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B. S. Patel Polytechnic, Ganpat University,
Gozariya Highway, Kherva, Mehsana.
This is to certify that Mr. Patel Hardik R. in 5th semester student of Diploma in Civil Engineering, Reg. No. S012706040 has satisfactorily completed his seminar work titled Study of “Fly Ash” and submitted within four wall of B.S.Patel Polytechnic, Kherva.
Shri B. S. Patel Polytechnic
Date of Submission:Staff in-charge:Prof. G. K. Zala
Head of Department:-
Prof. V. M. Patel
We express our sincere thanks to all our guided professors as well as all the professors of our department. For their valuable guidance, constructive suggestions and affectionate care with which they have directed us in carrying out a work of the nature could not have been possible without the perpetual encouragement and meticulous attention they paid We give our kind thanks to our civil department and for giving us invaluable guidance. At all we can’t think to forget our parents, friends & all those persons who helped us directly or indirectly for our destiny to complete this seminar successfully and we gave our divine thanks to them.
Prepared By: Registration No: Patel Hardik R. 012706040 Parekh Saurabh B. 012706030 Chaudhary Vipul D. 012706006 Dave Mehul D.
Patel Jaimin P. Chaudhary Alpesh K. Patel Chirag K. Makwana Dhaval S. 012706024 Patel Amit P. 012706031 Goswami Parth B. 012706017 Patel Manoj S. Patel Prakash R. Patel Kiran A. 012706069
S-012706043 S-012706002 S-012706034 SSSS-012706071 S-012706073 S-
Fly Ash in Mining Sector . Introduction to Fly Ash What is Fly Ash? “Fly Ash” in Concrete Objectives of Fly Ash Fly Ash Used in Various Concrete Indian Scenario Fly Ash Generation & Utilization vii.Fly Ash in Cement. Mortar & Concrete d. b. ii. viii. Roads and Embankments Fly Ash in Building Components c. iii. iv. Utilization Areas 2004-05 Fly Ash Used In Recent a. vi.Index:i. v.
Fly Ash in Hydro Sector g. Fly Ash Checklist: Increasing Concrete Performance . xv. How Fly Ash Contributes to Concrete Workability? xiv. Separation Technologies xi. Summary of Utilization x. What Is Quality Concrete? xii. Fly Ash in Agriculture f. How Fly Ash Protects Concrete? How Fly Ash Reduces Heat of Hydration in Concrete? xvi.e. Others Products ix. How Fly Ash Contributes to Concrete Durability and Strength? xiii. Fly Ash Checklist: Enhancing Concrete Workability xvii.
Specifications of Fly Ash Specification of Fly Ash According to Indian Standard xx. xix. AAC: Autoclaved Aerated Concrete .xviii.
the mineral residue produced by burning coal .which later gave its name to the term "pozzolan. Fly ash is a fine. Fly ash . Instead of volcanoes. allowing them to flow and blend freely in mixtures. Fly ash particles are almost totally spherical in shape. Fly ash is the best known." A pozzolan is a siliceous or siliceous / aluminous material that. forms a cementitious compound. These power plants grind coal to powder fineness before it is burned. The difference between fly ash and Portland cement becomes apparent under a microscope. today's fly ash comes primarily from coal-fired electricity generating power plants. alumina and iron. Those cements were made near the small Italian town of Pozzuoli . These micron-sized earth elements consist primarily of silica. and one of the most commonly used. . pozzolans in the world.Introduction to Fly Ash:Fly ash closely resembles volcanic ashes used in production of the earliest known hydraulic cements about 2. That capability is one of the properties making fly ash a desirable admixture for concrete. glass powder recovered from the gases of burning coal during the production of electricity.is captured from the power plant's exhaust gases and collected for use. when mixed with lime and water.300 years ago.
alumina and iron. Fly ash is the best known. The difference between fly ash and Portland cement becomes apparent under a microscope.the mineral residue produced by burning coal . forms a cementitious compound. allowing them to flow and blend freely in mixtures. These power plants grind coal to powder fineness before it is burned. That capability is one of the properties making fly ash a desirable admixture for concrete. Fly ash particles are almost totally spherical in shape. today's fly ash comes primarily from coalfired electricity generating power plants. when mixed with lime and water. Instead of volcanoes.300 years ago. and one of the most commonly used. . Those cements were made near the small Italian town of Pozzuoli ." A pozzolan is a siliceous or siliceous / aluminous material that.What Is Fly Ash? Fly ash closely resembles volcanic ashes used in production of the earliest known hydraulic cements about 2. Fly ash . pozzolans in the world. glass powder recovered from the gases of burning coal during the production of electricity. Fly ash is a fine. These micron-sized earth elements consist primarily of silica.which later gave its name to the term "pozzolan.is captured from the power plant's exhaust gases and collected for use.
.“Fly Ash” in Concrete:Fly ash is a byproduct of coal burning: 600 million tons are produced per year and over 80% goes to the landfill. Up to 50% of cement (by volume) can be replaced with fly ash (1535% is typical). Today only about 10% of available fly ash is used in concrete.
This figure likely will go up to 170 million MT by 2010.Objectives of Fly Ash: In India 65% of the total installed power generation is coalbased. The World Bank has cautioned India that by 2015. Indian coal has high ash content (30%–50%) and thus it contributes to large volumes of ash after combustion. Improve long term concrete strength. . India has a huge coal reserves. Current non coking coal reserve is 76 billion MT. disposal of coal ash would require one square meter of land per capita. And therefore Ash Management would remain an important area of national concern. Reduce environmental impact. Improve workability (better finish). Increase corrosion resistance. Around 100 million MT of ash generated every year. We use 250 million MT coal every year for power generation.
. . fill material Cement. . . . .) 75 100 40 15 8 10 6 3 2 2 2 112 Ash Utilization % of Ash Production 65 45 85 50 60 85 75 85 100 100 100 38 Major Area of Utilization Cement. . . . 8. . . . . . . 9. 11. concrete agriculture. . do . . . building materials . . . fill materials. . . . bricks. . . 6. . . . . . . . . . 4. 10. . . . . 12. 5. 3. . 1. . fill material Cement. . mine fill Cement. fill Material Blended cement. . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . do . No. fill material Concrete. 2. .Fly Ash Used In Various Countries Sr. . fill materials. concrete. concrete. . . do . . . do . . do . cement Cement. . bricks. . . . Country USA China Germany UK Japan Australia Canada France Denmark Italy Netherlands India Annual Ash Production (Million Tons.
112 Million Tone FA Utilization --.100% (Target) .38% (42 Million Tone) 2012(Assumed):FA Generation --.3% (1.Indian Scenario Fly Ash Generation & Utilization:- 1994:FA Generation --.40 Million Tone FA Utilization --.170 Million Tone FA Utilization --.2 Million Tone) March 2005:FA Generation --.
Utilization Areas 2004-05:- .
Fly Ash Used In Recent:- .
Roads and Embankments:- .
Reduces excavation cost of borrow material. Easy and faster construction leads to reduction in construction cost. • • • • . Normally reduces transportation cost. Used for fly ash disposal. • Additional agricultural produce from the land which would otherwise have been. • Saving in ash management expenditure of thermal power plants. Technical Advantages:• • • • • • Good compaction High range of OMC High internal angle of friction Free draining (less interruption due to rain) No large lumps to be broken (easy to spread) Light in weight (can be used on weak sub-grades) Economics Savings:No royalty to be paid as excavation of soil is eliminated. Excavated for getting soil.
Fly Ash in Building Components:- .
• Less consumption of mortar. • Plastering may be avoided or if it is to done. • Number of bricks required per unit volume of construction is less. less load on foundation Economic Savings:• Reduced Energy Consumption • Reduces excavation of clay • Lower cost of brick as compared to clay brick of same quality. • Less number of joints in case of blocks. . Technical Advantages:• • • • • Better finish High strength Less water absorption No efflorescence Lower unit weight. the thickness of plaster required is less.
Fly Ash in Concrete:- Cement. Mortar & .
) Cost Reduces overall consumption of cement . Fly Ash:• • • • • • Ordinary Concrete : 20-40% fly ash Roller Compacted Concrete : 60-70% fly ash Cellular Light Weight Concrete : 20-40% fly ash High Performance Concrete : 20-40% fly ash High Volume Fly Ash Concrete : 50-70% fly ash Fly Ash in Mortar : 20-40% Technical Advantages:• • • • • • • High long term strength Better workability Higher impermeability Less heat of hydration Corrosion resistance High resistance to aggressive environment More durability Economic Savings:• • • • Saves on clinker cost Reduce energy consumption Reduces raw material (lime stone. iron ore etc.
A similar large-scale project is being planned at WCLChandrapur also.Fly Ash in Mining Sector:Satisfied with the experience of demonstrations of Pond Ash stowing in underground mine fills the project for large scale adaptation of the technology at SCCL-Manuguru has started.5 lack m³ void capacity has been taken up for pond ash stowing at SCCL-Manuguru. A complete mine panel of 1. .
Durgapur Raitwari Colliery.SP-1 Technical:• • • • • • Excellent flow characteristics Good load bearing capacity of ash fill No subsequent settlement Good water percolation rate Load on barricade is very low Fines escaping through barricade <1% Environmental:• • • • • • No excavation and transportation of scarce river bed sand Enormous reduction in water requirement Less water to be pumped out Discharged water is absolutely safe Large scale utilization of ash Release of coal stuck up in pillars . WCLChandrapur through Normal Surface Bunker & Katora Bunker. 28 & 30 (6000 m³ pond ash & 6500 m³ pond ash mixed with sand) 2. 16. Projects Undertaken:1. More than 10000 m³ pond ash stowed in panel No.Manuguru. More than 12000 m³ pond ash stowed in panel Nos. 17. PK-1 mine. 18. SCCL.
. nutritional value as well as radioactivity and have been certified as good material for human and animal consumption. In some cases significant increase in minerals (iron and calcium) have been noticed which is beneficial.Fly Ash in Agriculture:The produce as well as the biomass have been evaluated for toxicology.
Zn. Provides macro nutrients like K. etc Agriculture Related Application of Fly Ash:• • • • Field crops Forestry Floriculture Reclamation of Wasteland . Agriculture Applications:• • • • • • • • Improves soil texture Reduces bulk density of soil Improves water holding capacity Optimizes pH value Improves soil aeration Reduces crust formation Provides micro nutrients like Fe. Ca. Cu. B etc. Mo. P.
Fly Ash in Hydro Sector:Fly ash not only provides solution to heat of hydration in mass concreting but also makes the concrete stronger. in addition to faster construction it makes construction more durable. . In Roller Compacted Concrete fly ash substitutes around 65 per cent of cement. Thus. durable and more impervious. economical and environment friendly.
RCC o Super-passages. fly ash pre-cast tiles. • Grouting • Gravity Dams • River banks • Concrete and Masonry Barrages • Office / Residential Complexes • Roads & Embankments • Development of Land and Horticulture. . CLC tiles o Pre-stressed concrete.Avenues of Fly Ash Utilization in Hydro Sector:• Mass Concrete o Conventional concrete with low ash content (10-15%) o Conventional concrete with medium ash content (30-35%) o Roller Compacted Concrete with high ash content (65-70%) • Tunnel Lining o Reinforced cement concrete works o Foundations o Super-structures o Pre-stressed concrete structure • Shotcrete / Gunite • Diaphragm walls for under seepage control • Canals o Canal lining : Insist concrete. fly ash bricks. etc. aqueducts o Canal structures. masonry. etc.
• . properties comparable to natural granite Developed by BHEL Pilot production started Used at BHEL Corporate Office. 18-22% (in enamels) • Corrosion & abrasion resistant • Durable • Developed by RRL-Bhopal. New Delhi Paint & Enamels:Fly ash exhibits better extending properties (less absorption) • Fly ash percentage 30-40% (in paints).Others Products:Granite Substitute:• • • • • Fly ash content 60% Good finish.
Tons.Summary of Utilization Area:Fly Ash Utilization Potential Sr. In Crores) 100 30 25 15 100 15 100 >300 300 2500 50+Addn Coal 3000 75 Enormous Lands Would Be Recovered 5855 =1. No. Roads & Embankment Building Components Bricks / Blocks Cement Mine Fill Agriculture Reclamation Of Low Lying Areas Wasteland Development Total 15-20 Benefits (Rs. 2.) 1. Utilization Area Potential / Year Utilization (Million. 5. 4. 6. 3.25 billion US$ .
The iron oxides are usually spherical magnetite. Characterization of fly ash obtained from various sources shows that the mineral components of the ashes are similar. The lower melting point of these high alkaline silicates may facilitate gas entrapment. a magnetic separation process to separate the iron oxide spheres. This offers great flexibility for meeting varying . Unburned carbons are generally chars with irregular shapes and wide range of particle sizes. low density silicates (cenospheres) and unburned carbons. hematite. this material must be well defined and be able to meet industrial specifications. A schematic flow sheet of the separation process is shown in Figure. They are believed to be derived from pyrite. or new circuits can be added. The silicates are usually present as spherical particles. siderite. individual process separation circuits can be switched in sequence. Depending on user needs. and other common minerals in coal. It must also be available at consistent quality levels and in sufficient quantities to meet market demands. Based on these characterization results. They are believed to be the melted products of clays. 7]. Low density silicates are frequently high alkaline silicates which entrapped gas to yield hollow spherical particles. even though the bulk chemistry of these ashes may vary widely. and limonite in the coal. calcite. The material left after these separations is designated as clean ash.Separation Technologies:For a material to have reasonable commercial value. and a froth flotation process to separate the unburned carbon [6. quartz. This process consists of a gravitational separation process to separate the cenospheres. iron oxides. Variations in fly ash bulk chemistry are usually due to the changes of ratios of these mineral components. Based on scanning electron microscope studies. a separation process has been designed and tested. eliminated. the major mineral components in fly ash can be categorized into silicates. feldspars.
g. The carbon fraction was transferred to another flotation cell and re-floated to upgrade the carbon content in the carbon concentrate. The slurry was fed into a tank where the cenospheres were skimmed off from the top since these cenospheres have a density less than that of water. greatly reduced from the 21. The reject from the carbon-refloat operation was then returned to the first flotation cell.70% carbon content of the as-received fly ash.70%. from a fuel switch in a power plant) and markets.requirements due to changes in ash (e. This clean ash was then filtered and dried. For plastic filler applications.18% iron oxide. This caused the carbon particles to float to the top of the flotation cell. a hydro cyclone circuit would need to be included in order to separate out the appropriate fine particle fraction. This flotation operation left the clean ash in the cell. the slurry was conditioned with an oil collector at a dosage of 2 lb/ton. The carbon concentrate had a carbon content of 67. For example. Fly ash was mixed with water at 20% solids content in a pilot plant operation running at 200 lb/hr. a froth flotation circuit may be all that is needed for ash processing if the material is to be used only for cement replacement. Table 1 shows the results of separation for an AEP low NOx fly ash sample. where they were skimmed off. Then the slurry was fed into a magnetic drum separator to recover the magnetic spheres. The slurry was then fed into a flotation machine where air was bubbled through it. A typical operation showed the carbon (LOI) content in the clean ash to be only 0. . After magnetic separation. During flotation. But magnetic separation would have to be included if the cleaned ash is to be used for refractory applications.40%. the rising air bubbles collided with the oil coated carbon particles and attached themselves to these particles due to a hydrophobic interaction. The magnetic concentrate contained 77. The oil has an affinity for carbon and is preferentially adsorbed onto the carbon particles.
40 67.33 0.31 P2O5 0.5 CaO 0.05 0.58 14.42 0.86 1.11 0.28 .57 8. Table 2 shows typical results obtained on these ashes.34 Al2O3 22. American Electric Power.38 0.01 0.2 9.03 0. Note that clean ash with less than 1% carbon content can always be obtained.92 29.04 K2O 2.5 1.2 Fe2O3 5.01 MnO 0.38 99.7 2. Figure of Fly Ash Separation Process Table No.35 3.91 0.40 29.11 1.02 0.26 57.32 0.35 0.30 5.83 100.71 77.09 0.04 3.01 0.02 0.2 0.8 4.43 TiO2 1.4 Total 98.4 -1. Consumers Power.This process has been applied to many different fly ash samples obtained from various power companies including Detroit Edison.22 0.5 0. 01: Separation Products From An AEP Low NOx Sample Clean Cenospher Magnetic As-Rec’d Carbon Ash e s SiO2 44.70 0.76 0.18 MgO 0.84 100. Nevada Power. Baltimore Gas and Electric.03 0.06 LOI 21.00 58.38 0.16 0.45 Na2O 0. Virginia Power.6 19.23 0.85 0.7 0.89 100.
so that the resulting hardened paste will fill the excess voids with durability and strength approaching that of the aggregates. with enough paste (comprised of as much CSH and as little lime as possible) to coat every particle.35 0. so that the largest practicable rock fills the majority of the volume. Also.25 0. Concrete is a composite material. . economics and local aggregate sources dictate the quality of materials used.96 What Is Quality Concrete? To fully appreciate the benefits of fly ash in concrete. AsReceived LOI. Clean Ash F (#1) 21. The challenge becomes producing an appropriate amount of the best possible quality paste.70 0. a good mix of particle sizes. though. while the progressively smaller rock and sand fill the voids left between the larger particles). the basics of producing exceptional concrete must be understood.90 C 4. which essentially consists of two components: aggregates and cementitious paste.61 F+C 4. 02: Carbon Removal by Froth Flotation Ash Type LOI. voids should not be present in the paste unless they are specifically provided as microscopic entrained air bubbles to provide durability in freeze-thaw environments. To produce exceptional concrete. In real life. The result is that excess voids often exist between the aggregate particles that must now be filled by paste and air.Table No.00 0. durable aggregate particles.40 F (#2) 7. Ideally. it is extremely important to have a smooth gradation of material from rock down to the finest particles (in other words. it is best to have as much volume as possible filled with strong.
this lime would remain intact and over time it would be susceptible to the effects of weathering and loss of strength and durability. concrete made with fly ash will be slightly lower in strength than straight cement concrete up to 28 days. thus the reasoning behind specifications normally requiring determination of 28-day strengths as a standard.000 psi at 28 days can vary widely in their permeability. equal strength at 28 days. Durability is the ability to maintain integrity and strength over time. in straight cement concrete. Typically. Conversely. Cement normally gains the great majority of its strength within 28 days. it reacts with fly ash.How Fly Ash Contributes to Concrete Durability and Strength? Most people don’t realize that durability and strength are not synonymous when talking about concrete. resistance to cracking and general deterioration over time — all of which are important to durability. resistance to chemical attack. and substantially higher strength within a year’s time. As lime from cement hydration becomes available (cements tend to vary widely in their reactivity). . Two concrete mixes with equal cylinder breaks of 4. Strength is only a measure of the ability to sustain loads at a given point in time.
At full hydration. chalky surface coating or streaks called efflorescence. block or mortar. . the same “glue” produced by the hydration of cement and water. as witnessed by the reduction in efflorescence. Most people have seen concrete or masonry walls or slabs with the white. the paste is the key to durable and strong concrete. A typical 5 sack concrete mix having 470 pounds of cement per cubic yard has the potential of producing 118 pounds of lime. Fly ash chemically reacts with this lime to create more CSH.As previously described. drawing out the water soluble lime from the concrete. Efflorescence is caused by the face of the concrete being wetted and dried repeatedly or by the movement of water vapor from the damp side of the concrete to the dry side through the capillaries (voids). concrete made with typical cements produces approximately 1/4 pound of non-durable lime per pound of cement in the mix. assuming average quality aggregates are used. thereby closing off the capillaries that allow the movement of moisture through the concrete. The result is concrete that is less permeable.
000 psi). above which the psi per pound of cement strength contribution in a concrete mix diminishes rapidly. Its ability to contribute to additional CSH. The tallest concrete structures in the world are made with concrete where fly ash is a necessary component.Other evidence of the contribution fly ash makes to strength and durability includes: Cement has an upper limit of roughly 7.000 psi to over 20.C. and still stands today. Cement was invented in 1824.000 years and is still intact. lower water demand. in a town named Cosa. There are examples on the west coast of Italy. . It features a cast concrete dome 124 feet in diameter and was the world’s largest domed structure until modern times.5 x 94# sack = 705#) when using 1" maximum size aggregate. reduced heat of hydration and its fine particle size are crucial to making high-strength concrete (8.5 sacks (7. over 170 years ago. – The Pantheon in Rome is a pozzolan and lime concrete structure built around 300 B. where a mixture of natural pozzolans (volcanic) were combined with lime to produce concrete that has withstood waves and attack from seawater for over 2.
How Fly Ash Contributes to Concrete Workability? .
It has a lower unit weight. the better lubricated the aggregates are and the better concrete flows. water demand of a concrete mix with fly ash is reduced by 2% to 10%. Because fly ash creates more paste. Second. Since sand has a much greater surface area than larger aggregates and therefore requires more paste. Third. • Finishers notice the “creamier” texture when working. fly ash reduces the amount of water needed to produce a given slump. which means that on a pound for pound basis. The spherical shape of fly ash particles and its dispersive ability provide water-reducing characteristics similar to a water reducing admixture. depending on a number of factors including the amount used and class of fly ash. Typically. the amount of sand proportioned into the mix can be reduced. fly ash contributes roughly 30% more volume of cementitious material per pound versus cement. The greater the percentage of fly ash “ball bearings” in the past. no-slump paving mix . fly ash produces more cementitious paste. and by its shape and dispersive action makes the paste more “slippery”. fly ash reduces the amount of sand needed in the mix to produce workability. They also see reduced “bug holes” and segregation when stripping forms. reducing the sand means the paste available can more efficiently coat the surface area of the aggregates that remain? Evidence of the contribution fly ash makes to workability includes: • Lightweight concrete including fly ash is much easier to pump.First. Slip form pavers eliminate rock pockets and voids in an otherwise harsh.
Some Class C fly ashes have been used to mitigate these reactions. • Aluminates in the cement also combine with sulfates to form expansive compounds. corrosive chemicals and oxygen — thus protecting steel reinforcement from corrosion and its subsequent expansive result. which combines with sulfates to produce gypsum. By replacing cement. Fly Ash in concrete can reduce sulfate attack in two additional ways: • Fly ash reduces calcium hydroxide. fly ash can reduce the rate of ingress of water. Fly ash also increases sulfate resistance and reduces alkali-silica reactivity.How Fly Ash Protects Concrete? An extremely important aspect of the durability of concrete is its permeability. Fly ash concrete is less permeable because fly ash reduces the amount of water needed to produce a given slump. the amount of . creates more durable CSH as it fills capillaries and bleeds water channels occupied by watersoluble lime (calcium hydroxide). At this point a distinction between Class C and Class F fly ashes needs to be made. Fly ash improves corrosion protection. and through pozzolanic activity. causing damaging expansion. By decreasing concrete permeability. but must be used at higher rates of cement replacement. While both improve the permeability and general durability of concrete. Gypsum is a material that has greater volume than the calcium hydroxide and sulfates that combine to form it. the chemistry of Class F ashes has proven to be more effective in mitigating sulfate and alkalisilica expansion and deterioration in concrete.
the heat generation is not detrimental to its long-term strength and durability. leading to reduced concrete strength and durability. coupled with solar heating at the construction site. many applications exist where the rapid heat gain of cement increases the chances of thermal cracking. can cause even thin concrete slabs to suffer the damaging effects of thermal cracking. which make up the majority of the mass in concrete. lowering the How Fly Ash Reduces Hydration in Concrete? Heat of The hydration of cement is an exothermic reaction. causing the concrete temperature to rise and accelerating the setting time and strength gain of the concrete. Replacing 20% to 35% of the cement for “everyday” concrete in warm conditions will help reduce thermal cracking and provide the time needed to obtain the desired finish. along with finishing difficulties caused by rapid uncontrolled setting. Warm weather will naturally raise the temperature of concrete aggregates. For most concrete installations.available aluminates is reduced. replacing large percentages of cement with fly ash (fly ash generates only 15 to 35 percent as much heat as compared to cement at early ages) can reduce the damaging effects of thermal cracking. Heat is generated very quickly. This natural heating of the aggregates. warm weather concreting and the risk of thermal cracking is a problem that exists today for all concrete. . While the first structures to apply this concept in earnest were hydroelectric dams built in the 1930s and 1940s with 40% to 50% cement replacement. However. thereby potential for this type of expansive reaction. In these applications.
responding better to vibration to fill forms more completely. .Fly Ash Checklist: Concrete Workability Enhancing Workability: Concrete is easier to place with less effort. Bleed streaking is reduced for architectural finishes. Reduced Segregation: Improved cohesiveness of fly ash concrete reduces segregation that can lead to rock pockets and blemishes. Improved Finishing: Sharp. Reduced Bleeding: Fewer bleed channels decrease permeability and chemical attack. with less worry about in-place integrity. Ease of Pumping: Pumping requires less energy and longer pumping distances are possible. clear architectural definition is easier to achieve.
soft (lime hungry) water. . Fly ash concrete is also more resistant to attack by sulfate. and seawater.Fly Ash Checklist: Concrete Performance Increasing Higher Strength:Fly ash continues to combine with free lime. Reduced Efflorescence:Fly ash chemically binds free lime and salts that can create efflorescence. which ties up free lime. and dense concrete holds efflorescence producing compounds on the inside. Reduced Sulfate Attack:Fly ash ties up free lime that can combine with sulfates to create destructive expansion. where destructive action is lessened. mild acid. Increased Durability:Dense fly ash concrete helps keep aggressive compounds on the surface. increasing compressive strength over time. Decreased Permeability:Increased density and long term pozzolanic action of fly ash. results in fewer bleed channels and decreases permeability.
causing destructive expansion. The lubricating action of fly ash reduces water content and drying shrinkage. Reduced Shrinkage:The largest contributor to drying shrinkage is water content. . Reduced Alkali Silica Reactivity:Fly ash combines with alkalis from cement that might otherwise combine with silica from aggregates. resulting in reduced thermal cracking when fly ash is used to reduce Portland cement. Reduced Heat of Hydration:The pozzolanic reaction between fly ash and lime generates less heat.
Springfield. PA USA):• • • • • • • ASTM C 618: Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral Admixture in Portland Cement Concrete. IDOT (Illinois Dept. ASTM D 5370: Standard Specification for Pozzolanic Blended Materials in Construction Applications. ASTM D 5239: Standard Practice for Characterizing Fly Ash for Use in Soil Stabilization.01: Special Provision for Fly Ash Modified Soils 308. ASTM C 311: Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Natural Pozzolans for Use as a Mineral Admixture in Portland-Cement Concrete. of Trans. Type A . ASTM C 1240: Standard Specification for Silica Fume for Use in Hydraulic-Cement Concrete and Mortar. IL USA):• • • • 306.01: Special Provision for Fly Ash Stabilized Soil Mixture Sub base Special Provision for Cement-Fly Ash-Aggregate Mixture (CFAM) Base Course Special Provision for Pozzolanic Base Course. ASTM E 1861: Standard Guide for Use of Coal Combustion By-products in Structural Fills.Specifications:ASTM (West Conshohocken. ASTM E 850: Standard Practice for Use of Inorganic Process Wastes as Structural Fill.
C. . Base Course Widening.C. Pavement. Base Course.• Special Provision for Use of Fly Ash in P.
1-1991 and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag -AS 3582. A. 1129 Fly Ash Specification. European Standards:• • • BS 3892 Part 1 Fly Ash standard.2. . BS EN 197 European Standard for Multiple Binders ( fly ash. Australia:• • • • Portland Cement -AS 3972-1991.S. Fly ash -AS 3582. Canada:• CAN/CSA A23. BS EN 450 European Standard for Fly Ash. cement. Part 2 Fly Ash for Use as a Type II Addition.5-97 Canadian Specification for Supplementary Cementing Materials (includes fly ash). silica fume) Allowed in Concrete.AASHTO:• AASHTO Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing.
Design and Construction DIN EN 450 Fly Ash In Concrete-Definition.Einpreßverfahren EN 447:1996 (CEN/TC 104) Einpreßmörtel für Spannglieder Anforderungen für üblicheSn Einpreßmörtel EN 450:1994 (CEN/TC 104) Flugasche für Beton Definitionen. Herstellung. Anforderungen und Güteüberwachung EN 451-1:1994 (CEN/TC 104) Prüfverfahren für Flugasche Teil 1: Bestimmung des freien Calciumgehalts EN 451-2:1994 (CEN/TC 104) Prüfverfahren für Flugasche .Prüfverfahren EN 446:1996 (CEN/TC 104) Einpreßmörtel für Spannglieder . Verarbeitung und Gütenachweis EN 445:1996 (CEN/TC 104) Einpreßmörtel für Spannglieder . .Teil 2: Bestimmung der Feinheit durch Naßsiebung Netherlands:• NEN 3550 Dutch cement standard.Germany (Deutsches Normung-Berlin):• • • • • • • Institute for • • • DIN 1164-1 German Cement standard DIN 1045 Reinforced Concrete Structures.Eigenschaften. Demands and Quality control ENV 206:1990 (CEN/TC 104) Beton .
.London):• • • B. 6588 Blended cement containing PFA. B.S. 6610 Pozzolanic pulverized fuel ash cement.United Kingdom (British Standards Institution. B.S. 3892 PFA as a separate constituent in OPC.S.
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