaelola@aol. problem solving.michaelolaf.The three-hour work period Under the age of six. shoes. Can I do Montessori at home with my child? A. uninterrupted. Guided by her discovery that children teach themselves. spanning ages from birth to adolescence. and they get it by participating fully in the routines of everyday life. using the specialized learning equipment of the Montessori "prepared environment. science. There is no limit to how long a child can work with a piece of material. by Dr. Maria Montessori. motivation. Can you find ways for your child to participate in meal preparation. forming communities in which the older children spontaneously share their knowledge with the younger ones. Q. at all levels. At any one time in a day all subjects -math. or reading. music. Now. Work centers The environment is arranged according to subject area. Adults and children respect concentration and do not interrupt someone who is busy at a task. Yes. Look at your home through your child's eyes. 1518. Children in Montessori classes learn at their own. Where did Montessori come from? A. and a love of learning. not broken up by required group lessons. brief. language..com for reprint GB850 Multi-age grouping Children are grouped in mixed ages and abilities in three to six year spans: 0-3. child to child teaching. 6-9. 3-6.net. geography. "Help me do it by myself" is the life theme of the preschooler. you can use Montessori principles of child development at home. Q. She based her educational methods on scientific observation of children's learning processes. The Montessori middle and high school teacher ideally has taken all three training courses plus graduate work in an academic area or areas. Older children schedule meetings or study groups with each other the teacher when necessary. At the Michael Olaf Montessori "text"site. Maria Montessori. Q. Children are challenged according to their ability and never bored. Some Specific Details of the Montessori Method The schedule . . cleaning.

animals. historical artifacts. art. When they are hungry. computers. Montessori noted specific characteristics associated with the child’s interests and abilities at each plane of development. for the Montessori classroom is not the domain of the adults in charge. Parents are often amazed to see small children in Montessori classrooms cut raw fruits and vegetables. The Montessori classroom is commonly referred to as a prepared environment. and inviting. Montessori learning environments are set up to facilitate student discussion and stimulate collaborative learning. sweep and dust. but rather a carefully prepared environment designed to facilitate the development of the children’s independence and sense of personal empowerment. Re s p e c t . maps.—1— BASICS ELEMENTS OF THE MONTESSORI APPROACH by Tim Seldin. It may take a moment to spot the teachers within the classrooms. presenting a new lesson. They will be found working with one or two children at a time. They are filled with plants. When something spills. These little ones normally go about their work so calmly and purposely that it is clear to even the casual observer that this is their environment: The Children’s House. This name reflects the care and attention that is given to creating a learning environment that will reinforce the children’s independence and intellectual development. or quietly observing the class at work. advising. and animals that the children are raising. and Independence We know that young children are full and complete individuals in their own right. warm. Students will typically be found scattered around the classroom. and pour liquids with barely a drop spilled. Respect breeds respect and creates an atmosphere within which learning is tremendously facilitated. This is a true community of young children. Executive Director The Mont e s sor i Clas s room Montessori classrooms are bright. Dr. rather than passively participating in lessons and projects selected by the teachers. they help each other carefully clean things up. Rather than fight the laws of nature.” There is something profound in her choice of words. fascinating mathematical models. You will not find rows of desks in our classrooms at New Gate. charts. Montessori suggested that we “follow the child” and allow our children to show us how to facilitate the development of their human potential. fossils. This focus on the “whole child” led Montessori to develop a very different sort of school from the traditional adult-centered classroom. they prepare their own snack and drink. They go to the bathroom without assistance. music. One glance and it is clear that our children feel comfortable and at home. she named her first school the “Casa dei Bambini” or the “Children’s House. working alone or with one or two others. In her research. They deserve to be treated with the full and sincere respect that we would extend to their parents. They will tend to become so involved in their work that we cannot help but be tremendously impressed by the peaceful atmosphere. selecting work that captures their interest.—2— Montessori schools believe very strongly that intelligence is not fixed at birth. and interest centers filled with intriguing learning materials. carry pitchers of water. scientific apparatus. Intelligence. perhaps a small natural science museum. In a very real sense. To emphasize this difference. books. They move freely within the rooms. nor is the human potential . She argued that a school carefully designed to meet the needs and interests of the child will work more effectively because it is consistent with basic principles of psychology. even the very youngest students at New Gate take care of their own child-sized environment.

nor will they necessarily learn best from the same teaching methods. and Di s cove r Our program is designed to help each of our students discover and develop his or her unique talents and possibilities. The Integrated Montessori Curriculum Classrooms at New Gate are organized into several curriculum areas. students and teachers learn to collaborate in the process of education rather than mindlessly compete. Rather than present students with loads of right answers. geography. analyze what they have found. At New Gate. art. not memorize and quickly forget. everyday living skills. Each area is made up of one or more shelf units. In an atmosphere in which children learn at their own pace and compete only against themselves. and our goal is to be flexible and creative in addressing each student as a unique individual. We know that no two students will learn at the same pace. The Elementary students are encouraged to do their own research. Students are taught to take pride in doing things for themselves carefully and well. Our students discover their own innate abilities and develop a strong sense of independence. they learn not to be afraid of making mistakes. and handwriting). lessons are introduced simply and concretely and are reintroduced several times over succeeding years at increasing degrees of abstraction and complexity. creative writing. Fr e edom of Movement and Independent ly Chos en Work Montessori children are free to move about. and movement. If they knew the words. and they can try again without fear of embarrassment. so long as they do not disturb anyone or damage anything. working alone or with others at will. which include language arts (reading. The teachers encourage our children to think for themselves and become actively engaged in the learning process. sensory awareness exercises and puzzles. and the human experience. Most rooms will include a classroom library. learning how to become a life-long independent learner will take them anywhere! Our children are learning to think.anywhere near as limited as it sometimes seems in traditional education. Learning will become its own reward. with given topics considered only once at a specific grade level. history. their teachers ask the right questions and lead the children to discover the answers for themselves. Montessori sets a pattern for a lifetime of good work habits and a sense of responsibility. and reflect. They may select any activity and work with it as long as they wish. One way of thinking about the difference between our approach and one that is more traditional is to consider that while learning the right answers may get our children through school. and come to their own conclusions. Mont e s sor i Teache s Chi ldr en to Think. . cabinets. and display tables with a wide variety of materials on open display ready for use as the children select them. and so long as they put it back where it belongs when they are finished. the world of nature. In the early years. mathematics and geometry. even very young children would ask: “Help me learn to do it for myself!” By allowing children to develop a meaningful degree of independence and self-discipline. music.—3— New Gate’s curriculum is organized into a spiral of integrated studies. grammar. self-confidence. rather than a traditional model in which the curriculum is compartmentalized into separate subjects. observe. and each success will fuel their desire to discover even more. spelling. They quickly find that few things in life come easily. Success in school is directly tied to the degree to which children believe that they are capable and independent human beings. literature. The course of study uses an integrated thematic approach that ties the separate disciplines of the curriculum together into studies of the physical universe. Col laborat e . We treat each as a unique individual learner. and self-discipline. science.

Most see their role as dispensing facts and skills to complacent students. the arts. . political science. mathematical logic. Some parents worry that having younger children in the same class as older ones will leave one group or the other short changed. economics. taught by two certified Montessori teachers. thought. and make hieroglyphic calendars in math. We find that most often the best tutor is a fellow student who is just a bit older. Working in one class for two or three years allows students to develop a strong sense of community with their classmates and teachers. They fear that the younger children will absorb the teachers’ time and attention. as well as study African animals in zoology. the earth sciences. which allows younger students to experience the daily stimulation of older role models. We create classes of thirty to ensure that each child will have enough classmates of the same sex and age group. with only the oldest third moving on to the next level each year. representing a three-year age span. and all so often the best teacher of a four-year-old is an older child rather than an adult.—4— Each class is an essentially stable community. and successful experience behind this particular model. the teacher is neither the center of attention nor the sole source of instruction. While the stern disciplinarians of the past may be an endangered species. Montessori classes are organized to encompass a two. This approach allows the children to explore and learn independently as much as possible. history. science. who in turn blossom in the responsibilities of leadership. with far greater emphasis on the sciences in general than is common in most American elementary curriculums. As an example. Both concerns are misguided. Parents often wonder if it would not be better to organize classes into smaller groups.or three-year age span. but there is actually a great deal of research. create African masks and make African block print t-shirts in art. How Can Mont e s sor i Teache r s Me e t the Ne eds of So Many Di f f e r ent Chi ldr en? Montessori teachers play a very different role from those played by traditionally trained educators. social issues. but “from” each other.Literature. and statistics from the early years of their education. and zoology together from the preschool years and up. weaving principles of physics. The stimulation of older children and the encouragement of their peers fuels the process. This integrated approach is one of Montessori's great strengths. as well as the stimulation of the older children.and four-year-olds the emotional support and stimulation that they need. and the study of technology all complement one another. The children are learning on their own by independent discovery and from each other. many teachers are focused on maintaining order and on covering a pre-defined curriculum. chemistry. geometry. The key is to remember that in Montessori. Our mathematics curriculum follows a European model of unified mathematics through which students are introduced to concepts in algebra. as well as through lessons presented by the teacher. T y p i c a l Cl a s s Size A typical Montessori class is made up of from twenty-five to thirty children. they will also read African folk tales in world literature. Mo n t e s s o r i Cl a s s e s E n c omp a s s e s a T h r e e -Ye a r Ag e Span. when our students study Africa in world history. or that the importance of covering the Kindergarten curriculum for the five-year-olds will prevent teachers from giving the three. rather than waiting until high school as is normal in the United States. Children learn best from one another. At each level within a Montessori school. Students not only learn “with” each other. The same is true in our science curriculum. learn Swahili songs in music. The age range also allows especially gifted children the stimulation of intellectual peers. botany. without requiring that they skip a grade and feel emotionally out of place. the curriculum and methods are logical and consistent extensions of what has come before.

The objective is to intrigue the children so that they will come back on their own to work with the materials. to encourage their normal desire for independence and high sense of self-esteem. mentor. He or she is usually not the center of attention and will not normally spend much time working with the whole class at once. history. the ground rules for its use. The Montessori learning materials are not the method itself. to help them develop the kindness and self-discipline that will allow them to become full members of society. and from the most concrete to those that are the most abstract. language. In her studies of children’s learning. This is when their character and values. instead. Now. Materials are always arranged in sequence. Each material isolates and teaches one thing or is used to present one skill at a time as the child is ready. . the teacher arranges the materials on the shelf following their sequence in the curriculum flowchart.The Montessori teacher’s role is that of a facilitator and guide. Montessori teachers can often use their own interests to enrich the curriculum and provide alternate avenues for accomplishment and success. Each has a specific place on the shelves. self-image. their first twelve years of life.A Road f rom the Conc r e t e to the Abs t rac t The basis of our approach is the simple observation that children learn most effectively through direct experience and the process of investigation and discovery. This led Montessori to emphasize the overriding importance of concrete learning apparatus and to the development of the Montessori materials for mathematics. but rather tools that we use to stimulate the child into logical thought and discovery. but rather from concrete experience and direct interaction with the environment. its place on the shelf. keeping the level of challenge high. arranged from the upper-left-hand corner in sequence to the lower right. The most important years in our children’s education are not high school and college. sensory development. efficient presentation. Because they come to know the children so well. each carefully designed to appeal to children at a given level of development. Asking a child to sit back and watch us perform a process or experiment is like asking a one-year-old not to put everything in his mouth. Children need to manipulate and explore everything that catches their interest. The teachers closely monitor their students' progress. Montessori noted that most children do not learn by memorizing what they hear from their teachers or read in a text. basic skills and knowledge. The Montessori teacher is a coach. Lessons center around clear and simple information that is necessary for the children to be able to do the work on their own: the name of the material. They are arranged to provide maximum eye—5— appeal without clutter. The Mont e s sor i Mat e r ial s . They are provocative and simple. but. and friend. Montessori carefully analyzed the skills and concepts involved in each subject and noted the sequence in which children most easily master them. we can only guess at the skills our children will need to succeed in the 21st century. science. To facilitate the prepared order of the environment. and to help them learn how to observe. The teachers rarely present a lesson to more than one or two children at a time and limit them to a quick. from the most simple to the most complex. The materials are displayed on low open shelves that are easily accessible to even the youngest children. and explore ideas independently. Dr. Pr epar ing Tomor row’ s Innovat ive Thinke r s Today In a world of rapid change and new discoveries. and some of the possibilities inherent within it. the essential lesson is learning how to learn. Her role centers around the preparation and organization of appropriate learning materials to meet the needs and interests of each child in the class. The Montessori teacher has four primary goals: to awaken our children’s spirit and imagination. and geography. question. more than ever.

Granted. that nurtures their self-confidence. music. pre-algebra. and life. the physical sciences. personal creativity. . helping our child become renaissance individuals in the intellectual tradition of Thomas Jefferson. dance. along with an education of the heart. and Maria Montessori. art.and appreciation for culture and the arts are formed. foreign language study. geometry. and physical education. Buckminster Fuller. botany and zoology. we come to schools like New Gate to give our children an outstanding preparation for high school. creative writing. unified mathematics. this lies beyond the scope of traditional education. New Gate offers our children a world-class education. history. geography. but then New Gate has set out to become a rather unusual school. and entrepreneurial spirit. As families. college. economics. New Gate’s goal is to nurture their intelligence and creativity. It offers them the most challenging academic program that they can handle in a course of study that includes the Junior Great Books. computers. philosophy and ethics. We can see our children as they truly come to love learning and begin to discover their true potential as young men and women.

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