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PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM & ITS EFFECTIVENESS IN AN ORGANISATION

Submitted ToDr. Meenal Chauhan

Submitted byJaspreet Singh BBA-6th 8100132020

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My sincere thanks to Dr. MEENAL CHAUHAN under whose able guidance and kind cooperation I was able to complete the project work titled "Study of Performance Appraisal System and its Effectiveness in an Organisation.

All those employees of Dabur India Ltd deserve special thanks for their cooperation and help in the collection of necessary and relevant material for this work. Also, I do thank and remember my friends for their effort and helping hand. Every effort has been made to enhance the quality of work. However, I owe the sole responsibility of the shortcoming, if any, in the study.

Jaspreet Singh BBA-6th 8100132020

CONTENTS

Page Nos. Chapter 1: Introduction 4-17

Chapter 2: Objective and Methodology of the Study

18-21

Chapter 3: Oraganisation Profile

22-35

Chapter 4: Performance Appraisal- Theoretical Review

36-40

Chapter 5: Performance Appraisal System in Dabur India Ltd.

41-44

Chapter 6: Analysis and Interpretation of Data

45-57

Chapter 7: Conclusion and Suggestions

58-61

ANNEXURES

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1 TITLE OF THE PROJECT:

Study of Performance Appraisal System and Its Effectiveness in an Organization

INTRODUCTION

The history of performance appraisal is quite brief. Its roots in the early 20th century can be traced to Taylor's pioneering Time and Motion studies. But this is not very helpful, for the same may be said about almost everything in the field of modern human resources management. As a distinct and formal management procedure used in the evaluation of work performance, appraisal really dates from the time of the Second World War -not more than 60 years ago. Yet in a broader sense, the practice of appraisal is a very ancient art. In the scale of things historical, it might well lay claim to being the world's second oldest profession! There is, says Dulewicz (1989), "... a basic human tendency to make judgments about those one is working with, as well as about oneself." Appraisal, it seems, is both inevitable and universal. In the absence of a carefully structured system of appraisal, people will tend to judge the work performance of others, including subordinates, naturally, informally and arbitrarily.

The human inclination to judge can create serious motivational, ethical and legal problems in the workplace. Without a structured appraisal system, there is little chance of ensuring that the judgments made will be lawful, fair, defensible and accurate. Performance appraisal systems began as simple methods of income justification. That is, appraisal was used to decide whether or not the salary or wage of an individual employee was justified. The process was firmly linked to material outcomes. If an employee's performance was found to be less than ideal, a cut in pay would follow. On the other hand, if their performance was better than the supervisor expected, a pay rise was in order. Little consideration, if any, was given to the developmental possibilities of appraisal. If was felt that a cut in pay, or a rise, should provide the only required impetus for an employee to either improve or continue to perform well. Sometimes this basic system succeeded in getting the results that were intended; but more often than not, it failed. For example, early motivational researchers were aware that different people with roughly equal work abilities could be paid the same amount of money and yet have quite different levels of motivation and performance. These observations were confirmed in empirical studies. Pay rates were important, yes; but they were not the only element that had an impact on employee performance. It was

found that other issues, such as morale and self-esteem, could also have a major influence. As a result, the traditional emphasis on reward outcomes was progressively rejected. In the 1950s in the United States, the potential usefulness of appraisal as tool for motivation and development was gradually recognized. The general model of performance appraisal, as it is known today, began from that time. Modern Appraisal Performance appraisal may be defined as a structured formal interaction between a subordinate and supervisor, that usually takes the form of a periodic interview (annual or in which the work performance of the subordinate is examined and discussed, with a view to identifying weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for improvement and skills development. In many organizations -but not all -appraisal results are used, either directly or indirectly, to help determine reward outcomes. That is, the appraisal results are used to identify the better performing employees who should get the majority of available merit pay increases, bonuses and promotions. By the same token, appraisal results are used to identify the poorer performers who may require some form of counseling, or in extreme cases, demotion, dismissal or decreases in pay. (Organizations need to be aware of laws in their country that might restrict their capacity to dismiss employees or decrease pay.)

Whether this is an appropriate use of performance appraisal -the assignment and justification of rewards and penalties -is a very uncertain and contentious matter. Controversy, Controversy Few issues in management stir up more controversy than performance appraisal. There are many reputable sources -researchers, management commentators, and psychometricians -who have expressed doubts about the validity and reliability of the performance appraisal process. Some have even suggested that the process is so inherently flawed that it may be impossible to perfect it (see Derven, 1990, for example). At the other extreme, there are many strong advocates of performance appraisal. Some view it as potentially "... the most crucial aspect of organizational life" (Lawrie, 1990). Between these two extremes lie various schools of belief. While all endorse the use of performance appraisal, there are many different opinions on how and when to apply it, There are those, for instance, who believe that performance appraisal has many important employee development uses, but scorn any attempt to link the process to reward outcomes -such as pay rises and promotions. This group believes that the linkage to reward outcomes reduces or eliminates the developmental value of appraisals. Rather than an opportunity for constructive review and encouragement, the reward- linked process is perceived as judgmental, punitive and harrowing. For example, how many people would gladly admit their work problems if, at the same time, they knew that their

next pay rise or a much-wanted promotion was riding on an appraisal result? Very likely, in that situation, many people would deny or downplay their weaknesses.

Nor is the desire to distort or deny the truth confined to the person being appraised. Many appraisers feel uncomfortable with the combined role of judge and executioner. Such reluctance is not difficult to understand. Appraisers often know their appraises well, and are typically in a direct subordinate-supervisor relationship. They work together on a daily basis and may, at times, mix socially. Suggesting that a subordinate needs to brush up on certain work skills is one thing; giving an appraisal result that has the direct effect of negating a promotion is another. The result can be resentment and serious morale damage, leading to workplace disruption, soured relationships and productivity declines. On the other hand, there is a strong rival argument which claims that performance appraisal must unequivocally be linked to reward outcomes. The advocates of this approach say that organizations must have a process by which rewards -which are not an unlimited resource -may be openly and fairly distributed to those most deserving on the basis of merit, effort and results. There is a critical need for remunerative justice in organizations. Performance appraisal whatever its practical flaws -is the only process available to help achieve fair, decent and consistent reward outcomes. It has also been claimed that appraises themselves are inclined to believe that appraisal results should be linked directly to reward outcomes -

and are suspicious and disappointed when told this is not the case. Rather than feeling relieved; appraises may suspect that they are not being told the whole truth, or that the appraisal process is a sham and waste of time. The Link to Rewards Recent research (Bannister & Balkin) has reported that appraises seem to have greater acceptance of the appraisal process, and feel more satisfied with it, when the process is directly linked to rewards. Such findings are a serious challenge to those who feel that appraisal results and reward outcomes must be strictly isolated from each other. There is also a group who argues that the evaluation of employees for reward purposes, and frank communication with them about their performance, are part of the basic responsibilities of management. The practice of not discussing reward issues while appraising performance is, say critics, based on inconsistent and muddled ideas of motivation. In many organizations, this inconsistency is aggravated by the practice of having separate wage and salary reviews, in which merit rises and bonuses are decided arbitrarily, and often secretly, by supervisors and managers. There are basically three purposes to which performance appraisal can be put. First, it can be used as a basis for reward allocation. Decision as to who gets salary increase, promotion, and other rewards are determined by their performance evaluation. Second, these appraisals can be used for identifying areas where development efforts are needed. The performance appraisal is a major tool for identifying deficiencies in individuals. Finally it can be used as a criterion against which selection devices and development

programs are validated. As a key input into management's reward and punishment decision, performance appraisals can motivate or de-motivate employees. Three different approaches exist for doing appraisals. Employees can be appraised against 1. Absolute standards 2. Relative standards 3.Objectives

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

Since organizations exits to achieve goals, the degree of success that individual employees have in reaching their individual goals is important in determining organization effectiveness. Performance system is fundamentally, a feed back process, which requires sustained commitment. The cost of failure to provide such feedback may result in a loss of key professional employees, the continued poor performance of employees who are not meeting performance standards and a loss of commitment by employees, in sum, the myth that the employee knows what. they are doing without adequate feedback from management can be an expensive fantasy. THE APPRAISAL PROCESS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Establishing Performance Standard Communicate Performance expectations to employees Measure actual performance Compare actual performance with standards Discussion with the employees and identification development programs to bridge the gap.

6.

Initiate action

THE PURPOSE OF APPRAISING PERFORMANCE In general the appraisal systems serve a two fold purpose 1. To improve the work performance of employees by helping them realize and use their full potential in carrying out their firms mission. 2. To provide information to employees and managers for use in making , work related decisions. More specifically appraisals serve the following purposes. a) Appraisals provide feedback to employees and help the. "' management identify the areas where development efforts are "' needed to bridge the gaps thereby serving as vehicles for personal " and career development. b) It helps management spot individuals who have specific skills so that their promotions/transfer is in line with organizational requirements.

c)

Appraisal serves as a key input for administering a formal organisation reward and punishment system.

d)

The performance system can be used as a criterion against which selection devices and development programs are validated.

REQUIREMENT OF THE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.

Reliability: The foremost requirement of a sound system is reliability. In this contact it refers to consistency of judgment. For any given employee, appraisals made by raters working independently of one another should agree closely. But raters with different perspective (e.g. supervisors, peers, subordinates) may see the same individuals job performance very differently. To provide reliable data, each rater must have an adequate opportunity to observe what the employee has done and the condition under which he or she has done it. By making appraisal system relevant, sensitive and reliable we assume the resulting judgment is valid as well.

Acceptability: In practice, acceptability is the most important requirement of all, for it is true that human resources program must have the support of. those who will use them. Unfortunately, many organizations do not put much effort into garnering the front end support and participation of those who will use the appraisal system. Ultimately it is management's responsibility to define as clearly as possible the type and level of job behaviour desired of employees.

It is important to enlist the active support and cooperation of subordinates by making explicit what aspects of job performance they will be evaluated on.

Practicality: This implies that appraisal instruments are easy for managers and employees to understand and to use.

For years, personnel specialists have searched for the 'Perfect; appraisal method as if it were some kind of miraculous cure for many pitfalls that plague organizations. Such a method does not exist. In tomorrows world of work far more emphasis needs to be placed on process issues. Factors such as timing and frequency are no less important. In sum performance appraisal is a dialogue involving people and data. Both technical and human issues are involved. Neither can be overemphasized at the expense of the other.

WHO SHOULD EVALUATE PERFORMANCE? The most fundamental requirement for any rater is that he or she has an . adequate opportunity to observe the rates job performance over a reasonable period of time. This suggests several possible raters. The immediate supervisor: Generally appraisal is done by this person. He is probably the most familiar with the individual's performance and in most jobs has had the best opportunity to observe actual job performance. Further more, the immediate supervisor is probably best able to relate the individual's performing to department and organizational objectives. In some jobs such as outside sales, law enforcement and teaching, the immediate

supervisor may observe a subordinate's actual job performance rarely (and indirectly thru written reports). Here judgment of peers play important role. However, there is a danger of potential bias. Subordinates: Appraisal by subordinates can be useful input to the immediate development. Subordinates know first hand the extent to which the supervisor actually delegates, how well he communicates, the type of leadership he has and the extent to which he or she plans and orgasms. Self appraisal: On one hand it improves the rate's motivation and moral, on the other it tends to be more lenient, less variable and biased. The evidence on the accuracy of self assessment is fairly complex. In industry it is seen that feed back/ input is taken from various sources -Peers, subordinates, superiors etc. Some companies have gone step ahead in taking feedback from the customers and integrating it into the performance management process.

APPROACHES TO PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

The traditional approach: The one dimensional model

The Job

Define what results have to e achieved

Performance contact

Define a set of key objectives against the accountabilities Accountabilities i.e, output Review performance against the key objectives

In this model job expectations are defined in terms of what results have to be achieved. This model doesn't have a long term focus and can't be used for employee development and career path planning,

A satisfactory performance implies doing a job effectively and efficiently, with a minimum degree of employee -created disruptions. Employees are performing well when they are productive. Yet productivity itself implies both concern for effectiveness and efficiency. Effectiveness refers to goal accomplishment. Efficiency evaluates the ratio of inputs consumed to outputs achieved. The greater the output for a given input, the more efficient the employees. Similarly, if output is a given, consumed to get that output results in greater efficiency. There are basically three purposes to which performance appraisal can be put. First, it can be used as a basis for reward allocations. Decisions as to whom get salary increases, promotions, and other rewards are determined by their performance evaluation. Second, these appraisals can be used for identifying areas where development efforts are needed. Management needs to spot those individuals who have specific skill or knowledge deficiencies. The performance appraisal is a major tool for identifying these deficiencies. Finally, the performance appraisal can be used as a criterion against which selection devices and development programs are validated.

Chapter 2

OBJECTIVE & METHODOLOGY

Chapter 2 OBJECTIVE & METHODOLOGY

1. Objective of the study This project aims at studying the system of performance appraisal and its effectiveness in an organization. Performance appraisal is the most significant and indispensable tool for the management as it provide useful information for decision making in area of promotion and compensation reviews. Thus broad objectives of the study includes: y To know the present system of performance appraisal y To know the extent of effectiveness of the appraisal system y To identify and know the area for improvement system

2.

Sample of the study

The population covered for the present study consisted of employee belonging to supervisory and the level above. For the purpose of this study, survey covered the employee of DABUR INDIA LTD. falling under supervisor and the level above. The study covered a sample of 100 employee belonging to supervisory level and above. 3. Methodology of the project

The project work has been carried out in three stages, a structured questionnaire with objective and question was communicated tested and finalize. During the second stage, the questionnaire was administered to the employees at Dabur India Ltd. by contacting them. The work relating to data entry compilation, data analysis and report writing constituted the third stage. Interview index was also used at some places to get information on the project subject. The details of the methodology adopted are presented below: The Questionnaire Keeping in view the objective of the study, questionnaire was designed and tested on few employees. After getting the proper response and sanction from the concerned department the questionnaire was finalized. Response to Questionnaire In all 96 questionnaires were given to employees falling in the category of supervisors and above. Out of which 48 could be collected back duly completed. The researcher individually contacted the employees to get response on the questionnaire. Data entry and analysis It has been an uphill task to enter the enormous data received through the questionnaire which consisted nearly 20 questions. Response to the descriptive questions though very few but was valuable for the purpose of study. Hence these were further structured in time with the system adopted for compilation and data analysis.

Limitations 1. Many employees gave guarded answers to some crucial questions. 2. Some of them did not fill the questionnaire due to lack of time 3. Response could not be collected from the total sample selected. 4. Some of the questionnaire could not be completed due to reasons other than time factor. 5. The confidentiality of the system created some problem in getting information.

Chapter 3 ORGANISATION PROFILE

Chapter 3 ORGANISATION PROFILE


. History The story of Dabur goes back to 1884, to a young doctor armed with a degree in medicine and a burning desire to serve mankind. This young man, Dr. S. K. Burman, laid the foundations of what is today known as Dabur India Limited. From those humble beginnings, the company has grown into India's leading manufacturer of consumer healthcare, personal care and food products. This phenomenal progress has seen many milestones, some of which are mentioned below: y 1884 -Dr. S K Burman lays the foundation of what is today known as Dabur India Limited. Starting from a small shop in Calcutta, he began a direct mailing system to send his medicines to even the smallest of villages in Bengal. The brand name Dabur is derived from the words 'Da' for Daktar or doctor and 'bur' from Burman. y 1896 -As the demand for Dabur products grows Dr. Burman feels the need for mass production of some of his medicines. He sets up a small manufacturing plant at Garhia near Calcutta. y Early 1900s -The next generation of Burmans take a conscious decision to enter the Ayurvedic medicines market, as they believe that it is only through Ayurveda that the healthcare needs of poor Indians can be met.

y 1919 -The search for processes to suit mass production of Ayurvedic medicines without compromising on basic Ayurvedic principles leads to the setting up of the first Research & Development laboratory at Dabur. This initiates a painstaking study of Ayurvedic medicines as mentioned in age-old scriptures, their manufacturing processes and how to utilize modern equipment to manufacture these medicines without reducing the efficacy of these drugs. y 1920 -A manufacturing facility for Ayurvedic Medicines is set up at Narendrapur and Daburgram. Dabur expands its distribution network to Bihar and the northeast. y 1936 -Dabur India (Dr. S K Burman) Pvt. Ltd. is incorporated. y 1940 -Dabur diversifies into personal care products with the launch of its Dabur Amla Hair Oil. This perfumed heavy hair oil catches the imagination of the common man and film stars alike and becomes the largest hair oil brand in India. y 1949 -Dabur Chyawanprash is launched in a tin pack and becomes the first branded Chyawanprash of India. y 1956 -Dabur buys its first computer. Accounts and stock keeping are one of first operations to be computerized. y 1970 -Dabur expands its personal care portfolio by adding oral care products.

Dabur Lal Dant Manjan is launched and captures the Indian rural market. y 1972 -Dabur shifts base to Delhi from Calcutta. Starts production from a hired manufacturing facility at Faridabad. y 1978 -Dabur launches the Hajmola tablet. This is the first time that a classical Ayurvedic medicine is branded -from Shudhabardhak bati to Hajmola tablet. y 1979 -The Dabur Research Foundation (DRF), an independent company, is set up to spearhead Dabur's multi-faceted research. y 1979 Commercial production starts at Sahibabad. This is one of the largest and most modern production facilities for Ayurvedic medicines in India at this time. y 1984 -The Dabur brand turns 100 but is young ~enough to experiment with new offerings in the market. y 1986 -Dabur becomes a public limited company through reverse merger with Vidogum Limited, and is re-christened Dabur India Limited. y 1989 -Hajmola Candy is launched and captures the imagination of children and establishes a large market share. y 1992 -Dabur enters into a joint venture with Agrolimen of Spain for manufacturing and marketing confectionery items such as bubble gums in India.

y 1993 -Dabur sets up the oncology formulation plant at Baddi, Himachal Pradesh. y 1994 -Dabur India Limited comes out with its first public issue. The Rs.10 share is issued at a premium of Rs.85 per share. The issue is oversubscribed 21 times. y 1994 -Dabur reorganizes its business with sales and marketing operations being divided into 3 separate divisions. y 1994 -Dabur enters the oncology (anti-cancer) market with the launch of Intaxel (Paclitaxel). Dabur becomes only the second company in the world to launch this product. The Dabur Research Foundation develops the unique ecofriendly process of extracting the drug from the leaves of the Asian Yew tree. y 1995 -Dabur enters into a joint venture with Osem of Israel for food and Bongrain of France for cheese and other dairy products. y 1996 -Dabur launches Real Fruit Juice which heralds the company's entry into the processed foods market. y 1997 -The Foods division is created, comprising of Real Fruit Juice and Hommade cooking pastes to form the core of this division's product portfolio. y 1997 -Project STARS (Strive To Achieve Record Successes) is initiated by the company to achieve accelerated growth in the coming years. The scope of this

project is strategic, structural and operational changes to enable efficiencies and improve growth rates. y 1998 -The Burman family hands over the reins of the company to professionals. Mr. Ninu Khanna joins Dabur as the Chief Executive Officer. .. y 1999-2000 -Dabur achieves the Rs.IOOO crore turnover mark What is that life worth which cannot bring comfort to others", these words of Dr. S K Burman have inspired generations of Dabur. Keeping r" these golden words in mind, Sandesh or the Sustainable Development Society was set up to carry out welfare activities aimed at improving the A quality of life of the rural people in its area of operation. This society is given complete financial and managerial support by Dabur India Limited.

PRODUCTS AND SERVICES A vast array of products touching the lives of almost every individual, from an infant to a grand old man, from poor to rich; that's how the Dabur's range of health personal care and food products could be best explained. Today Dabur trust has traveled beyond the boundaries of India and is available in more than 50 countries worldwide. These value for money products have made Dabur a household name Healthcare is one of the biggest and oldest divisions of Dabur with a wide range of OTC healthcare products. It comprises of: Ayurvedic Health Tonics Chyawanprash The leader in the chyawanprash market in India, Dabur Chyawanprash is one of the most well known Ayurvedic products in India and abroad. An effective herbal immune modulator, Dabur Chyawanprash has the essential goodness 'of amla and over 50 other herbs. Dabur has conducted several clinical trials on this product, which confirm its efficacy as a unique product that strengthens the body from within. Digestives Hajmola Tablets Hajmola Tablets are the first classical Ayurvedic products to be branded and positioned as fun-filled product with medicinal properties. It finds mention in

Ayurvedic scriptures as Kshudhavardhak Bati, and was branded as Hajmola, a name derived from Hajma which means digestion in Urdu. It is available in regular and tamarind flavour.

Hajmola Candy To cash in on the brand equity enjoyed by Hajmola, Dabur launched Hajmola Candy in 1989. Since then, the company has added Mango and tamarind flavors besides the regular one.

Pudin Hara

One of the oldest products in Dabur portfolio, Pudin Hara is available in liquid as well as capsule form. It has a special combination of mint oils and cures gastric problems without any side effects. The company has added effervescent powder with goodness of Mint for gas and acidity and named it Pudin Hara G. Hingoli Asafoetida or Hing is mentioned in Ayurveda as an effective aid in digestion, and is used a lot in Indian cooking. Dabur's Hingoli has all the goodness of asafoetida and other herbs.

Childcare Products

Dabur Lal Tail The largest baby massage oil in India, it has the goodness of herbs which helps in strengthening the bones of infants. Dabur Janma Ghutti This Ayurvedic preparation helps in strengthening the digestive system of new born.

Women Care Products

Efarelle Comfort A herbal medicine in self gel capsule form to help overcome abdominal pain during PMS. A combination of natural oils, this formulation gives immediate relief from pain without any side effects. The largest division in terms of sales, the Family Products Division of Dabur has in its portfolio hair care and skin care products, oral care and select foods like honey. Hair & Skin Care Dabur is the leader in hair care products in India, and has covered almost all the categories of hair oils. Dabur Amla Hair Oil -As a brand has made its mark beyond India and is a leading hair

oil brand in Middle East and Africa. A perfumed heavy hair oil, it is Dabur's largest brand. Dabur Special Hair Oil -It is light hair oil that combines the natural hair care properties of lemon and hibiscus. Vatika -The fastest growing hair oil brand of India, Vatika has single handedly created an altogether new category of herbal enriched natural oils. The Vatika range also includes an herbal shampoo, which has made its mark in the very first year of its launch in the competitive shampoo market of India. The company has recently launched Vatika Anti -Dandruff Shampoo having herbal ingredients to fight the problem of Dandruff Gulabari -Rose water derived from best of Indian roses makes the skin supple and glowing. Oral Care Dabur Lal Dant Manjan -It is the second largest tooth powder brand of India and the largest in coloured tooth power category. This herbal tooth powder is very popular in rural parts of India. Binaca Toothbrushes -After having acquired this dormant brand a few years back, Dabur launched toothbrushes under this umbrella. There are plans to launch other oral care products under the Binaca brand.

Dabur Honey When repositioned in 1993, it totally changed the perception of Indian consumer. Honey, which was mainly used for its medicinal properties in India, is today competing for space on breakfast table. Ayurvedic Specialties is a range of over 350 Ayurvedic Medicines -both. classical Ayurvedic drugs and proprietary Ayurvedic medicines - developed by Dabur's own research and development. Dabur has products for all the 16~ categories as defined in the Ayurveda. Some of the leading products in this category are: Asav Arishtas -These are medicated decoctions with a self-generated alcohol content. Dabur has a range of over 30 Asav Arishtas. Some of the well-known ones include Dashmularishta, Drakshasava, Lohasava, Parthadyarishta and Ashokarishta. Chumas -These are finely ground medicinal powders used to treat a variety of ailments ranging from digestive problems to cough and fever. Ras Rasayans -Preparations containing mineral drugs as main ingredients are called Ras Rasayans. Dabur has a range of more than 50 Ras Rasayans which are used by Ayurvedic practitioners in the cure of host of ailments. Medicated Oils -The oils boiled along with certain prescribed drugs are known as medicated oils. These oils retain the curative properties of herbs and are used for inunctions and massage. Launched over two years back, the Dabur Foods range includes juices under the brand name Real and cooking pastes under the brand name Hommade.

To give a better focus this division has been carved out as a subsidiary company of Dabur India Limited. Subsidiaries. Dabur Foods Limited -Dabur Foods Limited, a 100% subsidiary of Dabur India Limited, is spearheading Dabur's foray into food processing industry. The company, set up in April 1999, is marketing a range of fruit juices under the brand name Real, Hommade Cooking Paste and Sauces and Lemoneez lemon juice. Dabur was the first company in India to introduce fruit juices in packaged form without any artificial additive. Real is today the market leader in this category with more than 50% market share. Hommade cooking paste is the only national brand in this category. Lemoneez is the only product in its category available in unique drop and trickle pack and unique Pharmaceuticals Branded Pharmaceuticals -It includes a range of natural ethical products like New Livfit, Honitus, Ulgel etc. and a range of contrast media and gynecological. Oncology -This wide and formidable range includes brands such as Intaxel, Docetaxel and Topotecan, all of which were manufactured for the first time in India by Dabur. Little wonder then, that Dabur is the undisputed market leader in this category in India and has plans to establish it as a generic oncology player in select global markets. Bulk Drugs and Chemicals -This range consists primarily of bulks in the oncology category. Joint Ventures

Dabon International Limited -Dabur has also collaborated with Bongrain of France for the manufacture and marketing pf specialty cheese and other dairy products. This joint venture company has already made its presence felt in the Indian cheese market through the launch of processed cheese under the brand name LeBon, and a specialty cheese under the brand name Delicieux. Subsidiaries Dabur has six subsidiary units, which come under the umbrella of the Dabur India organization. These are: Dabur Foods Limited -Dabur Foods Limited, a 100% subsidiary of Dabur India Limited, is spearheading Dabur's foray into food processing industry. The company, set up in April 1999, is marketing a range of fruit juices under the brand name Real, Hommade Cooking Paste and Sauces and Lemoneez lemon juice. Dabur was the first company in India to introduce fruit juices in packaged form without any artificial additive. Real is today the market leader in this category with more than 50% market share. Hommade cooking paste is the only national brand in this category. Lemoneez is the only product in its category available in unique drop and trickle pack and uniquely shaped tabletop pack. Dabur Nepal Private Limited -Dabur Nepal was the first manufacturing base overseas for Dabur group. The company is today the leading exporter of Nepal and the third largest and most modern manufacturing base for Dabur. Dabur Nepal is today

involved in promoting cultivation of herbs and apiculture activities in Nepal. The company has set up state of the art greenhouse at Banepa for developing saplings for 20 medicinal plants. Dabur Nepal has also set up an Apiculture centre for promoting beekeeping activity in Nepal and developing queen bees and bee colonies for exports. Dabur Egypt Limited -Dabur Egypt is groups gateway to Africa. This manufacturing base set up a couple of years back to c~ater to the demands of Middle East and African market is producing Hair Care, Skin Care Products and Foods. Dabur Oncology PIc. -Set up recently in UK, this subsidiary of Dabur India Limited will be manufacturing anti-cancer formulations for European market. The company is in the process of setting up manufacturing base near London and is expected to start operation from year 2001. Dabur Finance Limited Dabur has an illustrious Board of Directors who is committed to take the company onto newer levels of human endeavour in the service of mankind.