This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
IN ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING BY G.NAVANEETHA (08H81A0202 ) RUMANABEGUM (08H81A0208)
DR.V.R.K.WOMEN’S COLLEGE OF ENGG & TECHNOLOGY, AZIZ NAGAR, R.R. Dist. Affiliated to JNTU H-2011
College Code : H8 Tel No :08413235962/235963/235482 Fax No 08413-23
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “A NOVEL THREE-PHASE TO FIVE PHASETRANSFORMATION USING A SPECIAL TRANSFORMER CONNECTION” being submitted by Miss. G.NAVANEETHA (H.NO 08H81A0202) and Miss. RUMANA BEGUM (H.NO 08H81A0208) has been done for fulfillment of mini project in B.Tech III/II Semester has required by the university . This is a record of Bonafide work carried out by the under my guidance and supervision. Internal Guide: Miss LAVANYA Head of Department: Mrs.NAZNEEN SHAZIA
First of all we would like to thank our parents for there moral support who actively encouraged us and helped devoting our full time and attention in completing this mini project work. We would like to thank Department & Internal guide Mrs NAZNEEN SHAZIA Head of the Electrical Miss LAVANYA DR. VRK women’s college of
Engineering & Technology, for their guidance throughout this project. We would also like to thank Mr.SATYAM, For being the external guide in this project work. Who has helped me in completing the project work successfully till end. We also express our sincere thanks to all my department staff who have extended their co-operation and shared their experience through out study of four years in the college.
G.NAVANEETHA (08H81A0202) RUMANABEGUM (08H81A0208)
Three separate cores are designed with each carrying one primary and three secondary coils. It is expected that the proposed connection scheme can be used in drives applications and may also be further explored to be utilized in multiphase power transmission systems. The connection scheme of secondary windings to obtain a star output. The fixed voltage and fixed frequency available grid supply can be transformed to the fixed voltage and fixed frequency five-phase output supply. a considerable research effort has been in place to develop commercially feasible multiphase drive Systems . A five-phase induction motor under a loaded condition is used to prove the viability of the transformation system. except in one core where only two secondary coils are used. The choice of turn ratio is the key in creating the requisite phase displacement in the output phases. The construction of output phases with requisite phase angles of 72 between each phase is obtained using appropriate turn ratios. the multiphase motors are invariably supplied by ac/dc/ac converters. the windings are connected in an usual fashion. This is a special transformer connection scheme to obtain a balanced five-phase supply with the input as balanced three phases. The turn ratios are different in each phase.ABSTRACT The first five-phase induction motor drive system was proposed in the late 1970s for adjustable speed drive applications.Multiphase (more than three phase) systems are the focus of research recently due to their inherent advantages compared to their three-phase counterparts. Since input is a three-phase system. . Since then. The designed transformation turns ratio can be achieved by simply multiplying the gain factor in the turn ratios. Six terminals of primaries are connected in an appropriate manner resulting in star and/or delta connections and the 16 terminals of secondaries are connected in a different fashion resulting in star or polygon output.
1. .1 Advantages 7.2.INTRODUCTION 1.Construction CHAPTER-6.What is Transformer 3.4.1.ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 220.127.116.11.MODELLING OF CASE STUDY 6.2.1.History of fivephase 2.FIVEPHASE 18.104.22.168.Fivephase drive structure CHAPTER-3.Detailed Operation 3.INDUCTION MOTOR 5.Conclusion 8.TYPES OF TRANSFORMER 4.INTRODUCTION OF TRANSFORMER 3.2 Disadvantages CHAPTER-8.CONTENTS TOPIC CHAPTER-1.Construction 4.FUTURE SCOPE AND CONCLUSION 8.Different types of Transformer 4.1.Oveview CHAPTER-2.Practical Considerations CHAPTER-4.2.Future Scope BIBLIOGRAPHY 61 61 62 60 60 53 55 48 49 25 33 42 10 11 16 18 6 8 1 5 PAGE NO.2.1.Applications CHAPTER-5.Introduction of Induction Motor 5.1.Matlab design of case study and results CHAPTER-7.Discovery of Transformer 3.Winding arrangemene for five phase output 6.Introduction 1.
The present work on multiphase generation has investigated asymmetrical six-phase (two sets of stator windings with 30 phase displacement) induction generator configuration as the solution for use in renewable energy generation. more compact towers compared to a standard double-circuit three-phase line. the first proposal was given by Ward and Harrer way back in 1969 and since 1 . The geometry of the six-phase compact towers may also aid in the reduction of magnetic fields as well. The research on multiphase generators has started recently and only a few references are available. and utilization. As far as multiphase motor drivesare concerned.INTRODUCTION 1.1. and various stringent licensing laws. Six phase transmission lines can provide the same power capacity with a lower phase-to-phase voltage and smaller. environmental issues.Introduction Multiphase (more than three phase) systems are the focus of research recently due to their inherent advantages compared to their three-phase counterparts. The applicability of multiphase systems is explored in electric power generation. The research on six-phase transmission system was initiated due to the rising cost of right of way for transmission corridors. transmission.
The reason of choice for a 6-. as far as the authors know. the inverters). such as 5.e. The research on multiphase drive systems has gained momentum by the start of this century due to availability of cheap reliable semiconductor devices and digital signal processors. the focus of the research on the multiphase electric drive is limited to the modeling and control of the supply systems (i. Recently. Little effort is made to develop any static transformation system to change the phase number from three to -phase (where 3 and odd). 12-. especially a 6-phase and 12phase system is found to produce less ripple with a higher frequency of ripple in an ac–dc rectifier system. 2 . None of these designs are available for an odd number of phases. Thus. proposing a novel phase transformation system which converts an available threephase supply to an output five-phase supply. However. 11. or 24-phase system is that these numbers are multiples of three and designing this type of system is simple and straightforward.. 7. increasing the number of phases certainly enhances the complexity of the system. etc. the research was slow and steady until the end of the last century. Multiphase. Thus. Detailed reviews on the state of the art in multiphase drive research are available. It is to be emphasized here that the multiphase motors are invariably supplied by ac/dc/ac converters. The scenario has now changed with this paper. 6..then.and 12-phase transformers are designed to feed a multipulse rectifier system and the technology has matured. 24-phase and 36-phase transformer systems have been proposed for supplying a multipulse rectifier system.
Although the supply used for a multiphase motor drive obtained from a multiphase inverter could have more current ripple. a no-load test. Normally. a pure sinusoidal supply system available from the utility grid is required to feed the motor. the machine parameters obtained by using the pulse width-modulated (PWM) supply may not provide the precise true value. 2) input star. however. output polygon. The output. there are control methods available to lower the current distortion even below 1%. Thus. Hence. output star.The usual practice is to test the designed motor for a number of operating conditions with a pure sinusoidal supply to ascertain the desired performance of the motor. may be made variable by inserting the autotransformer at the input side. The block diagram of the proposed system is shown in Fig. 4 . based on application and requirement. blocked rotor. The fixed voltage and fixed frequency available grid supply can be transformed to the fixed voltage and fixed frequency five-phase output supply. and load tests are performed on a motor to determine its parameters. The input and output supply can be arranged in the following manner: 1) input star. 1. This paper proposes a special transformer connection scheme to obtain a balanced five-phase supply with the input as balanced three phases.
where three separate cores are designed with each carrying one primary and three secondary coils. output star 4) Input delta. 5 . Six terminals of primaries are connected in an appropriate manner resulting in star and/or delta connections and the 16 terminals of secondaries are connected in a different fashion resulting in star or polygon output.3) input delta.2.Overview This paper presents a three-phase to five-phase conversion power system by the use of special transformer connection. except in one core where only two secondary coils are used. output polygon. 1.
Bojoi et al. (2001). greater efficiency. (2002) and Golubev and Ignatenko (2000). reduced torque pulsations. Higher torque density in a multi-phase machine is possible because fundamental spatial field harmonic and space harmonic fields can be used to enhance total torque as presented by Xu et al. Levi et al. the number of machine phases is essentially not limited. Higher Phase number yield smoother torque due to the simultaneous increase of the frequency of the torque pulsation and reduction of the torque ripple magnitude. (2006). This advantage of enhanced torque production stems from the fact that vector control of the machine’s flux and torque. as presented by Williamson and Smith (2006) and Apsley (2006). (2001a) and Xu et al. Interesting research results have been published over the years on multi-phase drives and detailed review is available in Singh (2002). Noise characteristics of multiphase drives are better when compared three-phase drive as demonstrated by Hodge et al. Jones and Levi (2002). (2001b). Shi et al. (2008) and Arahal and Duran (2009). Levi (2008a) and Levi (2008b).1. This has led to an increase in the interest in multi-phase ac drive applications. since the variable speed ac drives require a power electronic converter for their supply (in vast majority of cases an inverter with a dc link).History of five phase Variable speed electric drives predominately utilize three-phase machines. greater fault tolerance.FIVE PHASE 2. However. Duran et al. since multi-phase machines offer some inherent advantages over their three-phase counterpart. and reduction in the required rating per inverter leg (and therefore simpler and more reliable power conditioning equipment). produced by the interaction of the fundamental field component and the 6 . Lyra and Lipo (2002). Major advantages of using a multi-phase machine instead of a threephase machine are higher torque density. (2007).
e). Each switch in the circuit consists of two power semiconductor devices. The stability analysis of five-phase drive system for harmonic injection scheme is carried out by Duran et al. In a multi-phase machine. which is regarded further on as being constant. there are therefore additional degrees of freedom.C. requires only two stator currents (d-q current components). It was concluded that the 3rd harmonic injection not only enhances the torque production but also offers a more stable control structure.d. while the second one is a diode.b.D. 7 . which can be utilized to enhance the torque production through injection of higher order current harmonics. (2008) for both concentrated winding and distributed winding machines. while the points of connection of the outputs to inverter legs have symbols in capital letters (A.E).c. The inverter outputs are denoted in Figure 1 with lower case letters (a. The shift between each phase voltage is (360ı/5)=72ı. Power circuit topology of a five-phase VSI is shown in Figure 1. One of these is a fully controllable semiconductor. connected in anti-parallel.fundamental stator current component. such as a bipolar transistor or IGBT. The input of the inverter is a dc voltage.B. with at least five phases or more.
vnN = (1/ 5)(vA + vB + vC + vD + vE ) ………………(2) Substitution of (1) into (2) yields phase-to-neutral voltages of the load in the following form: va = (4 / 5)vA − (1/ 5)(vB + vC + vD + vE ) vb = (4 / 5)vB − (1/ 5)(vA + vC + vD + vE ) vc = (4 / 5)vC − (1/ 5)(vA + vB + vD + vE ) vd = (4 / 5)vD − (1/ 5)(vA + vB + vC + vE ) ve = (4 / 5)vE − (1/ 5)(vA + vB + vC + vD ) 2. The following correlation then holds true: v A = va + vnN vB = vb + vnN vC = vc + vnN vD = vd + vnN vE = ve + vnN …………(1) Since the phase voltages in a star connected load sum to zero. The inverter is operating in the quasi square wave mode instead of more complex PWM mode. The frequency of the fundamental output is controlled from the IGBT based voltage source inverter. The dc link voltage is adjusted from the controlled rectifier by varying the conduction angles of the thyristors.FIVE PHASE DRIVE STRUCTURE A simple open-loop five-phase drive structure is elaborated in Figure 2. Since the inverter is operating in square wave mode the analogue circuit based controller is much simpler and cheaper compared to more sophisticate digital 8 .2. Thus the overall control scheme is similar to a three-phase drive system.Phase-to-neutral voltages of the star connected load are most easily found by defining a voltage difference between the star point n of the load and the negative rail of the dc bus N.
These types of applications do not require fast dynamic response of drive systems and thus the need of high performance control schemes do not arise. It is thus intended to develop cheap and robust controller based on simple and reliable analogue circuit components for such locations.. 2006). This type of solution is very cheap and convenient for use in coarse applications such as water pumping. The subsequent section describes the implantation issues of control of a five-phase voltage source inverter. 9 . The power quality of the remote locations in developing countries such as Indian subcontinents are microprocessors/microcontrollers/digital signal processors based controllers. The motivation behind choosing this structure lies in the fault tolerant nature of a five-phase drive system (Apsley et al.signal processor based control schemes.
WHAT IS TRANSFORMER A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors the transformer's coils. In the vast majority of transformers. although the range of designs is wide. If a load is connected to the secondary.1. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making Ns greater than Np. the windings are coils wound around a ferromagnetic core. All operate with the same basic principles. Transformers range in size from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of power grids. an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. 10 . This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction. or "stepped down" by making Ns less than Np. the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (Vp).INTRODUCTION OF TRANSFORMERS 3. In an ideal transformer. and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows: By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns. air-core transformers being a notable exception.
including winding a pair of coils around an iron ring. Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College. Since batteries produce direct current (DC) rather than alternating current (AC). He was one of the first researchers to realize that the more turns the secondary winding has in relation to the primary winding. which makes long distance transmission economically practical. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission. the larger is the increase in EMF. Ireland in 1836.Discovery of Transformer The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831. invented by Rev. induction coils relied upon vibrating electrical contacts that regularly interrupted the current in the primary to create the flux changes necessary for induction. Faraday was the first to publish the results of his experiments and thus receive credit for the discovery. transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage.2. efforts to build better induction coils. slowly revealed 11 . 3. thus creating the first toroidal closed-core transformer.While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits. Induction coils evolved from scientists' and inventors' efforts to get higher voltages from batteries. mostly by trial and error. The relationship between electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" and magnetic flux was formalized in an equation now referred to as "Faraday's law of induction": Where the magnitude of the EMF in volts and ΦB is is the magnetic flux through the circuit (in Weber’s) Faraday performed the first experiments on induction between coils of wire. Induction coils The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coil. However. Between the 1830s and the 1870s.
 They also exhibited the invention in Turin. Until about 1880. Their systems used alternating current exclusively and included those comprising both arc and incandescent lamps. including those employing methods of adjusting the core or bypassing the magnetic flux around part of a coil. along with generators and other equipment. Italy in 1884. However. practical transformer designs did not appear until the 1880s. a position in which they have remained dominant ever since. the Ganz Company in Hungary began manufacturing equipment for electric lighting and. where it was adopted for an electric lighting system. had installed over fifty systems in Austria-Hungary. the efficiency of their open-core bipolar apparatus remained very low. In 1876. the paradigm for AC power transmission from a high voltage supply to a low voltage load was a series circuit. by 1883. Induction coils with open magnetic circuits are inefficient for transfer of power to loads. but within a decade the transformer would be instrumental in the "War of Currents". Many adjustable transformer designs were introduced to compensate for this problematic characteristic of the series circuit. Open-core transformers with a ratio near 1:1 were connected with their primaries in series to allow use of a high voltage for transmission while presenting a low voltage to the lamps. The inherent flaw in this method was that turning off a single lamp affected the voltage supplied to all others on the same circuit. 12 . Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs first exhibited a device with an open iron core called a "secondary generator" in London in 1882. Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented a lighting system based on a set of induction coils where the primary windings were connected to a source of alternating current and the secondary windings could be connected to several "electric candles" (arc lamps) of his own design. In 1878. Efficient. and in seeing AC distribution systems triumph over their DC counterparts.the basic principles of transformers. The coils Yablochkov employed functioned essentially as transformers. then sold the idea to the Westinghouse company in the United States.
" transformers.Closed-core lighting transformers Drawing of Ganz Company's 1885 prototype.2.D. Capacity: 1400 VA.3. as they were incapable of reliably regulating voltage. Ganz Company engineers Károly Zipernowsky.B. team on 16th September 1884. In their joint patent application for the "Z. They were built by the Z. In the autumn of 1884.1. frequency: 40 Hz.D. voltage ratio: 120/72 V Prototypes of the world's first high-efficiency transformers. they described two designs 13 . Ottó Bláthy and Miksa Déri had determined that open-core devices were impracticable.B.
although the term had already been in use by 1882. He assigned to William Stanley the task of developing a device for commercial use in United States. Bláthy had suggested the use of closed-cores. the magnetic flux linking the primary and secondary windings traveled almost entirely within the iron core. In the closed-core.Stanley's 1886 design for adjustable gap open-core induction coils Although George Westinghouse had bought Gaulard and Gibbs' patents in 1885. the Ganz Company installed the world's first power station that used AC generators to power a parallel-connected common electrical network.2. In 1886. In both designs. in the shell-core. Vs/Vp = Ns/Np. in 1886. rights for the Z. the steam-powered Rome-Cerchi power plant. with no intentional path through air. the Edison Electric Light Company held an option on the U. They also reportedly popularized the word "transformer" to describe a device for altering the EMF of an electric current.2.S. closed-core transformers finally made it technically and economically feasible to provide electric power for lighting in homes. the primary and secondary windings were wound around a closed iron ring. But Westinghouse soon had his team working on a design whose core comprised a stack of thin "E-shaped" iron plates. businesses and public spaces.S. When employed in parallel connected electric distribution systems. transformers.B. (See drawing at left). separated individually or in pairs by thin sheets of paper or 14 . requiring Westinghouse to pursue alternative designs on the same principles. Zipernowsky the use of shunt connections. Stanley's first patented design was for induction coils with single cores of soft iron and adjustable gaps to regulate the EMF present in the secondary winding. 3. Bláthy also discovered the transformer formula. This design was first used commercially in the U. the windings were passed through the iron core.with closed magnetic circuits: the "closed-core" and "shell-core" transformers.D. and Déri had performed the experiments.The vast majority of transformers in use today rely on the basic principles discovered by the three engineers.
so that most of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils. and straight iron plates laid in to create a closed magnetic circuit. An ideal transformer is shown in the adjacent figure.Basic principles The transformer is based on two principles: first. that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism). Prewound copper coils could then be slid into place. Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed. an air-cored.2. and. Westinghouse applied for a patent for the new design in December 1886. Nikola Tesla invented the Tesla coil.4. 3. 15 . such as iron. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil. Current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability.2. second that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). it was granted in July 1887. Russian-born engineer Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky developed the first threephase transformer at the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft ("General Electricity Company") in Germany In 1891.other insulating material.3. dual-tuned resonant transformer for generating very high voltages at high frequency.Other early transformers In 1889. Audio frequency transformers ("repeating coils") were used by early experimenters in the development of the telephone 3.
the transformer is perfectly efficient. then the current is decreased by the same factor. For example. which states that: Where Vs is the instantaneous voltage. all the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the magnetic field and into the secondary circuit. the flux is the product of the magnetic flux density B and the area A through which it cuts. If this condition is met. 3. it appears to the primary circuit to have an impedance of (Np/Ns) 2Zs.3. The area is constant.5. If the voltage is increased.3.3.2. whereas the magnetic field varies with time according to the excitation of the primary. If the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field lines.1The ideal transformer as a circuit element If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow.Detailed Operation 3. Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and Φ is the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil.Induction law The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from Faraday's law of induction. The impedance in one circuit is transformed by the square of the turn’s ratio. the incoming electric power must equal the outgoing power: giving the ideal transformer equation Transformers normally have high efficiency. being equal to the cross-sectional area of the transformer core. This relationship is reciprocal. so this formula is a reasonable approximation. the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals Taking the ratio of the two equations for Vs and Vp gives the basic equation for stepping up or stepping down the voltage. so 16 . electrical power is transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. Ideally. if an impedance Zs is attached across the terminals of the secondary coil. Since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal transformer.
a small current flows. they have no associated voltage drop. and so the voltages VP and VS measured at the terminals of the transformer. The simplified description above neglects several practical factors. 17 . The primary EMF. acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage. in particular the primary current required to establish a magnetic field in the core. since the ideal core has been assumed to have near-zero reluctance. although still required to create the magnetic field. and the contribution to the field due to current in the secondary circuit. This is due to Lenz's law which states that the induction of EMF would always be such that it will oppose development of any such change in magnetic field. The changing magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EMF) across each winding. Models of an ideal transformer typically assume a core of negligible reluctance with two windings of zero resistance. The current required to create the flux is termed the magnetizing current.that the impedance Zp of the primary circuit appears to the secondary to be (Ns/Np)2Zp. When a voltage is applied to the primary winding. is sometimes termed the "back EMF". driving flux around the magnetic circuit of the core. the magnetizing current is negligible. are equal to the corresponding EMFs. Since the ideal windings have no impedance.
It is not directly a power loss (see "Stray losses" below). In practice. but results in inferior voltage regulation. some flux traverses paths that take it outside the windings. However.Leakage flux Leakage flux of a transformer The ideal transformer model assumes that all flux generated by the primary winding links all the turns of every winding. and long magnetic paths.Practical considerations 3. causing the secondary voltage to fail to be directly proportional to the primary. in some applications. Leakage results in energy being alternately stored in and discharged from the magnetic fields with each cycle of the power supply. or magnetic bypass shunts may be deliberately introduced to a transformer's design to limit the short-circuit current it will supply. Leaky transformers 18 .4. leakage can be a desirable property. Transformers are therefore normally designed to have very low leakage inductance. Such flux is termed leakage flux. and results in leakage inductance in series with the mutually coupled transformer windings. air gaps.4.3. including itself. particularly under heavy load.1.
and neon signs. causing a huge increase in the magnetizing current and overheating the transformer.2.may be used to supply loads that exhibit negative resistance. the relationship for either winding between its rms voltage Erms of the winding . such as electric arcs. mercury vapor lamps. 500 kVA units in parallel with 1.4. All practical transformers must therefore operate with alternating (or pulsed) current. core cross-sectional area a and peak magnetic flux density B is given by the universal EMF equation: If the flux does not contain even harmonics the following equation can be used for halfcycle average voltage Eavg of any waveshape: The time-derivative term in Faraday's Law shows that the flux in the core is the integral with respect to time of the applied voltage. the flux would rise to the point where magnetic saturation of the core occurs. or for safely handling loads that become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. with the core flux increasing linearly with time. The EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency.g. number of turns N. 3. In practice. By operating at higher frequencies. It can be shown that if the "per-unit" inductance of two transformers is the same (a typical value is 5%). transformers can be physically more compact because a given core is able to transfer more power without reaching saturation and fewer turns are needed to achieve the same impedance. properties such as core loss and conductor 19 . they will automatically split power "correctly" (e. Air gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating. and the supply frequency f. especially audio-frequency transformers in circuits that have a direct current flowing through the windings Leakage inductance is also helpful when transformers are operated in parallel. Hypothetically an ideal transformer would work with direct-current excitation.Effect of frequency If the flux in the core is purely sinusoidal.000 kVA unit. However. the larger one will carry twice the current).
at lower frequency. They have to function at different frequencies (down to 16. As such. Operation of a transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages.skin effect also increase with frequency.4. 3. particularly those required to operate across the borders of countries using different standards of electrification. Aircraft and military equipment employ 400 Hz power supplies which reduce core and winding weight. Knowledge of natural frequencies of transformer windings is of importance for the determination of the transient response of the windings to impulse and switching surge voltages. In practical transformers energy is dissipated in the windings. Conversely. frequencies used for some railway electrification systems were much lower (e.g.g. the magnetizing current will increase.Energy losses An ideal transformer would have no energy losses. the transformers used to step down the high over-head line voltages (e. One example of state-of-the-art design is those transformers used for electric multiple unit high speed trains. transformers may need to be equipped with "volts per hertz" over-excitation relays to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher than rated frequency.7 Hz and 25 Hz) than normal utility frequencies (50 – 60 Hz) for historical reasons concerned mainly with the limitations of early electric traction motors. For example. Operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetizing current. 16. 15 kV) are much heavier for the same power rating than those designed only for the higher frequencies. The position of such transformers is restricted to being hung below the passenger compartment.3.7 Hz) and voltages (up to 25 kV) whilst handling the enhanced power requirements needed for operating the trains at high speed. core. and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. losses. and would be 100% efficient. and surrounding 20 .
and may be expressed as "no-load" or "full-load" loss. and thicker wire. whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the no-load loss. increasing initial cost. 21 . and is a function of the peak flux density to which it is subjected.The no-load loss can be significant. in a large heavily-loaded transformer. designing transformers for lower loss requires a larger core.Hysteresis losses Each time the magnetic field is reversed.structures. a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. and those rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 98%. and hence money. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. so that even an idle transformer constitutes a drain on the electrical supply and a running cost.85% can save considerable energy. The increase in efficiency from about 98 to 99. the loss is proportional to the frequency.4. the trade-off is in the additional initial and running cost of the superconducting design. termed iron loss. for the core. Transformer losses are divided into losses in the windings. Losses in transformers (excluding associated circuitry) vary with load current. Losses in the transformer arise from: Winding resistance Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors. For a given core material.85%. and those in the magnetic circuit. or even amorphous steel. termed copper loss. Winding resistance dominates load losses. At higher frequencies. good-quality silicon steel. Experimental transformers using superconducting windings achieve efficiencies of 99. Larger transformers are generally more efficient. 3. so that there is a trade-off between initial cost and running cost.3. (Also see energy efficient transformer).
and can cause losses due to frictional heating. 3. Mechanical losses In addition to magnetostriction. 3. Eddy currents therefore circulate within the core in a plane normal to the flux. The eddy current loss is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and inverse square of the material thickness.6.4. Eddy current losses can be reduced by making the core of a stack of plates electrically insulated from each other.4. since energy supplied to its magnetic fields is returned to the supply with the next half-cycle.Stray losses Leakage inductance is by itself largely lossless. any leakage flux that intercepts nearby conductive materials such as the transformer's support structure will give rise to eddy currents and be converted to heat. and are responsible for resistive heating of the core material. but these are usually small. However.5. There are also radiative losses due to the oscillating magnetic field. This produces the buzzing sound commonly associated with transformers. rather than a solid block. . causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with each cycle of the magnetic field. all transformers operating at low frequencies use laminated or similar cores.4.Magnetostriction Magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic material. such as the core.Eddy currents Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors. an effect known as magnetostriction. and consuming a small amount of power. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork. and a core made from such a material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn throughout its entire length. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating forces between the primary and secondary windings. adding to the buzzing noise.3.4.
3. the core flux lags the induced EMF by 90° and this effect can be modeled as a magnetizing reactance (reactance of an effective inductance) Xm in parallel with the core loss component.8.Dot convention It is common in transformer schematic symbols for there to be a dot at the end of each coil within a transformer. The magnetizing current is in phase with the flux. the iron loss can be represented by a resistance RC in parallel with the ideal transformer. and are proportional to the square of the core flux for operation at a given frequency. particularly for transformers with multiple primary and secondary windings.4.22 3.4. current flowing into the dot end of a primary coil will result in current flowing out of the dot end of a secondary coil. but for simplicity this effect tends to be ignored in most circuit equivalents. Rc and Xm are sometimes together termed the magnetizing branch of the model. With a sinusoidal supply. the current I0 taken by the magnetizing branch . If the secondary winding is made open-circuit. The dots indicate the direction of each winding relative to the others. Iron losses are caused mostly by hysteresis and eddy current effects in the core.7. Flux leakage results in a fraction of the applied voltage dropped without contributing to the mutual coupling.Equivalent circuit The physical limitations of the practical transformer may be brought together as an equivalent circuit model (shown below) built around an ideal lossless transformer. Voltages at the dot end of each winding are in phase. A core with finite permeability requires a magnetizing current Im to maintain the mutual flux in the core. saturation effects cause the relationship between the two to be non-linear. and thus can be modeled as reactance of each leakage inductance Xp and Xs in series with the perfectly coupled region. Since the core flux is proportional to the applied voltage. Power loss in the windings is current-dependent and is represented as in-series resistances Rp and Rs.
The parameters of equivalent circuit of a transformer can be calculated from the results of two transformer tests: open-circuit test and short-circuit test.23 represents the transformer's no-load current. The secondary impedance Rs and Xs is frequently moved (or "referred") to the primary side after multiplying the components by the impedance scaling factor (Np/Ns)2. an implicit assumption that the magnetizing current is low. resulting in so-called equivalent impedance. Analysis may be simplified by moving the magnetizing branch to the left of the primary impedance. though it retains a number of approximations. . with secondary impedances referred to the primary side The resulting model is sometimes termed the "exact equivalent circuit". and then summing primary and referred secondary impedances. such as an assumption of linearity. Transformer equivalent circuit.
24 CHAPTER-4 .
almost always having one terminal in common with the primary voltage. Since the volts-per-turn is the same in both windings. Important common transformer types include: 4.Autotransformer An autotransformer has a single winding with two end terminals.1. though they share several common features. TYPES OF TRANSFORMERS . In an autotransformer part of the current flows directly from the input to the output. each develops a voltage in proportion to its number of turns. The primary and secondary circuits therefore have a number of windings turns in common. and the secondary voltage taken from two terminals. and only . A wide variety of transformer designs are used for different applications. The primary voltage is applied across two of the terminals. and one or more terminals at intermediate tap points.1.1.TYPES OF TRANSFORMERS 4.
a transformer with separate windings isolates the primary from the secondary. to output either 110 or 120V (with taps) from 230V input. the core thus containing a threephase flow of flux. allowing a smaller. 4. lighter. the magnetic circuits are connected together. In this case. allowing equipment from a 100 or 120V region to be used in a 230V region. which is safer when using mains voltages. For three-phase supplies.POLYPHASE TRANSFORMER . a bank of three individual single-phase transformers can be used. A number of winding configurations are possible. giving a variable turns ratio. However.2. Such a device is often referred to as a variac.Autotransformers are often used to step up or down between voltages in the 110-117-120 volt range and voltages in the 220-230-240 volt range. cheaper core to be used as well as requiring only a single winding.1. or all three phases can be incorporated as a single three-phase transformer.25 part is transferred inductively.g.. An adjustable autotransformer is made by exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush. giving rise to . e.
Leakage transformers are used for arc welding and high voltage discharge lamps (neon lamps and cold cathode fluorescent lamps. It acts then both as a voltage transformer and as a magnetic ballast. also called a stray-field transformer.1.5 kV AC). which is sometimes adjustable with a set screw. used for grounding and in the suppression of harmonic currents. has a significantly higher leakage inductance than other transformers.Other applications are short-circuit-proof extra-low voltage transformers for toys or doorbell installations.LEAKAGE TRANSFORMER A leakage transformer. which are seriesconnected up to 7.3. . The output and input currents are low enough to prevent thermal overload under all load conditions—even if the secondary is shorted.different attributes and phase shifts. 26 4. This provides a transformer with an inherent current limitation due to the loose coupling between its primary and the secondary windings. One particular polyphase configuration is the zigzag transformer. sometimes increased by a magnetic bypass or shunt in its core between primary and secondary.
to create one or more resonant circuits.1.27 4. and are able to provide much higher current than electrostatic highvoltage generation machines such as the Van de Graff generator.5. where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by tuned transformers in the intermediate-frequency amplifiers. such as between a high impedance tube (valve) amplifier output and a low impedance loudspeaker. and are still commonly used to interconnect professional audio systems or system components.RESONANT TRANSFORMERS A resonant transformer is a kind of leakage transformer. One of the applications of the resonant transformer is for the CCFL inverter. . 4. or to provide impedance matching between high and low impedance circuits. "Hum" is a term commonly used to describe unwanted signals originating from the "mains" power supply (typically 50 or 60 Hz). Resonant transformers such as the Tesla coil can generate very high voltages. They can be used to block radio frequency interference or the DC component of an audio signal. Being magnetic devices.4. Another application of the resonant transformer is to couple between stages of a super heterodyne receiver. audio transformers are susceptible to external magnetic fields such as those generated by AC current-carrying conductors. Audio transformers used for low-level signals.1. or between a high impedance instrument output and the low impedance input of a mixing console. It uses the leakage inductance of its secondary windings in combination with external capacitors. such as those from microphones. to split or combine audio signals. often include shielding to protect against extraneous magnetically coupled signals. Such transformers were originally designed to connect different telephone systems to one another while keeping their respective power supplies isolated.AUDIO TRANSFORMERS Audio transformers are those specifically designed for use in audio circuits.
Instrument transformers isolate measurement. the metering ITs require . protection control (for system protection and protective relaying purposes). There are three primary applications for which ITs are used: metering (for energy billing and transaction purposes). it can be scaled down to a standardized.Depending on the requirements for those applications.1. Where a voltage or current is too large to be conveniently used by an instrument. the ITdesign and construction can be quite different.6INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS Instrument transformers are used for measuring voltage and current in electrical power systems. and for power system protection and control. A current transformer is a transformer designed to provide a current in its secondary coil proportional to the current flowing in its primary coil. and load survey (for economic managementof industrial loads). Generally. protection and control circuitry from the high currents or voltages present on the circuits being measured or controlled. Instrument transformers (ITs) are designed to transform voltage or current from the high values in the transmission and distribution systems to the low values that can be utilized by low voltage metering devices. low value.28 4.
A voltage transformer is intended to . 4. Typical output levels of instrument transformers are 1-5 amperes and 115120 volts for CTs and VTs.TYPES OF INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS 1. also referred to as "potential transformers" (PTs). A transformer is a voltage changer. such as system fault or overvoltage transients.7.) to mitigate the disturbance and protect the rest of the power system.29 high accuracy in the range of normal operating voltage and current. Alternating current (AC) provides the motion required by changing direction which creates a collapsing and expanding magnetic field. Voltage transformers (VTs).1. etc. reconfigure the system. it transfers electrical power. are designed to have an accurately known transformation ratio in both magnitude and phase. and ANSI standards. CSA.7. although some are used only to isolate one voltage from another. CURRENT TRANSFORMERS 4. Most transformers are designed to either step voltage up or to step it down. Instrument transformers are the most common and economic way to detect a disturbance. IEC.VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS A Transformer does not generate electrical power.1. During a disturbance. respectively. There are several classes of accuracy for instrument transformers defined by the IEEE. the output of the IT is used by a protective relay to initiate an appropriate action (open or close a breaker.1. Protection ITs require linearity in a wide range of voltages and currents. The transformer works on the principle that energy can be efficiently transferred by magnetic induction from one winding to another winding by a varying magnetic field produced by alternating current . An electrical voltage is induced when there is a relative motion between a wire and a magnetic field. over a range of measuring circuit impedances. VOLTAGE TRNSFORMERS (POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER) 2.
it is usually sufficiently accurate to add their individual volt-amperes arithmetically to determine the total volt-ampere burden. Based on the thermal volt-ampere rating. 4.1. Two types of voltage transformer are used for protective-relaying purposes. as follows: (1) the "instrument potential transformer. Where several loads are connected in parallel. This thermal volt-ampere rating corresponds to the full-load rating of a power transformer.1." hereafter to be called simply "potential transformer. Operation in excess of 10% overvoltage may cause increased errors and excessive .ACCURACY OF POTENTIALTRANSFORMERS The ratio and phase-angle inaccuracies of any standard ASA accuracy class1 of potential transformer are so small that they may be neglected for protective-relaying purposes if the burden is within the "thermal" volt-ampere rating of the transformer." A potential transformer is a conventional transformer having primary and secondary windings. depending on the rating of the transformer and on the requirements of the application. It is higher than the volt-ampere rating used to classify potential transformers as to accuracy for metering purposes. A capacitance potential device is a voltage-transforming equipment using a capacitance voltage divider connected between phase and ground of a power circuit.7. The "burden" is the total external volt-ampere load on the secondary at rated secondary voltage. If a potential transformer has acceptable accuracy at its rated voltage.1." and (2) the "capacitance potential device. it is suitable over the range from zero to 110% of rated less voltage.30 present a negligible load to the supply being measured. The low secondary voltage allows protective relay equipment and measuring instruments to be operated at a lower voltages. the equivalent-circuit impedances of potential transformers are comparable to those of distribution transformers. The primary winding is connected directly to the power circuit either between two phases or between one phase and ground.
For example.7. it is important to understand the following characteristics that are used to classify current transformers. CT’s that transform current isolate the high voltage primary. a CT with a ratio of 300:5 is rated for 300 primary amps at full load and will produce 5 amps of secondary current when 300 amps flow through the primary. For example. and step-down the magnitude of the measured current to a standard value that can be safely handled by the instrument.5 amps (150:300 = 2. If the primary current changes the secondary current output will change accordingly.5:5).2CURRENT TRANSFORMERS Current Transformers (CT’s) can be used for monitoring current or for transforming primary current into reduced secondary current used for meters.1. they can be obtained from ratiocorrection factor curves and phase-angle-correction curves supplied by the manufacturer Both current and voltage instrument transformers are designed to have predictable characteristics on overloads. relays. The CT ratio is the ratio of primary current input to secondary current output at full load. permit grounding of the secondary.31 heating. 4. Proper operation of over-current protective relays requires that current transformers provide a predictable transformation ratio even during a shortcircuit. . To determine which CT is appropriate for a particular application. control equipment and other instruments. Where precise accuracy data are required. if 150 amps flow through the 300 amp rated primary the secondary current output will be 2.
8.2. oil-filled. amplifier output. an incomplete list is: • • • • • • • By power capacity: from a fraction of a volt-ampere (VA) to over a thousand MVA By frequency range: power-. impedance matching. By cooling type: air-cooled.1. fan-cooled.1. 4. By winding turns ratio: step-up. etc. or water-cooled. By purpose: distribution.32 4. rectifier. output voltage and current stabilizer.2 CONSTRUCTION 4.Cores Laminated core transformer showing edge of laminations at top of photo . By application: such as power supply. multiple windings.. isolating with equal or nearequal ratio. step-down.CLASSIFICATION Transformers can be classified in many different ways. or radio frequency. By voltage class: from a few volts to hundreds of kilovolts. arc furnace. variable. audio-. or circuit isolation.
and their designs mitigated this effect with cores consisting of bundles of insulated iron wires. forming two C shapes. Thinner laminations reduce losses. When power is then reapplied. and the core thus serves to greatly reduce the magnetizing current. The steel has a permeability many times that of free space. and so reduce their magnitude. with some types of very thin steel laminations able to operate up to 10 kHz.(a). Such a design tends to exhibit more losses. Early transformer developers soon realized that cores constructed from solid iron resulted in prohibitive eddy-current losses. The cut-core or C-core type is made by winding a steel strip around a rectangular form and then bonding the layers together. and the core assembled by binding the two C halves together with a steel strap. reducing reluctance.A steel core's remanence means that it retains a static magnetic field when power is removed. It is then cut in two. and confine the flux to a path which closely couples the windings.One common design of laminated core is made from interleaved stacks of E-shaped steel sheets capped with I-shaped pieces. The universal transformer equation indicates a minimum cross-sectional area for the core to avoid saturation.33 4.2. leading to its name of "E-I transformer". Thin laminations are generally used on high frequency transformers. Over current protection devices such as fuses must be selected to allow this harmless .Laminated steel cores Transformers for use at power or audio frequencies typically have cores made of high permeability silicon steel.The effect of laminations is to confine eddy currents to highly elliptical paths that enclose little flux. a principle that has remained in use. They have the advantage that the flux is always oriented parallel to the metal grains. but are more laborious and expensive to construct.Laminating the core greatly reduces eddycurrent losses. Later designs constructed the core by stacking layers of thin steel laminations. Each lamination is insulated from its neighbors by a thin non-conducting layer of insulation. usually after a few cycles of the applied alternating current. but is very economical to manufacture. the residual field will cause a high inrush current until the effect of the remaining magnetism is reduced.1.
4. cores made from non-conductive magnetic ceramic materials called ferrites are common. Distribution transformers can achieve low no-load losses by using cores made with low-loss highpermeability silicon steel or amorphous (non-crystalline) metal alloy.(b)Solid cores Powdered iron cores are used in circuits (such as switch-mode power supplies) that operate above main frequencies and up to a few tens of kilohertz. These materials combine high magnetic permeability with high bulk electrical resistivity. induced currents due to geomagnetic disturbances during solar storms can cause saturation of the core and operation of transformer protection devices. Some radio-frequency transformers also have movable cores (sometimes called 'slugs') which allow adjustment of the coupling coefficient (and bandwidth) of tuned radio-frequency circuits. overhead power transmission lines. On transformers connected to long.1. 4.2. The higher initial cost of the core material is offset over the life of the transformer by its lower losses at light load.Toroidal cores .1. For frequencies extending beyond the VHF band.2.(c).34 inrush to pass.
This is because it is necessary to pass the entire length of a coil winding through the core aperture each time a single turn is added to the coil. include smaller size (about half). and weight of switchmode power supplies. improving the transformer's efficiency by reducing the core's reluctance. and greater choice of shapes. This minimizes the length of wire needed. which. toroidal transformers are uncommon above ratings of a few kVA. The primary and secondary coils are often wound concentrically to cover the entire surface of the core. physical size. The main disadvantages are higher cost and limited power capacity (see "Classification" above). powdered iron. lower weight (about half). low off-load losses (making them more efficient in standby circuits). lower exterior magnetic field (about one tenth). typically between a few tens of kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz. The closed ring shape eliminates air gaps inherent in the construction of an EI core. or ferrite. and also provides screening to minimize the core's magnetic field from generating electromagnetic interference. Toroidal transformers are more efficient than the cheaper laminated E-I types for a similar power level. A drawback of toroidal transformer construction is the higher labor cost of winding. As a consequence. Other advantages compared to E-I types. less mechanical hum (making them superior in audio amplifiers). depending on operating frequency. A strip construction ensures that the grain boundaries are optimally aligned. to reduce losses. The cross-section of the ring is usually square or rectangular. Small distribution transformers may achieve some of the benefits of a toroidal core by splitting it and forcing it open. compared to laminated E-I types. toroidal transformers also tend to exhibit higher inrush current. .35 Toroidal transformers are built around a ring-shaped core. is made from a long strip of silicon steel or Permalloy wound into a coil. then inserting a bobbin containing primary and secondary windings. Because of the lack of a residual gap in the magnetic path. but more expensive cores with circular cross-sections are also available. Ferrite toroidal cores are used at higher frequencies. single-bolt mounting.
(d). They have however very high bandwidth. resulting in very poor regulation. 4. The air which comprises the magnetic circuit is essentially lossless. for which a satisfactory coupling coefficient is maintained by carefully overlapping the primary and secondary windings. and so an air-core transformer eliminates loss due to hysteresis in the core material. .2.Air cores A physical core is not an absolute requisite and a functioning transformer can be produced simply by placing the windings near each other. an arrangement termed an "aircore" transformer. They're also used for resonant transformers such as Tesla coils where they can achieve reasonably low loss in spite of the high leakage inductance.36 4. The leakage inductance is inevitably high. and are frequently employed in radio-frequency applications.Windings Windings are usually arranged concentrically to minimize flux leakage. and so such designs are unsuitable for use in power distribution.1.2.2.
37 Cut view through transformer windings. The conducting material used for the windings depends upon the application. Each strand is individually insulated. White: insulator. Since most cores are at least moderately conductive they also need insulation. High-frequency transformers operating in the tens to hundreds of kilohertz often have windings made of braided Litz wire to minimize the skin-effect and proximity effect losses. Large power transformers use multiple-stranded conductors as well. For small power and signal transformers. Larger power transformers operating at high voltages may be wound with copper rectangular strip conductors insulated by oil-impregnated paper and blocks of pressboard. each portion occupies different relative positions in the complete conductor. and reduces eddy current losses in the winding itself. Green spiral: Grain oriented silicon steel. or throughout the whole winding. in which currents are low and the potential difference between adjacent turns is small. but E-core would be similar. and the strands are arranged so that at certain points in the winding. The stranded conductor is also more flexible than a solid conductor of similar size. Right: C-core. Bottom left: Reduction of leakage inductance would lead to increase of capacitance. The transposition equalizes the current flowing in each strand of the conductor. Top left: Toroidal transformer. aiding manufacture. Red: Secondary winding. Bottom: Lowest capacitance for one end of the secondary winding needed for low-power high-voltage transformers. such as Formvar wire. For signal transformers. the windings may be arranged in a way to minimize leakage . the coils are often wound from enamelled magnet wire. since even at low power frequencies non-uniform distribution of current would otherwise exist in highcurrent windings. but in all cases the individual turns must be electrically insulated from each other to ensure that the current travels throughout every turn. Black: Primary winding made of oxygen-free copper. Top: Equally low capacitance between all ends of both windings. The black windings are made of film.
one can replace air spaces within the windings with epoxy. Audiofrequency transformers. By impregnating the transformer with epoxy under a vacuum. called taps. Both the primary and secondary windings on power transformers may have external connections. but at increased manufacturing cost. In power distribution transformers the taps may be connected to an automatic on-load tap changer for voltage regulation of distribution circuits. used for the distribution of audio to public address loudspeakers. 4. This produces transformers more suited to damp or dirty environments. thus sealing the windings and helping to prevent the possible formation of corona and absorption of dirt or water.3Coolant . A center-tapped transformer is often used in the output stage of an audio power amplifier in a push-pull circuit. have taps to allow adjustment of impedance to each speaker. This can be done by splitting up each coil into sections. This is known as a stacked type or interleaved winding. and those sections placed in layers between the sections of the other winding. Certain transformers have the windings protected by epoxy resin. to intermediate points on the winding to allow selection of the voltage ratio.38 inductance and stray capacitance to improve high-frequency response.2. Modulation transformers in AM transmitters are very similar.
Indoor liquid-filled transformers are required by building regulations in many jurisdictions to use a nonflammable liquid. Air-cooled dry transformers are preferred for indoor applications even at capacity ratings where oil-cooled construction would be more economical. non-toxic. causing power outages and losses. because their cost is offset by the reduced building construction cost. Small transformers do not generate significant heat and are cooled by air circulation and radiation of heat. or fluorinated hydrocarbons may be used at . Today. Polychlorinated biphenyls have properties that once favored their use as a coolant. some large transformers employ forced circulation of the oil by electric pumps.39 Cut-away view of three-phase oil-cooled transformer. or to be located in fire-resistant rooms. stable silicone-based oils. Oil-filled transformers may be equipped with Buchholz relays. part of the design problem is removal of heat. This helps prevent electrical breakdown under load. Some power transformers are immersed in transformer oil that both cools and insulates the windings. and burn. The oil is a highly refined mineral oil that remains stable at transformer operating temperature. rupture. High temperatures will damage the winding insulation. oil containment. Installations of oil-filled transformers usually include fire protection measures such as walls. sometimes assisted by fans. Oil-filled transformers undergo prolonged drying processes to ensure that the transformer is completely free of water vapor before the cooling oil is introduced. The oil reservoir is visible the top. and fire-suppression sprinkler systems. The oil-filled tank often has radiators through which the oil circulates by natural convection. Power transformers rated up to several hundred kVA can be adequately cooled by natural convective air-cooling. though concerns over their environmental persistence led to a widespread ban on their use. Oil-filled transformers may fail. aided by external fans or water-cooled heat exchangers. which detect gas evolved during internal arcing and rapidly de-energize the transformer to avert catastrophic failure. In larger transformers. Radiative fins aid the dissipation of heat.
The benefit is that the heating can be controlled very well and it is energy efficient. The vacuum makes it difficult to transfer energy (heat) to the insulation.2. The method is called Low . These are cooled by liquid nitrogen or helium. Some "dry" transformers (containing no liquid) are enclosed in sealed. There are several different methods of drying. but not the core steel loss. The benefit is that the entire process can be carried out at lower pressure and without influence of added oxygen. This is a method where current is injected in the windings and the resistance in the windings is heating up the insulation.40 where the expense of a fire-resistant liquid offsets additional building cost for a transformer vault.Insulation drying Construction of oil-filled transformers requires that the insulation covering the windings be thoroughly dried before the oil is introduced. Common for all is that they are carried out in vacuum environment.4. even transformers that were nominally filled only with mineral oils may also have been contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls at 10-20 ppm. Before 1977. maintenance equipment used for both PCB and oil-filled transformers could carry over small amounts of PCB. For distribution transformers which are smaller and have a smaller insulation weight. More common for larger transformers is to use evaporated solvent which condenses on the colder active part. The traditional drying is done by circulating hot air over the active part and cycle this with periods of vacuum (Hot Air Vacuum drying. resistance heating can be used. contaminating oilfilled transformers. Experimental power transformers in the 2 MVA range have been built with superconducting windings which eliminates the copper losses. pressurized tanks and cooled by nitrogen or sulfur hexafluoride gas. Since mineral oil and PCB fluid mix. 4. This process is commonly called Vapour Phase Drying (VPD). HAV). For this there are several different methods.
4. 4. which is normally 50 or 60 Hz. A large bushing can be a complex structure since it must provide careful control of the electric field gradient without letting the transformer leak oil. each with a capacity of 185MVA 42 .2.Terminals Very small transformers will have wire leads connected directly to the ends of the coils. A lower frequency reduces the affect of the inductance in the transformer and the voltage can be reduced.3 APPLICATIONS Image of an electrical substation in Melbourne. bus bars or high-voltage insulated bushings made of polymers or porcelain.5. Larger transformers may have heavy bolted terminals. Australia showing 3 of 5 220kV/66kV transformers.41 Frequency Heating (LFH) since the current is injected at a much lower frequency than the nominal of the grid. and brought out to the base of the unit for circuit connections.
4. transformers have shaped the electricity supply industry. regulation and a host of functions particular to specific applications. Transformers are also used extensively in electronic products to step down the supply voltage to a level suitable for the low voltage circuits they contain. In order to test that a transformer will meet its design specification.1. The transformer also electrically isolates the end user from contact with the supply voltage. transformers enable economic transmission of power over long distances. The principle of open-circuit (unloaded) transformer is widely used for characterisation of soft magnetic materials. Wires have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the square of the current through the wire. All but a tiny fraction of the world's electrical power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer. signal measurement. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage (and therefore low-current) form for transmission and back again afterward. Consequently. permitting generation to be located remotely from points of demand.3.Turns ratio Transformers are used in a wide array of electrical or electronic applications. for example in the internationally standardised Epstein frame method. a number of functions should be tested and one of the most commonly used tests is turns 43 . Audio transformers allowed telephone circuits to carry on a two-way conversation over a single pair of wires.A major application of transformers is to increase voltage before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through wires. providing functions that range from isolation and stepping up or stepping down voltage and current to noise rejection. Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such as microphones and record players to the input of amplifiers. A balun transformer converts a signal that is referenced to ground to a signal that has balanced voltages to ground. such as between external cables and internal circuits.
3. This technical note will review briefly the basic theory of turns ratio and then introduce some additional issues that should be considered when testing this critical transformer characteristic. while applying a known rms input voltage of an appropriate frequency to another winding. the ratio of the physical turns on any winding could be established simply by measuring the rms output voltage on one winding.3.Basic Theory The turns ratio of a transformer is defined as the number of turns on its secondary divided by the number of turns on its primary. 4. A step-down transformer is one whose secondary voltage is lower than its primary voltage and a transformer that steps down voltage will step-up current.2. A step-up transformer is one whose secondary voltage is greater than its primary voltage and a transformer that steps up voltage will step-down current. 4. Vp = primary voltage. 44 . The voltage ratio of an ideal transformer is directly related to the turns ratio The current ratio of an ideal transformer is inversely related to the turn’s ratio Where Vs = secondary voltage.Factors Affecting Turns Ratio Measurements With a theoretical. “ideal” transformer. Is = secondary current.ratio. Ns = number of turns in the secondary winding and Np = number of turns in the primary winding. The turns ratio of a transformer therefore defines the transformer as stepup or step-down.3. Ip = primary current.
plus the electrical components that represent various additional properties of the transformer. Unfortunately. L2 and L3 represent the primary and secondary leakage inductance caused by incomplete magnetic coupling between the windings. and C3 represent the interwinding capacitance. R2 and R3 represent the resistance (or copper loss) of the primary and secondary windings. Lp represents the magnetizing inductance core loss. C2. with the ideal transformer component shown in the center. (increases with frequency). however. the ratio of the input to output voltages would be equal to the physical turns ratio of these windings. C1. R1. “real” transformers include a number of electrical properties that result in a voltage or current ratio that may be not equal to the physical turns ratio.Under these conditions. hysteresis loss (increases with flux density) and residual loss (partially due to resonance). 45 . The following schematic diagram illustrates the electrical properties of a real transformer. • • • • L1.
) calculated from the squared root of the inductance values.g.g. 2:1. 2:1. 4.3. The results are then presented as a ratio (e.TR (turns ratio).4.3. 4. etc.3. 2.3.LVOC (low voltage open circuit). it can be seen that no single measurement technique will fully satisfy all turns ratio questions. For this reason.4Types of Turns Ratio Tests When considering the range of elements shown in the transformer schematic and considering also the varying requirements of different transformer applications. Phase is also measured: ‘in-phase’ (positive polarity) and ‘anti phase’ (negative polarity). The results are then presented as a ratio of turns (e.7. Voltech AT series transformer testers offer five different turns ratio measurement techniques.5.g. which can be selected individually to meet specific needs. 5:1. reads the voltage induced in the secondary winding and presents the results as a secondary voltage (e.) Voltech AT testers do this by dividing one voltage by the other while compensating for winding resistance. 4. This test applies a voltage to the primary winding.phase’ (positive polarity) and ‘anti-phase’ (negative polarity). 5:1. etc. Phase is also measured: ‘inphase’ (positive polarity) and ‘anti-phase’ (negative polarity). 46 . Phase is also measured:‘in. This test energizes any chosen winding at a specified voltage and measures the induced voltage on any other winding.545V).TRL (turns ratio by inductance). This test separately energizes two selected windings and measures the inductance value of each winding.6.
the test is suitable for testing lowfrequency power transformers.phase’ (positive polarity) and ‘antiphase’ (negative polarity).Phase is also measured: ‘in-phase’ (positive polarity) and ‘anti-phase’ (negative polarity). This test. will control an external AC source or step-up transformer for testing higher power and higher voltage transformers up to 600V and 10A.4. capable of energizing a winding at voltages up to 270V.3.3.VOCX (voltage open circuit with external source . 4.VOC (voltage open circuit . 47 . This test uses the same principal as LVOC but by using a high-power generator. Phase is also measured: ‘in.AT3600 only). which is used in conjunction with the Voltech AC Interface Fixture.9.AT3600 only).8.
the rotor does not receive electric power by conduction but by induction in exactly the same way as the secondary of a 2binding transformer receives its power from primary that is why such motor are known as induction motors.1 Introduction Of Induction Motor Conversion of Electric power into Mechanical power takes place in the rotating part.e one primary winding is stationary but the secondary is free to rotate.1. an induction motor can be treated as a rotating transformer i.1.c. It’s starting torque is some what inferior to that of a d. It requires less maintanence.DISADVANTAGES • • • It’s speed can not be varied with out sacrificing some of its efficiency Just like d. Of an electric motor . motors. It’s cost is low and it is very reliable.shunt motor. in which 5.1. its speed decrease with increase in load. motor.INDUCTION MOTOR 5.c.c. Advantages • • • It is very simple and unbreakable construction. However in Ac motors. hence in this sence.shunt motor. the polyphase induction motor is the one which is extensively use for various kinds of industrial drives.2.c. 5. . motor can be called a Conduction motor. In fact. the electric power is conducted directly to the armature (rotating part) through brushes commutator. a d.c. Of all the a. In d.
CONSTRUCTIONS An induction motor consists essentially of two main parts (a) Stator (b) Rotor Fig for induction motor 5. which is of constant magnitude but which revolves ( rotates) at synchronous speed (given by NS=120f/p). The stator carries a three. when supplied with three-phase current.m.Stator: The stator of an induction motor is.f in the rotor mutual induction. Greater the no of poles. It is wound for a definite no of poles.(a). lesser the speed and vice-versa.2.phase winding and is fed from a three-phase supply. . This revolving magnetic flux induces an e. in principle. produce a magnetic flux. The exact no of poles being determined by the requirements of speed. the same as that of a synchronous motor or generator.48 5.2. The stator windings. It is made up of a no of stampings which are slotted receive the windings.
it should be noted clearly. thus giving us. (2). a squirrel-case construction .Squirrel cage rotor: Almost 90% of induction motors are squirrel-cage type. what is so picturesquely called. Rotor consists of a cylindrical laminated core with parallel slots for carrying for rotor conductors which. rather the bars are insered from the end when semi-closed slots are used.2. are not wires but consist of heavy bars of copper. aluminium or alloys.Rotor: There are two types of rotor they are as follow (1). motors employing this type of rotor are known as squirrel cage induction motor.The rotor bars are brazed or electrically welded or bolted to two heavy and stout short-circuiting end-rings.2. because this type of rotor has the simplest and most rugged construction imaginable and is almost and in almost indestructible. 5. One bar is placed in each slot.(b1). .(b).Phase-wound or wound rotor.Squirrel cage-rotor.49 5. motors employing this type of rotor are variously known as ‘Phase-wound ‘motors or ‘wound motors’ or as ‘slip-ring’ motors.
50 Fig for 5.(b2) Squirrel cage rotor and phase wound motor 51 .(b1) &5.2.2.
Phase wound motor: This type of rotor is provided with 3-phase. The rotor is wound for as many poles as the number of stator poles and is always wound 3-phase even when the stator is wound two phase. double-layer.These makes possible the introduction of additional resistance in the rotor circuit during the starting period for increasing the staring torque of the motor.2. The other three winding terminals are brought out and connected to three insulated to three slip-rings mounted on the shaft with brushes resting on them.5. 52 .(b2). The three phases are starred internally. distributed winding consisting of coils as used in alternators.
47 0.1. The choice of turn ratio is the key in creating the requisite phase displacement in the output phases.68 0. The input phases are designated Primary Phase-X Phase-Y Secondary a1a2 a4 a3 b1b2 b4b3 b5b6 Turn Ratio N P / NS 1 0.24 SWG 17 15 17 17 17 17 17 Phase-Z c1c2 c4 c3 c5c6 .MODELLING OF CASE STUDY 6. The construction of output phases with requisite phase angles of 72 between each phase is obtained using the appropriate turn ratio. The turn ratios are different in each phase.24 0.68 0. The connection scheme of secondary windings to obtain a star output is illustrated in Fig.WINDING ARRANGEMENT FOR FIVE-PHASE STAR OUTPUT Three separate cores are designed with each carrying one primary and three secondary coils.858 0. Six terminals of primaries are connected in an appropriate manner resulting in star and/or delta connections and the 16 terminals of secondaries are connected in a different fashion resulting in star or polygon output.858 0. 2 and the corresponding pharos diagram is illustrated in Fig. 3. except in one core where only two secondary coils are used.
The Five-phase to Three-phase transmission is obtained by using following equations. “D”. “B”. Va = Vmax sin(ωt ) Vb = Vmax sin(ωt + Vc Vd Ve Vx 2π ) 5 4π = Vmax sin(ωt + ) 5 4π = Vmax sin(ωt − ) 5 2π = Vmax sin(ωt − ) 5 = Vmax sin(ωt ) 2π ) 3 2π Vz = Vmax sin(ωt − ) 3 Vy = Vmax sin(ωt + 54 .with letters “X” “Y”. The output phase “D” is obtained by the phasor addition of winding voltages and similarly output phase “E” results from the pharos sum of the winding voltages and in this way five phases are obtained. the output phase “A” is along the input phase “X”. As illustrated in Fig. The output phase “B” results from the phasor sum of winding voltage “ ” and “ ”. and “E”. 3. “C”. and “Z” and the output are designated with letters “A”. the output phase “C” is obtained by the phasor sum of winding voltages .
2.MATLAB DESING OF CASE STUDY AND RESULTS 22.214.171.124.Matlab Desing 55 .
2.Outputs Three phase input voltage 56 .2.6.
Output five phase load voltage 57 .
Output five phase load current 58 .
Source current 59 .
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Five-phase transmission is standard power quality efficient. Power transformation is uniform compare to three-phase. Power factor nearer to unity. High torque application. It converts electrical energy to mechanical energy
Five-phase starting capacity is more than three-phase. Motor vibrations also decreases. Single-phase self starting rotor. Three-phase starting torque is less.
8. Initial torque and speeds are high.Future Scope By the use of Five phase supply the Induction Motor with five phase is giving high torque and Power Factor moves to unity. The connection scheme and the phasor diagram along with the turn ratios are illustrated. 61 .1. It is expected that the proposed connection scheme can be used in drives applications and may also be further explored to be utilized in multiphase power transmission systems.Conclusion This paper proposes a new transformer connection scheme to transform the three-phase grid power to a five-phase output supply. A five-phase induction motor under a loaded condition is used to prove the viability of the transformation system.2. The successful implementation of the proposed connection scheme is elaborated by using simulation and experimentation.torque is high. after certain stage speed is low.FUTURE SCOPE AND CONCLUSION 8. .
Power Electronics. vol. pp. Conf. no. no. 116.” Proc.” Renew. K. 400– 408. 62 . Dec. Basic.. Yadav.” Elect. vol. Power Syst. E.a feasibility analysis Part-I-Steady state considerations.  J. Emerging Elect. Saini.  G. Singh.  G. Sani. B. Appl.” IEEE Trans Ind.” IEEE Trans. “Analysis of saturated multiphase (sixphase) self excited induction generator.” IEEE Trans. 1605–162. Singh. 2004. 107–114. Harer.” in Proc. 1922–1927. on Electric Machines and Systems. K. 2006. 7. Stewart and D. 12–15. 69. B.. “Capacitive self-excitation in six-phase induction generator for small hydro power-an experimental investigation. “Modelling and analysis of multiphase (six-phase) self-excited induction generator. no. K. China. 2003. no. 2005. Sani.  G.. Eight Int. and R. “PWM-VSI inverter-assisted stand-alone dual stator winding induction generator. 6. Sep. Yadav. P. PAS-97. 2. Jul. India. K. 6. vol. Boardman. no. B. 2300–2307. K.” Int. 6. P.  G. “Transient performance study of brushless doubly fed twin stator generator. Jul. “Self excited induction generator research. 1969. J. “Modelling and experimental analysis of a self excited six-phase induction generator for standalone renewable energy generation. Singh.  D. J. Power Syst. Syst. Yadav. Zhu. Ojo and I. Singh. 2008. vol.  G. New Delhi. Energy.BIBLIOGRAPHY  E. Nov. pp.. “Preliminary investigation of an inverter-fed 5-phase induction motor. Article 5. 36./Dec.” presented at the IEEE Conf. and R. 3.. K. no. pp.  O. E. Elect. Eng. Nov. and G. G. 18. and R. 33.. “High phase order transmission. Drives and Energy Systems for Industrial Growth— 2006 (PEDES-2006) PaperA. D. vol. Res. 7. Singh. pp. 2006. vol. Energy Convers. 1604–1611. 2000. Inst. pp.20. R. Power App.a survey. (CD-ROM). 1978. P. Ward and H. K. K. vol. pp. Davidson.Wilson.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.