# HYPERCOVERINGS

Contents
1. Introduction 1
2. Hypercoverings 2
3. Acyclicity 4
4. Covering hypercoverings 7
6. Homotopies 10
7. Cech cohomology associated to hypercoverings 12
8. Cohomology and hypercoverings 14
9. Hypercoverings of spaces 16
10. Other chapters 19
References 20
1. Introduction
Let C be a site, see Sites, Deﬁnition 6.2. Let X be an object of C. Given an abelian
sheaf F on C we would like to compute its cohomology groups
H
i
(X, F).
According to our general deﬁnitions (insert future reference here) this cohomology
group is computed by choosing an injective resolution
0 → F → I
0
→ I
1
→ . . .
and setting
H
i
(X, F) = H
i
(Γ(X, I
0
) → Γ(X, I
1
) → Γ(X, I
2
) → . . .)
We will have to do quite a bit of work to prove that we may also compute these
cohomology groups without choosing an injective resolution. Also, we will only do
this in case the site C has ﬁbre products.
A hypercovering in a site is a generalization of a covering. See [MA71, Expos´e V,
Sec. 7]. A hypercovering is a special case of a simplicial augmentation where one
has cohomological descent, see [MA71, Expos´e Vbis]. A nice manuscript on coho-
mological descent is the text by Brian Conrad, see http://math.stanford.edu/
~
conrad/papers/hypercover.pdf. Brian’s text follows the exposition in [MA71,
Expos´e Vbis], and in particular discusses a more general kind of hypercoverings,
such as proper hypercoverings of schemes used to compute ´etale cohomology for
example. A proper hypercovering can be seen as a hypercovering in the category of
schemes endowed with a diﬀerent topology than the ´etale topology, but still they
can be used to compute the ´etale cohomology.
This is a chapter of the Stacks Project, version 27b740c, compiled on Aug 20, 2011.
1
2 HYPERCOVERINGS
2. Hypercoverings
In order to start we make the following deﬁnition. The letters “SR” stand for
Semi-Representable.
Deﬁnition 2.1. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X ∈ Ob(C) be an object
of C. We denote SR(C, X) the category of semi-representable objects deﬁned as
follows
(1) objects are families of morphisms {U
i
→ X}
i∈I
, and
(2) morphisms {U
i
→ X}
i∈I
→ {V
j
→ X}
j∈J
are given by a map α : I → J
and for each i ∈ I a morphism f
i
: U
i
→ V
α(i)
over X.
This deﬁnition is diﬀerent from the one in [MA71, Expos´e V, Sec. 7], but it seems
ﬂexible enough to do all the required arguments. Note that this is a “big” category.
We will later “bound” the size of the index sets I that we need and we can then
redeﬁne SR(C, X) to become a category.
Deﬁnition 2.2. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X ∈ Ob(C) be an object
of C. We denote F the functor which associates a sheaf to a semi-representable
object. In a formula
F : SR(C, X) −→ PSh(C)
{U
i
→ X}
i∈I
−→
i∈I
h
Ui
where h
U
denotes the representable presheaf associated to the object U.
Given a morphism U → X we obtain a morphism h
U
→ h
X
of representable
presheaves. Thus it makes more sense to think of F as a functor into the category
of presheaves of sets over h
X
, namely PSh(C)/h
X
.
Lemma 2.3. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X ∈ Ob(C) be an object of
C. The category SR(C, X) has coproducts and ﬁnite limits. Moreover, the functor
F commutes with coproducts and ﬁbre products, and transforms products into ﬁbre
products over h
X
. In other words, it commutes with ﬁnite limits as a functor into
PSh(C)/h
X
.
Proof. It is clear that the coproduct of {U
i
→ X}
i∈I
and {V
j
→ X}
j∈J
is
{U
i
→ X}
i∈I
{V
j
→ X}
j∈J
and similarly for coproducts of families of families
of morphisms with target X. The object {X → X} is a ﬁnal object of SR(C, X).
Suppose given a morphism (α, f
i
) : {U
i
→ X}
i∈I
→ {V
j
→ X}
j∈J
and a morphism
(β, g
k
) : {W
k
→ X}
k∈K
→ {V
j
→ X}
j∈J
. The ﬁbred product of these morphisms
is given by
{U
i
×
fi,Vj,g
k
W
k
→ X}
(i,j,k)∈I×J×K such that k=α(i)=β(j)
The ﬁbre products exist by the assumption that C has ﬁbre products. Thus
SR(C, X) has ﬁnite limits, see Categories, Lemma 16.4. The statements on the
functor F are clear from the constructions above.
Deﬁnition 2.4. Let C be a site with ﬁbred products. Let X be an object of C.
Let f = (α, f
i
) : {U
i
→ X}
i∈I
→ {V
j
→ X}
j∈J
be a morphism in the category
SR(C, X). We say that f is a covering if for every j ∈ J the family of morphisms
{U
i
→ V
j
}
i∈I,α(i)=j
is a covering for the site C.
Lemma 2.5. Let C be a site with ﬁbred products. Let X ∈ Ob(C).
HYPERCOVERINGS 3
(1) A composition of coverings in SR(C, X) is a covering.
(2) A base change of coverings is a covering.
(3) If A → B and K → L are coverings, then A×K → B ×L is a covering.
Proof. Immediate from the axioms of a site. (Number (3) is the composition
A×K → B×K → B×L and hence a composition of basechanges of coverings.)
According to the results in the chapter on simplicial methods the coskelet of a
truncated simplicial object of SR(C, X) exists. Hence the following deﬁnition makes
sense.
Deﬁnition 2.6. Let C be a site. Let X ∈ Ob(C) be an object of C. A hypercovering
of X is a simplicial object K in the category SR(C, X) such that
(1) The object K
0
is a covering of X for the site C.
(2) For every n ≥ 0 the canonical morphism
K
n+1
−→ (cosk
n
sk
n
K)
n+1
is a covering in the sense deﬁned above.
Condition (1) makes sense since each object of SR(C, X) is after all a family of
morphisms with target X. It could also be formulated as saying that the morphism
of K
0
to the ﬁnal object of SR(C, X) is a covering.
Example 2.7. Let {U
i
→ X}
i∈I
be a covering of the site C. Set K
0
= {U
i

X}
i∈I
. Then K
0
is a 0-truncated simplicial object of SR(C, X). Hence we may
form
K = cosk
0
K
0
.
Clearly K passes condition (1) of Deﬁnition 2.6. Since all the morphisms K
n+1

(cosk
n
sk
n
K)
n+1
are isomorphisms it also passes condition (2). Note that the terms
K
n
are the usual
K
n
= {U
i0
×
X
U
i1
×
X
. . . ×
X
U
in
→ X}
(i0,i1,...,in)∈I
n+1
Lemma 2.8. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X ∈ Ob(C) be an object of C.
The collection of all hypercoverings of X forms a set.
Proof. Since C is a site, the set of all coverings of S forms a set. Thus we see
that the collection of possible K
0
forms a set. Suppose we have shown that the
collection of all possible K
0
, . . . , K
n
form a set. Then it is enough to show that given
K
0
, . . . , K
n
the collection of all possible K
n+1
forms a set. And this is clearly true
since we have to choose K
n+1
among all possible coverings of (cosk
n
sk
n
K)
n+1
.
Remark 2.9. The lemma does not just say that there is a coﬁnal system of choices
of hypercoverings that is a set, but that really the hypercoverings form a set.
The category of presheaves on C has ﬁnite (co)limits. Hence the functors cosk
n
exists for presheaves of sets.
Lemma 2.10. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X ∈ Ob(C) be an object of
C. Let K be a hypercovering of X. Consider the simplicial object F(K) of PSh(C),
endowed with its augmentation to the constant simplicial presheaf h
X
.
(1) The morphism of presheaves F(K)
0
→ h
X
becomes a surjection after sheaﬁ-
ﬁcation.
4 HYPERCOVERINGS
(2) The morphism
(d
1
0
, d
1
1
) : F(K)
1
−→ F(K)
0
×
h
X
F(K)
0
becomes a surjection after sheaﬁﬁcation.
(3) For every n ≥ 1 the morphism
F(K)
n+1
−→ (cosk
n
sk
n
F(K))
n+1
turns into a surjection after sheaﬁﬁcation.
Proof. We will use the fact that if {U
i
→ U}
i∈I
is a covering of the site C, then
the morphism

i∈I
h
Ui
→ h
U
becomes surjective after sheaﬁﬁcation, see Sites, Lemma 12.5. Thus the ﬁrst asser-
tion follows immediately.
For the second assertion, note that according to Simplicial, Example 16.2 the sim-
plicial object cosk
0
sk
0
K has terms K
0
×. . . ×K
0
. Thus according to the deﬁnition
of a hypercovering we see that (d
1
0
, d
1
1
) : K
1
→ K
0
× K
0
is a covering. Hence (2)
follows from the claim above and the fact that F transforms products into ﬁbred
products over h
X
.
For the third, we claim that cosk
n
sk
n
F(K) = F(cosk
n
sk
n
K) for n ≥ 1. To prove
this, denote temporarily F

the functor SR(C, X) → PSh(C)/h
X
. By Lemma 2.3
the functor F

commutes with ﬁnite limits. By our description of the cosk
n
functor
in Simplicial, Section 16 we see that cosk
n
sk
n
F

(K) = F

(cosk
n
sk
n
K). Recall
that the category used in the description of (cosk
n
U)
m
in Simplicial, Lemma 16.3
is the category (∆/[m])
opp
≤n
. It is an amusing exercise to show that (∆/[m])
≤n
is
a nonempty connected category (see Categories, Deﬁnition 15.1) as soon as n ≥
1. Hence, Categories, Lemma 15.2 shows that cosk
n
sk
n
F

(K) = cosk
n
sk
n
F(K).
Whence the claim. Property (2) follows from this, because now we see that the
morphism in (2) is the result of applying the functor F to a covering as in Deﬁnition
2.4, and the result follows from the ﬁrst fact mentioned in this proof.
3. Acyclicity
Let C be a site. For a presheaf of sets F we denote Z
F
the presheaf of abelian
groups deﬁned by the rule
Z
F
(U) = free abelian group on F(U).
We will sometimes call this the free abelian presheaf on F. Of course the con-
struction F → Z
F
is a functor and it is left adjoint to the forgetful functor
PAb(C) → PSh(C). Of course the sheaﬁﬁcation Z
#
F
is a sheaf of abelian groups,
and the functor F → Z
#
F
is a left adjoint as well. We sometimes call Z
#
F
the free
abelian sheaf on F.
For an object X of the site C we denote Z
X
the free abelian presheaf on h
X
, and
we denote Z
#
X
its sheaﬁﬁcation.
Deﬁnition 3.1. Let C be a site. Let K be a simplicial object of PSh(C). By the
above we get a simplicial object Z
#
K
of Ab(C). We can take its associated complex
of abelian presheaves s(Z
#
K
), see Simplicial, Section 20. The homology of K is the
homology of the complex of abelian sheaves s(Z
#
K
).
HYPERCOVERINGS 5
In other words, the ith homology H
i
(K) of K is the sheaf of abelian groups
H
i
(K) = H
i
(s(Z
#
K
)). In this section we worry about the homology in case K
is a hypercovering of an object X of C.
Lemma 3.2. Let C be a site. Let F → G be a morphism of presheaves of sets.
Denote K the simplicial object of PSh(C) whose nth term is the (n + 1)st ﬁbre
product of F over G, see Simplicial, Example 3.5. Then, if F → G is surjective
after sheaﬁﬁcation, we have
H
i
(K) =
_
0 if i > 0
Z
#
G
if i = 0
The isomorphism in degree 0 is given by the morphsm H
0
(K) → Z
#
G
coming from
the map (Z
#
K
)
0
= Z
#
F
→ Z
#
G
.
Proof. Let G

⊂ G be the image of the morphism F → G. Let U ∈ Ob(C). Set
A = F(U) and B = G

(U). Then the simplicial set K(U) is equal to the simplicial
set with n-simplices given by

B

B
. . . ×
B
A (n + 1 factors).
By Simplicial, Lemma 27.4 the morphism K(U) → B is a homotopy equivalence.
Hence applying the functor “free abelian group on” to this we deduce that
Z
K
(U) −→ Z
B
is a homotopy equivalence. Note that s(Z
B
) is the complex
. . . →

b∈B
Z
0
−→

b∈B
Z
1
−→

b∈B
Z
0
−→

b∈B
Z → 0
see Simplicial, Lemma 20.3. Thus we see that H
i
(s(Z
K
(U))) = 0 for i > 0, and
H
0
(s(Z
K
(U))) =

b∈B
Z =

s∈G

(U)
Z. These identiﬁcations are compatible with
restriction maps.
We conclude that H
i
(s(Z
K
)) = 0 for i > 0 and H
0
(s(Z
K
)) = Z
G
, where here we
compute homology groups in PAb(C). Since sheaﬁﬁcation is an exact functor we
deduce the result of the lemma. Namely, the exactness implies that H
0
(s(Z
K
))
#
=
H
0
(s(Z
#
K
)), and similarly for other indices.
Lemma 3.3. Let C be a site. Let f : L → K be a morphism of simplicial objects
of PSh(C). Let n ≥ 0 be an integer. Assume that
(1) For i < n the morphism L
i
→ K
i
is an isomorphism.
(2) The morphism L
n
→ K
n
is surjective after sheaﬁﬁcation.
(3) The canonical map L → cosk
n
sk
n
L is an isomorphism.
(4) The canonical map K → cosk
n
sk
n
K is an isomorphism.
Then H
i
(f) : H
i
(L) → H
i
(K) is an isomorphism.
Proof. This proof is exactly the same as the proof of Lemma 3.2 above. Namely,
we ﬁrst let K

n
⊂ K
n
be the sub presheaf which is the image of the map L
n
→ K
n
.
Assumption (2) means that the sheaﬁﬁcation of K

n
is equal to the sheaﬁﬁcation
of K
n
. Moreover, since L
i
= K
i
for all i < n we see that get an n-truncated
simplicial presheaf U by taking U
0
= L
0
= K
0
, . . . , U
n−1
= L
n−1
= K
n−1
, U
n
=
K

n
. Denote K

= cosk
n
U, a simplicial presheaf. Because we can construct K

m
as
a ﬁnite limit, and since sheaﬁﬁcation is exact, we see that (K

m
)
#
= K
m
. In other
words, (K

)
#
= K
#
. We conclude, by exactness of sheaﬁﬁcation once more, that
6 HYPERCOVERINGS
H
i
(K) = H
i
(K

). Thus it suﬃces to prove the lemma for the morphism L → K

, in
other words, we may assume that L
n
→ K
n
is a surjective morphism of presheaves!
In this case, for any object U of C we see that the morphism of simplicial sets
L(U) −→ K(U)
satisﬁes all the assumptions of Simplicial, Lemma 27.3. Hence it is a homotopy
equivalence, and thus
Z
L
(U) −→ Z
K
(U)
is a homotopy equivalence too. This for all U. The result follows.
Lemma 3.4. Let C be a site. Let K be a simplicial presheaf. Let G be a presheaf.
Let K → G be an augmentation of K towards G. Assume that
(1) The morphism of presheaves K
0
→ G becomes a surjection after sheaﬁﬁca-
tion.
(2) The morphism
(d
1
0
, d
1
1
) : K
1
−→ K
0
×
G
K
0
becomes a surjection after sheaﬁﬁcation.
(3) For every n ≥ 1 the morphism
K
n+1
−→ (cosk
n
sk
n
K)
n+1
turns into a surjection after sheaﬁﬁcation.
Then H
i
(K) = 0 for i > 0 and H
0
(K) = Z
#
G
.
Proof. Denote K
n
= cosk
n
sk
n
K for n ≥ 1. Deﬁne K
0
as the simplicial object
with terms (K
0
)
n
equal to the (n + 1)-fold ﬁbred product K
0
×
G
. . . ×
G
K
0
, see
Simplicial, Example 3.5. We have morphisms
K −→ . . . → K
n
→ K
n−1
→ . . . → K
1
→ K
0
.
The morphisms K → K
i
, K
j
→ K
i
for j ≥ i ≥ 1 come from the universal properties
of the cosk
n
functors. The morphism K
1
→ K
0
is the canonical morphism from
Simplicial, Remark 17.4. We also recall that K
0
→ cosk
1
sk
1
K
0
is an isomorphism,
see Simplicial, Lemma 17.3.
By Lemma 3.2 we see that H
i
(K
0
) = 0 for i > 0 and H
0
(K
0
) = Z
#
G
.
Pick n ≥ 1. Consider the morphism K
n
→ K
n−1
. It is an isomorphism on terms
of degree < n. Note that K
n
→ cosk
n
sk
n
K
n
and K
n−1
→ cosk
n
sk
n
K
n−1
are
isomorphisms. Note that (K
n
)
n
= K
n
and that (K
n−1
)
n
= (cosk
n−1
sk
n−1
K)
n
.
Hence by assumption, we have that (K
n
)
n
→ (K
n−1
)
n
is a morphism of presheaves
which becomes surjective after sheaﬁﬁcation. By Lemma 3.3 we conclude that
H
i
(K
n
) = H
i
(K
n−1
). Combined with the above this proves the lemma.
Lemma 3.5. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of of C. Let
K be a hypercovering of X. The homology of the simplicial presheaf F(K) is 0 in
degrees > 0 and equal to Z
#
X
in degree 0.
Proof. Combine Lemmas 3.4 and 2.10.
HYPERCOVERINGS 7
4. Covering hypercoverings
Here are some ways to construct hypercoverings. We note that since the category
SR(C, X) has ﬁbre products the category of simplicial objects of SR(C, X) has ﬁbre
products as well, see Simplicial, Lemma 7.2.
Lemma 4.1. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Let
K, L, M be simplicial objects of SR(C, X). Let a : K → L, b : M → L be morphisms.
Assume
(1) K is a hypercovering of X,
(2) the morphism M
0
→ L
0
is a covering, and
(3) for all n ≥ 0 in the diagram
M
n+1

γ

(cosk
n
sk
n
M)
n+1

L
n+1
×
(cosknsknL)n+1
(cosk
n
sk
n
M)
n+1

L
n+1

(cosk
n
sk
n
L)
n+1
the arrow γ is a covering.
Then the ﬁbre product K ×
L
M is a hypercovering of X.
Proof. The morphism (K ×
L
M)
0
= K
0
×
L0
M
0
→ K
0
is a base change of a
covering by (2), hence a covering, see Lemma 2.5. And K
0
→ {X → X} is a
covering by (1). Thus (K×
L
M)
0
→ {X → X} is a covering by Lemma 2.5. Hence
K ×
L
M satisﬁes the ﬁrst condition of Deﬁnition 2.6.
We still have to check that
K
n+1
×
Ln+1
M
n+1
= (K ×
L
M)
n+1
−→ (cosk
n
sk
n
(K ×
L
M))
n+1
is a covering for all n ≥ 0. We abbreviate as follows: A = (cosk
n
sk
n
K)
n+1
,
B = (cosk
n
sk
n
L)
n+1
, and C = (cosk
n
sk
n
M)
n+1
. The functor cosk
n
sk
n
commutes
with ﬁbre products, see Simplicial, Lemma 16.13. Thus the right hand side above
is equal to A×
B
C. Consider the following commutative diagram
K
n+1
×
Ln+1
M
n+1

M
n+1

γ

K
n+1

L
n+1

L
n+1
×
B
C
¸
C

A

B
This diagram shows that
K
n+1
×
Ln+1
M
n+1
= (K
n+1
×
B
C) ×
(Ln+1×
B
C),γ
M
n+1
Now, K
n+1
×
B
C → A ×
B
C is a base change of the covering K
n+1
→ A via the
morphism A×
B
C → A, hence is a covering. By assumption (3) the morphism γ is
a covering. Hence the morphism
(K
n+1
×
B
C) ×
(Ln+1×
B
C),γ
M
n+1
−→ K
n+1
×
B
C
8 HYPERCOVERINGS
is a covering as a base change of a covering. The lemma follows as a composition
of coverings is a covering.
Lemma 4.2. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. If K, L
are hypercoverings of X, then K ×L is a hypercovering of X.
Proof. You can either verify this directly, or use Lemma 4.1 above and check that
L → {X → X} has property (3).
Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Since the category
SR(C, X) has coproducts and ﬁnite limits, it is permissible to speak about the
objects U ×K and Hom(U, K) for certain simplicial sets U (for example those with
ﬁnitely many nondegenerate simplices) and any simplicial object K of SR(C, X).
See Simplicial, Sections 12 and 14.
Lemma 4.3. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Let K
be a hypercovering of X. Let k ≥ 0 be an integer. Let u : Z → K
k
be a covering in
in SR(C, X). Then there exists a morphism of hypercoverings f : L → K such that
L
k
→ K
k
factors through u.
Proof. Denote Y = K
k
. There is a canonical morphism K → Hom(∆[k], Y )
corresponding to id
Y
via Simplicial, Lemma 14.5. We will use the description
of Hom(∆[k], Y ) and Hom(∆[k], Z) given in that lemma. In particular there is a
morphism Hom(∆[k], Y ) → Hom(∆[k], Z) which on degree n terms is the morphism

α:[k]→[n]
Y −→

α:[k]→[n]
Z.
Set
L = K ×
Hom(∆[n],Y )
Hom(∆[n], Z).
The morphism L
k
→ K
k
sits in to a commutative diagram
L
k

α:[k]→[n]
Y
pr
id
[k]

Y

K
k

α:[k]→[n]
Z
pr
id
[k]

Z
Since the composition of the two bottom arrows is the identity we conclude that
we have the desired factorization.
We still have to show that L is a hypercovering of X. To see this we will use Lemma
4.1. Condition (1) is satisﬁed by assumption. For (2), the morphism
Hom(∆[k], Y )
0
→ Hom(∆[k], Z)
0
is a covering because it is a product of coverings, see Lemma 2.5. For (3) suppose
ﬁrst that n ≥ 1. In this case by Simplicial, Lemma 18.12 we have Hom(∆[k], Y ) =
cosk
n
sk
n
Hom(∆[k], Y ) and similarly for Z. Thus condition (3) for n > 0 is clear.
For n = 0, the diagram of condition (3) of Lemma 4.1 is, according to Simplicial,
Lemma 18.13, the diagram

α:[k]→[1]
Z

Z ×Z

α:[k]→[1]
Y

Y ×Y
HYPERCOVERINGS 9
with obvious horizontal arrows. Thus the morphism γ is the morphism

α:[k]→[1]
Z −→

α:[k]→[1] not onto
Z ×

α:[k]→[1] onto
Y
which is a product of coverings and hence a covering according to Lemma 4.1 once
again.
Lemma 4.4. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Let
K be a hypercovering of X. Let n ≥ 0 be an integer. Let u : F → F(K
n
) be
a morphism of presheaves which becomes surjective on sheaﬁﬁcation. Then there
exists a morphism of hypercoverings f : L → K such that F(f
n
) : F(L
n
) → F(K
n
)
factors through u.
Proof. Write K
n
= {U
i
→ X}
i∈I
. Thus the map u is a morphism of presheaves of
sets u : F → h
ui
. The assumption on u means that for every i ∈ I there exists a
covering {U
ij
→ U
i
}
j∈Ii
of the site C and a morphism of presheaves t
ij
: h
Uij
→ F
such that u ◦ t
ij
is the map h
Uij
→ h
Ui
coming from the morphism U
ij
→ U
i
. Set
J =
i∈I
I
i
, and let α : J → I be the obvious map. For j ∈ J denote V
j
= U
α(j)j
.
Set Z = {V
j
→ X}
j∈J
. Finally, consider the morphism u

: Z → K
n
given by
α : J → I and the morphisms V
j
= U
α(j)j
→ U
α(j)
above. Clearly, this is a
covering in the category SR(C, X), and by construction F(u

) : F(Z) → F(K
n
)
factors through u. Thus the result follows from Lemma 4.3 above.
In this section we prove some technical lemmas which we will need later. Let C be
a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. As we pointed out in Section
4 above, the objects U × K and Hom(U, K) for certain simplicial sets U and any
simplicial object K of SR(C, X) are deﬁned. See Simplicial, Sections 12 and 14.
Lemma 5.1. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Let K
be a hypercovering of X. Let U ⊂ V be simplicial sets, with U
n
, V
n
ﬁnite nonempty
for all n. Assume that U has ﬁnitely many nondegenerate simplices. Suppose n ≥ 0
and x ∈ V
n
, x ∈ U
n
are such that
(1) V
i
= U
i
for i < n,
(2) V
n
= U
n
∪ {x},
(3) any z ∈ V
j
, z ∈ U
j
for j > n is degenerate.
Then the morphism
Hom(V, K)
0
−→ Hom(U, K)
0
of SR(C, X) is a covering.
Proof. If n = 0, then it follows easily that V = U ∆[0] (see below). In this
case Hom(V, K)
0
= Hom(U, K)
0
× K
0
. The result, in this case, then follows from
Lemma 2.5.
Let a : ∆[n] → V be the morphism associated to x as in Simplicial, Lemma 11.3.
Let us write ∂∆[n] = i
(n−1)!
sk
n−1
∆[n] for the (n − 1)-skeleton of ∆[n]. Let b :
∂∆[n] → U be the restriction of a to the (n − 1) skeleton of ∆[n]. By Simplicial,
10 HYPERCOVERINGS
Lemma 18.7 we have V = U
∂∆[n]
∆[n]. By Simplicial, Lemma 14.6 we get that
Hom(V, K)
0

Hom(U, K)
0

Hom(∆[n], K)
0

Hom(∂∆[n], K)
0
is a ﬁbre product square. Thus it suﬃces to show that the bottom horizontal arrow
is a covering. By Simplicial, Lemma 18.11 this arrow is identiﬁed with
K
n
→ (cosk
n−1
sk
n−1
K)
n
and hence is a covering by deﬁnition of a hypercovering.
Lemma 5.2. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Let K
be a hypercovering of X. Let U ⊂ V be simplicial sets, with U
n
, V
n
ﬁnite nonempty
for all n. Assume that U and V have ﬁnitely many nondegenerate simplices. Then
the morphism
Hom(V, K)
0
−→ Hom(U, K)
0
of SR(C, X) is a covering.
Proof. By Lemma 5.1 above, it suﬃces to prove a simple lemma about inclusions
of simplicial sets U ⊂ V as in the lemma. And this is exactly the result of Simplicial,
Lemma 18.8.
6. Homotopies
Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Let L be a simplicial
object of SR(C, X). According to Simplicial, Lemma 14.4 there exists an object
Hom(∆[1], L) in the category Simp(SR(C, X)) which represents the functor
T −→ Mor
Simp(SR(C,X))
(∆[1] ×T, L)
There is a canonical morphism
Hom(∆[1], L) → L ×L
coming from e
i
: ∆[0] → ∆[1] and the identiﬁcation Hom(∆[0], L) = L.
Lemma 6.1. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Let L be
a simplicial object of SR(C, X). Let n ≥ 0. Consider the commutative diagram
(6.1.1) Hom(∆[1], L)
n+1

(cosk
n
sk
n
Hom(∆[1], L))
n+1

(L ×L)
n+1

(cosk
n
sk
n
(L ×L))
n+1
coming from the morphism deﬁned above. We can identify the terms in this diagram
as follows, where ∂∆[n+1] = i
n!
sk
n
∆[n+1] is the n-skeleton of the (n+1)-simplex:
Hom(∆[1], L)
n+1
= Hom(∆[1] ×∆[n + 1], L)
0
(cosk
n
sk
n
Hom(∆[1], L))
n+1
= Hom(∆[1] ×∂∆[n + 1], L)
0
(L ×L)
n+1
= Hom((∆[n + 1] ∆[n + 1], L)
0
(cosk
n
sk
n
(L ×L))
n+1
= Hom(∂∆[n + 1] ∂∆[n + 1], L)
0
HYPERCOVERINGS 11
and the morphism between these objects of SR(C, X) come from the commutative
diagram of simplicial sets
(6.1.2) ∆[1] ×∆[n + 1] ∆[1] ×∂∆[n + 1]
¸
∆[n + 1] ∆[n + 1]
¸¸
∂∆[n + 1] ∂∆[n + 1]
¸
¸¸
Moreover the ﬁbre product of the bottom arrow and the right arrow in (6.1.1) is
equal to
Hom(U, L)
0
where U ⊂ ∆[1] × ∆[n + 1] is the smallest simplicial subset such that both ∆[n +
1] ∆[n + 1] and ∆[1] ×∂∆[n + 1] map into it.
Proof. The ﬁrst and third equalities are Simplicial, Lemma 14.4. The second and
fourth follow from the cited lemma combined with Simplicial, Lemma 18.11. The
last assertion follows from the fact that U is the push-out of the bottom and right
arrow of the diagram (6.1.2), via Simplicial, Lemma 14.6. To see that U is equal
to this push-out it suﬃces to see that the intersection of ∆[n + 1] ∆[n + 1] and
∆[1] ×∂∆[n+1] in ∆[1] ×∆[n+1] is equal to ∂∆[n+1] ∂∆[n+1]. This we leave
Lemma 6.2. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Let K, L
be hypercoverings of X. Let a, b : K → L be morphisms of hypercoverings. There
exists a morphism of hypercoverings c : K

→ K such that a ◦ c is homotopic to
b ◦ c.
Proof. Consider the following commutative diagram
K

def
c

K ×
(L×L)
Hom(∆[1], L)

Hom(∆[1], L)

K
(a,b)

L ×L
By the functorial property of Hom(∆[1], L) the composition of the horizontal mor-
phisms corresponds to a morphism K

∆[1] → L which deﬁnes a homotopy between
c ◦ a and c ◦ b. Thus if we can show that K

is a hypercovering of X, then we
obtain the lemma. To see this we will apply Lemma 4.1 to the pair of morphisms
K → L × L and Hom(∆[1], L) → L × L. Condition (1) of Lemma 4.1 is statis-
ﬁed. Condition (2) of Lemma 4.1 is true because Hom(∆[1], L)
0
= L
1
, and the
morphism (d
1
0
, d
1
1
) : L
1
→ L
0
× L
0
is a covering of SR(C, X) by our assumption
that L is a hypercovering. To prove condition (3) of Lemma 4.1 we use Lemma 6.1
above. According to this lemma the morphism γ of condition (3) of Lemma 4.1 is
the morphism
Hom(∆[1] ×∆[n + 1], L)
0
−→ Hom(U, L)
0
where U ⊂ ∆[1] ×∆[n + 1]. According to Lemma 5.2 this is a covering and hence
the claim has been proven.
Remark 6.3. Note that the crux of the proof is to use Lemma 5.2. This lemma
is completely general and does not care about the exact shape of the simplicial
sets (as long as they have only ﬁnitely many nondegenerate simplices). It seems
12 HYPERCOVERINGS
altogether reasonable to expect a result of the following kind: Given any mor-
phism a : K ×∂∆[k] → L, with K and L hypercoverings, there exists a morphism
of hypercoverings c : K

→ K and a morphism g : K

× ∆[k] → L such that
g|
K

×∂∆[k]
= a ◦ (c ×id
∂∆[k]
). In other words, the category of hypercoverings is in
a suitable sense contractible.
7. Cech cohomology associated to hypercoverings
Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Consider a presheaf
of abelian groups F on the site C. It deﬁnes a functor
F : SR(C, X)
opp
−→ Ab
{U
i
→ X}
i∈I
−→

i∈I
F(U
i
)
Thus a simplicial object K of SR(C, X) is turned into a cosimplicial object F(K)
of Ab. In this situation we deﬁne
ˇ
H
i
(K, F) = H
i
(s(F(K))).
Recall that s(F(K)) is the cochain complex associated to the cosimplicial abelian
group F(K), see Simplicial, Section 22. In this section we prove analogues of
some of the results for Cech cohomology of open coverings proved in Cohomology,
Sections 9, 10 and 11.
Lemma 7.1. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Let K be
a hypercovering of X. Let F be a sheaf of abelian groups on C. Then
ˇ
H
0
(K, F) =
F(X).
Proof. We have
ˇ
H
0
(K, F) = Ker(F(K
0
) −→ F(K
1
))
Write K
0
= {U
i
→ X}. It is a covering in the site C. As well, we have that K
1

K
0
×K
0
is a covering in SR(C, X). Hence we may write K
1
=
i0,i1∈I
{V
i0i1j
→ X}
so that the morphism K
1
→ K
0
×K
0
is given by coverings {V
i0i1j
→ U
i0
×
X
U
i1
}
of the site C. Thus we can further identify
ˇ
H
0
(K, F) = Ker(

i
F(U
i
) −→

i0i1j
F(V
i0i1j
))
with obvious map. The sheaf property of F implies that
ˇ
H
0
(K, F) = H
0
(X, F).
In fact this property characterizes the abelian sheaves among all abelian presheaves
on C of course. The analogue of Cohomology, Lemma 7.2 in this case is the following.
Lemma 7.2. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Let K
be a hypercovering of X. Let I be an injective sheaf of abelian groups on C. Then
ˇ
H
p
(K, I) =
_
I(X) if p = 0
0 if p > 0
HYPERCOVERINGS 13
Proof. Observe that for any object Z = {U
i
→ X} of SR(C, X) and any abelian
sheaf F on C we have
F(Z) =

F(U
i
)
=

Mor
PSh(C)
(h
Ui
, F)
= Mor
PSh(C)
(F(Z), F)
= Mor
PAb(C)
(Z
F(Z)
, F)
= Mor
Ab(C)
(Z
#
F(Z)
, F)
Thus we see, for any simplicial object K of SR(C, X) that we have
(7.2.1) s(F(K)) = Hom
Ab(C)
(s(Z
#
K
), F)
see Deﬁnition 3.1 for notation. Now, we know that s(Z
#
K
) is quasi-isomorphic to
Z
#
X
if K is a hypercovering, see Lemma 3.5. We conclude that if I is an injective
abelian sheaf, and K a hypercovering, then the complex s(I(K)) is acyclic except
possibly in degree 0. In other words, we have
ˇ
H
i
(K, I) = 0
for i > 0. Combined with Lemma 7.1 the lemma is proved.
Next we come to the analogue of Cohomology, Lemma 7.3. To state it we need to
introduce a little more notation. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let F be a
sheaf of abelian groups on C. The symbol H
i
(F) indicates the presheaf of abelian
groups on C which is deﬁned by the rule
H
i
(F) : U −→ H
i
(U, F)
where U ranges over the objects of C.
Lemma 7.3. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Let K
be a hypercovering of X. Let F be a sheaf of abelian groups on C. There is a map
s(F(K)) −→ RΓ(X, F)
in D
+
(Ab) functorial in F, which induces natural transformations
ˇ
H
i
(K, −) −→ H
i
(X, −)
as functors Ab(C) → Ab. Moreover, there is a spectral sequence (E
r
, d
r
)
r≥0
with
E
p,q
2
=
ˇ
H
p
(K, H
q
(F))
converging to H
p+q
(X, F). This spectral sequence is functorial in F and in the
hypercovering K.
Proof. We could prove this by the same method as employed in the corresponding
lemma in the chapter on cohomology. Instead let us prove this by a double complex
argument.
Choose an injective resolution F → I

in the category of abelian sheaves on C.
Consider the double complex A
•,•
with terms
A
p,q
= I
q
(K
p
)
where the diﬀerential d
p,q
1
: A
p,q
→ A
p+1,q
is the one coming from the diﬀerential
I
p
→ I
p+1
and the diﬀerential d
p,q
2
: A
p,q
→ A
p,q+1
is the one coming from the
diﬀerential on the complex s(I
p
(K)) associated to the cosimplicial abelian group
14 HYPERCOVERINGS
I
p
(K) as explained above. As usual we denote sA

the simple complex associated
to the double complex A
•,•
. We will use the two spectral sequences (

E
r
,

d
r
) and
(

E
r
,

d
r
) associated to this double complex, see Homology, Section 19.
By Lemma 7.2 the complexes s(I
p
(K)) are acyclic in positive degrees and have
H
0
equal to I
p
(X). Hence by Homology, Lemma 19.6 and its proof the spectral
sequence (

E
r
,

d
r
) degenerates, and the natural map
I

(X) −→ sA

is a quasi-isomorphism of complexes of abelian groups. In particular we conclude
that H
n
(sA

) = H
n
(X, F).
The map s(F(K)) −→ RΓ(X, F) of the lemma is the composition of the natural
map s(F(K)) → sA

followed by the inverse of the displayed quasi-isomorphism
above. This works because I

(X) is a representative of RΓ(X, F).
Consider the spectral sequence (

E
r
,

d
r
)
r≥0
. By Homology, Lemma 19.3 we see
that

E
p,q
2
= H
p
II
(H
q
I
(A
•,•
))
In other words, we ﬁrst take cohomology with respect to d
1
which gives the groups

E
p,q
1
= H
p
(F)(K
q
). Hence it is indeed the case (by the description of the diﬀer-
ential

d
1
) that

E
p,q
2
=
ˇ
H
p
(K, H
q
(F)). And by the other spectral sequence above
we see that this one converges to H
n
(X, F) as desired.
We omit the proof of the statements regarding the functoriality of the above con-
structions in the abelian sheaf F and the hypercovering K.
8. Cohomology and hypercoverings
Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Let F be a sheaf of
abelian groups on C. Let K, L be hypercoverings of X. If a, b : K → L are homo-
topic maps, then F(a), F(b) : F(K) → F(L) are homotopic maps, see Simplicial,
Lemma 25.4. Hence have the same eﬀect on cohomology groups of the associated
cochain complexes, see Simplicial, Lemma 25.6. We are going to use this to deﬁne
the colimit over all hypercoverings.
Let us temporarily denote HC(C, X) the category of hypercoverings of X. We have
seen that this is a category and not a “big” category, see Lemma 2.8. This will
be the index category for our diagram, see Categories, Section 13 for notation.
Consider the diagram
ˇ
H
i
(−, F) : HC(C, X) −→ Ab.
By Lemma 4.2 and Lemma 6.2, and the remark on homotopies above, this diagram
is directed, see Categories, Deﬁnition 17.1. Thus the colimit
ˇ
H
i
HC
(X, F) = colim
K∈HC(C,X)
ˇ
H
i
(K, F)
has a particularly simple discription (see location cited).
Theorem 8.1. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C. Let
i ≥ 0. The functors
Ab(C) −→ Ab
F −→ H
i
(X, F)
F −→
ˇ
H
i
HC
(X, F)
HYPERCOVERINGS 15
are canonically isomorphic.
Proof using spectral sequences. Suppose that ξ ∈ H
p
(X, F) for some p ≥ 0.
Let us show that ξ is in the image of the map
ˇ
H
p
(X, F) → H
p
(X, F) of Lemma
7.3 for some hypercovering K of X.
This is true if p = 0 by Lemma 7.1. If p = 1, choose a Cech hypercovering K of
X as in Example 2.7 starting with a covering K
0
= {U
i
→ X} in the site C such
that ξ|
Ui
= 0, see Cohomology on Sites, Lemma 8.3. It follows immediately from
the spectral sequence in Lemma 7.3 that ξ comes from an element of
ˇ
H
1
(K, F) in
this case. In general, choose any hypercovering K of X such that ξ maps to zero in
H
p
(F)(K
0
) (using Example 2.7 and Cohomology on Sites, Lemma 8.3 again). By
the spectral sequence of Lemma 7.3 the obstruction for ξ to come from an element of
ˇ
H
p
(K, F) is a sequence of elements ξ
1
, . . . , ξ
p−1
with ξ
q

ˇ
H
p−q
(K, H
q
(F)) (more
precisely the images of the ξ
q
in certain subquotients of these groups).
We can inductively replace the hypercovering K by reﬁnements such that the ob-
structions ξ
1
, . . . , ξ
p−1
restrict to zero (and not just the images in the subquotients
– so no subtlety here). Indeed, suppose we have already managed to reach the sit-
uation where ξ
q+1
, . . . , ξ
p−1
are zero. Note that ξ
q

ˇ
H
p−q
(K, H
q
(F)) is the class
of some element
˜
ξ
q
∈ H
q
(F)(K
p−q
) =

H
q
(U
i
, F)
if K
p−q
= {U
i
→ X}
i∈I
. Let ξ
q,i
be the component of
˜
ξ
q
in H
q
(U
i
, F). As
q ≥ 1 we can use Cohomology on Sites, Lemma 8.3 yet again to choose coverings
{U
i,j
→ U
i
} of the site such that each restriction ξ
q,i
|
Ui,j
= 0. Consider the object
Z = {U
i,j
→ X} of the category SR(C, X) and its obvious morphism u : Z → K
p−q
.
It is clear that u is a covering, see Deﬁnition 2.4. By Lemma 4.3 there exists a
morphism L → K of hypercoverings of X such that L
p−q
→ K
p−q
factors through
u. Then clearly the image of ξ
q
in H
q
(F)(L
p−q
). is zero. Since the spectral
sequence of Lemma 7.3 is functorial this means that after replacing K by L we
reach the situation where ξ
q
, . . . , ξ
p−1
are all zero. Continuing like this we end up
with a hypercovering where they are all zero and hence ξ is in the image of the map
ˇ
H
p
(X, F) → H
p
(X, F).
Suppose that K is a hypercovering of X, that ξ ∈
ˇ
H
p
(K, F) and that the image of
ξ under the map
ˇ
H
p
(X, F) → H
p
(X, F) of Lemma 7.3 is zero. To ﬁnish the proof
of the theorem we have to show that there exists a morphism of hypercoverings
L → K such that ξ restricts to zero in
ˇ
H
p
(L, F). By the spectral sequence of
Lemma 7.3 the vanishing of the image of ξ in H
p
(X, F) means that there exist
elements ξ
1
, . . . , ξ
p−2
with ξ
q

ˇ
H
p−1−q
(K, H
q
(F)) (more precisely the images of
these in certain subquotients) such that the images d
p−1−q,q
q+1
ξ
q
(in the spectral
sequence) add up to ξ. Hence by exacly the same mechanism as above we can ﬁnd
a morphism of hypercoverings L → K such that the restrictions of the elements
ξ
q
, q = 1, . . . , p − 2 in
ˇ
H
p−1−q
(L, H
q
(F)) are zero. Then it follows that ξ is zero
since the morphism L → K induces a morphism of spectral sequences according to
Lemma 7.3.
Proof without using spectral sequences. We have seen the result for i = 0,
see Lemma 7.1. We know that the functors H
i
(X, −) form a universal δ-functor,
see Derived Categories, Lemma 19.4. In order to prove the theorem it suﬃces to
show that the sequence of functors
ˇ
H
i
HC
(X, −) forms a δ-functor. Namely we know
16 HYPERCOVERINGS
that Cech cohomology is zero on injective sheaves (Lemma 7.2) and then we can
apply Homology, Lemma 9.4.
Let
0 → F → G → H → 0
be a short exact sequence of abelian sheaves on C. Let ξ ∈
ˇ
H
p
HC
(X, H). Choose
a hypercovering K of X and an element σ ∈ H(K
p
) representing ξ in cohomology.
There is a corresponding exact sequence of complexes
0 → s(F(K)) → s(G(K)) → s(H(K))
but we are not assured that there is a zero on the right also and this is the only
thing that prevents us from deﬁning δ(ξ) by a simple application of the snake
lemma. Recall that
H(K
p
) =

H(U
i
)
if K
p
= {U
i
→ X}. Let σ =

σ
i
with σ
i
∈ H(U
i
). Since G → H is a surjection
of sheaves we see that there exist coverings {U
i,j
→ U
i
} such that σ
i
|
Ui,j
is the
image of some element τ
i,j
∈ G(U
i,j
). Consider the object Z = {U
i,j
→ X} of the
category SR(C, X) and its obvious morphism u : Z → K
p
. It is clear that u is a
covering, see Deﬁnition 2.4. By Lemma 4.3 there exists a morphism L → K of
hypercoverings of X such that L
p
→ K
p
factors through u. After replacing K by L
we may therefore assume that σ is the image of an element τ ∈ G(K
p
). Note that
d(σ) = 0, but not necessarily d(τ) = 0. Thus d(τ) ∈ F(K
p+1
) is a cocycle. In this
situation we deﬁne δ(ξ) as the class of the cocycle d(τ) in
ˇ
H
p+1
HC
(X, F).
At this point there are several things to verify: (a) δ(ξ) does not depend on the
choice of τ, (b) δ(ξ) does not depend on the choice of the hypercovering L → K such
that σ lifts, and (c) δ(ξ) does not depend on the initial hypercovering and σ chosen
to represent ξ. We omit the veriﬁcation of (a), (b), and (c); the independence of
the choices of the hypercoverings really comes down to Lemmas 4.2 and 6.2. We
also omit the veriﬁcation that δ is functorial with respect to morphisms of short
exact sequences of abelian sheaves on C.
Finally, we have to verify that with this deﬁnition of δ our short exact sequence of
abelian sheaves above leads to a long exact sequence of Cech cohomology groups.
First we show that if δ(ξ) = 0 (with ξ as above) then ξ is the image of some
element ξ

ˇ
H
p
HC
(X, G). Namely, if δ(ξ) = 0, then, with notation as above, we
see that the class of d(τ) is zero in
ˇ
H
p+1
HC
(X, F). Hence there exists a morphism of
hypercoverings L → K such that the restriction of d(τ) to an element of F(L
p+1
)
is equal to d(υ) for some υ ∈ F(L
p
). This implies that τ|
Lp
+υ form a cocycle, and
determine a class ξ

ˇ
H
p
(L, G) which maps to ξ as desired.
We omit the proof that if ξ

ˇ
H
p+1
HC
(X, F) maps to zero in
ˇ
H
p+1
HC
(X, G), then it is
equal to δ(ξ) for some ξ ∈
ˇ
H
p
HC
(X, H).
9. Hypercoverings of spaces
The theory above is mildly interesting even in the case of topological spaces. In
this case we can work out what is a hypercovering and see what the result actually
says.
HYPERCOVERINGS 17
Let X be a topological space. Consider the site T
X
of Sites, Example 6.4. Recall
that an object of T
X
is simply an open of X and that morphisms of T
X
correspond
simply to inclusions. So what is a hypercovering of X for the site T
X
?
Let us ﬁrst unwind Deﬁnition 2.1. An object of SR(C, X) is simply given by a set
I and for each i ∈ I an open U
i
⊂ X. Let us denote this by {U
i
}
i∈I
since there can
be no confusion about the morphism U
i
→ X. A morphism {U
i
}
i∈I
→ {V
j
}
j∈J
between two such objects is given by a map of sets α : I → J such that U
i
⊂ V
α(i)
for all i ∈ I. When is such a morphism a covering? This is the case if and only if
for every j ∈ J we have V
j
=

i∈I, α(i)=j
U
i
(and is a covering in the site T
X
).
Using the above we get the following description of a hypercovering in the site T
X
.
A hypercovering of X in T
X
is given by the following data
(1) a simplicial set I (see Simplicial, Section 11), and
(2) for each n ≥ 0 and every i ∈ I
n
an open set U
i
⊂ X.
We will denote such a collection of data by the notation (I, {U
i
}). In order for this
to be a hypercovering of X we require the following properties
• for i ∈ I
n
and 0 ≤ a ≤ n + 1 we have U
i
⊂ U
d
n
a
(i)
,
• for i ∈ I
n
and 0 ≤ a ≤ n we have U
i
= U
s
n
a
(i)
,
• we have
(9.0.1) X =
_
i∈I0
U
i
,
• for every i
0
, i
1
∈ I
0
, we have
(9.0.2) U
i0
∩ U
i1
=
_
i∈I1, d
1
0
(i)=i0, d
1
1
(i)=i1
U
i
,
• for every n ≥ 1 and every (i
0
, . . . , i
n+1
) ∈ (I
n
)
n+2
such that d
n
b−1
(i
a
) =
d
n
a
(i
b
) for all 0 ≤ a < b ≤ n + 1 we have
(9.0.3) U
i0
∩ . . . ∩ U
in+1
=
_
i∈In+1, d
n+1
a
(i)=ia, a=0,...,n+1
U
i
,
• each of the open coverings (9.0.1), (9.0.2), and (9.0.3) is an element of
Cov(T
X
) (this is a set theoretic condition, bounding the size of the index
sets of the coverings).
Condititions (9.0.1) and (9.0.2) should be familiar from the chapter on sheaves on
spaces for example, and condition (9.0.3) is the natural generalization.
Remark 9.1. One feature of this description is that if one of the multiple in-
tersections U
i0
∩ . . . ∩ U
in+1
is empty then the covering on the right hand side
may be the empty covering. Thus it is not automatically the case that the maps
I
n+1
→ (cosk
n
sk
n
I)
n+1
are surjective. This means that the geometric realization
of I may be an interesting (non-contractible) space.
In fact, let I

n
⊂ I
n
be the subset consisting of those simplices i ∈ I
n
such that
U
i
= ∅. It is easy to see that I

⊂ I is a subsimplicial set, and that (I

, {U
i
}) is
a hypercovering. Hence we can always reﬁne a hypercovering to a hypercovering
where none of the opens U
i
is empty.
Remark 9.2. Let us repackage this information in yet another way. Namely,
suppose that (I, {U
i
}) is a hypercovering of the topological space X. Given this
data we can construct a simplicial toplogical space U

by setting
U
n
=

i∈In
U
i
,
18 HYPERCOVERINGS
and where for given ϕ : [n] → [m] we let morphisms U(ϕ) : U
n
→ U
m
be the mor-
phism coming from the inclusions U
i
⊂ U
ϕ(i)
for i ∈ I
n
. This simplicial topological
space comes with an augmentation : U

→ X. With this morphism the simplicial
space U

becomes a hypercovering of X along which one has cohomological descent
in the sense of [MA71, Expos´e Vbis]. In other words, H
n
(U

,

F) = H
n
(X, F).
(Insert future reference here to cohomology over simplicial spaces and cohomologi-
cal descent formulated in those terms.) Suppose that F is an abelian sheaf on X.
In this case the spectral sequence of Lemma 7.3 becomes the spectral sequence with
E
1
-term
E
p,q
1
= H
q
(U
p
,

q
F) ⇒ H
p+q
(U

,

F) = H
p+q
(X, F)
comparing the total cohomology of

F to the cohomology groups of F over the
pieces of U

. (Insert future reference to this spectral sequence here.)
In topology we often want to ﬁnd hypercoverings of X which have the property that
all the U
i
come from a given basis for the topology of X and that all the coverings
(9.0.2) and (9.0.3) are from a given coﬁnal collection of coverings. Here are two
example lemmas.
Lemma 9.3. Let X be a topological space. Let B be a basis for the topology of X.
There exists a hypercovering (I, {U
i
}) of X such that each U
i
is an element of B.
Proof. Let n ≥ 0. Let us say that an n-truncated hypercovering of X is given by
an n-truncated simplicial set I and for each i ∈ I
a
, 0 ≤ a ≤ n an open U
i
of X such
that the conditions deﬁning a hypercovering hold whenever they make sense. In
other words we require the inclusion relations and covering conditions only when
all simplices that occur in them are a-simplices with a ≤ n. The lemma follows if
we can prove that given a n-truncated hypercovering (I, {U
i
}) with all U
i
∈ B we
can extend it to an (n+1)-truncated hypercovering without adding any a-simplices
for a ≤ n. This we do as follows. First we consider the (n+1)-truncated simplicial
set I

deﬁned by I

= sk
n+1
(cosk
n
I). Recall that
I

n+1
=
_
(i
0
, . . . , i
n+1
) ∈ (I
n
)
n+2
such that
d
n
b−1
(i
a
) = d
n
a
(i
b
) for all 0 ≤ a < b ≤ n + 1
_
If i

∈ I

n+1
is degenerate, say i

= s
n
a
(i) then we set U
i
= U
i
(this is forced on us
anyway by the second condition). We also set J
i
= {i

} in this case. If i

∈ I

n+1
is
nondegerate, say i

= (i
0
, . . . , i
n+1
), then we choose a set J
i
and an open covering
(9.3.1) U
i0
∩ . . . ∩ U
in+1
=
_
i∈J
i

U
i
,
with U
i
∈ B for i ∈ J
i
. Set
I
n+1
=

i

∈I

n+1
J
i

There is a canonical map π : I
n+1
→ I

n+1
which is a bijection over the set of
degenerate simplices in I

n+1
by construction. For i ∈ I
n+1
we deﬁne d
n+1
a
(i) =
d
n+1
a
(π(i)). For i ∈ I
n
we deﬁne s
n
a
(i) ∈ I
n+1
as the unique simplex lying over
the degenerate simplex s
n
a
(i) ∈ I

n+1
. We omit the veriﬁcation that this deﬁnes an
(n + 1)-truncated hypercovering of X.
Lemma 9.4. Let X be a topological space. Let B be a basis for the topology of X.
Assume that
(1) X is quasi-compact,
HYPERCOVERINGS 19
(2) each U ∈ B is quasi-compact open, and
(3) the intersection of any two quasi-compact opens in X is quasi-compact.
Then there exists a hypercovering (I, {U
i
}) of X with the following properties
(1) each U
i
is an element of the basis B,
(2) each of the I
n
is a ﬁnite set, and in particular
(3) each of the coverings (9.0.1), (9.0.2), and (9.0.3) is ﬁnite.
Proof. This follows directly from the construction in the proof of Lemma 9.3 if we
choose ﬁnite coverings by elements of B in (9.3.1). Details omitted.
10. Other chapters
(1) Introduction
(2) Conventions
(3) Set Theory
(4) Categories
(5) Topology
(6) Sheaves on Spaces
(7) Commutative Algebra
(8) Sites and Sheaves
(9) Homological Algebra
(10) Derived Categories
(11) More on Algebra
(12) Simplicial Methods
(13) Sheaves of Modules
(14) Modules on Sites
(15) Injectives
(16) Cohomology of Sheaves
(17) Cohomology on Sites
(18) Hypercoverings
(19) Schemes
(20) Constructions of Schemes
(21) Properties of Schemes
(22) Morphisms of Schemes
(23) Coherent Cohomology
(24) Divisors
(25) Limits of Schemes
(26) Varieties
(27) Chow Homology
(28) Topologies on Schemes
(29) Descent
(31) More on Morphisms
(32) More on Flatness
(33) Groupoid Schemes
(34) More on Groupoid Schemes
(35)
´
Etale Morphisms of Schemes
(36)
´
Etale Cohomology
(37) Algebraic Spaces
(38) Properties of Algebraic Spaces
(39) Morphisms of Algebraic Spaces
(40) Decent Algebraic Spaces
(41) Topologies on Algebraic Spaces
(42) Descent and Algebraic Spaces
(43) More on Morphisms of Spaces
(44) Quot and Hilbert Spaces
(45) Spaces over Fields
(46) Cohomology of Algebraic Spaces
(47) Stacks
(48) Formal Deformation Theory
(49) Groupoids in Algebraic Spaces
(50) More on Groupoids in Spaces
(51) Bootstrap
(52) Examples of Stacks
(53) Quotients of Groupoids
(54) Algebraic Stacks
(55) Sheaves on Algebraic Stacks
(56) Criteria for Representability
(57) Properties of Algebraic Stacks
(58) Morphisms of Algebraic Stacks
(59) Introducing Algebraic Stacks
(60) Examples
(61) Exercises
(62) Guide to Literature
(63) Desirables
(64) Coding Style
(65) GNU Free Documentation Li-
cense
(66) Auto Generated Index
20 HYPERCOVERINGS
References
[MA71] J.L. Verdier M. Artin, A. Grothendieck, Theorie de topos et cohomologie etale des
schemas i, ii, iii, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 269, 270, 305, Springer, 1971.

2

HYPERCOVERINGS

2. Hypercoverings In order to start we make the following deﬁnition. The letters “SR” stand for Semi-Representable. Deﬁnition 2.1. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X ∈ Ob(C) be an object of C. We denote SR(C, X) the category of semi-representable objects deﬁned as follows (1) objects are families of morphisms {Ui → X}i∈I , and (2) morphisms {Ui → X}i∈I → {Vj → X}j∈J are given by a map α : I → J and for each i ∈ I a morphism fi : Ui → Vα(i) over X. This deﬁnition is diﬀerent from the one in [MA71, Expos´ V, Sec. 7], but it seems e ﬂexible enough to do all the required arguments. Note that this is a “big” category. We will later “bound” the size of the index sets I that we need and we can then redeﬁne SR(C, X) to become a category. Deﬁnition 2.2. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X ∈ Ob(C) be an object of C. We denote F the functor which associates a sheaf to a semi-representable object. In a formula F : SR(C, X) −→ {Ui → X}i∈I −→ PSh(C)
i∈I hUi

where hU denotes the representable presheaf associated to the object U . Given a morphism U → X we obtain a morphism hU → hX of representable presheaves. Thus it makes more sense to think of F as a functor into the category of presheaves of sets over hX , namely PSh(C)/hX . Lemma 2.3. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X ∈ Ob(C) be an object of C. The category SR(C, X) has coproducts and ﬁnite limits. Moreover, the functor F commutes with coproducts and ﬁbre products, and transforms products into ﬁbre products over hX . In other words, it commutes with ﬁnite limits as a functor into PSh(C)/hX . Proof. It is clear that the coproduct of {Ui → X}i∈I and {Vj → X}j∈J is {Ui → X}i∈I {Vj → X}j∈J and similarly for coproducts of families of families of morphisms with target X. The object {X → X} is a ﬁnal object of SR(C, X). Suppose given a morphism (α, fi ) : {Ui → X}i∈I → {Vj → X}j∈J and a morphism (β, gk ) : {Wk → X}k∈K → {Vj → X}j∈J . The ﬁbred product of these morphisms is given by {Ui ×fi ,Vj ,gk Wk → X}(i,j,k)∈I×J×K
such that k=α(i)=β(j)

The ﬁbre products exist by the assumption that C has ﬁbre products. Thus SR(C, X) has ﬁnite limits, see Categories, Lemma 16.4. The statements on the functor F are clear from the constructions above. Deﬁnition 2.4. Let C be a site with ﬁbred products. Let X be an object of C. Let f = (α, fi ) : {Ui → X}i∈I → {Vj → X}j∈J be a morphism in the category SR(C, X). We say that f is a covering if for every j ∈ J the family of morphisms {Ui → Vj }i∈I,α(i)=j is a covering for the site C. Lemma 2.5. Let C be a site with ﬁbred products. Let X ∈ Ob(C).

X) such that (1) The object K0 is a covering of X for the site C. The collection of all hypercoverings of X forms a set. The lemma does not just say that there is a coﬁnal system of choices of hypercoverings that is a set. . X). Kn the collection of all possible Kn+1 forms a set. . It could also be formulated as saying that the morphism of K0 to the ﬁnal object of SR(C. (2) For every n ≥ 0 the canonical morphism Kn+1 −→ (coskn skn K)n+1 is a covering in the sense deﬁned above. (3) If A → B and K → L are coverings. . . A hypercovering of X is a simplicial object K in the category SR(C. X) exists. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. (Number (3) is the composition A×K → B ×K → B ×L and hence a composition of basechanges of coverings. . Since C is a site.HYPERCOVERINGS 3 (1) A composition of coverings in SR(C.in )∈I n+1 Lemma 2. X) is a covering. Let {Ui → X}i∈I be a covering of the site C. Lemma 2. Let C be a site. Kn form a set.10. . Let X ∈ Ob(C) be an object of C. (1) The morphism of presheaves F (K)0 → hX becomes a surjection after sheaﬁﬁcation. . but that really the hypercoverings form a set. And this is clearly true since we have to choose Kn+1 among all possible coverings of (coskn skn K)n+1 . then A × K → B × L is a covering.i1 . . Thus we see that the collection of possible K0 forms a set. Example 2.) According to the results in the chapter on simplicial methods the coskelet of a truncated simplicial object of SR(C. Condition (1) makes sense since each object of SR(C. X) is a covering. Let K be a hypercovering of X. endowed with its augmentation to the constant simplicial presheaf hX . Suppose we have shown that the collection of all possible K0 . (2) A base change of coverings is a covering. Let X ∈ Ob(C) be an object of C. Deﬁnition 2. Hence the following deﬁnition makes sense. The category of presheaves on C has ﬁnite (co)limits.6.. ×X Uin → X}(i0 . Then K0 is a 0-truncated simplicial object of SR(C. .6. Since all the morphisms Kn+1 → (coskn skn K)n+1 are isomorphisms it also passes condition (2).. Proof.7...9. Hence we may form K = cosk0 K0 . Set K0 = {Ui → X}i∈I . Hence the functors coskn exists for presheaves of sets. Note that the terms Kn are the usual Kn = {Ui0 ×X Ui1 ×X . . Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X ∈ Ob(C) be an object of C. Immediate from the axioms of a site.8. Consider the simplicial object F (K) of PSh(C). Clearly K passes condition (1) of Deﬁnition 2. the set of all coverings of S forms a set. Proof. Remark 2. Then it is enough to show that given K0 . X) is after all a family of morphisms with target X. .

Thus the ﬁrst assertion follows immediately. Hence. Lemma 12. denote temporarily F the functor SR(C. × K0 . By the above we get a simplicial object Z# of Ab(C). see Sites. Whence the claim. note that according to Simplicial. We sometimes call Z# the free F F abelian sheaf on F. For a presheaf of sets F we denote ZF the presheaf of abelian groups deﬁned by the rule ZF (U ) = free abelian group on F(U ). Recall that the category used in the description of (coskn U )m in Simplicial. see Simplicial. Lemma 16.2 shows that coskn skn F (K) = coskn skn F (K).2 the simplicial object cosk0 sk0 K has terms K0 × . By Lemma 2. Proof. K . Acyclicity Let C be a site.4. (3) For every n ≥ 1 the morphism F (K)n+1 −→ (coskn skn F (K))n+1 turns into a surjection after sheaﬁﬁcation. Section 16 we see that coskn skn F (K) = F (coskn skn K). Of course the sheaﬁﬁcation Z# is a sheaf of abelian groups. then the morphism i∈I hUi → hU becomes surjective after sheaﬁﬁcation. and we denote Z# its sheaﬁﬁcation. Example 16.4 HYPERCOVERINGS (2) The morphism (d1 . X Deﬁnition 3. The homology of K is the K homology of the complex of abelian sheaves s(Z# ). Thus according to the deﬁnition of a hypercovering we see that (d1 .1. Deﬁnition 15. For an object X of the site C we denote ZX the free abelian presheaf on hX . Let C be a site. We will sometimes call this the free abelian presheaf on F. . Section 20. Of course the construction F → ZF is a functor and it is left adjoint to the forgetful functor PAb(C) → PSh(C).3 the functor F commutes with ﬁnite limits. we claim that coskn skn F (K) = F (coskn skn K) for n ≥ 1. d1 ) : F (K)1 −→ F (K)0 ×hX F (K)0 0 1 becomes a surjection after sheaﬁﬁcation. Lemma 15. X) → PSh(C)/hX .5. Property (2) follows from this. Let K be a simplicial object of PSh(C). Categories.1) as soon as n ≥ 1. We can take its associated complex K of abelian presheaves s(Z# ). To prove this. By our description of the coskn functor in Simplicial. It is an amusing exercise to show that (∆/[m])≤n is ≤n a nonempty connected category (see Categories. Hence (2) 0 1 follows from the claim above and the fact that F transforms products into ﬁbred products over hX . . d1 ) : K1 → K0 × K0 is a covering. For the third. and the result follows from the ﬁrst fact mentioned in this proof. We will use the fact that if {Ui → U }i∈I is a covering of the site C. 3. F and the functor F → Z# is a left adjoint as well.3 is the category (∆/[m])opp . For the second assertion. because now we see that the morphism in (2) is the result of applying the functor F to a covering as in Deﬁnition 2.

3. (3) The canonical map L → coskn skn L is an isomorphism. Let f : L → K be a morphism of simplicial objects of PSh(C). Let F → G be a morphism of presheaves of sets. Then Hi (f ) : Hi (L) → Hi (K) is an isomorphism. . Denote K the simplicial object of PSh(C) whose nth term is the (n + 1)st ﬁbre product of F over G. and similarly for other indices. and H0 (s(ZK (U ))) = b∈B Z = s∈G (U ) Z. we ﬁrst let Kn ⊂ Kn be the sub presheaf which is the image of the map Ln → Kn . This proof is exactly the same as the proof of Lemma 3. . Let n ≥ 0 be an integer. Hence applying the functor “free abelian group on” to this we deduce that ZK (U ) −→ ZB is a homotopy equivalence.3. Set A = F(U ) and B = G (U ). where here we compute homology groups in PAb(C). Example 3. K Lemma 3. Moreover. Assume that (1) For i < n the morphism Li → Ki is an isomorphism. Let U ∈ Ob(C). In other words. Let C be a site. Namely. . (K )# = K # . Lemma 20. and since sheaﬁﬁcation is exact. We conclude. (2) The morphism Ln → Kn is surjective after sheaﬁﬁcation. (4) The canonical map K → coskn skn K is an isomorphism. a simplicial presheaf. since Li = Ki for all i < n we see that get an n-truncated simplicial presheaf U by taking U0 = L0 = K0 . Let G ⊂ G be the image of the morphism F → G. Because we can construct Km as a ﬁnite limit. Lemma 3. the exactness implies that H0 (s(ZK ))# = H0 (s(Z# )). Lemma 27. Then the simplicial set K(U ) is equal to the simplicial set with n-simplices given by A ×B A ×B . .4 the morphism K(U ) → B is a homotopy equivalence.2.. In this section we worry about the homology in case K K is a hypercovering of an object X of C. Let C be a site. K F G Proof. Proof. Un−1 = Ln−1 = Kn−1 . Namely. Since sheaﬁﬁcation is an exact functor we deduce the result of the lemma.. Assumption (2) means that the sheaﬁﬁcation of Kn is equal to the sheaﬁﬁcation of Kn . Note that s(ZB ) is the complex . These identiﬁcations are compatible with restriction maps.2 above. → b∈B 0 1 0 Z− → b∈B Z− → b∈B Z− → b∈B Z→0 see Simplicial. if F → G is surjective after sheaﬁﬁcation. . ×B A (n + 1 factors). Denote K = coskn U . We conclude that Hi (s(ZK )) = 0 for i > 0 and H0 (s(ZK )) = ZG . Then. . by exactness of sheaﬁﬁcation once more.HYPERCOVERINGS 5 In other words. we see that (Km )# = Km . the ith homology Hi (K) of K is the sheaf of abelian groups Hi (K) = Hi (s(Z# )). By Simplicial. we have Hi (K) = 0 Z# G if i > 0 if i = 0 The isomorphism in degree 0 is given by the morphsm H0 (K) → Z# coming from G the map (Z# )0 = Z# → Z# . that .5. Thus we see that Hi (s(ZK (U ))) = 0 for i > 0. Un = Kn . see Simplicial.

Let K → G be an augmentation of K towards G. The result follows. (3) For every n ≥ 1 the morphism Kn+1 −→ (coskn skn K)n+1 turns into a surjection after sheaﬁﬁcation. Remark 17. By Lemma 3. → K n → K n−1 → . K j → K i for j ≥ i ≥ 1 come from the universal properties of the coskn functors.4. The morphisms K → K i . ×G K0 . Let C be a site.3.10. Example 3. . see Simplicial. This for all U . .3. Assume that (1) The morphism of presheaves K0 → G becomes a surjection after sheaﬁﬁcation.3 we conclude that Hi (K n ) = Hi (K n−1 ). Let G be a presheaf. We have morphisms K −→ .2 we see that Hi (K 0 ) = 0 for i > 0 and H0 (K 0 ) = Z# . . G Proof. . we may assume that Ln → Kn is a surjective morphism of presheaves! In this case. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. . we have that (K n )n → (K n−1 )n is a morphism of presheaves which becomes surjective after sheaﬁﬁcation. d1 ) : K1 −→ K0 ×G K0 0 1 becomes a surjection after sheaﬁﬁcation. .4. Hence it is a homotopy equivalence.6 HYPERCOVERINGS Hi (K) = Hi (K ). Note that (K n )n = Kn and that (K n−1 )n = (coskn−1 skn−1 K)n . By Lemma 3. Thus it suﬃces to prove the lemma for the morphism L → K . see Simplicial. It is an isomorphism on terms of degree < n. X Proof. Lemma 3. Deﬁne K 0 as the simplicial object with terms (K 0 )n equal to the (n + 1)-fold ﬁbred product K0 ×G .4 and 2. for any object U of C we see that the morphism of simplicial sets L(U ) −→ K(U ) satisﬁes all the assumptions of Simplicial.5. The homology of the simplicial presheaf F (K) is 0 in degrees > 0 and equal to Z# in degree 0. Denote K n = coskn skn K for n ≥ 1. Note that K n → coskn skn K n and K n−1 → coskn skn K n−1 are isomorphisms. Hence by assumption. in other words. Then Hi (K) = 0 for i > 0 and H0 (K) = Z# . (2) The morphism (d1 . and thus ZL (U ) −→ ZK (U ) is a homotopy equivalence too. → K 1 → K 0 . Lemma 27. Combined with the above this proves the lemma. Let X be an object of of C. We also recall that K 0 → cosk1 sk1 K 0 is an isomorphism.5. Consider the morphism K n → K n−1 . The morphism K 1 → K 0 is the canonical morphism from Simplicial. Let K be a hypercovering of X. Lemma 17. Combine Lemmas 3. Let K be a simplicial presheaf. G Pick n ≥ 1. . Lemma 3.

and (3) for all n ≥ 0 in the diagram Mn+1 γ / (coskn skn M )n+1 3 * Ln+1 ×(coskn skn L)n+1 (coskn skn M )n+1  t Ln+1 the arrow γ is a covering. M be simplicial objects of SR(C. Assume (1) K is a hypercovering of X.γ Mn+1 −→ Kn+1 ×B C .HYPERCOVERINGS 7 4. The morphism (K ×L M )0 = K0 ×L0 M0 → K0 is a base change of a covering by (2). Let a : K → L. Hence K ×L M satisﬁes the ﬁrst condition of Deﬁnition 2.5.6. X) has ﬁbre products the category of simplicial objects of SR(C. Thus (K ×L M )0 → {X → X} is a covering by Lemma 2. By assumption (3) the morphism γ is a covering. Hence the morphism (Kn+1 ×B C) ×(Ln+1 ×B C). Lemma 4. X).γ Mn+1 Now. The functor coskn skn commutes with ﬁbre products. hence a covering. X) has ﬁbre products as well.5.2. Lemma 16. B = (coskn skn L)n+1 . We abbreviate as follows: A = (coskn skn K)n+1 . Consider the following commutative diagram / Mn+1 Kn+1 ×L Mn+1 n+1  / (coskn skn L)n+1 Kn+1   / Ln+1 o ( γ & Ln+1 ×B C */ C  */ B A This diagram shows that Kn+1 ×Ln+1 Mn+1 = (Kn+1 ×B C) ×(Ln+1 ×B C). L. see Simplicial. And K0 → {X → X} is a covering by (1). Let K. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. b : M → L be morphisms. Thus the right hand side above is equal to A ×B C. see Lemma 2.13.1. Kn+1 ×B C → A ×B C is a base change of the covering Kn+1 → A via the morphism A ×B C → A. We note that since the category SR(C. Proof. and C = (coskn skn M )n+1 . Lemma 7. see Simplicial. We still have to check that Kn+1 ×Ln+1 Mn+1 = (K ×L M )n+1 −→ (coskn skn (K ×L M ))n+1 is a covering for all n ≥ 0. (2) the morphism M0 → L0 is a covering. hence is a covering. Let X be an object of C. Then the ﬁbre product K ×L M is a hypercovering of X. Covering hypercoverings Here are some ways to construct hypercoverings.

X). Lemma 4. Z) which on degree n terms is the morphism α:[k]→[n] Y −→ α:[k]→[n] Z. Since the category SR(C. Y ) = coskn skn Hom(∆[k]. Y ) corresponding to idY via Simplicial. Denote Y = Kk .1 above and check that L → {X → X} has property (3). the diagram α:[k]→[1] Z / Z ×Z  / Y ×Y  α:[k]→[1] Y .3. For (2). it is permissible to speak about the objects U × K and Hom(U. You can either verify this directly. according to Simplicial. Sections 12 and 14. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Lemma 14. Let u : Z → Kk be a covering in in SR(C. Set L = K ×Hom(∆[n]. Z)0 is a covering because it is a product of coverings. The lemma follows as a composition of coverings is a covering. We still have to show that L is a hypercovering of X. Proof. Let X be an object of C.5. X) has coproducts and ﬁnite limits. the diagram of condition (3) of Lemma 4.13. Lemma 4. In this case by Simplicial. K) for certain simplicial sets U (for example those with ﬁnitely many nondegenerate simplices) and any simplicial object K of SR(C. Thus condition (3) for n > 0 is clear. Z) given in that lemma. See Simplicial. Y )0 → Hom(∆[k].1. Condition (1) is satisﬁed by assumption.2. L are hypercoverings of X. Let X be an object of C. Y ) and Hom(∆[k]. If K. then K × L is a hypercovering of X. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. X). Y ) and similarly for Z.5. the morphism Hom(∆[k]. Y ) → Hom(∆[k]. Z).12 we have Hom(∆[k]. For n = 0. Let K be a hypercovering of X. There is a canonical morphism K → Hom(∆[k].8 HYPERCOVERINGS is a covering as a base change of a covering. Then there exists a morphism of hypercoverings f : L → K such that Lk → Kk factors through u. Lemma 18. In particular there is a morphism Hom(∆[k]. To see this we will use Lemma 4. Lemma 18. The morphism Lk → Kk sits in to a commutative diagram Lk  Kk / / prid α:[k]→[n] Y [k] /Y  /Z  α:[k]→[n] Z prid [k] Since the composition of the two bottom arrows is the identity we conclude that we have the desired factorization.Y ) Hom(∆[n].1 is. or use Lemma 4. Proof. Let X be an object of C. see Lemma 2. We will use the description of Hom(∆[k]. Let k ≥ 0 be an integer. For (3) suppose ﬁrst that n ≥ 1. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products.

See Simplicial.1 once again. consider the morphism u : Z → Kn given by α : J → I and the morphisms Vj = Uα(j)j → Uα(j) above. . the objects U × K and Hom(U. The assumption on u means that for every i ∈ I there exists a covering {Uij → Ui }j∈Ii of the site C and a morphism of presheaves tij : hUij → F such that u ◦ tij is the map hUij → hUi coming from the morphism Uij → Ui . Let X be an object of C. Set J = i∈I Ii . K)0 −→ Hom(U. Let U ⊂ V be simplicial sets. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. 5. Set Z = {Vj → X}j∈J . Proof. In this case Hom(V. K)0 = Hom(U. Finally. If n = 0. (3) any z ∈ Vj . Let u : F → F (Kn ) be a morphism of presheaves which becomes surjective on sheaﬁﬁcation. X) is a covering. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. with Un . Then there exists a morphism of hypercoverings f : L → K such that F (fn ) : F (Ln ) → F (Kn ) factors through u. By Simplicial.HYPERCOVERINGS 9 with obvious horizontal arrows. Suppose n ≥ 0 and x ∈ Vn . and by construction F (u ) : F (Z) → F (Kn ) factors through u. Let us write ∂∆[n] = i(n−1)! skn−1 ∆[n] for the (n − 1)-skeleton of ∆[n]. Lemma 11. Thus the map u is a morphism of presheaves of sets u : F → hui . Thus the result follows from Lemma 4. z ∈ Uj for j > n is degenerate. Let K be a hypercovering of X. in this case. (2) Vn = Un ∪ {x}. X).1. Let a : ∆[n] → V be the morphism associated to x as in Simplicial.5. K)0 × K0 .3. Then the morphism Hom(V. As we pointed out in Section 4 above. Vn ﬁnite nonempty for all n. Sections 12 and 14. The result. this is a covering in the category SR(C. Proof. Thus the morphism γ is the morphism α:[k]→[1] Z −→ α:[k]→[1] not onto Z× α:[k]→[1] onto Y which is a product of coverings and hence a covering according to Lemma 4.3 above. Write Kn = {Ui → X}i∈I . Adding simplices In this section we prove some technical lemmas which we will need later. Lemma 4. Let K be a hypercovering of X. X) are deﬁned.4. x ∈ Un are such that (1) Vi = Ui for i < n. Clearly. Let X be an object of C. K) for certain simplicial sets U and any simplicial object K of SR(C. then it follows easily that V = U ∆[0] (see below). then follows from Lemma 2. Let b : ∂∆[n] → U be the restriction of a to the (n − 1) skeleton of ∆[n]. For j ∈ J denote Vj = Uα(j)j . Let n ≥ 0 be an integer. and let α : J → I be the obvious map. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Lemma 5. Assume that U has ﬁnitely many nondegenerate simplices. Let X be an object of C. K)0 of SR(C.

Lemma 5. Thus it suﬃces to show that the bottom horizontal arrow is a covering. Lemma 18. K)0 −→ Hom(U. K)0  Hom(∆[n]. with Un . Lemma 18. We can identify the terms in this diagram as follows. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Homotopies Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. And this is exactly the result of Simplicial. X). L)0 Hom(∆[1] × ∂∆[n + 1]. Let X be an object of C. K)0 of SR(C. L) → L × L coming from ei : ∆[0] → ∆[1] and the identiﬁcation Hom(∆[0]. Lemma 14. L)0 Hom((∆[n + 1] Hom(∂∆[n + 1] ∆[n + 1].1 above. X) is a covering. By Simplicial. L)n+1  (L × L)n+1 / (coskn skn Hom(∆[1]. it suﬃces to prove a simple lemma about inclusions of simplicial sets U ⊂ V as in the lemma. L) = L.7 we have V = U ∂∆[n] ∆[n].X)) (∆[1] × T. Let X be an object of C. X)) which represents the functor T −→ MorSimp(SR(C. Then the morphism Hom(V. Let L be a simplicial object of SR(C. L))n+1 (L × L)n+1 (coskn skn (L × L))n+1 = = = = Hom(∆[1] × ∆[n + 1]. 6.11 this arrow is identiﬁed with Kn → (coskn−1 skn−1 K)n and hence is a covering by deﬁnition of a hypercovering. Lemma 6. K)0  / Hom(∂∆[n]. By Simplicial. Lemma 14. L)n+1 (coskn skn Hom(∆[1]. where ∂∆[n+1] = in! skn ∆[n+1] is the n-skeleton of the (n+1)-simplex: Hom(∆[1]. According to Simplicial.10 HYPERCOVERINGS Lemma 18. Let L be a simplicial object of SR(C. Let U ⊂ V be simplicial sets.2.1) Hom(∆[1].8. Let K be a hypercovering of X.1. L) in the category Simp(SR(C. L))n+1  / (coskn skn (L × L))n+1 coming from the morphism deﬁned above.4 there exists an object Hom(∆[1]. K)0 Hom(V. L) There is a canonical morphism Hom(∆[1]. Assume that U and V have ﬁnitely many nondegenerate simplices. By Lemma 5. L)0 ∂∆[n + 1]. Vn ﬁnite nonempty for all n. Proof. Let n ≥ 0. K)0 is a ﬁbre product square. Let X be an object of C. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Consider the commutative diagram (6.1. X).6 we get that / Hom(U. L)0 .

and the morphism (d1 . To see this we will apply Lemma 4. Let X be an object of C.b) By the functorial property of Hom(∆[1]. Lemma 18. According to Lemma 5. L) c / Hom(∆[1].1 to the pair of morphisms K → L × L and Hom(∆[1].6.2 this is a covering and hence the claim has been proven. L)  / L×L (  K (a.2). Lemma 14. Condition (1) of Lemma 4.1. The second and fourth follow from the cited lemma combined with Simplicial. L)0 = L1 . Condition (2) of Lemma 4.1 above.2.3.1. Thus if we can show that K is a hypercovering of X.1 is the morphism Hom(∆[1] × ∆[n + 1].1 is true because Hom(∆[1]. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. According to this lemma the morphism γ of condition (3) of Lemma 4.1) is equal to Hom(U.1 is statisﬁed. To see that U is equal to this push-out it suﬃces to see that the intersection of ∆[n + 1] ∆[n + 1] and ∆[1] × ∂∆[n + 1] in ∆[1] × ∆[n + 1] is equal to ∂∆[n + 1] ∂∆[n + 1].1 we use Lemma 6. L) → L × L. It seems . L)0 where U ⊂ ∆[1] × ∆[n + 1].HYPERCOVERINGS 11 and the morphism between these objects of SR(C.1. There exists a morphism of hypercoverings c : K → K such that a ◦ c is homotopic to b ◦ c. Consider the following commutative diagram K def K ×(L×L) Hom(∆[1]. Remark 6. b : K → L be morphisms of hypercoverings. Proof.11.2. L be hypercoverings of X. L)0 −→ Hom(U. This we leave to the reader. L)0 where U ⊂ ∆[1] × ∆[n + 1] is the smallest simplicial subset such that both ∆[n + 1] ∆[n + 1] and ∆[1] × ∂∆[n + 1] map into it. The last assertion follows from the fact that U is the push-out of the bottom and right arrow of the diagram (6. X) by our assumption 0 1 that L is a hypercovering. Lemma 6. Lemma 14. X) come from the commutative diagram of simplicial sets (6. Let K. This lemma is completely general and does not care about the exact shape of the simplicial sets (as long as they have only ﬁnitely many nondegenerate simplices). L) the composition of the horizontal morphisms corresponds to a morphism K ∆[1] → L which deﬁnes a homotopy between c ◦ a and c ◦ b. then we obtain the lemma. Note that the crux of the proof is to use Lemma 5.2) ∆[1] × ∆[n + 1] o O ∆[n + 1] ∆[n + 1] o ∆[1] × ∂∆[n + 1] O ∂∆[n + 1] ∂∆[n + 1] Moreover the ﬁbre product of the bottom arrow and the right arrow in (6. The ﬁrst and third equalities are Simplicial.4. d1 ) : L1 → L0 × L0 is a covering of SR(C. To prove condition (3) of Lemma 4. Let a. via Simplicial. Proof.

i1 ∈I {Vi0 i1 j → X} so that the morphism K1 → K0 × K0 is given by coverings {Vi0 i1 j → Ui0 ×X Ui1 } of the site C. As well. The sheaf property of F implies that H 0 (K. I) = I(X) if p = 0 0 if p > 0 . Lemma 7. Proof. In this situation we deﬁne ˇ H i (K. It deﬁnes a functor F : SR(C. Lemma 7. Let X be an object of C. The analogue of Cohomology. with K and L hypercoverings. F). Then ˇ H p (K. X)opp {Ui → X}i∈I −→ −→ Ab i∈I F(Ui ) Thus a simplicial object K of SR(C. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Consider a presheaf of abelian groups F on the site C. we have that K1 → K0 × K0 is a covering in SR(C.2. 7. Thus we can further identify ˇ H 0 (K. F) = H i (s(F(K))).2 in this case is the following. Let I be an injective sheaf of abelian groups on C. In fact this property characterizes the abelian sheaves among all abelian presheaves on C of course. 10 and 11. F) = Ker(F(K0 ) −→ F(K1 )) Write K0 = {Ui → X}. Lemma 7. F) = H 0 (X. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let F be a sheaf of abelian groups on C. X).12 HYPERCOVERINGS altogether reasonable to expect a result of the following kind: Given any morphism a : K × ∂∆[k] → L. F) = F(X). In this section we prove analogues of some of the results for Cech cohomology of open coverings proved in Cohomology. Let X be an object of C. Cech cohomology associated to hypercoverings Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. there exists a morphism of hypercoverings c : K → K and a morphism g : K × ∆[k] → L such that g|K ×∂∆[k] = a ◦ (c × id∂∆[k] ). Sections 9. Hence we may write K1 = i0 . We have ˇ H 0 (K. Then H 0 (K. Recall that s(F(K)) is the cochain complex associated to the cosimplicial abelian group F(K). It is a covering in the site C. Let X be an object of C.1. Let K be ˇ a hypercovering of X. Section 22. In other words. X) is turned into a cosimplicial object F(K) of Ab. F) = Ker( i F(Ui ) −→ i0 i1 j F(Vi0 i1 j )) ˇ with obvious map. Let K be a hypercovering of X. see Simplicial. the category of hypercoverings is in a suitable sense contractible.

F). F) MorAb(C) (Z#(Z) . X) and any abelian sheaf F on C we have F(Z) = = = = = F(Ui ) MorPSh(C) (hUi .• with terms Ap. Instead let us prove this by a double complex argument. To state it we need to introduce a little more notation. see Lemma 3. F) F Thus we see.q+1 is the one coming from the 2 diﬀerential on the complex s(I p (K)) associated to the cosimplicial abelian group . X) that we have (7.3.HYPERCOVERINGS 13 Proof. there is a spectral sequence (Er .3. −) −→ H i (X. Observe that for any object Z = {Ui → X} of SR(C. Moreover. This spectral sequence is functorial in F and in the hypercovering K. There is a map s(F(K)) −→ RΓ(X. and K a hypercovering. dr )r≥0 with ˇ E p. We could prove this by the same method as employed in the corresponding lemma in the chapter on cohomology. Consider the double complex A•. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Let X be an object of C.1) s(F(K)) = HomAb(C) (s(Z# ). then the complex s(I(K)) is acyclic except possibly in degree 0. Lemma 7.q : Ap. Combined with Lemma 7. Let C be a site with ﬁbre products.1 for notation. −) as functors Ab(C) → Ab. F) where U ranges over the objects of C. for any simplicial object K of SR(C. which induces natural transformations ˇ H i (K.q → Ap+1. Let K be a hypercovering of X. F) MorPAb(C) (ZF (Z) . Proof. In other words. F) in D (Ab) functorial in F. Choose an injective resolution F → I • in the category of abelian sheaves on C. we know that s(Z# ) is quasi-isomorphic to K Z# if K is a hypercovering.q is the one coming from the diﬀerential 1 I p → I p+1 and the diﬀerential dp. Lemma 7. F) K see Deﬁnition 3.q = I q (Kp ) where the diﬀerential dp. Let F be a sheaf of abelian groups on C. I) = 0 for i > 0.2.1 the lemma is proved.q → Ap.q = H p (K.q : Ap.5. The symbol H i (F) indicates the presheaf of abelian groups on C which is deﬁned by the rule H i (F) : U −→ H i (U. we have ˇ H i (K. F) MorPSh(C) (F (Z). Next we come to the analogue of Cohomology. Now. We conclude that if I is an injective X abelian sheaf. H q (F)) 2 + converging to H p+q (X. Let F be a sheaf of abelian groups on C.

2 the complexes s(I p (K)) are acyclic in positive degrees and have H 0 equal to I p (X). Hence by Homology. Lemma 25. then F(a). By Lemma 4. Deﬁnition 17. Let i ≥ 0.2.14 HYPERCOVERINGS I p (K) as explained above. F). Let K.q p E2 = HII (HI (A•. F) = colimK∈HC(C. By Homology. F) . we ﬁrst take cohomology with respect to d1 which gives the groups p. b : K → L are homotopic maps. see Categories. dr ) and ( Er .• )) In other words. Hence it is indeed the case (by the description of the diﬀerp. Lemma 19. dr ) associated to this double complex. Hence have the same eﬀect on cohomology groups of the associated cochain complexes. Let us temporarily denote HC(C. see Homology. L be hypercoverings of X. F) of the lemma is the composition of the natural map s(F(K)) → sA• followed by the inverse of the displayed quasi-isomorphism above. Lemma 25. Let X be an object of C. This will be the index category for our diagram. F) ˇi −→ HHC (X. F) as desired. If a. We are going to use this to deﬁne the colimit over all hypercoverings. see Categories. Section 13 for notation.1. Lemma 19.2 and Lemma 6. Thus the colimit ˇi ˇ HHC (X. Cohomology and hypercoverings Let C be a site with ﬁbre products.8. By Lemma 7.6 and its proof the spectral sequence ( Er . F) has a particularly simple discription (see location cited).1. F) : HC(C. As usual we denote sA• the simple complex associated to the double complex A•. The map s(F(K)) −→ RΓ(X. and the remark on homotopies above.• . see Simplicial. see Simplicial.q E1 = H p (F)(Kq ). The functors Ab(C) −→ F F Ab −→ H i (X. Consider the diagram ˇ H i (−. H q (F)). Let C be a site with ﬁbre products. Theorem 8. 8. Consider the spectral sequence ( Er . We have seen that this is a category and not a “big” category. Section 19. We omit the proof of the statements regarding the functoriality of the above constructions in the abelian sheaf F and the hypercovering K. X) the category of hypercoverings of X. dr ) degenerates.q ˇ ential d1 ) that E2 = H p (K. dr )r≥0 . and the natural map I • (X) −→ sA• is a quasi-isomorphism of complexes of abelian groups. In particular we conclude that H n (sA• ) = H n (X.3 we see that q p. Let X be an object of C. F(b) : F(K) → F(L) are homotopic maps. X) −→ Ab.4. We will use the two spectral sequences ( Er . Let F be a sheaf of abelian groups on C. This works because I • (X) is a representative of RΓ(X. And by the other spectral sequence above we see that this one converges to H n (X. this diagram is directed. F).6. see Lemma 2.X) H i (K.

−) forms a δ-functor. ξp−2 with ξq ∈ H p−1−q (K. If p = 1. F) → H p (X. Namely we know . . .j → Ui } of the site such that each restriction ξq.3 is functorial this means that after replacing K by L we reach the situation where ξq . . . As q ≥ 1 we can use Cohomology on Sites. F) in this case. see Lemma 7.3 the obstruction for ξ to come from an element of ˇ ˇ H p (K. F) of Lemma 7. . We can inductively replace the hypercovering K by reﬁnements such that the obstructions ξ1 .3 yet again to choose coverings {Ui. . In order to prove the theorem it suﬃces to ˇi show that the sequence of functors HHC (X.4. Then it follows that ξ is zero since the morphism L → K induces a morphism of spectral sequences according to Lemma 7. H q (F)) (more precisely the images of these in certain subquotients) such that the images dp−1−q. Lemma 8. By the spectral sequence of Lemma 7. Then clearly the image of ξq in H q (F)(Lp−q ).3 there exists a morphism L → K of hypercoverings of X such that Lp−q → Kp−q factors through u. Proof without using spectral sequences. In general. H q (F)) (more precisely the images of the ξq in certain subquotients of these groups). . Indeed. .3 for some hypercovering K of X. p − 2 in H p−1−q (L. F) for some p ≥ 0. It follows immediately from ˇ the spectral sequence in Lemma 7. H q (F)) is the class of some element ˜ ξq ∈ H q (F)(Kp−q ) = H q (Ui . We have seen the result for i = 0. that ξ ∈ H p (K.i |Ui. .3.1. see Derived Categories. F) → H p (X.7 starting with a covering K0 = {Ui → X} in the site C such that ξ|Ui = 0. F). choose a Cech hypercovering K of X as in Example 2. F). ξp−1 restrict to zero (and not just the images in the subquotients – so no subtlety here). is zero. F) ˜ if Kp−q = {Ui → X}i∈I .q ξq (in the spectral q+1 sequence) add up to ξ. . Proof using spectral sequences. ξp−1 with ξq ∈ H p−q (K. Lemma 8. F) and that the image of ˇ p (X. F) of Lemma 7.3 is zero. choose any hypercovering K of X such that ξ maps to zero in H p (F)(K0 ) (using Example 2. ˇ Let us show that ξ is in the image of the map H p (X. F) means that there exist ˇ elements ξ1 . . X) and its obvious morphism u : Z → Kp−q .HYPERCOVERINGS 15 are canonically isomorphic. see Cohomology on Sites. F) is a sequence of elements ξ1 .3. .1. . H q (F)) are zero. . . . This is true if p = 0 by Lemma 7. Lemma 19. . It is clear that u is a covering. . .7 and Cohomology on Sites. We know that the functors H i (X. By the spectral sequence of Lemma 7. ˇ Suppose that K is a hypercovering of X. . F) → H p (X. Lemma 8. suppose we have already managed to reach the sitˇ uation where ξq+1 . see Deﬁnition 2. .3 again). .j = 0.3 that ξ comes from an element of H 1 (K. Continuing like this we end up with a hypercovering where they are all zero and hence ξ is in the image of the map ˇ H p (X.j → X} of the category SR(C. By Lemma 4. ξp−1 are all zero. Hence by exacly the same mechanism as above we can ﬁnd a morphism of hypercoverings L → K such that the restrictions of the elements ˇ ξq . Suppose that ξ ∈ H p (X. Note that ξq ∈ H p−q (K.i be the component of ξq in H q (Ui .3 the vanishing of the image of ξ in H p (X. . Consider the object Z = {Ui. Let ξq. To ﬁnish the proof ξ under the map H of the theorem we have to show that there exists a morphism of hypercoverings ˇ L → K such that ξ restricts to zero in H p (L. Since the spectral sequence of Lemma 7. . F). −) form a universal δ-functor. ξp−1 are zero. q = 1.4.

j → Ui } such that σi |Ui. We also omit the veriﬁcation that δ is functorial with respect to morphisms of short exact sequences of abelian sheaves on C. Choose a hypercovering K of X and an element σ ∈ H(Kp ) representing ξ in cohomology. we have to verify that with this deﬁnition of δ our short exact sequence of abelian sheaves above leads to a long exact sequence of Cech cohomology groups. and (c) δ(ξ) does not depend on the initial hypercovering and σ chosen to represent ξ. Note that d(σ) = 0. Thus d(τ ) ∈ F(Kp+1 ) is a cocycle. and (c). Let ξ ∈ HHC (X. Consider the object Z = {Ui.16 HYPERCOVERINGS that Cech cohomology is zero on injective sheaves (Lemma 7.j → X} of the category SR(C. see Deﬁnition 2. Since G → H is a surjection of sheaves we see that there exist coverings {Ui. We omit the veriﬁcation of (a). At this point there are several things to verify: (a) δ(ξ) does not depend on the choice of τ . Let σ = σi with σi ∈ H(Ui ). Finally. Namely. It is clear that u is a covering. (b) δ(ξ) does not depend on the choice of the hypercovering L → K such that σ lifts.2 and 6. G).4. After replacing K by L we may therefore assume that σ is the image of an element τ ∈ G(Kp ). (b). G) which maps to ξ as desired. F).j ∈ G(Ui. 9. In this case we can work out what is a hypercovering and see what the result actually says. By Lemma 4. G). then. F) maps to zero in HHC (X. the independence of the choices of the hypercoverings really comes down to Lemmas 4. X) and its obvious morphism u : Z → Kp . with notation as above. Hence there exists a morphism of hypercoverings L → K such that the restriction of d(τ ) to an element of F(Lp+1 ) is equal to d(υ) for some υ ∈ F(Lp ). H). First we show that if δ(ξ) = 0 (with ξ as above) then ξ is the image of some ˇp element ξ ∈ HHC (X. and ˇ determine a class ξ ∈ H p (L. but not necessarily d(τ ) = 0. Lemma 9. Let 0→F →G→H→0 ˇp be a short exact sequence of abelian sheaves on C. F). if δ(ξ) = 0.j is the image of some element τi.j ). There is a corresponding exact sequence of complexes 0 → s(F(K)) → s(G(K)) → s(H(K)) but we are not assured that there is a zero on the right also and this is the only thing that prevents us from deﬁning δ(ξ) by a simple application of the snake lemma.4. then it is ˇp equal to δ(ξ) for some ξ ∈ HHC (X.2. This implies that τ |Lp + υ form a cocycle. Hypercoverings of spaces The theory above is mildly interesting even in the case of topological spaces.2) and then we can apply Homology. Recall that H(Ui ) H(Kp ) = if Kp = {Ui → X}.3 there exists a morphism L → K of hypercoverings of X such that Lp → Kp factors through u. In this ˇ p+1 situation we deﬁne δ(ξ) as the class of the cocycle d(τ ) in HHC (X. we ˇ p+1 see that the class of d(τ ) is zero in HHC (X. . ˇ p+1 ˇ p+1 We omit the proof that if ξ ∈ HHC (X. H).

Let us repackage this information in yet another way. and condition (9.1) X= i∈I0 Ui . . An object of SR(C.1. . We will denote such a collection of data by the notation (I. In fact. • for every i0 . ∩ Uin+1 is empty then the covering on the right hand side may be the empty covering. Using the above we get the following description of a hypercovering in the site TX .. Remark 9.0... d1 (i)=i1 0 1 Ui . Section 11). It is easy to see that I ⊂ I is a subsimplicial set. Recall that an object of TX is simply an open of X and that morphisms of TX correspond simply to inclusions. This means that the geometric realization of I may be an interesting (non-contractible) space. suppose that (I. . and that (I . A morphism {Ui }i∈I → {Vj }j∈J between two such objects is given by a map of sets α : I → J such that Ui ⊂ Vα(i) for all i ∈ I. Consider the site TX of Sites. and (9. • for every n ≥ 1 and every (i0 .0. When is such a morphism a covering? This is the case if and only if for every j ∈ J we have Vj = i∈I. {Ui }).0.. X) is simply given by a set I and for each i ∈ I an open Ui ⊂ X. . A hypercovering of X in TX is given by the following data (1) a simplicial set I (see Simplicial.0.2). Hence we can always reﬁne a hypercovering to a hypercovering where none of the opens Ui is empty. Let us denote this by {Ui }i∈I since there can be no confusion about the morphism Ui → X. a • for i ∈ In and 0 ≤ a ≤ n we have Ui = Usn (i) . Condititions (9. • each of the open coverings (9. Thus it is not automatically the case that the maps In+1 → (coskn skn I)n+1 are surjective. in+1 ) ∈ (In )n+2 such that dn (ia ) = b−1 dn (ib ) for all 0 ≤ a < b ≤ n + 1 we have a (9. In order for this to be a hypercovering of X we require the following properties • for i ∈ In and 0 ≤ a ≤ n + 1 we have Ui ⊂ Udn (i) .HYPERCOVERINGS 17 Let X be a topological space.0. α(i)=j Ui (and is a covering in the site TX ).0.0. i1 ∈ I0 . Remark 9.n+1 a Ui . a • we have (9. d1 (i)=i0 .1.2) should be familiar from the chapter on sheaves on spaces for example. . .3) is an element of Cov(TX ) (this is a set theoretic condition. {Ui }) is a hypercovering of the topological space X. . and (2) for each n ≥ 0 and every i ∈ In an open set Ui ⊂ X.1) and (9.2.3) is the natural generalization.1). Example 6. . So what is a hypercovering of X for the site TX ? Let us ﬁrst unwind Deﬁnition 2. we have (9. Given this data we can construct a simplicial toplogical space U• by setting Un = i∈In Ui . Namely.0. dn+1 (i)=ia .0. One feature of this description is that if one of the multiple intersections Ui0 ∩ .2) Ui0 ∩ Ui1 = i∈I1 . {Ui }) is a hypercovering. . ∩ Uin+1 = i∈In+1 . bounding the size of the index sets of the coverings). (9. a=0.3) Ui0 ∩ .4. let In ⊂ In be the subset consisting of those simplices i ∈ In such that Ui = ∅.

We omit the veriﬁcation that this deﬁnes an a (n + 1)-truncated hypercovering of X. Let us say that an n-truncated hypercovering of X is given by an n-truncated simplicial set I and for each i ∈ Ia .0. If i ∈ In+1 is nondegerate. The lemma follows if we can prove that given a n-truncated hypercovering (I. Proof. For i ∈ In we deﬁne sn (i) ∈ In+1 as the unique simplex lying over a a the degenerate simplex sn (i) ∈ In+1 . . 0 ≤ a ≤ n an open Ui of X such that the conditions deﬁning a hypercovering hold whenever they make sense. . in+1 ). e (Insert future reference here to cohomology over simplicial spaces and cohomological descent formulated in those terms. . In other words. with Ui ∈ B for i ∈ Ji . Assume that (1) X is quasi-compact.0. Let X be a topological space. There exists a hypercovering (I. . {Ui }) of X such that each Ui is an element of B. (Insert future reference to this spectral sequence here. .) Suppose that F is an abelian sheaf on X. Here are two example lemmas.3.) In topology we often want to ﬁnd hypercoverings of X which have the property that all the Ui come from a given basis for the topology of X and that all the coverings (9.3. Lemma 9. Let B be a basis for the topology of X.2) and (9. . . With this morphism the simplicial space U• becomes a hypercovering of X along which one has cohomological descent in the sense of [MA71. ∗ F) ⇒ H p+q (U• . Let X be a topological space. F). ∗ F) = H p+q (X. then we choose a set Ji and an open covering (9.3 becomes the spectral sequence with E1 -term p. In other words we require the inclusion relations and covering conditions only when all simplices that occur in them are a-simplices with a ≤ n. In this case the spectral sequence of Lemma 7. . For i ∈ In+1 we deﬁne dn+1 (i) = a dn+1 (π(i)). This simplicial topological space comes with an augmentation : U• → X.4. ∩ Uin+1 = i∈Ji Ui . Let B be a basis for the topology of X. .q E1 = H q (Up .1) Ui0 ∩ .3) are from a given coﬁnal collection of coverings. Lemma 9. First we consider the (n + 1)-truncated simplicial set I deﬁned by I = skn+1 (coskn I). F) q comparing the total cohomology of ∗ F to the cohomology groups of F over the pieces of U• . Expos´ Vbis]. Recall that (i0 . ∗ F) = H n (X. . We also set Ji = {i } in this case. This we do as follows. {Ui }) with all Ui ∈ B we can extend it to an (n + 1)-truncated hypercovering without adding any a-simplices for a ≤ n. .18 HYPERCOVERINGS and where for given ϕ : [n] → [m] we let morphisms U (ϕ) : Un → Um be the morphism coming from the inclusions Ui ⊂ Uϕ(i) for i ∈ In . say i = sn (i) then we set Ui = Ui (this a In+1 = is forced on us If i ∈ In+1 is anyway by the second condition). say i = (i0 . Set In+1 = i ∈In+1 Ji There is a canonical map π : In+1 → In+1 which is a bijection over the set of degenerate simplices in In+1 by construction. Let n ≥ 0. in+1 ) ∈ (In )n+2 such that n db−1 (ia ) = dn (ib ) for all 0 ≤ a < b ≤ n + 1 a degenerate. H n (U• .

3. and (9.0. 10. (9. (2) each of the In is a ﬁnite set.2). Then there exists a hypercovering (I. and in particular (3) each of the coverings (9.0. Proof.3 if we choose ﬁnite coverings by elements of B in (9. Details omitted. {Ui }) of X with the following properties (1) each Ui is an element of the basis B. and (3) the intersection of any two quasi-compact opens in X is quasi-compact.3) is ﬁnite.1). This follows directly from the construction in the proof of Lemma 9.0.1). Other chapters (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) (32) (33) (34) Introduction Conventions Set Theory Categories Topology Sheaves on Spaces Commutative Algebra Sites and Sheaves Homological Algebra Derived Categories More on Algebra Simplicial Methods Sheaves of Modules Modules on Sites Injectives Cohomology of Sheaves Cohomology on Sites Hypercoverings Schemes Constructions of Schemes Properties of Schemes Morphisms of Schemes Coherent Cohomology Divisors Limits of Schemes Varieties Chow Homology Topologies on Schemes Descent Adequate Modules More on Morphisms More on Flatness Groupoid Schemes More on Groupoid Schemes (35) (36) (37) (38) (39) (40) (41) (42) (43) (44) (45) (46) (47) (48) (49) (50) (51) (52) (53) (54) (55) (56) (57) (58) (59) (60) (61) (62) (63) (64) (65) ´ Etale Morphisms of Schemes ´ Etale Cohomology Algebraic Spaces Properties of Algebraic Spaces Morphisms of Algebraic Spaces Decent Algebraic Spaces Topologies on Algebraic Spaces Descent and Algebraic Spaces More on Morphisms of Spaces Quot and Hilbert Spaces Spaces over Fields Cohomology of Algebraic Spaces Stacks Formal Deformation Theory Groupoids in Algebraic Spaces More on Groupoids in Spaces Bootstrap Examples of Stacks Quotients of Groupoids Algebraic Stacks Sheaves on Algebraic Stacks Criteria for Representability Properties of Algebraic Stacks Morphisms of Algebraic Stacks Introducing Algebraic Stacks Examples Exercises Guide to Literature Desirables Coding Style GNU Free Documentation License (66) Auto Generated Index .HYPERCOVERINGS 19 (2) each U ∈ B is quasi-compact open.

20 HYPERCOVERINGS References [MA71] J. A. Artin. 305. Grothendieck. . Springer. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Theorie de topos et cohomologie etale des schemas i. 1971. 269.L. iii. vol. 270. ii. Verdier M.