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pointing from nowhere), accept state, transitions; Right now we only consider two kinds of output (accept or reject). A finite automaton is a five tuple The accept state set F can be empty. .

<REST>is treated as a single symbol If a A is the set of all string that machine M accepts, we say that A is the language of machine M (L(M)=A). We say M recognize A or M accepts A. (e.g. A={w|w contains at least one 1 and a even number of 0s follows the last 1}) A machine may accept several strings, but it will only recognize one language. If a machine accept no strings, it will still recognize one language, namely, a empty language . Page 40 Example 1.15: Why i is varied? Page 41 L(M5) = {w | the sum of the symbols in w is 0 modulo 3, except that (RESET) resets the count to 0}.?????? Computation: We say a M recognize language A ifA = {w | M accepts w}. A language is called regular language if some finite automaton can recognize it. Design the finite automata: “Reader as automata” Regular Operations: Let A and B be languages. We define the regular operation Union, Concatenation and Star as fellow. * Union: * Concatenation: * Star: * Complement: a language L over alphabet , A empty member is a member of any . Theorem 1.25: The class of regular languages is closed under the union operation. If A and B are both regular languages, so is . Theorem 1.26: The class of regular languages is closed under the concatenation operation. If A and B are both regular languages, so is . Non determinism: When there is multiple choice, the machine split itself into multiple copy. Every NFA can be converted into an equivalent DFA. . . .

Corollary:1.40 A language is regular if and only if some non deterministic finite automata recognize it. Say that R is a regular expression if R is (1)a for some a in alphabet (2) (language contains a simple empty string) (3) (language contains nothing) (4) where R1 and R2 are regular expression (5) where R1 and R2 are regular expression (6) where R1 is regular expression Note : . A non deterministic finite automaton is a five tuple P(Q) is the power set of Q. Question(P65):no idea about equation above. Building NFA from regular expression. Equivalence of NFAS and DFAS Proof: Closure under Union. .50 (Start state is still an accept state which will accept anything.) Regular Expression: Priority: First--Star.Concatenation. Second--Concatenation. . but not b? .Question (P53): Why does accepts a and . Third--Union. Non regular language: A language appears to require unlimited language doesn’t mean it is necessary so. ???????? Regular expression’s equivalence with finite automata: The descriptive power of finite automata and regular expression are the same. Star Question(P78): couldn’t understand Figure 1. Question: closure under complement.

C is not regular but D is ????????? Pumping lemma: If A is a regular language. then there is a number p (the pumping length) where. for each i > 0. |y|> 0. then s may be divided into three pieces. . if s is any string in A of length at least p. . satisfying the following conditions: 1. 2. and 3. s = xyz. |xy|<= p.

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