ICMR Case Collection

ICFAI Center for Management Research

Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing: Transforming a Humdrum Product into a Happening Brand
This case was written by Shirisha Regani, under the direction of S.S.George, ICFAI Center for Management Research (ICMR). It was compiled from published sources, and is intended to be used as a basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a management situation.


2006, The ICFAI Center for Management Research. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means- electronic or mechanical, without permission. To order copies, call +91-40-2343-0462/63 or write to ICFAI Center for Management Research, Plot # 49, Nagarjuna Hills, Hyderabad 500 082, India or email icmr@icfai.org. Website: www.icmrindia.org

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Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing: Transforming a Humdrum Product into a Happening Brand
“In terms of attracting new customers and enhancing consumer loyalty, Red Bull has a more effective branding campaign than Coke or Pepsi. Red Bull is building a beverage brand without relying on the essential equipment of a mass-marketing campaign. Perhaps the indispensable tools of marketing aren't so indispensable after all.” – Nancy Koehn, Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, in 2001.1 “When we first started, we said there is no existing market for Red Bull. But Red Bull will create it. And this is what finally became true.” – Dietrich Mateschitz, Founder and Managing Partner of Red Bull GmbH, in 2005.2

In September 2005, Red Bull GmbH, the manufacturer of the Red Bull energy drink, acquired Minardi, an Italy-based Formula One (F1)3 team for an undisclosed amount. Dietrich Mateschitz (Mateschitz), the founder and managing partner of the company said that the Minardi team would continue under the existing management4 till the end of 2005, after which it would be renamed for the 2006 racing season. Red Bull GmbH already owned another F1 team, Red Bull Racing, at the time it acquired Minardi. Red Bull Racing had participated in F1 as Jaguar Racing, until Mateschitz bought it from its previous owner, the Ford Motor Company (Ford) in November 2004. After the acquisition of Minardi, Mateschitz announced that Red Bull Racing would be the company’s main team, and the newly acquired Minardi (renamed Scuderia Toro Rosso (STR)5 for the 2006 racing season) would serve as the ‘rookie team’ in 2006. Red Bull GmbH intended to use the team to train young drivers sponsored by the company. Red Bull, widely acknowledged as the creator of the ‘energy drink’6 category, maintained a close association with sports from the time it was launched in 1987. Red Bull GmbH was known for its sponsorship of extreme, alternative sports like white water kayaking, hand gliding, wind surfing and snowboarding – sports that involved elements of adventure and risk. Red Bull’s association
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Anni Layne Rodgers, “ It’s a (Red) Bull Market After All,” Fast Company, October 2001. Kerry A. Dolan, “The Soda with the Buzz,” Forbes, March 28, 2005. Formula One, abbreviated to F1, and also known as Grand Prix racing, is the highest class of single-seat openwheel formula auto racing in the world. The ‘formula’ in the name is a set of rules which all participants and cars must meet. http://en.wikipedia.org Minardi was then owned by Australian millionaire Paul Stoddart. Scuderia Toro Rosso means ‘Red Bull Stable’ in Italian. Energy drinks are beverages that generally contain legal stimulants, vitamins, and minerals. Most of them contain taurine and glucuronolactone, and a high content of caffeine and sugar or glucose. Many energy drinks are flavored and/or colored to resemble soft drinks.


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and during one of his trips to Thailand. one of the world’s most glamorous and expensive sports. to parents who were primary school teachers. The research results showed that Red Bull was not likely to find favor in the market. In the meantime. The test consumers found the taste ‘too acidic’ and ‘strange on the palate’. Red Bull had a huge market presence. Analysts said that the company’s sponsorship of extreme sports that required stamina and energy was also just right for the image of the beverage. However. which made Krating Daeng. he discovered an ‘energy drink’ called Krating Daeng. and to gauge the potential of Red Bull. Mateschitz reportedly discovered that the drink was good at combating jetlag. before becoming the international director for marketing at Blendax. Mateschitz chose to disregard these findings and launch the product. skin creams and shampoos. Analysts attributed the beverage’s success to the unconventional marketing strategy adopted by the company to promote it in new markets. and taurine is an acidic chemical substance found in the tissues of many animals Do The Thai name Krating Daeng roughly translated into ‘red water buffalo’ in English. The founders agreed that Mateschitz would run the company. he took up marketing jobs at Unilever and Jacobs Coffee. The idea for marketing an energy drink in Western markets came when he realized that energy drinks had a huge market in Asia and that there was no such product available in Europe. However he left the main ingredients – caffeine. which became the theme of the company’s promotion campaign. nor the name Red Bull. Mateschitz resigned from his job to pursue his new business. Mateschitz’s job involved a lot of travel around the world. while the Thais remained sleeping partners. as consumers sampled liked neither the taste of the beverage. After graduating with a marketing degree from the University of Commerce in Vienna.8 Before launching Red Bull in Europe. a German company that dealt in FMCG products like toothpaste. No tC 2 op y . Yoovidhya agreed to give Mateschitz the foreign licensing rights to the drink in return for a partnership in the venture. in the new company. in 1979. He set up an office near Salzburg in Austria to act as the company’s base. Mateschitz and Yoovidhya each invested $500. Mateschitz also modified the beverage to make it more acceptable to western consumers. one of his friends coined the slogan ‘Red Bull gives you wiiings’. the owner of TC Pharmaceuticals. He then named the company after its only product. The main changes he made were to carbonate the drink and to package it in a slim blue and silver can.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… with F1 Racing. The remaining two percent was held in trust for Yoovidhya’s son. Mateschitz hired a marketing research firm to test the market for energy drinks in the region. Mateschitz approached Chaleo Yoovidhya (Yoovidhya). Mateschitz changed the beverage’s name to ‘Red Bull’ to make it more suitable for western markets.000 to become equal partners. The company was reported to hold almost 70 percent of the worldwide market for energy drinks in 2005. with a 49 percent stake each. After the new venture was formed with Yoovidhya. with a proposal to market the beverage in Europe. glucuronolactone and taurine in place. In Thailand. which was very popular among blue collar workers in the country. For a product that did not have any extraordinary qualities. and was made of ingredients whose effects had often been called into question7. also helped enhance its image as a trendy drink. In 1984. Glucuronolactone is a carbohydrate. When he sampled it. 7 8 Red Bull’s main ingredients taurine and glucuronolactone are extremely controversial. the drink was sold in glass bottles (Refer Exhibit I for a picture of Krating Daeng). BACKGROUND Dietrich Mateschitz was born in 1944 in Austria.

a large number of cans were smuggled across the Austria-Germany border to be consumed at weekend parties. The emphasis Red Bull placed on marketing was evident from the fact that the company spent around 30 percent of its annual turnover on marketing . In 2003. some vitamins and chemical substances like taurine and glucuronolactone. . speed. But it was estimated that the beverage’s global sales exceeded $2 billion in 2004. However. concentration and alertness (Refer Table I for the ‘benefits’ of Red Bull as claimed by the company). the company expanded rapidly across Europe. (Refer Exhibit II for the ingredients of Red Bull). These were more or less the same ingredients found in other soft drinks like Coca Cola (Coke) and Pepsi.much higher than most other beverage manufacturers who spent approximately 10 percent. By the early 2000s. Red Bull was launched in the United States (US) in 1997 and found success there as well. nutritional experts declared that the product had no ingredients that could confer actual benefits. Austria was the first to grant approval. The beverage was targeted at people who sought increased endurance. Therefore Red Bull had to get approvals from the regulatory agencies in various countries before it could be launched. the quantities of caffeine and sugar in Red Bull were almost double those found in large servings 9 10 Germany had at first banned Red Bull claiming it was an anesthetic. Source: www.redbull. This was followed by its launch in Hungary. Germany9 and Switzerland. But reportedly. despite the company’s claims. A prominent business magazine. Do Table I: Red Bull Energy Drink Increases performance Increases concentration and reaction speed Improves vigilance Improves the emotional status Stimulates metabolism No tC 3 op y Red Bull GmbH was a private company. The beverage’s target market was young urban professionals who often put in long hours at work. and Red Bull was launched in the country in 1987. in the early 1990s. and weekend revelers who wished to party all night. Slovenia. South America. By 1990. Red Bull was sold in more than 100 countries across the world. other than providing an instant ‘kick’ after consumption. Over the late 1990s. The company’s slogan ‘Red Bull gives you wiiings’ reinforced this positioning. and the company employed around 1850 people. Red Bull contained several ingredients that had not been used in European markets before. Red Bull became an instant success in Europe. of who 200 worked at the headquarters near Salzburg. Australia and Asia. Supported by the company’s unconventional marketing activities. almost four million cans of Red Bull were sold in Austria. Red Bull was positioned as an energy drink that ‘invigorated mind and body’ and ‘improved endurance levels’. However. ELEMENTS OF RED BULL’S MARKETING STRATEGY Red Bull was generally acknowledged by marketing experts to be a good example of an ordinary product of uncertain worth that was transformed into a powerful brand through innovative marketing.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… A major obstacle in the launch of Red Bull was regulatory approval. and hence was not required to publish its financial information.com Red Bull’s main ingredients were caffeine. sugar. the United Kingdom (UK). As of 2006. Mateschitz was on the Forbes’ 10 billionaires list. Red Bull was ranked among the top ten carbonated beverages in the world.

a spokesman for the ADA. Kerry A. analysts thought that the ‘energy boosting’ properties of Red Bull and the benefits it promised prevailed over the taste aspect in consumers’ minds. “Liquid Cocaine. the drink had a slightly medicinal flavor with a lemony base. and this is what gives a sudden surge of energy. So these drinks do provide quick energy. it would be easier to establish the market. The additional caffeine and sugar were thought to be responsible for the ‘lift’ consumers experienced soon after drinking it. Besides. trend-setting college students. It smelled sweet. during the 1990s and early 2000s. Red Bull’s marketing strategy was unconventional. and people had learned to block out most of these messages. what was needed was an innovative method to cut through the clutter and make an impact on the target market.salon. traditional modes of advertising have little impact on them.” Forbes. You could probably accomplish the same thing with a glass of juice and a cup of coffee. different point of view. Dolan. The values associated with the brand . When Red Bull first entered a new market. According to the American Dietetic Association (ADA). the company’s sales people provided free cases of the drink to influential. Red Bull did not rate very high with consumers on the taste dimension. 2001. sugar and caffeine are absorbed by the human body immediately. It also built its reputation as a party drink for people who needed the energy to party all night. Anni Layne Rodgers. However. “The Soda with the Buzz.com. Analysts said that Red Bull’s buzz marketing played a critical role in helping it gain a foothold in new markets. young urban professionals and students who would be open to a new ‘cool’ alternative to coffee. Those are two things that your body will use right away. “They (energy drinks) are usually very high in simple sugars and contain at least some caffeine. February 2.12 From the start.11 Apart from this.13 No tC 4 op y . even when it’s above ground. the author of Emotional Branding: The New Paradigm for Connecting Brands to People. “We were always looking for a more creative. coffee was the preferred ‘pick-me-up’ used by all classes of people.” http://archive. This strategy allowed Red Bull to gain immediate acceptance among the college-going crowd as a cool and happening beverage. In this context.appealed to the young urban consumers it targeted. When the drink was first launched in Austria.” said Marc Gobe (Gobe).” said Eddie Hogan. However. and that appeals to the young people who drink it. so the lift doesn’t last very long. Mateschitz understood that its target market in Europe would have to be different from its blue collar market in Asia. “The beauty of Red Bull is that it’s the anti-brand brand. and encouraged them to throw a party for their classmates and friends.” Fast Company. and the company did not focus on taste in its promotions. Do Red Bull dispensed with traditional modes of advertising to make effective use of buzz marketing in promoting the beverage to the target market. there was no evidence that Red Bull or any other energy drink could have a restorative effect on a tired mind and body. off-the-shelf product. and consequently. companies had been deluging customers with promotional material. Mateschitz was confident that he would be able to create a market around hip. According to marketing experts. Unfortunately caffeine and sugar are used up by the body very quickly as well. 11 12 13 Jeff Edwards. 2005.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… of cola soft drinks. In fact. Red Bull doesn’t have any of the commercial trappings of a traditional. but the taste was a mix of sweet and bitter tinges. The idea was that once the product was tried out by the target group.irreverence and individualism . In Europe. ‘Generation Y’ (people born after 1981) was generally skeptical of traditional marketing. Reportedly. According to scientists. “ It's a (Red) Bull Market After All. few people actually liked the taste of Red Bull. March 28. A similar effect could be obtained by drinking extra-strong sweetened coffee. October 2001. Red Bull’s brand image was that of a stimulant or party drink. It’s underground.” said Mateschitz.

and was aggressively marketed to bartenders and bar owners. the company set up a warehouse in the region. If this was not possible. and helped underscore Red Bull’s image as a youthful and hip brand. even if the other beverages were not direct competitors. as they were called. “ It’s a (Red) Bull Market After All. a game on the Sony PlayStation. Red Bull employed ‘consumer educators’ to get its message across to the general public. Red Bull usually attempted to establish an ‘exclusive’ network of distributors in each of its markets. where students drove around in cars and pick-up trucks. subtly making the product one that people saw around and got familiar with. Reportedly. 2002. in stressful conditions.” Fast Company. and many of them soon got hooked on Red Bull. Do No tC 5 op y . the company generally insisted that the distributors carry only Red Bull and no other beverage. consumer educators often left empty cans on tables in clubs and bars. Red Bull also developed the Mobile Energy Team (MET) program. The company also advertised in ‘Wipeout 2’.” said Mateschitz about Red Bull’s promotions. the sales reps opened kiosks to sell the drink. Once Red Bull established its presence in the region. The availability of the drink encouraged people to try it when they felt enervated.). gyms. athletic and stylish to be its brand ambassadors. and hired students and other young people to act as distributors. the company paid for the distributors’ promotional and advertising costs and also bore the cost of the samples distributed. Red Bull was also widely available near gyms and colleges.” said Gobe. October 2001. These Racers. An important reason for Red Bull’s success was that the company chose its target market well and reached it effectively. Diesel jeans were advertised the same way in this game. If it was not possible to retail through convenience stores in the selected region. “Cool college students have become Red Bull’s best ambassadors because they carry the most credibility with cynical consumers. After it gained a foothold in a new market. 14 15 16 Anni Layne Rodgers. by putting the name of the drink on virtual billboards that flashed by as a player drove around on the virtual racetracks in the game15. For instance. Using students to market the product to other young people gave it instant credibility in that consumer age group. Consumer educators were the company’s sales representatives who frequented public places like beaches. It’s almost as if brands have to be elected to be part of the culture now. created tremendous visibility for the company. In addition to sponsoring student parties. The main task of these budding distributors was to see that the beverage was supplied to the stores in the region and that it was given prominent shelf space. the company’s sales reps tied up with distributors in key locations (near colleges.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Red Bull’s grassroots marketing helped it cut through the clutter effectively. and distributed free cans of the beverage ‘where energy was needed’. We bring people to the product. for a period of around three months. and had an oversize Red Bull can strapped on the back or top. exhibitions and meetings where young people congregated. Additionally. etc. to enhance its image in the market. We make it available and those who love our style come to us. Visibility and availability were the central themes in all of Red Bull’s promotions. and gave away free samples of the beverage. Red Bull gave away free samples at organizations and places where people worked long hours. the company gradually phased out this support.” The Economist.14 The company also ensured that it chose people who were young. “Selling Energy. “We don’t bring the product to the people. March 9. These vehicles were painted blue and silver – the colors of Red Bull. they distributed promotional material about the product. and answered any questions people might have about Red Bull.16 When Red Bull first entered a market. The company was able to get its message across to the target market without being too ‘obvious’ about it. Initially.

17 18 Kenneth Hein. it bought the Austrian football team SV Austria Salzburg and renamed it Red Bull Salzburg.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Very soon after entering a new market.17 Once Red Bull gained a foothold in the market and the distribution network was established. It also oversees seven regional series and one local grassroots series. The three largest racing series sanctioned by NASCAR are the NEXTEL Cup. rough-terrain biking. Champ Car World Series. although it was also involved with some popular ones like football. The New York Times reported that Red Bull had paid ‘in excess of $100 million’ for the MetroStars. naming rights of their new stadium and 50 percent stake in the new stadium (the rest of the stake was to be held by Anschutz Entertainment Group. the company was in the process of building the Red Bull Park stadium in New Jersey to act as the base for the team. because the product gets a lot of visibility and attention. and Red Bull sold its stake in the holding company to Credit Suisse. Some of the motoring events sponsored by Red Bull were the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (DTM). a ski and snowboard freestyle competition held in January. Red Bull had announced that it would sponsor two Toyota teams in NASCAR’s18 2007 Nextel Cup in the US. The company entered the F1 arena through its sponsorship of the Sauber team in 1995. Red Bull was also closely associated with F1 racing. where participants built their own flying machines and leapt off from a height into a body of water. in 2002. It goes faster to deal with individual accounts. the Busch Series and the Craftsman Truck Series. However.” said Markus Pichler (Pichler). Red Bull sponsored and organized sporting activities like kayaking. One of the sports with which Red Bull was closely associated was motor racing. Red Bull’s sales reps contacted bars and trendy nightspots to promote Red Bull to the bartenders and owners. and owned several sporting teams. and the annual Flugtag (German for ‘flying day’). The company primarily associated itself with extreme alternative sports. Mateschitz had differences with the team management over the hiring of driver Kimi Raikkonen. The company also purchased the New Jersey based MetroStars Major League Soccer team from its former owner Anschutz Entertainment Group and renamed it Red Bull New York. which would also be responsible for the operations of the stadium). “We go to on-premise accounts first. Sports sponsorships formed the core of Red Bull’s marketing strategy. May 28. and World Rally Championship. “A Bull’s market – The marketing of Red Bull energy drink. which included complete ownership of the team. when it bought a 64 percent stake in the holding company that owned the team. Some of the sporting events it sponsored at various locations were the Red Bull Huckfest. Red Bull also sponsored several athletes involved in these sports around the world. After a bar had placed an order for a certain number of cases. The soccer-specific stadium was likely to be ready by 2008. In addition to conducting alternative sporting events. KTM Factory Motocross Team. the company would give it Red Bull branded coolers and other promotion material.” Brandweek. Red Bull also sponsored mainstream sports. The idea behind this was to reinforce Red Bull’s image as a beverage for adventure-seekers and risk-takers. the company embarked on the promotional activities that were to supplement the grassroots marketing efforts. cliff diving and skateboarding. Do No tC 6 op y . In April 2005. The company also sponsored the NASCAR driver Robby Gordon. In addition to this. Red Bull was also a sponsor for the Cyberathlete Professional League for professional computer game players. As of early 2006. 2001. hand-gliding. the executive vice president for strategic planning at Red Bull North America. The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. not big chains and their authorization process. The company sponsored several racing events as well as teams around the world.

September 11. who raced in the 2006 season (Speed and Liuzzi raced for STR. simply because we can control it. including Adrian Newey. Red Bull selected several young drivers from around the world. The selected drivers signed a contract with the company. spirit in the team. We have all the responsibility. in November 2004. Mateschitz denied any such motives. Red Bull bought the company’s Jaguar Racing F1 team for an undisclosed amount. and had hired some of the best engineering talent in F1. It is a marketing tool. Red Bull acquired Minardi and renamed it Scuderia Toro Rosso. Red Bull announced that it would not conduct the Driver Talent Search program that year. and Klien was one of the drivers for Red Bull Racing).19 By acquiring another team. who had helped create championship winning cars for F1 teams Williams and McLaren.” 7 . and Christian Klien (Klien) were among of the drivers selected through the programs. 19 20 “Minardi bought by Red Bull. safety. Mateschitz said that the main motive behind the company’s acquisition of Minardi was to give its young drivers a chance to gain F1 experience. Considering that Mateschitz had always been a close follower of F1 and had been a personal sponsor to Austrian driver Gerhard Berger in the late 1980s. Consequently. Red Bull remained interested in F1.co. Red Bull Racing debuted in the 2005 Australian Grand Prix with a new chassis painted with the Red Bull logo (Refer Exhibit III for a picture of Red Bull Racing’s 2005 car). “As the CEO of Red Bull. In early 2006. which were launched in 2001 and 2002 respectively.20 Besides. June 16. but would continue to support the existing young drivers. The team was to be Red Bull’s ‘B’ team or ‘rookie’ team in the 2006 racing season. Over the years the company found itself in a position where it had more drivers than it could bring into F1. Red Bull Racing finished in the seventh position in the 2005 Constructors’ Championship. We decided to do the second. any budget. “We have more drivers than cockpits and we had only two possibilities. Red Bull was able to give many of its young drivers an opportunity to participate in F1. performance of the car – which we cannot guarantee and control when we put our drivers in other teams. It also said that although STR was to operate as a rookie team in 2006. Soon after the purchase. Vitantonio Liuzzi (Liuzzi). some of whom also raced in F1. So I cannot spend any marketing money. it could not be denied that association with a high profile sport like F1 gave Red Bull great mileage around the world. some analysts wondered whether Mateschitz had bought two F1 teams to indulge a personal hobby. 2006 Do No tC op y Business In Formula One. Through the programs. Considering that F1 was among the most expensive sports in the world.nz. Dan Knutson. when Ford announced its decision to exit F1 after a major restructuring program.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Even after the fallout with Sauber. I am responsible as a CEO. “Mateschitz Ensures Red Bull Means http://indianapolismotorspeedway.” said Mateschitz.” he said. Red Bull conducted Red Bull Junior Team (Europe) and Red Bull Driver Search (US) programs to identify and promote driving talent among youngsters.” http://tvnz. Scott Speed (Speed). which then sponsored them through funding and other support. F1 is good for the brand and good as a marketing instrument. In late 2005. it would graduate to being a full fledged team over the next few years. Jaguar was renamed Red Bull Racing.com. analysts were surprised at Red Bull’s decision to own and operate two F1 teams simultaneously. First we try to find cockpits for our talents in other teams or second we try to increase the number of our own cockpits. 2005. However. STR made its debut in the Bahrain Grand Prix in 2006. any sponsoring for Red Bull on behalf of my personal passions or likes or dislikes. Red Bull had been investing heavily on both its teams’ infrastructure.

despite the premium pricing. The exterior of the cans was dominantly silver and blue and carried a picture of two charging red bulls (Refer Exhibit IV for a picture of the Red Bull can). By early 2006. The Red Bull beverage continued to be the main product sold by Red Bull GmbH.” Brandweek.” said David Rohdy. Typically. tall 8. vice president of marketing at Red Bull North America. “Media is not a tool that we use to establish the market. Red Bull’s advertisements served to amuse viewers rather than to educate them about the product or entice them to buy it. According to analysts. he approached a firm to manufacture aluminum cans with different dimensions from those used by soft drink manufacturers. The advertisements were usually animated and had quirky themes. it was surprising that the beverage had managed to capture and hold such a major part of the global energy drinks market. However. Traditional advertisements were used to reinforce the brand rather than to introduce it to a target market. It’s just later in the development.23 21 22 23 8. We do what we do best.3 ounce can.3 ounce can. Consequently. and sales had been growing at a rate of 40 percent every year from the time it was launched in the country in 1997. Kenneth Hein. in early 2006. which was around double the price of a 12 ounce can of Coke. Red Bull parties were reportedly the most exciting parties on the F1 circuit. which was adopted by the company. In the UK. 2001. water. Anni Layne Rodgers. although a sugar free version had been introduced in 2003. May 28. In the US.” said Emmy Cortes (Cortes) director of communications for Red Bull North America. “It is a critical part. The can’s smaller than the normal size also reinforced the feeling that the beverage was a ‘concentrated experience’. despite its success with Red Bull. It also commanded a 47 percent market share in the US. A unique feature of Red Bull’s marketing was that the company sold the beverage in only one size – the 250ml/8.”22 No tC 8 op y . However.3 ounce21 can of Red Bull sold for around $2. The manufacturer came out with a slim. milk and soda in certain convenience stores. Mateschitz wanted packaging to be one of the differentiating aspects of Red Bull. The print advertisements also evoked the company’s slogan (Refer Exhibit V for one of Red Bull’s print advertisements). Red Bull was estimated to have captured a market share of roughly 70 percent in the global energy drinks market (in some countries it was as high as 80 percent). The company placed a lot of emphasis on packaging. However. October 2001. Most of the advertisements featured people sprouting wings and flying after drinking Red Bull. it was estimated that Red Bull’s sales were higher than those of items like beer.3 ounces is equal to approximately 250 ml in the metric system of measurement. even if it did not win any races. the company was unable to successfully extend its product line.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Red Bull and Mateschitz had already begun making an impact at F1 in the 2006 season. “A Bull’s market – The marketing of Red Bull energy drink. “We are one of few companies around the world that can stay focused on one product. The company also published a humorous newsletter for people in the F1 paddock during the race weekends and was generally making its presence felt in F1. With this in mind.” Fast Company. as he did not want the product to look like a typical soft drink. Do Red Bull used conventional advertising media like print and television only when the market was thought to have matured. a 250 ml can of Red Bull was sold for around £1. Analysts said that given the price and other attributes of Red Bull. an 8. soft drinks were sold in squat 12-ounce cans with script lettering (as with Coke and Pepsi). Red Bull’s packaging succeeded in giving the product a European image. Red Bull created two television advertisements a year for its mature global markets. one of its major markets. youngsters were no longer interested in watching it. Mateschitz believed that F1 was losing much of its following in the early 2000s as it had had become too straight-laced and serious. Mateschitz claimed that he was trying to bring the fun back to F1. “ It's a (Red) Bull Market After All.

in Europe. 2005. mixing an energy drink with alcohol could lead to abnormal heart beat and future heart problems. Mixing Red Bull (which was high in caffeine) with alcohol. the beverage faced difficulties in getting approval from the authorities. Red Bull’s high sugar and caffeine content was also believed to pose health threats. Because everyone’s different… and everybody’s Red Bull experience will be different. was an untested food product in many western countries and was thought by some to be harmful. A Canadian newspaper once reported hearing sales reps tell a customer: “There’s no rule or regulation really of how much you can have. February 6. The controversies were further fuelled by rumors that taurine was actually derived from the bile of bulls. the taurine in Red Bull was synthetically manufactured. which could put a strain on the heart. Glucuronolactone. As of 2006. reportedly reduced the drowsiness associated with getting drunk. Over the years. he had to wait for three years to get approval in Austria. Do No tC 9 op y . which increased the mystery surrounding Red Bull. glucuronolactone. people were able to imbibe more alcohol without feeling its effects. and Hungary became Red Bull’s first foreign market in 1992. “All in a label: Is Red Bull a “natural health product”?” www. In Norway.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… CONTROVERSIES Red Bull had been a controversial product right from the start. it was classified as a medicine that could only be sold in pharmacies. usually centering on the nature of the ingredients in the drink. So. the effects of taurine and glucuronolactone on the human body were still not well researched. It could also lead to severe errors in judgment especially while performing activities like driving. The most controversial ingredient in Red Bull was taurine. After that. it took another five years before it could be sold internationally. While exotic ingredients were acceptable in many Asian markets where food regulations were not stringent. But according to the company.cbc. the company’s salespeople told potential consumers that there was no such limit. According to them.”27 The biggest controversy surrounding Red Bull was its use as a ‘mixer’ with alcohol. When Mateschitz first planned to launch the beverage in Europe. if a person drank Red Bull after physical exertion. Taurine. Glucuronolactone was a popular ingredient in energy drinks in the early 2000s. The US was involved in the war from 1959 to 1973. which was listed on the can. his home country. was rumored to cause brain tumors. caffeine was a dehydrant that could cause problems when taken in excess. But health experts were concerned about the repercussions of mixing caffeine and alcohol and consuming them in excess. Although Red Bull was positioned as a rejuvenating energy drink. Red Bull had become popular in bars as a mixer and it was most commonly mixed with vodka or Jägermeister. Red Bull was banned in France and Denmark. he or she stood a chance of actually accelerating dehydration. and distributed to American soldiers during the Vietnam War25 for stress and fatigue relief. Red Bull’s launches in new markets were almost always preceded by controversy. But reportedly.ca. As long as you know how much your body can handle.24 Another ingredient. While excess sugar could lead to hyperactivity and anxiety. The distribution was reportedly discontinued when several soldiers became ill and developed reactions ranging from severe migraines to brain tumors. Red Bull carried a warning on the can that people should not drink more that two cans in a day. an artificially manufactured stimulant. was first developed for the American government in the 1960s. 24 25 26 27 Some also claimed that it was obtained from bull gonads. The Vietnam War was fought from 1957 to 1975.26 As of 2006. an acidic chemical substance.

it was thought that the rumors and controversies actually fuelled the sales of Red Bull. the company did not actively discourage its use in bars. Some Red Bull sponsored websites even started a rumors section to ‘to keep the mythology growing and evolving’. no matter how controversial they were. The company also did not mention explicitly that the drink should not be consumed by children. which turned out to be beneficial to sales. Energy Rush. “Liquid Cocaine.28 While Red Bull was never co-branded or co-promoted with any liquor brands. certain American celebrities like rap stars 28 29 30 Jeff Edwards.” http://archive. but reportedly did nothing to discourage it either. When the students were examined one of them was found to have an exceptionally high pulse rate. Some people found it hypocritical that the company refused to associate itself with alcohol.salon.” http://archive. The idea is that Red Bull is an alternative to alcoholic beverages. The US itself saw the launch of brands like Red Devil. Over the years there were several incidents reported of people consuming Red Bull and suffering severe after-effects.29 Some health activists also maintained that Red Bull was an adult drink and was unsuitable for consumption by minors. and Jones Whoop Azz. The company’s strategy was said to be ‘rumor by omission’ where it consciously and carefully cultivated the mystery around the product and allowed the public to speculate on its nature and effects. in the energy drinks market during the early 2000s. Red Bull’s success had spawned a spate of imitators. found no difficulty in buying the beverage. February 2. 2001. Blue Ox. “The idea is to place Red Bull where people need a lift. We are no more concerned about it than Minute Maid is that orange juice is mixed in a screwdriver. sources at Red Bull claimed that the company targeted bars as it wanted to position the drink as a substitute for alcohol and not as a mixer. made more people want to try it out.30 No tC 10 A school in California banned Red Bull from its campus after two students became seriously ill after drinking Red Bull just before football practice. Not to be left behind.com Do However. after a student who had consumed the beverage died suddenly at a sporting event. The school authorities also noticed that they were not perspiring at all. NRG. SoBe Adrenaline Rush. 2001.com. THREATS TO CONTINUED SUCCESS Red Bull was a market leader in its category in the early 2000s. Red Rooster. The company also rarely reacted to or denied the rumors. the Irish Prime Minister called for an inquiry into the ingredients and effects of Red Bull. “Liquid Cocaine.” said Cortes. In the early 2000s. Nevertheless.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Red Bull did not openly promote itself as a mixer. Jeff Edwards. in spite of it being a very hot day. February 2. but we don’t encourage drinking Red Bull and alcohol. www. paradoxically. Some of the knock-offs even had names that evoked the Red Bull brand – Red Tiger and American Bull being notable examples. when its first targets in a new market were bars. Analysts said that the rumors of Red Bull’s ability to give the consumer ‘drug-like’ highs.com. Dance clubs and nightspots are a perfect fit. Niagara. Hansen’s Functional. “We don’t try to control how people use Red Bull.wirednews. This created a buzz. garnering strong sales in its various markets around the world. Some convenience stores even refused to sell the product to minors. all wanting to cash in on the booming energy drinks market. Dynamite.salon. Mad Croc. But a random experiment conducted by a newspaper in Canada showed that children. Eclipse. even those below the age of 10. Apparently the students suddenly became dizzy and disoriented. However. analysts were skeptical about the company’s continued survival and growth as there were several factors threatening the brand’s long term prospects. among others. op y .” said Cortes.

com Do No tC 11 op y . N. 2004. One of the reasons for its success was thought to be the Red Bull-like strategy it adopted to promote the beverage. Rockstar. Sobe and Red Rave were popular. Although Roaring Lion did not feature among the top energy drinks in the US as of early 2006. as these companies. In Canada Red Bull wannabes like RELOAD.universia.32 In Europe too competition had increased.Overall. (known as Nelly) and Jonathan Smith (known as Lil Jon) also came out with their own brands. had the potential to give the brand a run for its money. Monster also sponsored extreme sports and the company had signed on Ricky Carmichael. Nelly launched an energy drink called Pimp Juice. there were 125 players in the energy drinks market in the US. which started promoting the beverage as a mixer in bars. “They could wind up competing in the same segment. analysts said that the company was a serious potential threat to Red Bull. Charlotte. It also sold the beverage in containers of different sizes. Major retail chains Tesco and ASDA created their own in-house brands of energy drinks Cranberry Diet Kick and Lemon & Lime respectively.”31 Smaller brands like Monster. although Red Bull still held a large part of the market. a Las Vegas based company. Red Bull filed cases against Roaring Lion and Monster on the grounds that they were giving incentives to bars and bartenders to give customers their drinks when they asked for Red Bull. which was more useful for bar owners who needed different quantities for mixing.C. www. Besides. However. Red Rain.redbull. The company’s slogan “Fly twice as hiiigh” was a take on Red Bull’s slogan. Unlike Red Bull which did not attempt to associate itself with any alcoholic drinks manufacturer. bartenders found that there was a lot of wastage when they used only half a can or so as a mixer. Monster. and positioned itself as a direct competitor of Red Bull. Roaring Lion was launched in the US in 2001 by some ex-Red Bull employees. May 19. Another potential contender for Red Bull’s top spot was Roaring Lion.” said John Hudson. some of the US brands like Roaring Lion and the brands from Coke and Pepsi were also present in Europe. Coke and Pepsi launched KMX and AMP respectively. Red Bull could be vulnerable to such giants as CocaCola and Pepsi. “Strategically. Analysts said that competition from big companies might affect Red Bull. which by 2004 had become the number two player in the US energy drink market (Refer Exhibit VI for the sales of energy drink brands in the US in mid 2004). it was estimated that as of 2005. coordinator of the graduate business school at the University of Palermo. while Lil Jon launched the Crunk brand. Major beverage companies like Coke. introduced an energy drink in the early 2000s.. Diet Rockstar and Rockstar Energy Cola. It would be hard to fight that battle. Coca-Cola’s second-largest distributor in 2005. Other Red Bull competitors in Europe included Shark from Austria and Battery from Finland. which was launched in 2002 by Hansen Natural. Rockstar and Roaring Lion also posed serious competition to Red Bull. in the early 2000s. Pepsi and beer major Anheuser-Busch had also come out with new energy drinks. 31 32 “How Far Can Red Bull Fly?” http://wharton. which can’t sit back and simply do nothing.net. Roaring Lion had formed relationships with several vodka companies and Jägermeister. the company claimed that it was unfazed by the competition as it was “Often copied never equaled”. Like Red Bull. had become popular by 2005-2006. a major beverage and cereal manufacturer in the US.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Cornell Iral Hayes. By 2005 the company had three versions of energy drinks – Rockstar. and the pricing and packaging were also aimed at taking advantage of Red Bull’s weak spots. a motocross and supercross (motorcycle racing) racing star as a celebrity endorser in early 2006. Jr. with their greater spending power. As Red Bull came only in one sized-can. while AnheuserBusch launched 180. which reportedly had the second and third largest market shares in 2004-2005. The company’s biggest coup was the distribution agreement it managed to enter into with Coca-Cola Consolidated (CCBCC).

) These herbal teas were supposed to improve metabolism and boost the immune system. “The Soda With the Buzz. Kerry A. the original.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Many of Red Bull’s competitors had introduced energy drinks in multiple flavors like cranberry. Analysts said that there was very little to choose between the various energy drinks crowding the market.” Forbes. However. one of which contained caffeine. Dolan. Besides. it was not clear whether taste was an important consideration for consumers in this particular market. Red Bull’s main market consisted of college-students and young urban professionals. lime and cola. The water was launched in two variants.” The Economist. Although Mateschitz had said that avoiding product extensions had been a deliberate strategy on part of the company. Finding new geographic markets was also going to be difficult for the company at it was already present in most of the countries with sizeable demand. the company would have to keep finding new customer groups. it doesn’t exist if we don’t create it. It’s a branded market. as its consumers grew older. Therefore.. The fact that the company had only one major product was another question mark over the company’s prospects. However. this had the potential to be a fatal weakness. All of them were essentially made of the same ingredients – sugar. Although Red Bull had introduced a sugar-free version of the beverage in 2003. where some drinks tasted better than others.” he said. among others. Red Bull also faced the danger of diluting its ‘coolness’ factor. you want the real one. Red Bull had a strong brand. “The market isn’t generic. Growing health consciousness among consumers was another factor that could affect the brand’s fate. the company attempted to create a new category of ‘energy water’ the product was a failure. in 2002. but also maintain its relevance to customers. Energy drinks were generally not popular among older people because of their high sugar and caffeine content. Carpe Diem is a Latin phrase which means ‘Seize the Day’. However. this was a major threat to the company.”34 Another limiting factor in Red Bull’s long term success was the nature of the company’s target market. amino acids and taurine in different proportions. but had not met with much initial success. the sugar-free Red Bull was not able to replicate the original’s success. The company claimed that water reached its highest bioenergetic power during the full moon. with LunAqua. The reasoning was that energy drinks would find more buyers if they were offered in a variety of familiar tastes. With this ubiquity. Do No tC 12 op y . which competition could not hurt. It was not clear whether the company would be able to retain these customers as they grew older. Red Bull had become as ubiquitous as Coke and Pepsi in convenience stores and other retail outlets. Besides.33 “We created the market. Red Bull GmbH launched LunAqua. a brand of still water that was said to be bottled during full moon nights. an Austria-based company set up by Mateschitz in the 1990s. In 2005. according to Mateschitz. it did not help the company that its formula for the drink was no secret and all the major ingredients were listed on the can. Analysts said that the company would only have to sustain and extend its existing markets. The teas had also been launched in Europe in the late 1990s. Mateschitz started test marketing a range of herbal teas under the Carpe Diem35 brand in Los Angeles. 2005. caffeine and other substances like vitamins. as by the early 2000s. March 9. Nobody wants to have a Rolex made in Taiwan or Hong Kong. If you appreciate the product. by losing its exclusivity and its identification with a specific group of customers. March 28. Although. The only differences were in the taste. even by 2006. Considering that Red Bull did not taste very good. Considering the extent of competition in the energy drinks market. the extent of organic growth the brand would be able to achieve was believed to be limited. (The Carpe Diem brand was owned by Stock Vital Inc. 33 34 35 “Selling Energy. the variant could not truly count as a new product. orange. 2002.

It was thought that a major part of Red Bull’s success came about because. and innovation. or the capability to cope with change. this was in fact not the case. Another project in the pipeline was to start a quarterly magazine in Europe. marketing. the study found that it had very low brand resilience. it remained to be seen whether Red Bull was a fad that would soon be forgotten by its consumers. containing articles on themes that evoked ‘the Red Bull world’ like extreme sports.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Mateschitz also planned to use the Carpe Diem brand to start a chain of fast food outlets offering Austrian and international food packaged in edible containers made out of potato. or an enduring brand with the strength for growth and survival. music and social trends. However. as a private company. 36 Vivaldi Partners is a global consulting firm specializing in strategy. on account of the increase in its brand value between 2001 and 2005. However. Next Generation Growth Brands were those that had outperformed their peers in the first four years of the 2000s. Subtlety was the key to a successful buzz marketing strategy. Do 13 No tC op y . the fate of LunAqua seemed to indicate that Red Bull’s new businesses might not be very successful. The low brand resilience score was mainly a result of the Red Bull’s strong association with a single product. or lack. Red Bull GmbH had the flexibility to take risks. and Red Bull was one of the few companies that managed to execute such a strategy successfully. The results of a survey conducted by Vivaldi Partners36 and Forbes magazine to identify ‘Next Generation Growth Brands’. While Red Bull was ranked seventh among the top 20 growth brands. and market its product in ways that many publicly-held companies could not. in mid-2005 seemed to reinforce this view. branding. and the failure. while Red Bull’s marketing strategy seemed rather simple and easy to pull off. According to marketing experts. and had the potential to continue doing so in the future (Refer Exhibit VII for a list of the 2005 Forbes -Vivaldi Next Generation Growth Brands). of brand extension efforts by the company. nightlife. This had helped Red Bull create a successful brand around a rather pedestrian product of questionable merit. proactively as well as reactively.

Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Exhibit I Krating Daeng – The Thai Red Bull Source: www.net Do 14 No tC op y .solarnavigator.

cheese. 2005. Sucrose. glucuronolactone is supposed to detoxify the body. protein and red blood cell metabolism. . meat and other foods. Yerba maté. Riboflavin Also known as vitamin B2.cbc. Little research has been done on the effects. Flavours. guarana. and (in small amounts) cacao beans. taurine is important in several metabolic processes of the body. the genetic material in all cells. It also has functions in the gallbladder. legumes. Vitamin B6 performs a wide variety of functions in your body – for example.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Exhibit II Red Bull’s Ingredients Each 250 ml can of Red Bull contained the following: Ingredient Taurine Also known as 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid.65 mg 1 mcg Adapted from: “In the can: Red Bull’s ingredients dissected. eggs. it supports energy production by aiding in the metabolizing of fats. Deficiency of vitamin B12 is the cause of several forms of anaemia. water-soluble micronutrient with a key role in maintaining human health. pyridoxal. Caffeine An alkaloid found naturally in such foods as coffee beans.” CBC Marketplace. and blood vessels and may have some antioxidant and detoxifying properties. Caramel 18 mg 6 mg Do 2 mg 1. Glucose. leafy green vegetables. Glucuronolactone A naturally occurring substance manufactured by the human body. carbohydrates. proteins. Also called 'cobalamin' because it contains the metal cobalt. Like taurine. Inositol. water-soluble vitamin needed to break down carbohydrates. and fats. and the only relevant studies have been conducted on animals so the risk to humans cannot be adequately assessed. Taurine functions in electrically active tissues such as the brain and heart to help stabilize cell membranes. riboflavin is an easily absorbed. Citric acid. www. liver. and needed for the production of DNA. eyes. Like the other B vitamins. Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamine) Helps maintain healthy nerve cells and red blood cells. February 6. Standard non-medicinal ingredients: Carbonated water. Amount 1000 mg 600 mg op y 80 mg No tC 15 Niacin (niacinamide) Also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3. niacin is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell. kola nuts. yeast. tea. It is found in whole grain cereals. almonds and mature soybeans.ca. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxide HCI) A water-soluble vitamin that exists in three major chemical forms: pyridoxine. and pyridoxamine. Pantothenic acid (calcium d-pantothenate) An antioxidant. and proteins and can be found in milk.

com Exhibit IV Red Bull Energy Drink Do Source: www.solarnavigator.net No tC Red Bull Sugar-Free 16 op y .wikipedia.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Exhibit III Red Bull Racing’s F1 2005 Car Source: www.

wordpress.com Do 17 No tC op y .Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Exhibit V A Red Bull Print AD Source: https://redbull.

104 Source: Information Resources Inc.4 0.2% 12.352 $993.4 0.0 -0.4% 128.802 $7.0% 77.330. Source: Laurie Russo.2 0.4% Market Share 59.2004 Brand Red Bull Rockstar Sobe Adrenaline Rush AMP Monster Energy Sobe No Fear Hansen’s Energy KMX Blue Ox Eas Piranha Bawls Hype Powerade Rush Energy 180 Category Total Sales $120.9 6.4 % change vs.546.6 0. Total food.204 $13.6 3.8% -0.8 0.0 No tC 18 7.032. prior year 4.051.8% 206.7 0.” Beverage Industry Tabloid.2 -0.1 -1.7 0.7 1.0 -3.5% 508.7 6. “Sports.017.228 $785.2% 944.4 100. Energy Drink-Makers Take on Giants.4% 55. Do op y 0. drug and mass merchandise for the 52 weeks ending July 11.056 $15.5 0.1% 115.497 $14.2 7.026 % change vs.564 $1.398 $842. 2004.144 $886.167 $3.7 2.6% -28.9% -44.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Exhibit VI Top Energy Drinks in the US by Brand .3 -0.1% -27.663 $3.5 0.845 $1.4 2.437.7 -2.7 1.367.4 4.334 $9.0 .473.2 0. 2005.2% 12.295.506.1% $203.1 0. prior year 68.173 $1.742.6 3.5 -2.110.8% 253..

Apple Blackberry Google Amazon. 11.9 Brand Value Increase from 2001 to 2005 CAGR % 38 36 36 35 33 31 31 24 23 22 22 21 21 17 16 16 15 14 14 11 Do 19 Source: www.7 6.7 6.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Exhibit VII 2005 Forbes – Vivaldi Partners Next Generation Growth Brands Name 1. 16. 10.8 3. 12.1 2. 13. 8.vivaldipartners. 18.com No tC 25. 17. 4.6 op y .0 3. 20.3 6. 14.9 7.8 7. 5. 2.7 2.2 9. 7.3 1.7 3. 9.0 14. 3. 6. 15.4 1.8 7.3 7. 19.2 8.com Yahoo eBay Red Bull Starbucks Pixar Coach Whole Foods EA Sports/Games MTV Samsung Victoria’s Secret Nike Toyota Formula One ESPN Harley-Davidson Brand Value 2005 ($ billion) 5.9 0.

. 7. “Mixed messages: Alcohol and Red Bull. Andrew Purvis. Jeff Edwards.” Brandweek. 29. August 11.com. July 18. “U.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… Additional Readings & References 1. 2001.co. “Energy drink market 'to hit £1bn'.uk. “Red Bull founder rides wave of success. 2003. April 2002. 2. “World’s Richest People: Dietrich Mateschitz. 2002. “Minardi bought by Red Bull. 10. 2004.net.” Time. January 5. 26. “Selling Energy. 2005 24.co. 2002. “Red Bull swoop for Minardi deal. www.cbc.ca. “Monster vs. “Energy Drinks Build Their Buzz.” BusinessWeek. 2005 27.Red Bull's new fortified bottled water. September 10. 18. 2005. September 13.bevnet.universia. 2006 Do 20. July 13.co.” bbc. 2006. “Mateschitz Ensures Red Bull Means Business In Formula One. No tC 20 15. June 16. 4.nz.com. Andrew Murr.cnn.com.” bbc. “Red Bull. 23. May 28. October 2001. “Raging Bull: Health warnings over popular energy drink being brushed off?” www.grandprix.” http://edition. 30. February 6. “Red Bull confirms Minardi purchase. “Makers defend Red Bull after ban. “The Murketing of Red Bull.” CBC Marketplace.bevnet.” www.salon. 2005. “Sports.” http://archive. Kenneth Hein.uk.” news. September 24.” Beverage Industry Tabloid. “Interview: Mateschitz on Minardi. op y 11. 2004. Lion in bar-mixer duel. “A Bull’s market – The marketing of Red Bull energy drink.S. 6. 2004. “Red Bull: Raging success.com .” www. “The Year of the Energy Drink. May 31.” Fast Company.” Forbes.uk. 2005. 2005.co. 2005.” Prepared Foods.com.co. 19. January 1.bbc.Market Trends .” Newsweek. May 19. “All in a label: Is Red Bull a “natural health product”?” www.” bbc. Kerry A. September 10.” Outside Magazine. 21.” bbc.” Forbes.” http://indianapolismotorspeedway. 5. 2005. Bill Saporito.” The Economist. “The Soda with the Buzz.ca. 8. motorsport. “Liquid Cocaine. “Red Bull vs. “Scuderia Toro Rosso.” www. Dolan.uk. Soccer Reboots. “Red Bull masks alcoholic effect. Laurie Russo.co. September 11. “Global Trends . 22. December 20. 31. March 28. February 6. 13. “Red Bull snaps up Jaguar F1 team. Dan Knutson.” www. Anni Layne Rodgers. “Dietrich Mateschitz. 14.ca. 17. January 6.com. 2006 33.” Time. 2001.grandprix. 2005. March 26.” www. 2004 16. 2005.cbc. 28. 12. Red Bull. 9. 2001.” bbc. 2003. “In the can: Red Bull’s ingredients dissected. February 6. Energy Drink-Makers Take on Giants. November 15. “It’s a (Red) Bull Market After All.ca. February 2.uk.co.” http://tvnz. January 2002. 3.” bbc. March 9.” The Independent. 2005. 2005. February 6.com. 2005.uk. “How Far Can Red Bull Fly?” http://wharton. May 14. 25. Burt Helm.co. 2006. 2005.uk.cbc.cbc. March 11. 2006 32.

com 39.com/medical/potables/redbull. www.” http://www. www. www.com 40.Red Bull’s Innovative Marketing… 34.” www.biz/pdf 36.com 37.vivaldipartners.solarnavigator.wirednews. www.grandprix.yahoo. www.com Do 21 No tC op y . “Bull Marketed. finance.redbull.plan-b. www.hoovers.asp 35. “Speed-in-a-can: The Red Bull Story.com 38.net 42.snopes.com 41.

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