MASONRY AND CONCRETE MASONRY ± is the art of building with stone, bricks, concrete blocks or other similar materials

. 4000 B.C. ± the art of building has its origin from the land of Mesopotamia, China and Egypt as manifested by some stone edifice still existing today. 2600 B.C. ± cut stones were used on a wide scale construction of temples and monuments as observed in the construction of the pyramids of Egypt. Romans ± the use of mortar was introduced by the Romans who also perfected the technique of using masonry facing on a core of concrete and rubbles.  Stone is relatively strong in compression, but weak in under tension. Masonry Building Materials Includes: 1. Stone 2. Concrete Blocks 3. Tiles 4. Terra cotta 5. Adobe stone, etc.

Stonework maybe classified as: 1. Ashlar ± consist of carefully worked and joined stone blocks laid in parallel horizontal courses. a) Alternate Course Ashlar ± when the installation of masonry blocks were arranged in alternate thin and thick courses.

b) Broken or Random Ashlar ± if stones of various sizes are used to make courses that are not continuous for the length of the wall.

a) Course Rubble ± is made with roughly squared blocks leveled up to 30 to 45 cm thick courses. The gaps between the stones filled with small or broken stones and cement mortar. BRICKS . . durable and attractive.are manufactured from clay and other materials processed into a workable consistency molded to sizes and fired in a kiln to make the strong. Rubble ± generally consists of irregular stones with good face for the wall surfaces.2.

partitions. When the brick is laid. Concrete Hollow Block ± is otherwise called CHB for short. The vertical position is guided by a plumb line. 2) Face Bricks ± are made from clay material used on exposed exterior and interior masonry walls and other architectural applications where the size. It is the most widely used masonry material for all types of construction such as walls.Classification of Bricks: 1) Common Bricks. fences. . The horizontal and vertical joints are filled with mortar. color and texture of bricks are given especially importance. b. 3) Calcium Silicate Bricks ± are made from clay or non clay materials with alumina and silica used in furnace construction where resistance to temperature as high as 178° C is required. c. The mortar is placed in between the layers of brick to a thickness of about 3 to 10 mm depending upon the plan. The mortar is moderately pressed into the space between the bricks. etc. dividers. Brick Laying ± Bricks are laid in horizontal or vertical layers using a string or nylon cord as guide. The wall is watertight.are made from clay called ordinary commercial bricks. it is pressed slightly down into a generous mortar bed and shoved into final position to insure that: a.

4. widely used in various small and large constructions including roads and highways. Retard or accelerate the initial setting. 2. Accelerate strength development. Admixture . The Air-entraining Admixture materially improves the durability of concrete in entraining billions of microscopic air bubbles distributes throughout the matrix or the concrete.´ .is used in general construction where the special properties are specified. that is used as an ingredient in concrete added to the batch immediately before or during its mixing. admixture is a material other than used where high early strength is necessary. To improve the workability or consistency of an amorphous silica that harden as a silica gel by reacting chemically with alkali in the presence of water. 6.for general concrete construction exposed to moderate sulfate action or where moderate heat of hydration is required. specified when sulfate resistance is a bonding agent that reacts with water to form a hard stone-like substance that is resistant to disintegration in water. 3. Types of Portland Cement: Type I . Increase density and reduce permeability. 5. aggregates or Portland cement.CEMENT Hydraulic Cement . Portland Cement . To increase strength. The Purpose of Admixture in Concrete are: 1. National Building Code on Admixture states that: ³The admixture shall be shown capable of maintaining essentially the same composition and performance throughout the work as a product used in establishing concrete proportions« Admixtures containing chloride-ions shall not be used in prestressed concrete or in concrete containing aluminium embedment if their use will produce a deleterious concentration of chloride-ion in the mixing water. Type III .water that is acceptable for drinking purposes is also satisfactory for use in concrete certified by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). To improve the durability of concrete. Type II . Retard or reduce the evolution of heat. Type IV . Water . Control alkali-aggregate expansion. Pozzolan Cement .

such as opal and chert composed mainly of amorphous silicon dioxide. Rock. b. y Plain Concrete . Coarse Aggregate . fine aggregate. Basalts. y 2. Manufactured by crushing rock. d. Property proportioned for transport and placed without segregation. Limestone or calcium-bearing materials. 3. Easily molded into desired shapes and completely fill the space it is to occupy. Easily finished. y Four Kinds of Common Course Aggregate: a. stone. granite and related igneous rock. Conditions for maximum size of coarse aggregate: a.AGGREGATES . Fine Aggregate . Reinforcement Concrete .are inert materials when bound together into a conglomerated mass by Portland cement and water from concrete. . Sandstone and quartzite. Concrete is said to be workable under the following conditions: generally the product of natural disintegration of silica-bearing or calcium bearing rock. mortar or plaster. b. coarse aggregate and water.the conglomeration of these materials producing a solid mass is called plain that proportion of an aggregates that is retained on number 4 (4. y Workability of Concrete Workability of concrete means the ability of fresh concrete to flow freely around the reinforcements and fill all the voids inside the form. It should not be larger than 1/5 of the narrowest dimension of the forms or 1/3 of the depth of the slab nor ¾ of the minimum distance between the reinforcing bars.concrete in which reinforcement is embedded in a manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces. It shall easily fit into the forms and in between reinforcing bars. Two Categories of Aggregates: 1. The aggregate particles must be uniformly distributed.76 mm) sieve which usually come from: a. CONCRETE CONCRETE . wind or glacial action. The aggregates component is bout 75% of the total mass of concrete. Natural gravel deposits which are formed by water. b. 2. an artificial stone as a result of mixing cement. boulder and large cobble stone.

440 to 1. c. a. Composition and fineness of the cement. particularly during vibration. Freezing and thawing of water saturated concrete. Consistency .435 kg per cubic meter. Structural Concrete . bridges.325 to 2. 4. Expansion caused by the reaction between reactive aggregates and alkali cement. Medium Stone Concrete . b. The freezing of water in the pores of concrete causes it to expand about 9% in volume. Weight of Concrete: 1. It weighs from 145 to 152 pounds pre cubic foot or 2. c. flexural and shearing forces. 2. 3. 5. Strength of Concrete Concrete structure is subjected to compressive. Light weight concrete . Manner of curing. 6. Low Density Concrete .. The forces of nature that cause deterioration includes: 1. . 4. Plasticity .is used for insulation purposes. The time of curing. Moderate Strength Concrete .is the degree of wetness or slump of the concrete mixture. Mobility . the capacity of concrete to move or flow.has similarity in characteristics with that of medium stone concrete.has a unit weight of 360 to 960 kg per cubic meter with a compressive strength of 70 to 176 kg per square centimeter commonly used to fill light gauge steel floor a structural classified into three types depending upon the kind of aggregate used that predetermine their weight. Reaction between soil and water sulfate and the hydrated Portland cement. etc. It varies directly with the amount of water in the mixture. Chemical Resistance Concrete could be protected by application of any of the following: 1. Expansion and shrinkage caused by wetting and drying. The durability of concrete is its ability to resist the forces of deterioration.Workability is also described as: a. Its unit weight would rarely exceed 50 pounds per cubic foot or 800 kg per cubic meter. Temperature. And the strength of concrete is measured in its ability to resist the stresses caused by these different forces. b. It weighs 90 to 120 pounds per cubic foot or the ease with which the fresh concrete can be molded or deformed without segregation. Cement water ratio of the paste. The pressure caused by the expansion of freezing water may be sufficient to damage the gel structure and cause deterioration of the concrete. 2. 3.920 kg per cubic meter used in building roads. Presence of entrained air. 2.

Heavy Rock Aggregates -weighs 200 to 300 pounds per cubic foot or 3. Workability 3. b. Iron Punching is added to high density ores.3. It is also used as a counter weight for lift bridges.48 for exposure to sea water. When made with normal weight aggregate. Durability 5.Duff A. Strength 4. Abams.000 kg per cubic meter. discovered the ratio of the amount of water to the amount of cement in the concrete mixture (water cement ratio) is related to the strength and quality of the concrete. It weighs 4. an American scientist use as a shield against gamma rays reactor and other similar structures. The complete record of test conducted should be maintained and made accessible for inspection during the progress of the work and for a period of 2 years after all construction work are completed and shall be preserved by the inspecting Architect or Engineer for reference purposes.´ TEST OF CONCRETE The building officials has the right to order the testing of any material used in concrete construction to determine if the concrete conforms to the quality specified. .325 to 5. PROPORTIONING CONCRETE MIXTURE Concrete proportioning of the ingredients to produce concrete also provides a balance between the requirements if: 1. Appearance 1918 .it was found out that the durability of concrete could be increased ten times by the use of small amount of air-entraining agent (admixture) in a concrete mixture. permission maybe granted to base concrete proportions on the water-cement ratio limits as shown on Table 7-4. Heavy Weight Concrete . Economy 2. The weight of heavyweight concrete depends upon the kind of aggregate used in mixing such as: a. concrete that is intended to be watertight shall have a maximum water cement ratio of 0. 1940 .200 kg per cubic meter. National Building Code states that: ³If suitable data from trial batches or field experience cannot be obtained.

. mixing shall be done in a batch mixer of approved type. 2.the concrete is mixed before it is loaded inside the truck mixer where the concrete is only agitated. d. Consistency . Stationary Mixer . the degree of consistency of concrete could be ascertained by referring to Table 7-6. MIXING CONCRETE The process of mixing concrete for building construction is done in two different ways. Slump Test Procedures: a. The desired type and quality of concrete is delivered to the project site very rapidly. The mixer shall be rotated at a speed recommended by the manufacturer and mixing shall be continued for at least 1 ½ minutes after all materials are in the drum.refers to the state of fluidity of freshly mixed concrete. ACI Building Code on mixing concrete states that: ³For a job-mixed concrete. Place the freshly mixed concrete inside the mold in 3 layers.cement and aggregates are loaded in a mobile mixer at the batching plant and then mixing operation is done its way to the job site. the process applied in determining the strength of concrete. if the slump measures 5 cm. Level the mold and lift at once. it is called 5 cm slump. It is either mixing on the job site or by ready mixed concrete. unless a shorter time is shown to be satisfactory by the criteria of Specifications for Ready-mixed Concrete for central mixtures.Various Test conducted are: 1. Each layer is rodded separately by a 6 mm rod 25 times. c. Measure the slump action immediately by getting the difference in height between the height of the mold and the top of slumped concrete.the method requires a fabricated metal with shape and dimensions. Mobile Mixing . e.´ Centralized Ready-Mix Plant Concrete of any desirable proportions and quality for numerous special purposes can be ordered directly from the ready-mix contract dealers. Slump Test . Stationary mixer also refers to the mixer installed on site where batches of cement and aggregates are mixed and delivered to the forms. Compression Test .

Hand Mixing . Conveying equipment shall be capable of providing a supply of concrete at the site of placement without separation of the ingredients and without interruptions sufficient to permit loss of plasticity between successive increments. various embedment thereat.a good concrete can be produced also by hand mixing. Forms shall be properly coated. Section 5. Wheelbarrows 6. masonry filler units that will be in contract with concrete shall be thoroughly cleaned of ice or other deleterious coatings. Buggies 1.´ The Building Code on depositing concrete provides that: ³Concrete shall be conveyed from the mixer to the place of final deposit by methods which will prevent the separation or loss of materials. Segregation of Particles Segregation means the separation of sand and stone from the matrix or paste resulting to an inferior quality of concrete. Pimping through steel pipes 3. Pails 2. 4. G. Displacement of forms 3. 4. Displacement of reinforcement in the form.1 of the ACI Code on depositing concrete states that: ³Before concrete is placed. The use of long chutes. Dropping of the concrete mixture from high elevations. All debris and ice shall be removed from the spaces to be occupied by the concrete. Bottom dump 5. 3.´ Conveying of concrete mixture is done only by either of the following: 4. 2. Buckets Things to avoid in placing concrete to its final form: 1. provided that the fine and coarse aggregates are clean and well graded.I. all equipment for mixing and transporting of concrete shall be cleaned. Causes of Separation or Segregation of Aggregates: 1. Improper tamping and spading. Transferring of the concrete from the mixer to the forms. . equipment and the materials required for the activities. strong forms. Poor bond between successive layers of concrete. Segregation of particles 2. Water shall be removed from the placed unless a tremie is to be used or unless otherwise permitted. Good concrete-mix proportions are as follows: ½ kg of water 1 kg of cement 2 kg of sand 2 ½ to 3 kg of gravel DEPOSITING OF CONCRETE Concrete mixing requires adequate preparation of the steel reinforcement.

5. Concrete particles tend to segregate because of their dissimilarity.stone. REFERENCE: Simplified Methods in Building Construction by Max B. This will permit undue evaporation of moisture in the concrete. 2. Correct proportioning of the ingredients. 5. Continuous sprinkling of water on the slab surface. 4. Excess amount of tamping. 7. Proper placement or depositing of concrete inside the form. vibrating or pudding in the forms. heat and moisture or other accepted process. Curing of Concrete The hardening of concrete depends upon the chemical reaction between the cement and Avoid early removal of the forms. Stretcher ± is the term used when the bricks are laid with its longer side exposed to view. Factors That Regulate the Strength of Concrete: www. Building Code on Curing of Concrete provides that: ³Concrete shall be maintained above 10° C temperature and in a moist condition for at least the first 7 days after placing.HTM www. while lighter materials and water tend to rise inside a container when delivery to the form is delayed. Wet straw or hay on top of the slab continuously watered.wikipedia. 3.5. Header ± is the term applied when the bricks are laid its end exposed. Methods applied in curing surface concrete: 1. maybe employed to accelerate strength gain and reduce the time of curing. Proper methods of mixing. Fajardo Jr. Suitability or quality of the materials. www. Hardening of concrete will continue as long as moisture is present under favourable temperature condition. 2. 4. 3.poplarheightsfarm. 8. Gravel tends to settle. except that high early strength concrete shall be so maintained for at least the first 3 days« Curing by high pressure steam at atmospheric pressure. Adequate protection of concrete during the period of .´ Definition of Terms: Bond ± is the term used with respect to the arrangement of bricks. Covering the slab with a layer of wet sand or saw dusts one inch thick. Covering the surface with burlap continuously wet for the period of curing as specified. Lateral movement such as flow within the form tends to separate the particles. 6.

0 TABLE 7-3 CONCRETE PROPORTION Class of Mixture AA A B C Cement 40 kg 1 1 1 1 Sand Cubic ft 1½ 2.0 19.142 .3 0.TABLE 7-1 MORTAR MIXTURE Class A B C Mixture 1:2 1:3 1:4 Cement 18 12 9 Sand 1.085 .0 1.170 TABLE 7-4 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE WATER CEMENT RATIO FOR CONCRETE When strength data from trial batches or Field experience are not available Specified Compressive Strength Fs-Psi 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 Kg/cm2 175 210 245 280 315 Maximum Permissible Water Cement Ratio Non-air entrained Air-entrained Concrete Concrete Absolute Liters per Absolute Liter Per Ratio by wt Bag Ratio by wt Bag 0.46 0.043 0.113 .0 Cubic m 0.35 0.7 17.0 15.30 23.58 0.54 0.0 TABLE 7-2 PLASTER MIXTURE Class A B C Mixture 1:2 1:3 1:4 Cement 9.9 .0 1.51 0.6 25.071 0.085 Cubic ft 3 4 5 6 Gravel Cubic m 0.0 1.30 27.5 Lime 9.0 6.0 16.65 0.40 0.0 1.5 Sand 1.1 12.1 19.0 4.0 22.44 0.057 0.0 6.0 4.0 2½ 3.

0-10 5.5 3.5-4.0 50.5 .0 3.5 Total Air Content 6.0 20.5-5.0 2.TABLE 7-5 CONCRETE AIR CONTENT FOR VARIOUS SIZES OF COARSE AGGREGATE Nominal Maximum Size of Coarse Aggregate Inches mm 3/8 ½ ¾ 1 1½ 2 3 10. beam and reinforced walls Building columns Pavement Heavy mass construction Maximum Cm 13 10 15 15 7 7 Minimum Cm 5 2.0-8.5 7.0 75.0-9. caissons and substructure walls Slab.0 4.0-6.0 12.0 38.0 25.5-6.5 1.5 5 2.5 7.0 TABLE 7-6 RECOMMENDED SLUMP FOR VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION STRUCTURES Types of Construction Reinforced Foundation wall and Footing Plain footing.

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