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February 9, 2007
U.S. Air Marshal Service
Navigates Turbulent Times
Armed Secret Agents
Have Gripes After 9/11;
Dress Codes Blew Cover
By LAURA MECKLER and SUSAN CAREY
February 9, 2007; Page A1
On Sept. 11, 2001, the Federal Air Marshal Service an undercover squad
trained to stop or kill hijackers on U.S. carriers consisted of just 33 agents
scattered on more than 26,000 daily flights around the globe.
None were aboard any of the hijacked planes on 9/11. Six days later, Congress
passed legislation calling for a massive expansion of the lawenforcement
service as part of the nation's mobilization against terrorism. More than 200,000
people applied to become agents. Soon, thousands of recruits were quietly
training in handtohand combat, advanced marksmanship and techniques for
discreetly defusing onboard disturbances without ever identifying themselves as
The service swelled to a current force somewhere between an estimated 2,500
and 4,000. (The exact number of marshals is classified.) Their presence,
combined with new provisions allowing U.S. pilots to carry guns in the cockpit,
has changed the equation of onboard security. Wouldbe terrorists now must
enter into their calculations a fair chance that a fellow passenger is a welltrained
policeman concealing a semiautomatic weapon.
"The check in and boarding procedures
currently employed by FAMS are
unacceptable to ensuring the anonymity of
federal air marshals."
• In a report this spring, the House Judiciary
was highly critical of the
* * *
"The shooting death … is legally justified
in light of the surrounding circumstances
presented to the air marshals. It should be
noted that both air marshals demonstrated
• In a May 2006 report
, the Miami State
Attorney's office determined that the
December 2005 shooting of an American
Airlines passenger by federal air marshals
was legally justified.
* * *
"People are terrestrial creatures … suited
for surface living. When they venture above
the surface of the earth, they encounter
certain difficulties. Those are most directly
related to flying and the change in
• A marshal in the program's Charlotte,
N.C., field office filed a report
critical of the
program's handling of health issues in July
* * *
"The manner of dress should allow you
to blend in and not direct attention to
yourself, as well as be sufficiently functional
to enable you to conduct your law
enforcement responsibilities, and effectively
conceal your duty equipment."
• In two emails sent to marshals in the
summer of 2006, Dana Brown, the director
of the program, discusses low morale
among the marshals and announces a
change in the program's hotel policy and
* * *
"I'm very appreciative of the time that so
many of you have dedicated to helping me
But building and maintaining the force in recent years
has been an uneasy ride. Marshals have griped that it's
unhealthy flying four or more flights a day and say the
job is a monotonous rut that doesn't lead to
advancement. Another big complaint: Their cover can be
easily blown, particularly when they go through special
led to a hiring freeze, and in some cases
resulted in heavier schedules and fewer
flights covered. Government oversight
bodies, including the House Judiciary
Committee and Homeland Security's
Inspector General, raised concerns as to
whether the marshals were able to do
their jobs effectively.
Some marshals say many of their
colleagues have quit, although agency
officials say defections have been
minimal. But Dana Brown, the current
director, concedes that the program's
$700 million budget wasn't enough to
sustain any new hires between July 2002
and fall 2006.
In an interview, Mr. Brown said the agency
challenges are largely due to growing
pains. "It's the equivalent of having a
momandpop or good small business that
worked very well and overnight it turned
into a large Fortune 500type corporation
with many more issues than it had
previously," he said. Mr. Brown is now
taking steps to address the marshals'
The job is a stressful mixture of tedium
and high pressure. Marshals have made
59 arrests since 2001 and drawn their
weapons only twice once shooting a
man dead. In the end, none of the
incidents were found to be related to
Last summer, their secretive operations
came into rare public view after Northwest
Airlines Flight 42 lifted off from
Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport on Aug. 23
for a nearly ninehour flight to Mumbai,
India. Less than two weeks earlier, British
authorities had foiled an alleged trans
Atlantic airliner bombing plot, and officials
were on high alert.
A group of 11 Indian passengers on Flight
42 attracted the attention of flight
attendants and one undercover marshal
when they allegedly didn't follow crew
member instructions while boarding.
Shortly after the DC10 left the runway,
through the last nine months."
• At the end of 2006, Mr. Brown sent a
to air marshals explaining what he
had done in his first nine months on the job
to improve their working conditions.
one of the Indian men allegedly handed
several cellphones to another, while a
third member of the group appeared to be
deliberately obstructing the view of what
Within minutes, as the plane continued to
climb, three air marshals on board broke
cover and took control of the cabin,
moving into the aisles, revealing badges and assuming defensive positions according to an internal Federal Air
Marshal Service report on the incident and accounts from passengers and crew. A pair of Dutch F16 fighter jets
scrambled to escort the plane back to Amsterdam. Half an hour after takeoff, Flight 42 touched back down, and
the Indian men were detained by Netherlands law enforcement.
The incident was a classic demonstration of the marshals' daunting, and often imprecise, task. A potentially
dangerous situation was defused with no injuries. But in the end, there had been no security risk at all. The
cellphones were just cellphones. All of the suspects were quickly released. Some passengers, particularly Indian
nationals, believed the marshals overreacted to plainly innocent conduct.
"We were not passing cellphones," said Shakil Chhotani, a 33yearold Mumbai exporter of women's garments
who was among the arrested men. "Just because one of us was wearing kurta pajamas and four or five of us had
a beard, they thought we were terrorists."
Mr. Brown backed up his officers' actions. "I'm comfortable that the federal air marshals did exactly what they
thought they should do under the circumstances," he said, noting that the decision was made in consultation with
President Kennedy launched the airmarshal program in 1961, in response to a wave of hijackings of U.S. flights
to Cuba. In the years prior to 9/11, its ranks rose and fell, amid various threat levels and bureaucratic shuffling.
Today, after obtaining topsecret security clearance, marshals undergo 15 weeks of preparation for the job,
divided between facilities in Artesia, N.M., and Atlantic City, N.J. Each is issued a Sig Sauer sidearm, a small but
powerful, Swissdesigned weapon popular in law enforcement.
They are trained to shoot in small areas that replicate airline cabins, practicing with lowpowered paint balls. They
drill repeatedly through scenarios they might encounter.
The flying force is more than 95% male, and includes recruits from the Secret Service, the Border Patrol, the
Bureau of Prisons and the military. The fulltime positions pay salaries starting at about $36,000 and average just
under $62,000 a year, with a premium for working in certain cities. Marshals travel in teams of at least two, often
sitting in first class to be near the cockpit door. Routes considered to be highrisk are given priority.
At the Mission Operations Center outside Washington, stars dot a digital map of the U.S. looming large over the
control room, each one representing a plane with a marshal on board. Officials here relay intelligence to marshals
in the field and are poised to redeploy marshals if need be.
While marshals train for the most dangerous criminal scenarios, the job is usually uneventful. Many spend their
hours in the sky reading. At the same time, they must stay constantly alert.
Marshals say that after flying four or more flights in a single day, they experience fatigue, headaches, and other
maladies. Compounding their frustrations, marshals mostly in their 20s and 30s have little opportunity to
advance in or diversify their careers. "Federal air marshals cannot sustain a career in an airborne position, based
on such factors as the frequency of flying, their irregular schedules, and the monotony of flying repetitive
assignments," the Government Accountability Office concluded in November 2005 report.
Since the post9/11 expansion, marshals have protested that their anonymity hasn't been adequately protected.
Agents are required to check in at airport ticket counters, and in most cases display oversized credentials. Until
recently, a jacketandtie dress code was mandated on all flights, even those filled with tourists headed for Disney
World. They also were instructed to stay in designated hotels, where they had to display their marshal credentials
to secure a discounted rate.
To bypass security checkpoints, where notice would obviously be taken of their guns, marshals typically enter
concourses through the exit lanes. But they often wait for several minutes while a security guard checks their IDs
a process that sometimes draws attention from passengers. In some cases, they must enter via alarmed exit
doors. "The lights and sirens go off. Everyone turns and looks," one marshal said in an interview.
At the gate, at least one marshal must board the plane 10 or 15 minutes before passengers to check for hidden
weapons and meet briefly with the crew. Marshals report being thanked and given the "thumbs up" from
passengers who had obviously figured out who they were.
"Without anonymity, an air marshal is reduced to a target that need only be ambushed and eliminated or an
obstacle that can be easily avoided," wrote former air marshal William Meares in a letter resigning from the
service in 2004. "There is no question that terrorists, using known tactics and methods, can easily determine
whether or not a particular flight is covered by air marshals."
Don Strange, the agent formerly in charge of the Atlanta field office, says he repeatedly complained about the
stuffy dress code internally and to the House Judiciary Committee. "My views were not well received," he said in
an interview. Mr. Strange was subsequently dismissed, in October 2005. The Federal Air Marshal Service
wouldn't comment on Mr. Strange's termination.
Federal law prohibits marshals from unionizing. But in 2003, mounting discontent prompted them to organize and
seek affiliation with the Federal Law Enforcement Officers Association. That gave them a unified voice to deal with
management. In October 2003, Frank Terreri, the group's newly elected president, wrote to the agency's then
director, Thomas Quinn, complaining about issues including boarding procedures, dress code, transfer policy and
scheduling. In the spring of 2004, the House Judiciary Committee launched its investigation into the service.
Mr. Quinn, a retired Secret Service agent who took over the service a few months after 9/11, told the committee
that the problems were exaggerated and that complainers were "disgruntled amateurs" who were bringing the
whole organization down.
In February 2006, Mr. Quinn retired from the federal government. Three months later, the Judiciary Committee
issued its findings, saying that Mr. Quinn included "factual inaccuracies" in his responses to the committee. The
committee also concluded that the checkin and boarding procedures were "unacceptable to ensuring the
anonymity of Federal Air Marshals" and criticized the formal dress code and hotel policy.
Now a private security consultant, Mr. Quinn dismissed the report. In an interview, he called those who voiced
complaints "insurgents" and "organizational terrorists."
So far, few marshals or security experts believe that the tensions inside the agency have affected the
performance of the agents' flights or their judgment in the most critical question they face: when to blow cover and
intervene in a situation on board. The decision is more art than science. One air marshal says that officers get
drawn into onboard conflicts so often they seem more like inflight security guards. Says another: "You have to
wait until it seems bad before you do anything. You're not a bouncer."
False alarms are sometimes inevitable. Marshals must quickly judge if suspicious behavior is criminal or just odd.
They also have to weigh the need to remain undercover as long as possible against the needs of passengers who
might be under distress.
"We don't want to ... be drawn out only to find out there was a situation designed specifically for that purpose and
now our presence, our positions have been compromised," says Mr. Brown. But even if a situation is not
necessarily lifethreatening, "We're not going to let anyone get hurt on that aircraft."
In the first of the two incidents when marshals drew their weapons, in August 2002, an agent held the entire coach
section of a Delta flight to Philadelphia at gunpoint while his partner restrained an unruly passenger. Once the
plane landed, the disruptive passenger and a second flier were detained by authorities but later released and not
The second came in December 2005, when Rigoberto Alpizar, a 44yearold paint salesman from Maitland, Fla.,
frantically ran off an American Airlines flight about to leave Miami, with his backpack strapped to his chest. "I'm
going to blow up this bomb," he said as he reached into the pack, according to two air marshals who were on
When the man, later determined to have been mentally ill, advanced toward the marshals, they shot him nine
times, killing him. State prosecutors later concluded that the shooting was legally justified. Calls to Mr. Alpizar's
widow, Anne Buechner, weren't returned.
After Flight 42 from Amsterdam, the air marshal service's investigative and training divisions reviewed the
incident, according to standard policy, and determined that it had been properly handled, according to a federal
official familiar with the process. "It was textbook, that was really the bottom line," the official said.
Mr. Brown, a 25year veteran of the U.S. Secret Service, took over after Mr. Quinn's retirement. He initially saw
the complaints from marshals much as his former boss had. But soon after taking office, he began inviting
marshals to small dinners in Washington, and soon came to a different understanding. In July, he sent an email to
all air marshals. "Candidly, the morale was much worse than I thought," he wrote.
Mr. Brown has begun taking steps to deal with some of the discord. In August, he loosened the dress code,
instructing marshals to "dress at your discretion." A new pilot program allows them to check in for flights at airports
using kiosks, rather than ticket counters. The marshals are also free to choose their own hotels. Mr. Brown has
set up 29 working groups to address such matters as scheduling and promotions. He's also opened up a dialogue
with the officers' association, meeting with its leaders to hear their complaints.
Still, he said he hasn't found a way to change the boarding procedures. In a December memo, he noted that the
agency was able to reach its hiring goal for the year, but didn't specify how many new marshals were recruited.
Meanwhile, some marshals who had been highly critical of management "are more optimistic that things are going
to get better," says Mr. Terreri.
Daniel Michaels and Binny Sabharwal contributed to this article.
Write to Laura Meckler at email@example.com
and Susan Carey at firstname.lastname@example.org
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