BIBLIOTHECA PASTORUM.

VOL.
I.

THE ECONOMIST OF XENOPHON.

BIBLIOTHECA PASTORUM
EDITED BY

John Ruskin,
HONORARY STUDENT OP CHRIST CHURCH, OXFORD.

VOL.

Hazell. Watson,

&

Viney, Printers, London and Aylebury.

Stack Annex

Pfl

CONTENTS.

PACK

EDITOR'S PREFACE

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

vii

TRANSLATORS' PREFACE

.

,

xlv

CHAPTER
OF ECONOMY
IS
;

I.

THE MANAGEMENT OF PROPERTY, THAT WHATEVER IS OF USE TO A MAN, BUT IS OF NO
I

VALUE TO SUCH AS ARE SLAVES TO THEIR PASSIONS

CHAPTER
OF TRUE WEALTH
:

II.

NOT THAT WHICH BRINGS WITH

IT

TROUBLE AND. TOIL, BUT THAT OF THE PROVIDENT AND THRIFTY ECONOMIST WHERE SUCH IS TO BE LEARNED
:

9

CHAPTER

III.

OF THE VIRTUES AND RESULTS OF ECONOMY ABROAD AND AT HOME; AND THE SHARE OF THE WIFE THEREIN

l6

viii

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

XV.
PACK
:

OF PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE IN STEWARDS GENTLE COURTESY OF AGRICULTURE

AND THE
93

CHAPTER
LAND

XVI.
SOIL.

HOW TO LEARN THE NATURE OF THE

OF FALLOW
97

CHAPTER

XVII.
.

OF THE SEASONS AND MANNER OF SOWING

.

.

IOI

CHAPTER

XVIII.
. .

OF REAPING, THRESHING AND WINNOWING

.107

CHAPTER

XIX.

OF PLANTING TREES, AND ESPECIALLY VINES, OLIVES, AND FIGS. HOW THAT AGRICULTURE IS EASY TO

LEARN

.

.

..-.'.

.

'.

.

.

.

.111

CHAPTER
IS

XX.

HOW THAT CAREFULNESS, RATHER THAN KNOWLEDGE,
THE SECRET OF TRUE SUCCESS
.

.

.

.

Il8

CHAPTER

XXI.
IS

HOW THAT THE ART OF MANAGING MEN

DIFFICULT

OF ATTAINMENT, AND IN SOME MEASURE GIVEN OF GOD

126

INDEX

...

137

EDITOR'S PREFACE.

'T^HE
classic

Athenian
readers,

writing,
is

here
first

presented
of

to

Saxon
books

the

a

series

of

which
of

I

hope
British

to

make

the

chief

domestic

treasures

peasants.

But to
this

explain the tenor, and
hope,
I

show the grounds, of
'

must say
rightly

in

what sense the word
to

classic'

may
'

be

applied

Books,

and

the word

peasant' to Britons.

The word

'classic,'
it

when

justly

applied

to

a

book, means that

contains an unchanging truth,
as
at
it

expressed
of
the

as

clearly
living

was possible
time

for

any

men

the
it.

when

the

book

was

written, to express

'Unchanging' or 'eternal'
relates

truth,
least
:

is

that

which

to

constant,

or

at

in

our

human

experience constant.

things

and which,

therefore,

X
though
remains
is

EDITOR
foolish

S

PREFACE.
long
all

men may

lose

sight

of

it,

the

same through
as

their

neglect,

and

again

recognized
fit

inevitable
is

and unalterable,

when

their

of folly
in

past.

The books which
enigmatic
fact,

a beautiful manner, whether
contain

or

direct,
in

statements
careful
is

of

such

are
;

delighted

by

all

and honest
a
necessary

readers

and
in

the

study

of them

element
in

the education

of wise and

good men,

every age and country.

Every nation which has produced highly trained
Magi,
or
it

wise

men,

has

discerned,

at

the

time

when
system

most
of

flourished,

some

part of
it

the great

universal
in

truth,

which
to
it

was

then,

and only then,
pletely
;

the

condition
in

discern

comthat

and the books
remain
:

which

recorded
for

part

of truth

established

ever

;

and

cannot be superseded

so

that

the knowledge of
is

mankind,

though

continually

increasing,

built,

pinnacle after pinnacle, on the foundation of these

adamant stones of ancient
of progressive
in
tfte

soul.

And
we

it

is

the law

human

life

that

shall

not build

air

:

but on the already high-storied temple

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
of the

xi

thoughts of our ancestors

;

in

the crannies
for

and under the eaves of which we are meant,
the

most

part,

to

nest

ourselves

like

swallows

;

though

the

stronger of

us sometimes

may

bring,

for increase of height,
in

some small white

stone,

and
is

the

stone

a

new

name

written.

Which

indeed done, by those ordered

to

such

masonry,
all

without vainly attempting
has been

the

review of

that

known

before

;

but never without modest
;

submission to the scheme of the eternal wisdom
nor ever in any great
trained

degree,

except

by persons
of the

reverently

in

some

large

portion

wisdom of the

past.
*

The

classical

scriptures

and

pictures

hitherto

produced among

men have been
namely, Athens,

furnished

mainly

by

five

cities,

Rome,

Florence,
it

Venice, and London,
is

the history of which cities
all

therefore

necessary for
Hitherto,

well-trained

scholars
it

to

know.
indeed
As
distinct

by

all

such
;

scholars,

has
*

been
from

partially
I

known

but

by help

inspired.

do not know, and much wiser

people than I do not know, what writings are inspired, and what But I know, of those I have read, which are classical, are not.
belonging to the eternal senate
;

and which are

not.

XII

KDITORS PREFACE.
recent
discoveries

of

we

may now
and

learn
to

these
better

histories

with

greater
;

precision,

practical

advantage

such

practical

issue

being
in

our

first

aim

in

the historical

classes instituted

the schools of the society called 'of St. George.'

These
Fors

schools,
for

as

elsewhere

explained,

(see

Clavigera

August

1871,

page
in

14,)
all

are

for the education of British

peasants*

know-

ledge proper to their

life,

distinguished
office

from that

of the burger only as the
of the body
it

of each

member

is

distinct
vitally

from the others on which
depends.

nevertheless

The
town

unloving
life
is

separation

between
:

country
in

and

a

modern barbarism
were,

classic

times,

cities

never
the

or

will

be,

separate in
;

interest

from
heart

countries

they

rule

but

are

their

and

sanctifying force.

The Metropolis
the
chief

is

properly the
the
nation's

city

in
is

which
built
;

temple

of

God

(cathedral cities being minor branches of the living

whole).
*

Thither the tribes go up, and under the
:

Or
I

sailors

but

it

remains questionable with
life

me

at

present

far the occupation of entire

on the sea

is

desirable for any

how man

:

and

do not here

therefore

make any

distinction.

EDITOR
shield,

S

PREFACE.

Xlll

and

in

the loving presence, of their Deity, the

men

of highest power and truest honour are gathered

to frame the laws,

and

direct the acts, of State.

Modern

theologians, with proud sense of enlightenin
is

ment, declare,
tions, that

denial of these

ancient imagina-

God

everywhere.

David and Solomon,

even

in

their

days of darkness, were not ignorant
designed
if

of this
to the

;

yet

and

built

a

local

temple

God who,
;

they went up
their

into
in

Heaven
was

was there
there also.

if

they
if

made

bed

Hell,

And

the promise

of the
;

One who
and, where

was greater than the Temple be two or three are gathered
is

fulfilled

in

His name, there

He

in the

midst of them, with a more than universal

Presence,

how much more must
name
;

it

be

fulfilled

where

many

are gathered in His
;

and those gathered
;

always

and those the mightiest of the people
its

and

those mightiest, to judge

most solemn judgments,
;

and

fulfil

its

fatefullest acts

how

surely,

I

repeat,

must
versal

their

God be

always, with a

more than
?

uni-

Presence, in the midst of these
is
it

Nor

difficult

to

show, not only that
these
five

the
cities

virtue -and

prosperity

of

great

xiv

EDITOR'S PREFACE.

above named have been always dependent on, or at
least

contemporary with, their unquestioning
a
protecting Deity had
their
its

faith

that

abode
their
St.

in

their

Acropolis,

Capitol,
St.

and

cathedral

churches of St Mary,

Mark, and

Peter

;

but

that the whole range of history keeps no record of

a city which has retained power after losing such
conviction.

From
its

that

moment,

its activities

become
and the

mischievous,
multiplied

acquisitions burdensome,
its

swarms of
of
skull.
its

inhabitants
like

disgrace the
ants'

monuments
built in

majesty,

an

nest

a

The

following noble passage out of the Fourth

Book of the Laws of Plato expresses the ancient
faith,

and,

I

-myself doubt not, the eternal

fact,

in

the simplest terms.

(The Athenian speaks.)
be done.

"

As you

say,

shall

it

Well then, we have received the fame
life

of the blessed

of those then in being,
to them,

how

all

things were without stint

and

all

things
is

grew
to

free.

And

the cause of these things
that

said

have been

this,

Kronos, knowing,
story,)

(as

we

before

went

through

the

that

no

human

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
nature was so strong but that,
alone to order
thing
these
if

xv
appointed
itself

human

affairs,

it

must
;

fill

every-

with
things,

insolence
I

and
the

injustice

considering
the kings

say,

God gave

for

and

rulers of cities,

not men, but, of diviner and
;

better race than men, angels

just as

now we do
herds
of
all

ourselves

for

the

flocks,

and
for

the

creatures that are
lord of oxen,
like

tame

:

we make
;

not the ox

nor the goat of goats
in

and

so,

in

manner, the God,
race
;

His love to man, set a
above
us,

better

than

ours
its

that

of
to

the
ours,

angels

which, to
us,

own

great joy and

taking care of

and giving us peace, and shame,
frankness of justice,
in

and

order,

and

full

made

the

races of

men

free

from sedition, living
in

gladness.

And
to

this

word, rich
for

usage
as

of truth, goes on

say,

that,

such

cities
is

no

angel,

but

a

mortal, governs, there
evil

no possible avoidance of

and of pain."
state
itself,

Such being the
built

and

sanctity
its

of

a

city

at

unity with

and with
is

God, the
undivided
delight

state

and serenity of the peasant
it.

in

peace with

Withdrawn,

either

for

or

xvi

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
labour,

for

from
figtree

the

concerns of policy, he
vine
;

lives

under his

and

or

in

pastoral
:

and
con-

blossomed land, flowing with milk and honey
fident
in

the guidance of his
in

household gods, and

rejoicing

the

love

of the

Father of

all,

satis-

fying

him with

blessings

of the breast and of the
fulness of the basket

womb, and crowning him with
and the
store.

All which conditions and beliefs have been, are,

and

will

be to the end of

this

world,
life

parts
is

and

causes of each other.

Whatsoever
consists

in

man,
and
con-

has

arisen

from

them,

in

them,
these
as

prolongs
ditions
perish,
it

them evermore.
exist,

So
lives
;

far

as

the

world

so
love,

far

they

it

perishes.
:

By

faith,

by

by

industry,
idleus,

endures
it

by
;

-infidelity,

by hatred, and by
daily
;

ness,

dies
for

and

that

now around
in

visibly,

the

most

part,

lying

such

dismal

death

;

the temple of the city being changed into the
fields

a den of thieves, and
into a labouring

of the

country

ground of

slaves.

How
will

long the Holy and True Lord of Creation
these

endure

things

to

be

so,

none of us

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
can
in

xvii

anywise
Creation,

know.

But
the
us,

the

constant
tenor
of

laws

of that
statutes,

and
all

written

His
learn
is

we can

of
first

who
all

will,

both

and obey.
that

And

the

of
the

these

statutes
shall
is

by the
:

sweat

of

brow we
field

eat
first

bread

and the economy of the
therefore,

the

science,

that
to

we have
learn.

in

the course of

righteous

education,
in

Which

economy

has
will

been,

terms

that

cannot be mended, and
stated

receive

no
a

addition,
at
;

by an Athenian
of
philosophy,

gentleman,

master

once

of

war, and of agriculture

and

this

statement two of

my

youthful scholars at Oxford
Scottish,
in

one English, the

other

good

love,

and

obedience

to

my
is

wish, have translated, with

painful addition to
:

their

own proper work

at

the University

and

it

published in this spring-time,

1876, for the per-

petual service of the
all

peasantry of Britain, and of
is,

countries where their language

or

may

here-

after

be

known, and
of

into

which
life

the

happiness
hereafter

and

honour

agricultural

may

extend.

What

it

is

needful

for

us

to

know, or possible
b

x\iii

EDITORS PREFACE.
us to conceive, of
the
life

for

and mind of

its

author, can be

known

or imagined

only so far as

we

recognize the offices of teaching entrusted to his
I

country.

do not know enough of Greek history
to

to be able

give

any approach to a conclusive
relations of

abstract of the mental
to each other
relations are
:

Greek

districts

but the scheme under which those
at present in

mapped out

my

mind
For

is

one of many, good
does not matter

for first tenure of

them.

it

how many

of the branches of any

richly-growing tree of knowledge are laid hold of
in the beginning, so

only that you grasp what your

hand has

first

seized, securely.

Other gatherers

will

approach to bend more down from another side
all

;

must be content

to recognize

that

they touch,
after
all.

to begin with, few out of

many, and can only

long patience trace the harmonious growth of

You

will

find,

then,

that

it

is

useful

in

the

outset to conceive the whole of Greek as

living soul

divided

into

three
at

orders
;

:

the

vocal,

or or

Apolline,

centred

Delphi

the
;

constructive,

Athenian, centred at
or

Athens
at

and

the

domestic,
three

Dcmetrian,

centred

Sparta.

These

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
spiritual

xix
brief

Powers

taught

the

Greeks,

(in

terms,)

Speech, Art, and Conduct.

The
is

Delphic
Python,

Power
the

is

Truth

;

its

antagonist

the

corrupting
is

or

deceiving

Serpent.*

The Athenian Power
antagonists,

the
are
is

Grace of
the

Deed

;

its

the

giants,

con-

fusions of Deed.

The Spartan Power
is

the Grace

of Love

;

its

adversary
of

the

Betrayer of Love.
contain
the

The
myths

stories

Argos
betrayal,
ideal

and
of of

Sparta
its

of

this

punishment,

and

redemption.

The
is

simplest
time,

and

happiest

domestic

life,

given for

all

and recognized

as being so, in the later strength of the Peloponnese.

Brief of syllable,

and narrow of range, the Doric

word and Arcadian reed remain measures of lowly
truth in the

words and ways of men.
the
spiritual

This
great
respect
sarily

being

relation
social

of the

three
in

powers
of

of

Greece,

their

relation,

forms of government, of course necesit.

follows from

The Delphic power
so

is

the

Greek

Theocracy
in

:

expressing

much

as

God

* Falsehood
physical.

the

Read Turner's
its

moral world being what corruption is in the picture of the death of the Python with

that clue to

meaning.

xx
had
appointed

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
that

the

Greeks should

know of

Him, by the mouths of Hesiod and Pindar.
Ionian
or Attic
race

The
of

express

all

the

laws

human
states

government,
of

developed

in

the
first

highest

human
and
the

art.

These are
in

founded
of

on

industry

justice

the
at

dominion

jEacus

over

ant-made race

ygina, and
in

on

earth-born

sagacity
;

and

humanity
in chivalric

the

kingship of Cecrops

fulfilled

heroism

by Codrus and Theseus, whose crowning victory
is

over the
the

forms of
art

evil

involved

and defended
statue,

by

skil fullest

;

and
art

whose
itself,

the

central

labour

of

that
to

has

been

appointed

by Fate
model
while,
in

remain

the

acknowledged
to

culmen

and
:

of

human

labour,

our

own days
race

their

scriptures,

the

Ionian

recorded
patience,

the
in

two
the

ideals
stories

of of

kingly passion
Achilles

and

and

Ulysses, (both

under the sweet guidance of their
Goddess)
;

own

tutelar

the

ideal

of

legal

dis

cipline,*

under the dominion of the Cretan king
in the

*

Here, and

world to come.

The

analysis of the three forms

of impitty, and of due relative punishment, in the tenth book of the

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
Minos, whose daughter taught their hero the
of victory
;

xxi

way

and the

final

facts

yet discovered by

men
soul

respecting the connection of the state of the
in

future

life,

with

its

art

and

labour

in

that of the world.

To
the

the hands of this race, in
their
its

life,

is

entrusted

delivery of

country,* and

to

the work

of their hands,

material immortality.

The

third

race,

of the
as

Isle

of

Shade,

f

gave

example of such
and
noble
their

life

was best

for uncultivated

simple

persons,
virtues

rendering such
of
to

untaught

life

by the
laws
of

endurance

and
the

silence

;

sanctified their

them
;

by

voluntary
authority

death

lawgiver

and
a

their

over conduct, not vested
a dual

in

single king,

but in

power,

expressive
as

of

such mutual counsel
in

and

restraint

must

be

wise

lowliness

of

Laws,
wise
*.

will

be found to sum, or supersede,
legislature

all

later

conclusions of

human

on such matters.
all

Plato rightly

makes

depend on Marathon
in

;

but the opinions he
it

expresses of Salamis,
to me,
in great

and of oarsmen

general, though,

seems

part unjust, ought yet to be carefully studied

by the

University crews.
'

f
all

Isle of the

Dark-faced.'

Pelops

;

the key to the

meaning of

its

myths

is

the

dream of Demeter

at the

fean of Tantalus.

EDITORS PREFACE.
estate

and

narrowness
sanctified

of

instruction

;

this

dual

power
in

being

by
the

the

fraternal
;

bond
proin

the

persons
in
its

of

Dioscuri
or

and
form,
in

longed,

consulting,
.of

consular

the

government

Rome,

which

is

Italy

the Spartan, as Etruria the Attic power.

Finally,

both

in

Sparta
in

and

Rome

the

religion

of

all

men

remains

uninformed
fulfilment

simplicity,

setting

example of the
patriotic
in

of

every domestic
of earthly love, of the
dark,

and and
yet

duty

for

the
the

sake

obedience

to

command

kind,

Demeter,

who

promises no reward of pain,

but honour, nor of labour, but peace.

Having

fixed,

then,

clearly

in

our

minds,

the

conception of this triple division of Greece, consider

what measure of the perpetual or enduring knowledge of the
earth

has

been

written,

or

shown,

by these

three powers.

The
Pindar,

Oracular,
set

by the
the
to

mouths of Hesiod and

down
was

system of Theology which
fill

thenceforward

and

form

the

entire
distin-

range of the scholarly

intellect of

man, as

guished from the savage or pastoral.

EDITOR'S PREFACE.

xxiii

The
of the

general
Fates,

ideals

of the twelve great Gods,*
Sibyls,

Furies,
all

and

Muses,

remain
in

commandant of

action

of

human

intellect

the spiritual world,

down

to the

day when Michael

Angelo, painting the Delphic and Cumaean sibyls
in

equal
roof

vaults

with

Zechariah

and
;

Isaiah

on

the

of

the

Sistine

Chapel

and

Raphael,

painting the Parnassus and the Theology on equal
walls

of

the

same

chamber

of

the

Vatican,

so

wrote,

under the Throne of the Apostolic power,
teaching

the

harmony of the angelic

from

the

rocks of Sinai and Delphi, f

Secondly.

The Athenian,

or Constructive,
art,

Power

determined the methods of
beauty, for
*

and laws of ideal

all

generations
in

;

.

so that, in their central

Mr. Gladstone,
does not

common

with other passionately sentimenta

scholars,

recognize

the

power

ol

Hesiod,

thinking the

theology of Greece to have been determined by Homer.

Whereas

Homer

merely graces
;

the faith

of Greece with sweet legend, and
sincere, is the origin of

splendid fiction

and though himself

wanton

idealism in the future.

But Hesiod and Pindar wrote the Athanasian

Creed of the Greeks, not daring to dream what they did not wholly
believe.

What

they

tell us,

is

the Faith by which the Greeks lived,

and prevailed,
f

to this day, over all

kingdoms of mind.
former statements on this subject,

Any

reader acquainted with

my

(as for instance in

page 107,

vol.

iii.

'Stones of Venice') will under-

xxiv

EDITORS PREFACE.
to,

code, they cannot be added

nor diminished from.
vessel
fiat

From
of the
artist

the

meanest earthen
of
;

to

the

statue

ruler
is

Olympus, the

of the Greek

final

no poor man's water-pitcher can
otherwise

be

shaped

wisely

than

he
in

bids

;

and

the utmost raptures of imagination
tian

the

Chris-

labour of Giotto and
his virtue,

Angelico are

inflamed

by

and restrained by
or

his discretion.

Thirdly. before

The Demetrian,
the standards

Moral, Power

set

men

of manly self-command,
absolute

patriotic

self-sacrifice,

and

noblesse
life,

in

scorn

of pleasure, of wealth, of of
to

and of
in

for

the

sake
that

duty
late,

;

and

these

a

type

so
it

high,

in

degraded

Christendom,

has

begun
honour,

be inconceivable.
best saints
for

Even

in

her days of
the
pleasures
in

her

exchanged

of the world

an

equivalent,
joy.

and died
Spartan

the

hope of an eternal
stand

But

the

disci-

now why

I

do not republish those
I

earlier

books without very
it

important modifications.

imagined, at that time,

had been the

honour given to
of Italy.
nut

classical

tradition

which had destroyed the schools
it.

But

it

was, on the contrary, the disbelief of
for

She

fell,

by reverence

the

Gods of the Heathen, but by

infidelity

alike to them, and to her own.

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
plined
it

xxv

his

life

without complaint, and surrendered

without price.

Such being the
states,
it

classic

authority

of the

three

cannot but be wise for every statesman,
in

and every householder,

the present day, to
life

know

the details of domestic
authority
in

under

this

conclusive

Art and
life

Morals.
is

And
in

the

account
following
warrior,

of

that

domestic

given

the

pages

by

a

simple-minded
and,
in in

Athenian
sense
practical

philosopher,

the
the

strictest

of

the
light,

word,

poet,

who

most

and plain language, exhibits
of
it,

especially the

power

domestic
'

religion,

or
in

as

we

habitually term

family

worship/
race
I

a

household
St.

of
"
:

the

imaginative

of

whom
that

Paul
all

said

Ye
are,

Athenians,

perceive
others,

in

things
the

ye

more
God." *

than

reverent

of

angels

of

Respecting the sincerity of which family
I

worship,

beg
'

the
'

reader

to

be
'

sparing of his
angel,' in the sense of

* I translate

dalfjtuv

always by one word,

a personal spirit delegated in this service of God.
I

There

is

no need,

hope, to vindicate the rejection of our vulgar translation of the

text,

no

less

injurious to our conception

of
his

St.

Paul's

kindness of

address, than subversive of the

power of

argument.

xxvi
trust
all

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
i

in

the

comments of modern
which
have
born
I

historians

;

for

the

studies
religion

have

hitherto

noticed of
partly

Greek

been

either

by men
cerebral
;

cretinous,

and

without

the

organs
or else

necessary for receiving imaginative emotion

by persons whom the egotism of Judaic Christianity*
has prevented from understanding, as
it

was meant,

any

single religious

word which Egyptians, Greeks,

or Latins wrote, or so

much

as one sign or form

of their sculpture.

To

take a quite simple instance in classic work
says that a

;

When Horace
and

man

of upright conduct
;

stainless spirit
this,

needs no weapon

and that he

himself proved

because as he was walking in

the woods, Uiinking of his mistress, a monstrous wolf

met him, and shrunk away,
of readers suppose the whole
fiction,

the

profanest order
to be a pure to

poem

written

by way of a graceful compliment

Lalage.

The next
*

higher order of reader admires

and accepts, from the consent of former students,
the
first

verse,

as

a

very

grand

and

elevated

I use the

word 'Judaic'

as expressing the habit of fancying that

we

ourselves only

know

the true God, or possess the true faith.

EDITOR
sentiment
poetry,
;

S

PREFACE.
as

XXV11
beautiful

and

the

second,

very

written

with

sincere feeling under excited

imagination, but entirely without regard to facts.

A
the

reader of the third order

(omitting of course
in

crowds hazily intermediate

thought)
fact
;

per-

ceives that

Horace

is

stating

an actual
it

and

that he draws his corollary from
deliberate
life
:

in

the entirely
his

and confirmed temper of

religious

but proceeds to reason, from his

own

superior

knowledge,

on

the

self-deception

of

Horace, and

the absurdity of the heathen religion.
the fourth and centrally powerful
it

While only

reader imagines

to be

possible

that

he

may
did

himself
;

know no
and

more of

God than Horace
in

-discovers

acknowledges

his

own mind
it

the tendency to self-

deception, but with
instruction,
self,

also

the capacity of divine

and, feeling this teachableness in himit

admits

in

others

;

with the

still

more im-

portant admission, that the
all

Divine Being,

who

in

ages

made

the best
is

men

the most docile and

the most credulous,
that

not likely to have done so
their docility

He

might

amuse Himself with
lies.

by

telling

them

xxviii

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
the vitally practical question instantly

Whereupon
follows
:

Is

it

then true that a

man

upright and
wolf's

holy leads a

charmed
den
?

life ?

that the

path
his

and

the

lion's

shall

be safe to
angels
of

him

as

own

hearthside

that
lest

the

God

have

charge over him,
stone
terror
?

he dash his foot against a
shall

and that he

not

be

afraid

of the
flieth

by

night,

nor

of the

arrow that

by

day

?

Of

the arrow,

perhaps not,

thinks the cautious

Christian,
faith

who has even
;

timidly reached so far in

as this

but of a twenty-five-pounder shot,

he does not know.

The

breast-plate of Providence,

and rib-armour of God,

may

perhaps not be quite
in

strong enough to resist our last inventions,
kind, at

that

Shoebury

"
!

Wherepon
assurance
the
door,

let

us vote again
;

our

thirty

millions

of

money
without

and so
troubling

keep

the
for

wolf from

God

His assistance.
life,

His

disagreeable condisoul,

tions of integrity of

and purity of

may

then,
It

it

is

to be hoped, be dispensed with."
possible,
I

is

not

repeat,

for

men

in

this

diluted and poisoned condition of religious intellect

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
to
this

xxix
author

understand
subject,

a word

of any

classic

on

but perhaps least
assumes,
in

of
his

all,

Xenophon,

who

continually

unpretending

accounts of himself and his master, the truth of
principles,

and

the

existence of spiritual
lost

powers,

which existing philosophers have
to

even the wit Thus,
it

imagine, and the taste to
in

regret.

is

no question with Xenophon
Memorabilia, nor

the opening of the
it

does he

suppose

possible

to

be a question with the reader, whether there are

gods

or
or

not not

;

but only whether
it

Socrates

served

them

:

is

no question with him, setting
saviour,

out with the

army of which he became the

whether the gods could protect him or

not, but in

what manner
Nevertheless,

it

was

fittest

to ask their protection.
faith
in

the

Greek
still

the

days
the

of

Xenophon, retaining
of the
noblest

this
in

hold

on

minds
face

men,

stood

confusion
in

of

before the

scornful

populace,

led,

nearly every

mode
those

of thought,

by

rationalists corresponding to

now

vociferous

among
in

ourselves
the

;

and was
of a

on the eve of perishing
licentiousness which

pollution

made

the fabled virtues of the

xxx
gods
ridiculous,

EDITOR'S PREFACE.

and their fabled

faults

exemplary.
significance

That the reader may understand the
of this period
in

the

history of Greece, he
life

must

observe briefly the

laws of

hitherto

definable
force

among

races

inspired, or

informed,

by any

rendering them notable in history.

The

life

of

all

such inspired nations, hitherto,
sword-leaved
lilies.

has been

like

that of

First,

a cluster of swords, enclosing the strength of the
flower

between
in

its

stern edges

;

the

nation

also
is

wrapped
the
wars,

swaddling bands
the

of
of

steel.

This
first

time
the

of

Kings,

and
of

the

fiery
in

whole

being

the

people
in

knit

Draconian strength, and glittering
spartan
limb.

every serpent-

The second
its

era of the

lily

is

the springing of
buds,
hither

stem,

and
in

branching
hope.

into

and

thither,

rich

In like

manner, the conpeople springs

strained

force

of a
the
life.

great

nascent

from
a

among
of

sword-leaves,
It
is

and
time
of

rises

into

fountain

the

colonizacentral

tion;
heart.

every

bud beating warm from

the

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
"

xxxi
After that the
last,

First the blade, then

the ear.
first,

full

corn
full

"
?

Nay, but

and perhaps

the

flower.

For then comes the age of crown-

ing triumph, in labour of the hands, and song on
the
lips.

And

if

these be

faithful in

and

true,

and

the grace and word of

God be

them, then for
food
for
fairis

ever

the
;

full

corn
if

remains,

immortal

immortals
ness

but

they be untrue, then the
to-day
is,

of

the

flower

and

to-morrow

cast into

the oven.
five
cities,

Rapidly comparing the

whose story

we have
reaches
the
to

to learn

;

for

Athens, the Draconian time
of

to

the
at

death
the of

Codrus

;

for
for

Rome,

to

battle

Lake

Regillus
;

;

Florence,

the

death

Buondelmonte
on

for

Venice,

to

the

standard-planting
;

Byzantium

by Henry

Dandolo
Prince.

for

London,

to the death of the Black

Then
tion
;

for

each

comes

the

day of

Manifesta-

For Athens, For Rome,

The

Ionian migration, and Homer.
war, and
victories,

The Tyrian

Regulus.

For Florence, The year of

and Giotto.

xxxil

EDITORS PREFACE.
Her towers on
the >Egean
Isles,

For Venice,

and Carpaccio.

For London,

Her western
each,
their

sailors,

and Chaucer.

And

then,

for

crowning work,

and

noblest son,

For Athens,
For Rome,

Marathon, and Phidias.

Her empire, and

Virgil.

For Florence, The laws of commerce, and Dante. For Venice, For London,

The The

laws of state, and Tintoret. laws of

home

life,

and

Shakspeare.

And, of

all

these,

we have only now

to seek

among

the shreds of their fallen purple leaves, what seed
is

left
I

for years to

come.

trace rapidly, into such broad

map

as

I

may,*

the root-fibres of the Athenian and Dorian powers,

so

far

as

it

is

needed

for

the

purposes of this

book.

The Athenian
with
the
links

race

is

native,

and

essentially,
far

Etruscan,
joined
I

earth-born.

How

or

by

what

know

not, but their art

work

* It would be hopeless to expand these notes within
limits,

my present but as our Shepherd's Library increases, they will be illusby
piece.

trated piece

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
is

xxxiii

visibly

the

same

in

origin
in

;

entirely
folds
;

Dra-

conid,
is

Cecropian,

rolled

spiral

and

it

the root of the

Draconian energy

in the

living

arts of

Europe.
kingly period of Attic power extends from

The

Erysichthon and Cecrops to Codrus.
it

The myths

of

relate the birth of

Athenian

life

from the bright-

ness of the dew. and from the strength of the rock,
partly breaking through the grass* as envious of
it,

partly shading
sasso.'

it.

'Io
fifth

sono Aglauro, chi divenne

Theseus,

from
;

Erechtheus,

destroys
is

the spirit
abolished,
patriot
for

of brutal
in

pleasure

human

sacrifice

the divinest of sacrifices, that of the
country,
in

his

Codrus being exemplary
this

of
*

all

future

heroism

kind

;

of

Leonidas,

Read

the account of the
it

former Acropolis in the end of the

Critias,

and compare
its

with the incidental reference to the crocus
;

meadows under

rock, in the Ion

and read

both, if

you

can,

among

high Alpine pastures.

must

The few words by which find room here
:

Plato introduces the story of the Acropolis

"And

they, the Gods, having thus divided the Earth for their pos-

session, nourished us their creatures as flocks for their pastures, taking

us for their treasures and their nurslings

;

but not with bodily force

compelling our bodies, as shepherds ruling by the scourge, but in
the

way by which a

living thing

may

chiefly

be well bent, as

if

from

C

xxxiv
Curtius,
Grenville.

EDITORS PREFACE.
Arnold
of

Scmpach,

and

Sir

Richard

Against which voice of the morning winds and
the sun's lyre, the leathern throat of modern death,

choked
its

inch-thick with
"

putrid
is,

dust,

proclaims

in

manner,
is

Patriotism

nationally,

what

selfish-

ness

individually."

The time comes
to receive
(lovri Bij&fv

at last

for this

faithful

power
Ion,

the Dorian

inspiration

;

and then

on
to

o-vinjinero*)

leads the twelve tribes

of

Athens
vision

the

East.

There and
life

Homer crowns
gods
:

their
in

of the
city,

world,
practical

its

while,

their

own

begins

for

them

under
king
of

visible

kings.

For
for

,/Eschylus,

first

historic

of

Athens,

as

the
easily

first

historic

king
date,

Rome,

take the

same

remembered

750.
the high deck directing
it

by the rudder

;

thus they drove, and thus

helmed,
b Liter,

all

mortal beings.
in

And Hephxstus and
their love

Athena, brother and
art,

and of one mind,

of

wisdom and of

both
all

received the

same

lot in this land, as

a land homely and helpful to

strength of art and prudence of deed.

And

they making good

men

thus

out of the earth, put the order of state into their mind, whose names

indeed are

left

us

;

but of their story,

little."

Ion, 831.

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
Give two
the

xxxv
broadly,
to

hundred and
of
practical

fifty

years,

labour

discipline

under

these

kings,

beginning with

the

ninety years of

Draco,
(the

and consummated by
functions
rious

Pisistratus

and

Solon,
entirely
in

of

both

these

men

being

glo-

and

beneficial,
;

though

opposed

balance
fifth

to each other

)

and then

comes the great

century.

Now
that
its

note

the
In

dramas
its

that

divide

and

close
;

century.

tenth
;

year,
last,

Marathon
the

in

twentieth, Salamis

in

its

Retreat of
of the fol-

the

Ten Thousand

;

and

in

the

first

lowing century, the death of Socrates.

And
ever.
I

the purple flower

of

Athens

is

fallen,

for

next trace the Doric
;

life.

Not power of
music, passing

art,

but conduct, or harmony

its

away

as the voice of the stream

and storm, beneficent, but

leaving no shape.

Echo of Heaven, not foundation
walls of

of Earth,

it

builds the visionary
all

Thebes,
religious

by voice of Amphion, and
and
tragic

the
to
it.

Theban

oracles
essentially

belong

The
the

Theban

Heracles,

adverse to

serpent, not

xxvi
>orn

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
of
it
:

strangling

it

in

his

cradle
fulfils

in

its

eality,

not

wrapt
at

by

it

in

gold,*

his infaults

spired

labour
triple

Lerna.

The

fates

and

Df the

Heracleid dynasties in the Pelopontraced
;

nese

are

enough

by Plato

in

the

third

book of the Laws
infinite

but

he could not

know

the

importance to the future of the rock and
of
Corinth,

isthmus
Sparta.

no

less

than of the

vale

of

In

734,

Archias

of

the

Heracleidae
in

founds

Syracuse from
is

Corinth.

And

657,

Byzantium
Sicilian
side,

founded

from

Megara.
state

The
on
the of

whole
the

and
the

Magna

Graecian

one

Byzantine

empire

on

other,

virtually

spring
the

from

the

isthmus
the

Corinth.

Then,
learn

in

twelfth
in

century,
Sicily,

Normans
at

their

religion
*

the

Venetians

Byzantium.
:

Compare

the opposite powers in the

two passages

"

Mtv

'

rp4<fxif (sf. rtuva)."

turbft
'
'

Non te, rationis egentem " capitum circumstetit anguis
;

"

ratio

meaning the law of conduct

but the twisted serpents, the

inexplicable laws of art.

EDITOR'S PREFACE.

xxxvii
of
the

And
world,
spiral

for

ever,

in

the

temple
their

pillars

these

races

keep
;

sign.

The Ionian

from Erichthonius
Heracles
;

the Doric pillar-strength
Corinthians,

from
the

while
into

the
the

changing
of

Doric

ovolo

wicker
the

basket
leaf

the the

Canephora,
acanthus

and
instead

putting
of

earth

of

the

Erichthonian

spiral,

found

all

Christian
II.

architecture.
is

The

tomb of
porphyry

Frederick

of Sicily

of Corinthian

and gold.

Then

lastly.

At Nemea

the

Heracleid

power
itself
its

becomes peasant, or Arcadian,
to

and

submits

Demeter.

The Evandrian emigration founds
in

archaic

throne

Italy.

The

swine,

sacred

to
;

Demeter, are
the

seen

through the

woods of Tiber

Demetrian

kingdom becomes the Saturnian,*
power, essentially of practical and

and the

Roman

homely
Empire.

earth-life,

extends

itself

into

the

German

Now
of
*

the

especial

interest

of the

Arcadian

life

Xenophon
Remember
in the

(presented in this book) to the English
name Latium,
(/En. v
;

the

ar>d

word

Latin, as of the

Seed

hidden

ground.

ii.

322.)

xxxviii

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
its

reader, consists in

being precisely intermediate

between

the

warrior

heroism

of

nascent

Greece,
in

and the home-heroism of
its

pacified

Christendom

happiest days.

And

his

mind

represents the Greek intellect a
all

the exact

time when

fantastic

and disordered
in
its

imagination
leaving only
in

had

been

chastised

faith

;

a firm trust in

the protection, belief

the oracles, and joy in the presence, of justly
:

venerated Gods

no wantonly indulged rationalism
the

having

yet

degraded
into

nobles

of the
at

race

of

jEschylus,

scornful

mockers

the

Fear of

their Fathers'

And

it

represents the Greek moral

temper

at

the exact
experience,

moment when keen
having
alike

thought,
to
its

and

cruel

taught

warrior
peace,
that

pride

the

duty
could

and
lay

the

gladness
the
its

of

the
his

soldier

down
with
to

helmet
plume,
plough,

children
his

might

play

and

harness

chariot-horses
himself,

the

without
self-denials

ceasing,

from
or

the

knightly
for

of
the

his

order

;

yielding

a

moment
terrors,

to

lascivious

charms,
life

and

ignoble

with which peaceful

must be corrupted

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
in those

xxxix

who have never

held frank companionship

with attendant Death.

Written towards the term of days past
majestic temperance, the
will

in

this

book now

in

your hands

be found to contain three statements of most
truths
;

precious

statements
in

complete
classic

and

clear

beyond any others extant
It

literature.

contains,

first,

a faultless definition of Wealth,
its

and
on

explanation
the
merits

of

dependence
of
its

for

efficiency
;

and

faculties

possessor
;

definition

which
the

cannot

be

bettered

and

which

must

be

foundation
nations,

of
as

all

true
is

Political

Economy

among

Euclid

to

all

time the basis of Geometry.

This
ideal

book

contains, secondly, the

most perfect
government

of

kingly character and
literature

kingly

given in
or

known
For

to

me, either
is

by poet
chief

philosopher.

Ulysses
is

merely
to

Shepherd,- his

kingdom
extended

too

small
:

exhibit

any form

of

discipline

St.

Louis
reign

is

merely chief Pilgrim, and
earth
:

abdicates
is

his

on

Henry

the

Fifth

merely chief Captain,
inferior

and

has

scarcely

any idea of

orders

or

xi

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
of
authority.

objects

But

this

Cyrus of Persia,

himself faultless, conceives and
less

commands a

fault-

order of State powers, widely extended, yet in-

capable in their very nature of lawless increase, or
extension too great for the organic and active power
of the sustaining
life:

the State being one

human

body, not a branched, coralline, semi-mortified mass.

And
best

this

ideal

of government
but,
;

is

not only the

yet written,

as
all

far

as

may be
it

judged,

the best

conceivable
in
its

advance on

can only
it

be by

filling

details,

or adapting
it

to local

accidents

;

the

form

of

cannot

be

changed,

being one of dreadless Peace, inoffensive to others,

and at unity

in

itself.

Nor

is

there

any

visible

image of modest and
since,

mighty knighthood either painted or written
which Cyrus
strength

can
in

be
his

set for

an

instant
It

beside
the

that

of

garden.

has

inherent

of

Achilles,

the

external
of the

refinement

of of

Louis
Jesse,
all

XIV.,

the

simplicity

household

and the magnificence of Haroun Alraschid,

gathered into vital unison by the philosophy of

Lycurgus.

EDITOR'S PREFACE.

xli

Lastly and chiefly, this book contains the ideal of domestic'
life
;

describing

in

sweet

detail

the

loving help of two equal helpmates, lord and lady:
their

methods of dominion over
after
in

their

household
;

;

of

instruction,

dominion

is

secure

and of
in

laying up

stores

due

time

for

distribution

due measure.
this ideal of

Like the ideal of stately knighthood,
domestic
life

cannot be changed
in

;

nor

can

it

be

amended,

but
detail,

addition

of

more
of

variously

applicable

and

enlargement

the range of the affections, by the Christian hope of their eternal duration.

Such are the chief contents of the book, presented

with

extreme simplicity of language
;

and
truth

modesty of heart
add
its

gentle

qualities

which

in

to

its

preciousness, yet have hitherto hindered
influence
in

proper

our

schools, because
in

prein

senting
rhetoric.

no

model of grace

style,

or force

It is

simply the language of an educated
gentleman,
seen,
for

soldier
effort

and

country

relating

without

what he has
learned.
is

and
the

without
greater

pride what

he
us,

has
this

But

number of
manner

indeed

the

most

exemplary

xlii

EDITOR'S PREFACE.

of writing.

To

emulate

the

intricate strength
is

of

Thucydides, or visionary calm of Plato,
as
vain,
for

insolent,

men

of

ordinary

minds

:

but

any

sensible person

may

state

what he has ascertained,
felt,

and

describe

what he

has

in

unpretending
will

terms, like these of

Xenophon
impair

;

and

assuredly
in

waste

his

life,

or

its

usefulness,

at-

tempting to write

otherwise.
intentional

Nor
grace
the

is

it

without
the
art

some proper and
of which
the

that

author

boasts

universal facility
in

of attainment, should

be taught

homely words,

and recommended by simple arguments.

A
the

few words respecting the
reader in
possession

translators will put

of

all

that

is

necessary

to his

use and judgment of the book.
I

When
after

returned to Oxford
years'

in

the year 1870,
the
;

thirty

absence,
entirely

I

found

aim of
that,

University
for

education

changed
quiet

and
for

the

ancient

methods

of

study,

dis-

cipline

of

intellect,

study of which

the
less

terminal

examination simply pronounced the
success,

or

more

there

had

been
in

substituted

hurried
to

courses

of

instruction

knowledge supposed

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
be
pecuniarily
profitable

xliii

;

stimulated

by
the

feverish
effect

frequency

of
to

examination,
certify

of

which
or

was
but

not
to

strength,
effort

discern

genius,
dis-

bribe

immature

with fortuitous

tinction.

From

this

field
I

of

injurious

toil,

and
with
of

disall

honourable
the

rivalry,
I

have

endeavoured,
over

influence
gifted to
set

could

obtain

any

the
:

more
and

students, to withdraw their

thoughts

before

them

the

nobler

purpose

of

their granted years of scholastic leisure,
in

initiation

the sacred

mysteries of the Loving
Life
;

Mother of

Knowledge and of
steady
service

and

preparation for the
alike

of

their

country,

through

applause or silence.

The two who have
devote

trusted

me

so of

far

as

to

no

inconsiderable
in

portion

their

time,

and jeopardize
eminence
this
in

a measure
schools,

their chances of pre-

the
of

that

they

might
within
I

place

piece

noble

Greek

thought
will

the

reach

of

English

readers,
to

not,

believe,

eventually have cause
or their kindness.

regret

either

their faith

xliv

EDITOR'S PREFACE.
the
task,

Of
their

manner
I

in

which
not

they

have

fulfilled

have

scholarship
:

enough

to

speak
the

with

entire

decision

but,

having

revised
I

whole
that

with
the

them
English

sentence

by
is

sentence,
free

know

rendering

from

error which attention could avoid,
its

praiseworthy in
to
explicitness,

occasional

sacrifice

of facility
unselfish

and

exemplary as an

piece

of youthful

labour devoted to an honourable end.

TRANSLATORS' PREFACE.

r
I

""HIS translation

has been undertaken

at

the
in

suggestion and request of the Editor,
his

who

Preface has sufficiently
it

explained

the

objects

of the series of which

forms a part.

In accord-

ance with his purpose
suited

we have aimed
general
reader

at a rendering

rather

to

the
;

than
at

to

the

student of Greek

and indeed to deal
of a

length
corrupt,

with the

difficulties

text sometimes

and

not

seldom

obscure, would
critical

have demanded

an edition distinctly
than

and

far

more elaborate

any which we
all

could

attempt.

We

have,

however, to
sideration,
in

cases of doubt given our best con-

embodying, generally without comment,
the

the

translation

view on
at
all

which we
succeed
in

finally

decided.

Should

we

setting

xlvi

TRANSLATORS' PREFACE.
the

before
is

English
the

reader,

to

whom
of

the

Greek-

inaccessible,
shall
feel

simple

grace

the original,

we
the

ourselves

well

content
beauties,
to

To

praise

dialogue,

or

point

out

which

a
at

translation

can

never

do

full

justice,

seems

once
such

unnecessary and
interest,

presumptuous.
illustrative

A

work of
life

both as

of Greek

and

manners, and as giving the mind of one
greatest
practical

of the

philosophers
in

of
the

antiquity

on

subjects of grave importance
is

present day,

assuredly worthy of a more fitting tribute than
offer.

any we could

The few
fore,

notes that have been added are, there-

illustrative

and explanatory rather than

criti-

cal

:

they are in fact notes to the translation, not

to the text

The
(Oxon.

edition

used

has been

that

of

Schneider
its

1813,)

and any deviations from

text,

have been noticed as they occur.
A. D. O.

W.

W.
OXFORD, Easter Term,
1876.

G. C.

THE ECONOMIST
OF

XENOPHON.
PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE
:

SOCRATES,

CRITOBULUS,
AND OTHERS WHO ARE MUTE AUDITORS.

ALSO, IN THE SECOND PART,

ISCHOMACHUS.

THE ECONOMIST
OF

XENOPHO
CHAPTER
OF ECONOMY;

N.

I.

WHATEVER

THE MANAGEMENT OF PROPERTY, THAT IS IS OF USE TO A MAN, BUT IS OF NO VALUE TO SUCH AS ARE SLAVES TO THEIR PASSIONS.
I

XT OW
*
in
is
is,

once heard him
way.
Tell

* talk

about economy f
he,

i

this

me, Critobulus, said
science, as
?

economy the name of some
Yes,
I

medicine

and metallurgy and architecture
think
so,

said

Critobulus.
its

And might we
just

assign

function to economy, 2
?

as

we can
rate,

to each
said

of these arts
it

At any
* Socrates.
'

Critobulus,

seems that

a

f

Economy'
the
'

a

now
'

far

narrower word
of

than

oiKovouia,

which

means

whole

management

House

and

estate

:

similarly

olKov6/j.ot,

economist.

2

THE ECONOMIST.
his

[CHAP.

I.

good economist ought to manage
well.

own house

3

And

if,

asked

Socrates,

the

house of another
able, if

were entrusted to him, should he not be
were his own

he

would, to manage that house well, just as though
it
?

For the architect can do equally

for another person what he can for himself, and so too would it be with the economist ?

Yes, Socrates,

I

think

so.

4
in

Is

it

possible,
art,

then,

said

Socrates, for an adept

this

his

own, to

who happens to have no property [of earn money by managing the house
just

of another,
it?

as

he

would

were

he

building

Undoubtedly
he earn, said

so

;

and no
if,

little

pay too would
the
all

Critobulus,

after undertaking

management of
and
5

a house,

he could both meet
its

necessary expenses and further increase
position.
'
'

wealth

But what do we mean by house ? the mere building, or do we include
man's possessions
Yes, said
that a
?

Do we mean
in
it

all

a

Critobulus,
possesses,
all

in

my

opinion

everything
is

man

the world over,

part of

his house.

6

But do not some people possess enemies Doubtless and some of them many.
;

?

28.]

THE PURPOSE OF ECONOMY.
Are we then
to
?

3

call

a man's

enemies also part

of his property

Indeed
a

it

would be absurd, said Critobulus,
increases one's enemies

if

man who
You know

should further

be paid

for so doing. *

we have
said

decided that a man's house 7

meant

all

his possessions.
yes,

By Heaven,
of course
I

Critobulus

;

we
is

laid

that
;

down about whatever
should

a

man
not

has that
as

good

but

count

a

possession

anything that does him harm.

You
benefits

would, then,

call

a man's possessions alf that

him

?

Quite

so, said

he

;

I

call

whatever hurts him

loss,

and not property.
Well,
then,

suppose some

and

could

not
;

manage
is

it,

one bought a horse, 8 but fell off it and
is

hurt himself
it?

the horse

not property to him,

Certainly not,

if

property

is

only what benefits

him.
In the same way, one cannot call a piece of land

a man's property,

if

he cultivates

it

so as to lose

thereby

?

No

;

no more

is

the
it

land

property

if,

instead

of supporting him,
*

reduces him to want.
is

The

text here

uncertain.

4

THE ECONOMIST.
Well, then,
if

[CHAP

I.

9

a

man

did not

know what

use to

make

of sheep either, but lost by them, sheep would
?

not be property to him

No,

I

do not think they would.
then,
it

You,

seems,

count

as

property

only

what

is

useful to a

man, but do not include under

the term anything that hurts

him

?

Just so.

10

Then

the

very same

things

are .property to a

man who knows how to use them, and not property to one who does not. For instance, a flute is but property to a man who can play on it fairly to one who is wholly unskilled in its use it is no
;

more property than mere
unless indeed he sold
11
it.

useless stones

would

be,

So
of a

it

is

clear

to

us

that a flute in the hands

man who does
is

not

know how
he
sell
it.

to use

it,

is

not

property to him, unless

So long

as he

keeps

it,

it

not property.

And

indeed, Socrates,

we

shall

thus have reasoned consistently, since

we

before decided that a man's property must be some-

thing
sell

that

benefits
is

him.

If

the

man
it

does
of
rib

not
use
;

the
if

flute, it

not property, for
it

is

but
j

he

sell

it,

becomes property.
answered, Yes,
if

2

To
to
sell

this Socrates
it.

he

know how
it
it

But

if 'he,

again, were to
to use

sell
it,

to a

man who does

not

know how

would

9

15-1

\\HAT

IS

PROPERTY.

5

not be property even when sold, according to what

you
even

say.

Your words,

Socrates,

seem

to

imply that not

money would be property
to use
it.

unless a

man knew
a

how

Well, you seem to agree with

me

that

man's

1

3

property

is

only what benefits him.
this use of his

Suppose a man

were to make
mistress,

by whose influence

his

money, to buy, say, a body would be worse,
;

his soul worse, his

household-worse

how

could

we
?

then say that his

money was any
unless, indeed,

benefit to

him

We
those

could not,

we
that

are to
drives

count

as property

henbane,
eat
it.

the

herb

mad
also

who

may, then, Critobulus, exclude from being counted as property, if it is
of one
friends,

We

money
in the

14

hands

who does
what

not

know how

to
if
?

use

it.

But

shall

we say

they^lre,

a

man knows
Critobulus
"^
;

how

to use

them

to his

advantage
property,

Why
are

truly

they are

said

and much more so than the oxen

are, if

only they

more

profitable than oxen.

Following

man who
Yes,
I

that out, enemies are property to a 15 can gain benefit from them ?
so.

think

Then

a good economist ought to

know how
?

to

use even his enemies to his

own advantage

6

THE
Most decidedly
True,
so.

F.<

N<

'MIST.

[

<HAP.

I.

Critobulus,

said

he

;

for

war,

you
to

see,

may
only.
1

bring

increase

to

every one,

not

kings

6

Well,
Socrates,

so
said

far

our

decision

is

satisfactory,

Critobulus.

But

what are

we

to

say when we see men endowed with knowledge, and means of adding to their position if they will
but exert themselves, quite careless of
thus
this,

so that

we
?

see that

their

knowledge

is

of no use to

them
is
1

What can we

say but that their knowledge
?

7

them neither property nor possession But tell me, Critobulus, said Socrates
to
;

is

it

of

slaves that

you would say this ? but I meet with many Surely not, said he men who are skilled in the arts of war and of peace,
;

who
1

yet will not
I

make

use of them, and that for

this reason,

think,

that they have

no masters.
say that

8

And

yet,

said

Socrates,

how can we

they have no masters, if, spite of all their desire to be happy, and eagerness to do what will be to
their good,

they are after
?

all

prevented

from

so

doing by their rulers

And
*9

pray,
?

said

Critobulus,

who

are

these

in-

visible rulers

By Heaven,
visible,

said

Socrates,
;

they

are

not
fail

in-

but very visible indeed

nor do you

to

5

23-]

THE TYRANNY OF THE
that

PASSIONS.
that

/

see

they are the worst of

rulers,

if,

is,

you count as evil, sloth, effeminacy, and carelessness. And moreover there are others, deceiving mistresses, 20

who pretend
gambling,

to

be

queens

of

pleasure,

such as
of

and

profitless

assemblings

men
they

together, until, as

time goes on, those
are,

whom
them,

deceived see what they really
over
pain,

pleasures glossing

getting

the

mastery
is

over

and

preventing their doing what
But,
Socrates,
said
he,

right

and

useful.

there

are

others
exertion,
to

also 2

1

whom

these

do

not

prevent

from

but
exert

who, on

contrary, do all they can themselves and increase their incomes

the

;

yet they

too waste
in

their

substance and

involve

themselves

difficulties.

That
Socrates,

is

because
slaves

they

too

are

slaves,

said

22

of

mistresses
;

entirely

cruel,

of

luxury,
foolish

lust,

and drunkenness
ruinous
ambition,
as

or

else

of

some

and
its

which
as
it

so

harshly

rules
in
it

subjects,

that

long

sees

them

the prime of

life,

and able to exert themselves,
bring
all

compels

them

to

the results
their

of their

exertions, and spend them on

desires. old,

But

no

sooner does

it

see
it

unable to work, than
dotage, and
others
to

them grown leaves them to
round
again

and so

a miserable
to

ever

turns

look for

enslave.

But

against

these

mistresses,

23

8

THE ECONOMIST.
we must
fight

[CHAP.
23-

I.

Critobulus,

for

freedom as

if

ranged
Earthly

against armed hosts seeking

to enslave us.

enemies, however,

often

ere

now have been good

and noble, and have often by their control taught those whom they have enslaved to be better,

and

have
so
in

made

their life

calmer for the
as
these.

future.

Not
are

mistresses

such

While
torment
the

they
the of

power,
the

they

never

cease

to

households,

bodies,

aye,

and

souls

men.

CHAP.

II.

OF RICHES.

CHAPTER
OF

II.

TRUE WEALTH IT TROUBLE AND
:

THAT WHICH BRINGS WITH BUT THAT OF THE PROVIDENT WHERE SUCH IS TO BE AND THRIFTY ECONOMIST LEARNED.

NOT

TOIL,

t

/^RITOBULUS

then

continued

something
told

in

i

^^
such

this

way

:

What you have
I

me
;

about
but
I

as

these

is,

think,
I

quite
that

sufficient
I

on examining myself,
consider a
fair

find

have what
if

control* over them, so that

you
mis-

would
I

advise

me how
call

to

increase
find

my

position,

do not think you would
you

that

these

tresses, as

them, prevent
all

me

from following
give

your

advice.

With

assurance, then,
can.

me

what good advice you
us,

Or do you charge
?

Socrates, with being rich enough, and consider

that

we have no need
^yicpaTiJj,

of further wealth

* Gk.
vii.

on the

full

meaning of which,
ofoj
/jirjStv

see Aristotle, (Eth.

9,

6,):

'8 ft ov4j
v/das,

ybp fyKparr^
Kal
Kal 6

irapa.

rbv

\6yov 5t4 rAs
8*

iroteTi>

6 ffuxftpwv, d\\' 6 fjv (x uv i

v* ?x w "

^v

rotoOroj ofo*

/j.i)

tfdrOai jrapA

rbi>

\&yov,

6

5"

oToi tfdeffOai

dXXA

/XTJ

aytffOai,' i.e.,

the perfectly temperate
;

man
the

does not even

feel

pleasure in acting contrary to right reason
it,

self-controlled feels

but

is

not led astray.

10
2
If
it

THE ECONOMIST.
is

[CHAP.

II.

of

me

that

you

are
I

speaking,

said

Socrates,

I

do not think that
:

have any need You, on
very
poor,

of further wealth
the
contrary,

I

am
I

rich
I

enough.
consider
pity

Critobulus,

and,
times.

by Heaven,
this

heartily

you
a

some-

3

To

Critobulus
Socrates,

answered
said
he,

with

laugh

:

By Heaven,

you, would your property mine ?
I

how much, think fetch, and how much
if
I

think,
I

said

Socrates, that

found a good

purchaser,

and

might quite easily get for my house * But I am perfectly sure minae. that yours would fetch more than a hundred times
all

five

as

much

as that

4

And
that
pity
I

yet,

while

you

have
for

no

you know this, do you think need of further wealth, and

me
do,

my

poverty?
for
I

said he,

have

enough

to

satisfy

all

my

wants.

But your style of
is

living,
I

and the

reputation you enjoy,
thrice as
suffice

such that

do not think

much

again as you have at present would

for it

What
5
I I '

can you mean
explained

?

said

Critobulus.
that
in

mean,
see

Socrates,
to

the

first

place

you
a

compelled

offer
to

up
is.

many

About /20,

mina being equivalent

4

yf.

27-]

THE POVERTY OF THE
;

RICH.

I

I

great sacrifices
doing, both

if you were remiss in so and men would, I think, put gods And again, you have with you no longer. up in great to entertain many strangers, and that

indeed,

state

;

while, besides

this,

you

must

either

feast
else
I

and otherwise benefit your
be
destitute

fellow-citizens, or

of supporters.
the

Nor

is

this

all.

6

know
duties
for
its

how
of no

State

already

imposes
to

on

you

little

importance,

breed

horses

service,

to

pay
a

the expenses of

a chorus, a foreign

to

superintend

the gymnasia,
if

or

to be
out,
I

consul.

And
in

war break

am

well

aware that they
share
special
find
fitting

will

demand
the
large

out
so

of you to take your * and in other navy,
that

expenses,

even
if

you

will

them

no light burden.
in

And

you

should 7

be deficient
would,
I

any of
sure,

the

above, the Athenians

am

punish

they

caught

property.

you robbing But besides all
rich,

you no less than if them of their own
this,

consider
to

yourself

and

thus

you do, I see, do not care
to

make money, but
At
Athens,
for

give

yourself up
were

childish

special

subscriptions

demanded

of

the

wealthy

State

purposes.

These were called

Xdrovpyicu,

and

of them the rp^papxia. was specially important. a 'trierarch' would have to equip a v ssel. and

In time of war
not unfrequently
in

command

it

in

person.

Other \firovpylai are enumerated

the

preceding sentence.

12
pursuits, as
if

THE ECONOMIST.
there were no

[CHAP.

II.

harm
fear

in

them.

And
you
fall
?

therefore

I

pity

you,

and

for

you

lest

should
into

suffer

some

desperate

disaster,

and

extreme

poverty.
I

But

what

is

my
I

case

8

You know

as well as

do, that were

in

want,

there are those

who would

help me, and by giving

me
that
their

each
I

a

little,

overwhelm

me

with

a

plenty

could not spend.
are far

But your

friends,

though

means

of living than are

more adequate to their style your means to yours, still look
can-

to receive benefits at your hands.

9
be

What you
not dispute.

say, Socrates, said

Critobulus,
for

I

But

it

is

now high time
really

you to
pitiable

my
To

guardian, lest

I

do become

indeed.
this

Socrates

answered
it

thus

:

Do

you not

think, Critobulus, that

you,
rich,

who a
laughed

little

somewhat strange that while ago, when I called myself
is

*

at

me

for not
till

was, and did not stop

knowing what wealth you had convicted me
you had
bid

and
times

made me
as

confess
as
I,

that

a

hundred
be your

much

should

now

me

master and guardian, to prevent your being really

and
IO
is

truly a beggar

?

Yes, Socrates, said

he

;

for

I

see

that

there

one thing about wealth that you know, and that
*

13-

7

13-1

THE USE OF EXPERIENCE.
how
to
;

I

3

is

a

man

keep a surplus and then I expect that who does this on small means, would on a

large income have a large surplus.

Do

not

you

remember
*

that

in

our
let

conversa-

I I

tion just now,

when you would hardly
said

me open
land,

my
a

mouth,

you

that

neither horses,
else,

sheep, money, nor anything

were property to

man who

did not

know how
of

to use
;

them

?

Such,
could

however,

are

sources
I

income

and

how

you think that
these things,

should
I

know how
yet

to use

any of

when
?

never

was possessed of
a

one of them

But we determined had no property of

f

that

even

man

who

1

2

his

own, might yet have some

knowledge of economy. What, then, should hinder you from having some ?
Just

what hinders, of

the flute

from playing on people who have never had flutes of their
course,

own,

nor
this
I

other
is

people's

lent

them

to to

learn

on.

And
For
it

the

way
I

with

me

as

economy. 13
to learn

never had any property of

my own
put

from, nor have
charge,
as

ever had any one else's under

my

you

would

now
and
in

yours.

You
they

know men
learn
their
I '

often
first

spoil

the harps
;

on
the

which

lessons
to
8.

same way,

should

undertake
Chapter
I.,

learn

economy with your
I.,

f Chapter

4.

14
estate to practise

THE ECONOMIST.
on,
I

[CHAP.

II.

should

no doubt seriously

damage
4

it.

You

are

trying
to

very

hard,

Socrates,

replied

Critobulus,

avoid

giving

me any
business

help

towards
greater

managing
care.
e

my

necessary

with

No,
gladly

indeed,
tell

replied
I

Socrates
can.
for

;

I

will

most

whatever

were to come to
I

me

But supposing you firewood, and find that
I

had

none, you

would

not,

think,

blame
it
;

me
or

for directing

you

to where
to

you could get
for

again,

if

you

came

me

water,

and

I

had

you to where you could get it, and if you would not blame me for this either wished to learn music of me, and I pointed you
none,

but

took

;

out to you

than

men who were at once better musicians myself, and who would thank you if you
you
find

would take lessons of them, could
grounds
for

any

blaming me

?

None
g
I will,

that were just, Socrates.
then, Critobulus, direct
in this
I

you

to far greater

adepts than myself
to learn of

which you are so anxious
it

me

;

and

confess that

has interested
of their
feel

me
7

to observe

who

in

the city
I

know most

several occupations.
prised,

For

could not but

sur-

when

I

discovered that of those engaged in

the

same

pursuits,

some were very poor and some

13

18.]

HOW TO LEARN ECONOMY.
;

15
this

very rich

and

I

thought that the cause of

was

not unworthy of consideration.
into
it,

So

I

and found

it

all

very natural.
their

began to look For I saw
recklessly

I

that

those
losers
;

who managed
whilst,

affairs

were

on the other hand, an earnest
the
business,

application

made

as

I

observed,

at

once prompter,
if I

easier,

and

more

profitable.

And
will,

you

will

take these for your masters, you

think, (unless

Heaven be against

you,) turn out a

shrewd

man

of business.

1

6

THE ECONOMIST.

[CHAP.

III.

CHAPTER

III.

OF THE VIRTUES AND RESULTS OF ECONOMY ABROAD AND AT HOME; AND THE SHARE OF THE WIFE THEREIN.
hearing
Socrates,
this,
I

Critobulus

continued

:

Now,

will

not

let

have shown

me what you

you go until you have promised before

our friends here.
Well, Critobulus, said Socrates, what would you

say

if

I

were to begin by showing you how some
a good deal of

men spend
such
as

money

in

building useless

houses, while others at a far smaller expense build

have every necessary advantage
I

?

Would

you not think that

was showing you herein one
?

point in the matter of economy

That
2

I

should, said
if
I
?

Critobulus.

And

what,

were to show you the natural
namely,
chattels
for

consequence of

this

how some men have
of every kind, and

plenty of goods

and

when they want them nor even, indeed, do they know if they have them safe, thereby causing much annoyance both
use,
;

yet cannot get at them

to

themselves

and

their

servants

:

whilst

others,

I

5.]

THE VIRTUES OF ECONOMY.

I/

though possessing much less than they, have every necessary at hand to make use of, when they want
it.

Is not this,

Socrates,

the sole cause of

it,

that 3
at
its

the

former

throw everything
the
latter

down

anywhere
in

random,
place
?

while

have

everything

Exactly

so, said

Socrates

;

they have everything
place that came, but

well-arranged
in

not in the

first

the most convenient.
I

suppose

this

that

you

are

telling

me, said

is another point in economy. what would you say, said Socrates, if I 4 Again, were to show you, at one place slaves, who are, one might say, all in bonds, constantly running

Critobulus,

away
their

;

and elsewhere

others,
their

who do not know

the

chain, willingly

masters

?

work and staying with doing Would you not think that I was
this

showing you

in

a most noteworthy result of

economy
Yes,

?

by Heaven, exclaimed
result.
if

Critobulus,

a

very

remarkable

And what
that
their

I

were to show you men working

5

adjoining* farms, but farming
is

some of them complaining
a
loss

to

them, and

they

*

And, consequently, of a

like soil,

and with

like opportunities.

2

1

8

THE ECONOMIST.

[CHAP.

III.

themselves are in poverty, and others getting from
their farming

an unstinted and comfortable abund?

ance of every necessary

That

is

a

very

remarkable

result

also,

said

but perhaps the losers spend money on what is necessary, but also on what not only does harm to house and master alike.
Critobulus
;

6

There are perhaps some such
but
I

too, said Socrates

;

am

speaking, not of them, but of those who,
is

whilst their profession

farming, have no
agriculture.

money

to

spend on the necessaries of

And
asked
I

what, Socrates, might the cause of this be
he.

?

will
I

take you, said Socrates, to see these men,
sure you will be the wiser for observing

for

am

them.
Yes, by Heaven,
7
s*aid

he

;

I

will

try to be so. try
to

Well, you must see them, and so

what you
a

can

learn.

Now

I

know

that to

you

sometimes

rise

very early,
;

go comedy and walk a long
all

distance to
to

get there

and

you do
you.

you

can

persuade
this

me
I

to

go with
to

But to a task

like

you never

summoned me.
you somewhat ridiculous
to
yourself,
?

And
8

so

now

seem

By Heaven,
But what
of
horses,
if
I

far

more so

said

he.

were to show you that of breeders
as
to

some have been so ruined

need

5

n.]

THE RESULTS OF ECONOMY.
life,

19

even the necessaries of

while others have be?

come

quite wealthy, and rejoiced in their riches
I

Why,
rich

see such
;

men
I

myself, and know them,

and poor

but

am

not any the more one

of the rich

men

for that.

No,

for they are

to

you but actors
to

in

a play

;

9

and you

go,

I

think,

the theatre, not with

the
find
is
:

intention of

becoming a poet, but merely to
eye

pleasure

for

and

ear.

And

this,

perhaps,

well enough, since

you do not aim
are
foolish

at being a poet

but seeing that you are obliged to keep horses,
not
learn

do

you

think you
little

in

not looking to

some

of the matter, especially

when the
sell
?

same horses

are

good

to use

and profitable to
have

My
in

dear
?

Socrates,

would you

me

break 10

horses

Of
buy
I

course not, any more than

I

would have you
Still

children and bring

them up

as labourers.

think that both with horses and

men
But
I

there are

certain

ages immediately upon which they become

profitable,

and keep on improving.

can show

you men who so treat the wives they have married, as to find in them fellow-workers in increasing their
position, whilst others find
ruin.

them a

special source of

And

are we, Socrates, to
?

blame the husband or

1 1

the wife for this

20

11

IE

ECONOMIST.
diseased,
;

[<

HAH.

III.

When
is

a

sheep
said

is

we

generally blame

the shepherd,
vicious,

Socrates

and when

a

horse

we
do

generally blame the
if

groom.

But

as

regards a wife,
to

after

being taught by her does

husband
she
is
if,

right,

she

still

wrong, then
;

perhaps
never

but

one we might justly blame teaching her what is right and
the

noble,
1

he

takes
that
said

her

ignorant

service,
?

is

it

not

2 with

him

the blame would rest
he,

But come,
here
;

Critobulus,
tell

we
;

are
is

all

friends

so

us the whole truth

there

any one

whom

you oftener trust with important matters than your
wife
?

No
Is

one, said he.

there any
?

one

with

whom you

have fewer

discussions

Few,
1

if

any, said he.
girl,

3

You
any
little ?

married her when quite a young

or at

rate

when she could have seen and heard but

Quite

so.
it

Well, then,
if

would be much
to speak

more wonderful
act,

she did

know how

and

than

if

she

failed
1

therein.

4

But, what, Socrates, of the wives you call

good

?

Did

their

husbands teach them
is

?

Well, there

nothing like looking into

it

;

and

II

16.]

A WIFE'S DUTIES.
I

21

more,

will

introduce you
to

to Aspasia,*
all

who

will

know how
far better

show you
I.

about

such

things

than

But, in

my

opinion, a wife

who
their

1

5

manages her share in the household
has
as

matters well,

much

influence

as

her husband
it

on

prosperity.

For, as a rule,
in

is

the labour of the

husband that brings
of most

the

money
that

of the

family,

but the judgment of the wife

regulates

the
in

spending

of

it.

And
well
ill

whilst

houses

which

these

matters

are

managed
I

increase,

those in which
prosperity.

they are

managed
think that

decrease in

And
men
you

moreover,

I

can point
the other
to

1

6

out to you
sciences,
if

of remarkable power in

al!

consider

it

worth

your while

know them.
*
in

Aspasia was a celebrated lady of Miletus
the time of Pericles, and had,
it

who

lived at

Athens

is

said, the

greatest influence

over that statesman.

Remarkable
to

at

once for her beauty and her
politician

wisdom, she

attracted

her house

and

author,

artist

and

philosopher alike.

Her

teaching fascinating,

and novel, no

doubt, as well,
it

won high

praise from Socrates.

Being a foreigner,

was against the law for any Athenian citizen to marry her ; to Pericles, however, whose own wife did not make him happy, she

stood in a wife's position, and by

him was

the mother of a son, after-

wards specially legitimated by the Athenian people. we know but little of Aspasia it may, however, be
:

Unfortunately,
fairly

questioned

whether the evidence

we

possess justifies the censures passed on her

by many

critics,

who

are perhaps too apt to judge her

by the standard

of modern, not Greek, morality.

22

Till.

1

MNOMIST.

[(MAP. IV.

CHAPTER
J

IV.

THAT THE TRUE GENTLEMAN SHOULD PRACTISE NO MEBUT RATHER AGRICULTURE AND CHANICAL ARTS WAR, AFTER THE EXAMPLE OF THE KINGS OF PERSIA,

AND OF CYRUS.
1

T3UT

\vhy need you show me them all, Socrates ? ^^^ said Critobulus for neither do we want to get
:

men who
can one
arts

are

fair

hands at

all

the arts alike, nor
in
all.

man become an

adept

No

;

those

which are thought the noblest, and which would be most suitable for me to engage in, are what I

would have you show me, together with those who and in this, as far as you can, let practise them
;

me
2

have the advantage of your teaching.
said,

Well

Critobulus

!

exclaimed Socrates

;

for

not only are the arts which

we

call

mechanical *

generally held in bad repute, but States also

have

a very low opinion of them,

and with

justice.

For

they are injurious to the bodily health of workmen
*

'Mechanical,' /3avai'<m-6s.

In a wider sense,

such as Socrates

goes on to define ; namely, the arts which deprive the artizan of his fair measure of exercUe, ->un-,hinc, and fresh air.

I

5.]

OF MECHANICAL ARTS.
overseers,
in

23

and

that

they compel
in

them

to

be
all

seated

and

indoors,
fire.

and

some

cases

also

the day before a
effeminate,

And when
also

the

the

mind
the
let

becomes
arts,

body grows weaker and
as

weaker.

And
not

mechanical

they

are 3

called, will

men

unite

with them care for
in

friends

and

State, so

that

men engaged

them

must ever appear

to be both

bad friends and poor

defenders of their country.

And

there are

States,

but more particularly such as are most famous in
war, in which not a single citizen
*
is

allowed

to

engage

in

mechanical

arts.

But

in

what kind of
?

arts

would

you have us 4

engage, Socrates

Ought
imitate

we

to

be
of

ashamed,
Persia
?

said

Socrates,
he,

to

the

King

For
art

they say,
to

considers

agriculture

and and

the

of war

be

among
tions
;

the

noblest
interests

most

essential
in

occupaboth
of

and

himself

heartily

them.

At

this

Critobulus

said,

And do you

believe, 5

Socrates, that the

King of
?

Persia takes a due share

of interest in agriculture
If

we

look

at

it

in

this 'light,

Critobulus,
if

said

Socrates,

we may perhaps
the
interest
*

learn

he

does,
in

and

what

is

he

takes.
slaves might.

For

matters

Though

24

THE ECONOMIST.

[CHAP. IV.

cf war he takes confessedly a hearty

interest, inasall

much

as he has
\\lio

appointed governors over
tribute, to

the

nation^

pay him

supply him with a

fixed support for so

many

cavalry, archers, slingers,

and

targeteers, so that he

to keep in subjection those to

may have enough men over whom he rules, and
;

defend the country from any hostile invasion

while without count of these he maintains garrisons

6

in his forts.

And
officer

though they are paid and cared
appointed
for

for

by an
other

the
his

purpose, yet

every year too the King reviews

mercenaries
all

and

forces

under arms, collecting them
the
the garrisons
in

together,

except

the

forts, at

a

fixed time,

when

household troops pass before

the King, while trustworthy officers are sent to in-

7 spect those
finds

who
due

are at a distance.
field-officers,

And
and
men,

where he
satraps,

garrison-officers,

with

their

complements
and

of

and

no-

thing to blame in their horses or their armour, he
gives

honours
finds

presents

of

great value
their

;

but

where he

governors neglecting

officers

of the garrisons, or making them an unjust source of gain,
their

he

punishes

them

severely, taking

commissions and giving them to

away others.* So

that in
*

matters of war he thus shows an undoubted
not compare the

May we

Parable of the Talents?

Matt

xxv.

28.

5-io-J

AGRICULTURE AND WAR IN
interest.

PERSIA.

25
8

And

besides
in

this,

he rides through part

of his dominion
it
;

person, surveying and inspecting

and where he does not go himself, he sends to
it

examine

men whom he can
and planted
to
it,

trust.

And where
the
trees

he finds a governor's province well inhabited, the
land
crops
well
tilled,

with

and
the
gifts,

best

suited
territory,

there

he

adds

to

governor's
sets

and, adorning

him with

him on

high.

But where he sees the land
it

and thinly peopled, be treatment, insolence, or neglect on
lying idle

through hard

their part, there

he

punishes

the

governors,

taking
to

away

their

governorships
it

and giving them
to

others.
this

Does

9

not seem

you

that in

doing

he shows

an equal interest in the land being well worked by its inhabitants, and well guarded by its garrisons ?

And

he has also

officers

commissioned
;

for either

purpose,

not the same for both

for
till

some are

set

over the inhabitants and those

who

the ground,
are.

and

from

them
the

collect

tribute,

whilst others

set over
officer

garrisons
garrison
is

under

arms.
in

And

if

the 10

of a

backward

protecting the

country, the

master of the inhabitants

and over-

seer of the tillage brings a charge against

him

that

the

people

cannot work
if

for

want of proper proof the
garrison
in

tection.

But

the officer
is

says

to

him, "There

peace; work thou

it;"

and

26
yet

THE ECONOMIST.
he
can only
little

[CHAP. IV.

answer by showing
tilled,

land

little

inhabited and
i
i

then

the officer of the
rule those

garrison accuses him of

this.
ill

For as a

who

cultivate the

ground

neither maintain their

nor are able to pay their tribute. But where a satrap is appointed, both these duties fall under his charge.
garrisons,
1

2

If the

King

really does

this,

Socrates, answered
less

Critobulus, he

pays,

I

think,

no

attention to

agriculture than to war.
1

3

And more
the
especial

than

this,

continued
in

Socrates, at
visits,

all

places which he dwells

or

he takes

care
'

that

there

shall

be

gardens
everything
naturally.

which

they

call

paradises,'

filled

with
there

good

and
it

beautiful
in

that

grows

And
by the
he

is

these gardens that he spends most of his
unless

leisure,

prevented

from

doing

so

time of year.

14

By Heaven,
spends
his

Socrates,

said

Critobulus,

if

time

there

himself,

these

'paradises'

must of course be as well kept as possible, and planted out with trees, and every other goodly
thing native to the place.
15
It
is

said

too

Socrates,

that

by some, Critobulus, continued when the King awards gifts, he

begins by calling up those

who have

distinguished

themselves

in war,

because however

much ground

lo-ig.]

CYRUS THE YOUNGER.
you
cultivate,
it.

2/

it

is

to

defend

And

no good unless you have men next he summons those that

excel in keeping up estates and

making them pro-

ductive, saying that not even your brave
live unless there

men

could

were
tell

men
us,

to

till

the ground.

And
who
too

16

once, too,

they

Cyrus,
time,

who was
said
gifts,

the most

famous
were

prince

of

his

to

those

called
in

up
a

to
fair
;

receive

that
gifts

he

might put
once

claim

to

have

awarded

him on both
in

scores

inasmuch as he excelled at
estate,

keeping

up an

and

in

defending

the same. Cyrus,
then,
said

Critobulus,
in
it

in

saying

this,

I/

prided

himself

no

less

making an estate

pro-

ductive and in keeping
character.

up, than on his warlike

Ay

;

and,

by Heaven, had Cyrus
would,
I

lived,

continued
a

1

8

Socrates, he

think,

have

made

most

excellent ruler.
are

given of

And amongst all the proofs that this, we may note what happened
to fight against his brother for

when he

set forth

the throne.

From

Cyrus,

it

is

said,

not a

man
a 19

deserted to the King, whilst from the

King many
think that

myriads deserted to Cyrus.

And

I

proved by his men him willingly, and by their standing by following him in time of danger. So was it with Cyrus
is

commander's worth

well

:

28

THE ECONOMIST.

[CHAP. IV.

with him his friends fought, and with him
battle round his body, every

fell, doing one of them, excepting

Ariaeus,

who happened
It is said, too,

to be in

command

of the
that

left

20 wing.

of this

same Cyrus,

when

Lysander came to him with presents from the allies, he not only treated him with much kindness, but
further
(as
in

he met
2
1

Lysander himself once told a stranger Megara) showed him over his paradise
' '

at

Sardis.

And
trees

as

Lysander wondered
therein with

at

the

beautiful

planted

perfect

sym-

metry, and

at the straightness of their rows,
all

and at
a sweet

the fairness of

their angles, while

many
the

perfume met them as they went along, he said to
Cyrus,

Much
this,
I

as
feel

I

wonder, Cyrus, at
far

beauty
for

of

all

greater

admiration

the

man who measured it out and arranged it all. At these words Cyrus was much pleased, and said, 22 Well, then, Lysander, it was I who measured it
all

out and arranged
I

it

;

nay,

some of

these trees,

he added,
23

even planted myself.

What, Cyrus, said Lysander, as he looked at him, and saw the splendid raiment that he had
on, and smelt the perfume of
it
;

beauty of the necklaces, bracelets,

marking too the and other orna-

ments that he wore

;

did you really plant any of

these trees with your

own hands

?

24

Does

it

amaze you, Lysander?

said

Cyrus;

why

19

24-]

A PRINCELY EXAMPLE.
I

29
I

swear to

you by Mithra that when
I

am

in

good health
having
first

never
it

sit

down
the

to

dinner without

earned

in in

sweat of

my

brow,

by

exercising myself

some business of war or
pursuit

agriculture, ever in the

of

some object of

my
said,

ambition.

At
for

which, said Lysander,
I

I

took his hand, and
are
justly

think,

Cyrus,

that you

happy,

you are happy because you are good.

30

THE ECONOMIST.

[CHAP.

CHAPTER
c ~
'

V.

<

OF THE VIRTUES OF AGRICULTURE AND THE PRAISE OF IT. OF THE NECESSITY OF PRAYER IN ALL UNDERTAKINGS.
continued

"\JOW, *
that

I

tell

you

this,
I

Critobulus,

Socrates, because

even

the

greatest

would have you know and richest men cannot

be wholly neglectful of agriculture.
that

For we see
find
it

those

who make

it

their

care

to

be

both a pleasant pursuit, and a means of adding
to
their

wealth
it

;

whilst
to

it

exercises the

body, so

strengthening
2

do

all
it

that a free
is

For
vate

in
it

the

first

place

to

man should. those who culti-

that the earth yields
well.

3

and of enjoyment as

means of sustenance, Next also it provides
and and
statues,

them with decorations
well as
for

for

altars

as

their

own

persons,
see.
it

these
is

very

sweet to smell
food
too,
it

and to

And
the

there

much
of

some of which
rears,

produces, some
art

which
cattle

inasmuch
the

as

of tending
agriculture.
for

comes
thus

into

province
sufficient,

of

And

have

men

both

giving

16.]

THE VIRTUES OF AGRICULTURE.
Heaven the
for their
this
sacrifice

31

that

is

its

due honour and

own

uses.

But whilst the earth provides 4
things
are

abundance of good

ungrudgingly,*
effeminate to

it

does not suffer those
it,f

who

reap

but accustoms them to endure with patience

winter cold and the heat of summer.

And
it

those
to

whom
these
it

it

makes work with

their

own

hands,

gives increase of strength, whilst

makes

the earnest labourer in

the

field

very manly, by

rousing

him
to

journey

up and

early,
fro.

and

compelling
again,
if

him
any

to

And,
state
in

one
it

5

wishes to serve his
is

the cavalry,

then
;

agriculture

that will best support his horse

or

if in

the infantry, agriculture in this too will keep
strong.
in

him sound and

The
the

land

also
it

helps

to

increase an interest

hunting, since

both prodogs,

vides
also
*
is

easy

means

for

keeping

of

and
to

supports the beasts

of the
:

chase.

And

6

Virgil

almost forgets the labour

but his epithet of the earth

more

perfect than

d<0<Ws

:

"

O

fortunatos nimium, sua

si

bona

norint,

Agricolas, quibus ifsa, procul discord ibus

arm is,

Fundit

humo

facilem \\ci\imjustissima tellus."

Georgic
f Compare Milton, Comus,
lines

ii.,

458560.

778

782

:

"

Impostor

As

if

do not charge most innocent Nature, she would her children should be riotous
!
!

With her abundance she, good cateress, Means her provisions only for the good."

32
both the horses

THE ECONOMIST.

[<

HAP. V.

and dogs that owe their maintenance to farming, farming too owes much in
return
:

to the horse for carrying his master early

to his labour,
late
;

and giving him power to come home
the the
dog,
for

and
cattle

to

defending
wild
in

the

crops

and

from

ravages of
safe.

beasts,

and

7 for making lonely places
sure

And
the

some meato

too

the

land

prompts
arms,

agriculturist

defend his
its

own with
leaves
art

m

that, bringing forth

fruits,

it

them

for the strongest to take.

8 Again,

what

more

than

agriculture

makes

men better able to run and throy, and leap ? What art gives greater rewards to those who engage in it ? What art has a sweeter welcome
for those occupied
in
it,

bidding them draw nigh
?

and
o,

take

all

that

they would

What

art,
?

too,

has a more generous welcome for a guest

And

where

in the winter-time

can one enjoy more abunfires

dantly the luxury of blazing

and warm baths
the

than in the country
sweeter to be than
i

?

Where
in

in

summer

is

it

the

meadows or by some
?

o shaded stream

where the breezes blow

What
loved of
for

other art provides the gods with fairer
or sets forth fuller feasts
servants,
1 1
?

first-fruits,

What more

children,
it

more pleasant more grateful
marvel
if

to wife,

more longed
?

by

to friends

is

a

any free-minded

To me, indeed, man possesses

6

16.]

THE PRAISE OF AGRICULTURE.
of

33_

aught

more joy

to

him

than
is

some country

spot; or has found aught that

or

that

more
life,

more gladdening generously supplies him with the
than
the
cultivation

means of

of

it.

And,

1

2

further, to those

who can
it

learn

it,

the land willingly
its

teaches justice, for
to

ever awards
it

highest prizes

those

who

serve
in

best.

And
if

then those

who

13

are engaged

agriculture,

ever they are pre-

vented from working, even by some large invading

army,

still

their

education has

been vigorous and
in

manly, they have been well trained

mind and them
not,

body
are

;

and

thus,

if

Heaven

prevent

they are able to enter the country of those
hindering them from take means of sustenance
their
;

who

work, and
often,

thence
in

and

indeed,

time of war

it

is

safer

to seek

a livelihood with
of

arms

than

with
too,

the

implements

the

field.

Agriculture,
for just

teaches us to help one another; 14

as in facing their foes

men must

join tothen.
1

gether,

so

must they

in

agriculture.

He,

5

that would be a

zealous to work,

good farmer must procure labourers and ready to obey and so, too,
;

must he who

is

leading his

men
arc
his

against an

rewarding those
be,

who
those

are the brave

enemy men they should

;

punishing farmer

who

disorderly.

And
no
less

16

a

must
than

encourage

labourers,
his

constantly

does a general

soldiers.
3

For

34
slaves
free

THE ECONOMIST.
have no
;

[CHAP. V.

less

need of

fair

hopes than have
that

men

nay,

rather

more need,

so
It

they

17

may
once

willingly remain
said,

with their masters.
that agriculture
all

was

and

finely too,

was the
For
are

mother and the nurse of
while
agriculture
;

the other

arts.

prospers,

the other arts
soil

too

strong
there

but

wherever
are

the

must
utterly

lie

barren,

they

wellnigh
land.

being

quenched

by sea and
1

by

8

On
that

hearing

this,

Critobulus said,
is

I

think, Socrates,

what you say

entirely right

But remember
is

that the greater part of agriculture

beyond our
drought
other causes,

foresight

For sometimes
rain,

hail

and
often

frost,

and

violent

blight,

and

are fatal to what has been excellently devised and

done
kill

;

or a pestilence

may

chance

to

come, and

cattle that have been reared to perfection.

19

To which
much
think,

Socrates replied thus:

Nay,

I
is

thought
lord

that you, Critobulus,

knew

that

Heaven

as
I

of agriculture as

of war.

And

in

war,

you
forth

see

men

propitiating

Heaven before
and
in-

setting

on

any warlike
avoid.

enterprise,

quiring

there with sacrifices and oracles what they

20 must do and what
think you there
is

And
well,

in

agriculture

less necessity

to win the

favour

of

Heaven

?

For know
prayer

this

he added, that

good men

offer

about every kind of pro-

16-20.]

THE NECESSITY OF PRAYER.
*
;

35
yes,

duce

about oxen and horses and sheep,
that they have.
teal

about
*

all

Gk. " vvtp vypuv
i.e.,

Zrjp&v /tapirwv."

Literally,

" wet and dry

fruits,"

for example,

grapes and corn.

36

THE ECONOMIST.

'

[CHAP. VI.

CHAPTER

VI.

OK NIK RECAPITULATION OF PRECEDING CONCLUSIONS. TRUE GENTLEMAN, AND HOW SOCRATES FOUND SUCH AN ONE.
1

"\
yl

7ELL,

Socrates,
all

said
say,

he,
in

I

heartily

ap-

*

*

prove of
every
to

you
and

bidding us strive
the

to

begin

undertaking
us,

with

favour

of
is

Heaven
lord

aid

that

because

Heaven

no

less of

the things of peace than of those

of war.

This

we

will

make every
from

effort

to

do.

But
off

now do you
telling

continue

me

about

economy,
it

where you left and endeavour
for

to go through everything about
since even now, from
far,
I

my
told

benefit,

what you have

me
I

so

think
I

I

already understand better than
to act in
life.

did

how
2

ought

What
going

say you, then, said Socrates, to our

first

once

more

over

all

the

points
if

we have
possible,

successively agreed upon, that
as

we may
still

we proceed
?

to

what remains,

agree with

each other
3

Yes, said Critobulus,

I

shall

be very glad

:

and

1-7. ]

RECAPITULATION.
as

37
partners
in

just

where
are

money
at

is

concerned
off
be,

business

glad
both,
finish

finishing
shall

their
if

accounts
talking

agreeably to
together

so
off

we

in

we

our

conversation

without

any disagreement
Well,
then,

arising.

said

Socrates,

we

economy was
this

the
it

name

of some

decided that 4 science * and
;

science, as

appeared, was one that enabled
;

a

man
all

to

add

to his resources
;

and

his resources
said,

were were

his possessions

and possessions, we
a

everything

that
;

benefited

man

for

the

maintenance of

life

which

benefited

and we found that the things him were all such as he knew
decided, however, that
it

how

to use.

We
in

was im-

$

possible to learn every science,

and we agreed with

governments
ical arts, as

condemning the merely mechan-

they are called, because they evidently

are injurious to both
that

body and mind.
this

And we
if

said

6

a

most clear proof of

was,

when an

enemy invaded the country, one were to separate the husbandmen from the artizans, and then put
the question to each class, "Will you defend your

house and home, or leave the
walls?"
the
*

fields

and guard the

For

at this,

we
for

thought, those

who

tilled

7

land would

vote

defending thei
Chapter
I..

country,
I,

For these and following
i,

references, see

5,

7,

9

;

Chapter IV.,

sqq.

38
whilst
in

THE ECONOMIST.
the artizans would
prefer

[CHAP. VI.

not to

fight,

but
sit

the spirit of their education

would

rather

8

still,

without

trouble

and

without

danger.*

We

gentleman | was the finest occupation and science agriculture 9 of all those by which men gain a living. For we came to the conclusion that this occupation was
the easiest to learn and the most pleasant to

went on

to determine that for the true

be

occupied
the

in,

and that

it,

more than
whilst

all
it

others,

made
the

body
full

fine

and

strong,

allowed

mind

leisure to

have some care

for

both friend

loand country. We decided also that agriculture in some degree was an incentive to bravery, in that
it

not only produces the necessaries of

life,

and

that, too,

where there are no bulwarks of defence,
maintains
those
this

but also
in
it.

Wherefore
that

manner of

who occupy themselves life was, we
in

noticed,

which

governments held

highest

* This has not occurred in the foregoing chapters
fore,

;

there

is

there-

probably, a lacuna in the text.

t

"The

true
(

gentleman."

The Greek words

Ka\6t

n

icdyaffbi,

as subsequently

15) analysed, signify respectively the beauty of
'

mind
'

and body. The translation of them by the word gentleman been adopted as likely to impress itself on English readers. In
sense they are used by Plato (Republic,
viii.

ha,-;

this

569 A)
16
;

;

whilst Aristotle
3).

has the abstract KaXoxdyaOla (Ethics,
tinctly

iv.

3,

x.

9,

It is dis-

opposed to the mob, as
p.

is

shown by the following passage
tlafft
rot>v

ot

Plutarch (Pcricl.,

158 B)

;

"ot> 7d/

Ka\oin

7

14-]

THE TRUE GENTLEMAN.
it

39

esteem, because without doubt

provides the com-

monwealth with the best and most loyal citizens. To which Critobulus I think, Socrates, that
:

1

I

I

am
is

life

sufficiently persuaded that the husbandman's But the noblest, the best, and the sweetest.
it

you said that you understood how husbandmen manage to get from
an
unstinted
others

is

that

some

their

husbandry
while

measure of what they want,
their

work so that

husbandry
about both
I

is

no source

of profit to them.
I
is

And

these would

gladly hear you, in order that
profitable,

may do what

and avoid what
then,

is

to

my

harm.
Socrates,
1

What
to
I

say you

Critobulus,

said

2

my
once

telling
fell

you from beginning to end of
with
a

how

in

man who seemed
of

to

me
the

beyond

all
'

doubt

one
'

those

to

whom

name
cable
I
?

of

gentleman

was

really and" truly appli-

should
;

very
for
I

much

like

to

hear

it,

said

Critobulus

too desire to be worthy of that

name.
I

will

tell

you, then, said Socrates,

how
in

I

came

j

3

to see him.

For as to those

skilful
all

carpentry,

metallurgy, painting, sculpture, and
kind,
I

else

of the

took but a very

little

time to have done

with

them, and to inspect
good.

their

works popularly
consider
those 14

esteemed

But

in

order

to

40

THE ECONOMIST.
bore the
majestic

[CHAI-. VI.

i4-7-

who

name

of

'

gentleman,' and
it,

to see
I
I

what claim
particularly

their

conduct gave them to
fall

was

anxious to

in
'

with

some
'

5

one of them.

But to begin with, since
beautiful,
I
I

gentleman

meant both virtuous and

would address

myself to every beautiful person
try to discover
1

saw, and would

some
this

instance of beauty and virtue

6 combined.

Yet

was not always

so.

learnt very certainly that a beautiful figure

Nay, I was often

accompanied by a vicious mind, and
therefore
visit

I

determined

up looking at beauty, and to some one who had the name of gentleman.'
to

give

'

17 So when

I

heard of Ischomachus, and that he was

approved gentleman by men and women, strangers and fellow-citizens alike, I determined to try and

meet him.

SOCRATES AND ISCHOMACHUS.

4!

CHAPTER

VIL

HOW SOCRATES FELL IN WITH ISCHOMACHUS, WHO TOLD HIM OF HOW HE TAUGHT HIS WIFE HER DUTIES, AND
RECOUNTED HIS FIRST TALK WITH HER; OF THE DIVINE ORDERING OF THE WORLD, PARTICULARLY AS REGARDS MAN AND WIFE; AND OF THE INCREASING HONOUR IN WHICH THE GOOD WIFE IS HELD.
day, then,
I

saw him

sitting in

the porch

I

of Zeus

he seemed at

That giveth us Freedom ;" and as leisure, I went up to him, and sitting

"

me down

beside him,

Why, Ischomachus,

said
;

I,

you are generally anything but an idle man why are you sitting here ? For I almost always
see you busying yourself in
rate

something, or at any
all

not sitting quite idle in the market-place

the day long.

Nor indeed had you
Socrates,
said

seen

me
I

doing

so

now, 2
to

Ischomachus, had

not agreed

wait here for

some
said

friends.
I,

you have nothing of this kind to do, where do you spend your For I am very anxious to time, and what do you ? learn of you what it may be that you do that

And,

pray,

when

42
they
call
'

THE ECONOMIST.
'

[CHAP.

VIL

you
;

gentleman

:

you certainly are not

a stay-at-home
3
"

At

this

you look too healthy for that. Ischomachus smiled, amused at
'

my
'

what do you do that they call you gentleman ? I do not know, and I think he liked the notion.
said to
he,

"

whether

you of

me
it

call

you know any who in talking me so or not Certainly when
for

they come to
theatre,*
is

me

due subscription to navy or
'
'

not

the

gentleman

whom

they

ask

for,

but plain Ischomachus, and they just add

my

father's

name.

In
I

answer
certainly

to

your

question,

Socrates, he added,

am

anything but
I

a stay-at-home
wife
is

;

indeed,

why
all

should

be,

for

my

able
?

to

arrange

household

matters

without help

4

Yes,

Ischomachus, said
I

I,

and here

is

another

thing that
you.

should be very pleased to hear from

Did you teach your wife her duties yourself, or had she full knowledge of them when you took her away from her father and mother ?

5

Was
have

it

likely,

Socrates, said he, that she should

such

knowledge

when

I

took

her

away,

seeing that she

came

to

me
the

before she was fifteen,

and
that

after

living

under
see,
it

most and

watchful
as

care,

she
?

might
Surely
last

hear,

say

little

as

6 possible
*

was more than enough, think
Chapter
II.,

This

was

called x<V>Ty'-

6,

and

note.

2io.]

THE WIFE OK ISCHOMACHUS.
not,
for
fleece

43

you
turn

me

to

find

in

her one
;

who
one

could

a

into

a

garment

and

whose

eyes had taught her
at

how

to set her
far

handmaidens

their

spindles

?

For as
to

as

concerned the
:

passions, she
think, of the

came

me

well trained
for

which

is,

I

utmost importance

man and woman.
I,

But

in

other matters,

Ischomachus, said

tell
fit

7

me, did you teach your wife yourself, so as to
her to attend to
all

her duties
said

?

No,
first
I

by Heaven,
offered

Ischomachus,

no
I

!

For
might
us.

sacrifice

and prayer that

teach and she learn what was best for both of

Well,
sacrifice

and did your wife join with you and prayer ?
surely,

in

this

8

Yes,
to

and solemnly vowed
;

at

the

time

do her duty showing very clearly that she would not disregard anything taught her.
Nay, but by Heaven, Ischomachus, said me, I beg of you, what you first set
teaching
her.
I,

tell

9

about

For you

I

had
tell

far

rather
tale

hear this of
of grandest

you, than have

me any

wrestling bout or chariot race.

Why,
had
at
fairly
in

Socrates,
last

replied

Ischomachus,

when

I

10

'got her

in hand,'*

and when she was

subjection
I

to

me, so that we. could talk
a question
tamed

together,

put

her
;

something

thus

:

* irtOafffttTo

like a wild animal.

44
Tell

THE ECONOMIST.
me,
I

[<

HAF VII.

1

i

good wife, why, think you, did marry you, and why did your parents give you in marriage to me ? For I know very well that
there were plenty of others for
for

you

to marry,

and

Howme, as you yourself too are well aware. ever, when I was on the look-out for a wife for
myself, and your parents for a husband for you
for

the

best

partner

of

house

and family, both
as
it

of us

you were

my

choice,

and,

seems,
of

I

was the choice your parents
1

made

out
if

those

2 that were

eligible.*

ever grant us children,

Now, we

therefore,

Heaven

shall consider

how we

For in this we have may best bring them up. a common interest, that we find them the best
1

3

and support of our old age. t But at present, indeed, our common house and home is all my fortune, which I put into the comthis
defence
t
:

mon

stock, just as

you put

into

it

everything that

you brought with you.
in ipsis fuit,

No

reckoning as to which
"quantum
:

* This rendering of IK rZv &VVCLTUI> has been preferred to " also possible.

t Compare, " Happy is the man that hath his quiver full of them they shall not be ashamed when they speak with their enemies in the
gate."

Psalm

cxxvii. 7.

t
It

yr/pofioffKui'.

The

full

meaning of

this

word

is

very noticeable.

implies the duty of children in their days of strength to tend the

failing

powers of the

parents

who once

so carefully tended them

;

and, though wealth

render actual support unnecessary, that at least of tenderness ever remaining. By Greek parents this fact of a

may

recompense due was strongly

felt.

Compare Sophocles, Ajax,

567. seqq.,

ioi6.]

THE HELPMEET.

45

of us has contributed the greater part, must enter
into our calculations
;

let

us rather be well assured

that

it is

the best partner in household

management
Socrates,

who
this

brings the most. the answer
in

And
:

my

wife
I

made me,

was 14

But

what could

power have I to do so ? my one duty, as my mother

work with you ? What You are lord and master
:

told

me,

is

to

keep

my

honour.
said
I
;

Yes, good wife,

and
'

my
to to

father said the
'

1

5

same
both

to

me
as

;

but
wife,

do

not

honourable

people,
their
it

man and

also

strive

manage
add
just to
?

property

best

may
by

be,

and

as

largely as possible

fair

means and

And what

is

there,

said

my
I
;

wife,

that

you
?

see,

16

by doing which / might add Most assuredly this, said
and Euripides, Supplices, 918,
as follows
:

to our property

by

using

every
is

sc<f/.,

where the lament of the Chorus

irbvovs

IvfyKovd iv
e/td? f\fi

wdtffi /cai i>vv

"Ai5as rbv

OVK
rtKOvff'
a.

xu
iraida.

rdXawa
I

("Alas,
that

my

child, to

misery

womb, enduring
I

the pangs of travail
I

brought thee up, and bare theo in the lo, and now Hades doth hold all
;

suffered for, whilst
failing years.")

am

left

a wretched mother with no child to

tend

my

46

THE ECONOMIST.
all

[CHAP VII.

endeavour to do as best you can
for

those things

which

Heaven has

fitted

you, and

which the

law too sanctions.
1

7

And what
They
are,

are they
I

all ?

said

she.

think, of no small

moment,

said

I,

unless those things be of small
1

moment
of

over which

8 the queen bee in the

hive presides.
it

For to me,
the

good

wife,

it

seems that

was

keenest
female,

insight that

Heaven created them male and

binding them one to the other, that so united they For 1 9 might do each other better and best service. first these two are coupled together to the end

they
the
find

may have
earth
so
shall

children, that

so

the

creatures

of

not

fail

;

and
that

moreover we
will

men
de-

provided

those

tend

our

clining years.

But, secondly, let us add this, that
live,

men do

not

as

do the

beasts,

under the open

vault of heaven, but evidently have need of shelter.

20 They must, however,
bring
shall

if

they are to have aught to

within

that

shelter,

have

also

those

that
are

do every business of the tillage and sowing, planting of
of
2
1

field,

such

as

tree,

and tending
of
life.

flock,

whence

come
those

the

necessaries
are

And,

again,

when

necessaries

brought

within, they must have some one to take care of the same, as well as one to do the business of the

house.

Shelter,

too,

is

necessary for the rearing

1626.1

THE DIVINE ORDERING.

47

of young children, for the preparing of food from
the
fruit

of

the

earth,

and

for

the

working

of

raiment from wool.

But since

alf

work, both in- 22

doors and out, demands labour and diligent attention,

Heaven,
to
fit

I

think,

so
for

ordered
things

our

nature

as

the

woman
as

demanding

labour and diligent attention within, and the
for

man
For 23

such

things
so

demand them
and

without.
set

Heaven

made

their bodies,

their lives,

as to render

man
and
field

strong to endure cold and heat,
warfare,
;

journeyings

so

laying

on

him

the
less

works of the
strength
for

but to the
so

woman gave
laying,
I

such

endurance,

think,

on her the works of the house.
ledge
that
it

But
into

in the

know- 24
of

had

been put

the

nature

woman

and made of her to
love for

rear

young
just
:

children,

Heaven made her

infants

born

to

exceed that of the man.
the duty of the
into the house
;

And more

it

was made 25

woman
fearful

to

guard the things brought

so Heaven,

knowing that
is

for guardill,

ing of
to

goods a

heart

nothing

gave

the

to the

woman a larger share of fearfulness than man whilst in the knowledge that he who
;

works
all

in

the

field

must

defend himself
to the

against

was given But in share of courage.
injury, there

man
both

the greater
alike

that

must 26

give and

receive,

Heaven bestowed on both powers

48
of

THE ECONOMIST.
memory and
not
.

[CHAP. VII.

attention in a like degree, so that

you could
27 excels
spirits,

determine

whether
the

of

the

two
their

therein.

So

also

for

ruling

of

where

so

they
;

should,

they

had

equal
to the

opportunity given them
stronger therein, be
it

and

rt

was granted
or the

the

man

woman,

to

inherit the greater portion of the

28 from.

good But whereas they have not, both of them, natures of like power and capacity, so are they the
in

arising there-

more more
29 other

need of each other, and their union the

profitable, in that
is

where the one
so,

is

weak, the
I,

strong.

And

good

wife,

said

since

we know what has been
it

given each of us to do,
effort

remains for us to

make every
went
on

to

fulfil

our

30

respective duties.

And
he

these divine appointments,
to
tell

continued

I,

(as

me)

are

sanctioned by the law, which unites together

man

and

woman
in

hold their

and even as they have been made to children, so does the law give them their
:

home
is
it

common.

The law

also

shows how

fair
:

the

heavenly ordering of their several powers
for the

shows that
remain
whilst
so,
if

woman
man

it

is

fitter

that she

should
abroad,
his
3
i

within
for

the house
there

rather

than

go
in

the

were shame
in

doing

to

the

neglect

of works

the

field.

Hut

any do things contrary

to the nature

that

has been given him, disturbing aught of the

2636.]
divine
shall

THE QUEEN
order,
light

BEE.
the eye

49
of

then,

may

be,

Heaven

on him, and he

shall

be punished for

his fault,

whether

for failing of his his wife.

own
I

duties or

for
I,

meddling with those of
is

think, said 3 2

that the queen bee
its

an instance of a creature

fulfilling

divinely appointed duties.
!

The queen bee
to

said

my

wife

;

what has she
alike
?

do that makes her duties and mine
This, said
I
;

that she remains in the hive and 33
idle,

will

not suffer the bees to be

but makes those
;

have work abroad go forth to their labour and notes as she receives it all that each brings
that

home, taking good care of the same
for using
it

till

the time

come, when she gives to each his due
she
is

portion.

And
of
fit

set

also

over the
;

fair

and 34

speedy building of
for

cells within the hive

and cares

rearing

the
for

young

bees,

of

whom, when

reared
led

and

work, she sends out a colony
subjects.*
wife,
I,

by some one of her And must I, said my

act so

?

35

You must
work
to
do.

certainly, said

stay at

home, and

send out those of the servants

who have outdoor
will

Those who have work indoors
;

be under you

and you
is

will

have to take charge
dis-

of everything that
tributing
it

brought into the house,

when wanted, and providently taking 36
Reading
iirofUvuv, not tiriyovur.

50

THE ECONOMIST.
we may not consume
to last a year.

[CHAP. VII.

care of the stores, so that
in

a

month what was meant
brought

Are

you ? you must see that Have you those who want clothes have them. dried provisions in store ? you must be sure that
fleeces

home

to

37 they are
is,

in

the best condition for eating.
I,

There

however, one of your duties, said
find

may

somewhat irksome
fall
ill,

:

it

is

which you that if any one

of the servants
that so he

you

will

have to nurse him,

may

get well again.

Nay, but surely, said
thing but irksome,

my

wife,
if

this will

be anyget well
all

at least,

those

who

again are

grateful,

and

show themselves

the

more
38

loyal servants.
this

At

answer of

hers, said

Ischomachus,
it

I

was

much
bee
in

delighted,

and

said

:

Is

not,

dear wife,

some such provident
attached
is

care
;

the hive shows
to
her, that

as this that the queen and are not the bees so
forth,

when she goes
*
?

there

not one of them that thinks to leave her, but
all
I

they

follow after her

39

But

wonder, answered

my

wife,

if

the duties

of the chief bee do not belong to you rather than
to me.

For

it

would be rather absurd
of the
stores,

for

me

to

be taking
*

care

and

dealing
compare

them
Virgil.

For

this
iv.

devotion of the bees to their

leader,

Georgic

210 uqq.

36-41.]

THE PLEASURE OF DUTY.
indoors,

5 I

out

unless
in

you

took

good care

to

have

supplies brought

from outdoors.
I,

But

it

would be equally absurd, said
supplies, unless there

for

me 4

to be bringing in

were some

to take care of them indoors. You know, do you not, how we pity the people in the story who drew water in a bucket with holes in it,

one

because their labour was vain
Yes, said

*
?

my
will

wife,

for that

was such altogether
dear wife, said 41
instance,

wretched labour.

But you
I,

have other
like
;

duties,
for

that

you

will

when,

you

teach some handmaiden, who came ignorant of spinning, how to spin,

to

you quite
that

so
too,

you

any you ignorant of housekeeping and management, you will like teaching her to be a clever and faithful housekeeper, a thoroughly
So,

end by valuing her doubly.
one who comes
to

with

valuable servant.
in

Or, again, you will find pleasure
that

rewarding
to

those servants

are

steady and
will

profitable
*

your house, whilst you

punish

Danaus, king of Argos, being forewarned by an oracle that he should die at the hands of one of his sons-in-law, bade his daughters,
the
fifty

Danaides,

who were
For
this

betrothed to their cousins, the

fifty

sons of
night

.itgyptus, king of Egypt, slay each her bridegroom

on the

first

of her marriage.

crime,

which

all,

except

Hypermnestra,

consummated, they were doomed
a sieve with water.

in hell to the everlasting toil of filling

52

THE ECONOMIST.
that
all
fail

[CHAP. VII.
4', 43-

42 those
than

of their duties.

But pleasure more

shall

you
set

find,

superior,

and
that,
in

me

you prove yourself my under you, having no cause
if

to

fear

as years go
less

on, the household shall

hold you

honour

;

nay, rather having

full

assurance that, as you grow older, the better wife

and mistress and mother you prove yourself, the greater shall be the honour in which you shall be 43 held. For fair deeds and noble, said I, are held
in

admiration, not for any outward beauty in the

doer of them, but rather for that beauty of the
heart which aims at profiting the
life

of man.
far

Such,

Socrates,

(lie

concluded)

as

as

I

remember, was

my

first

talk with her.

CHAP. VIII.
i,

OF REAL POVERTY.

53

*]

CHAPTER

VIII.

OF THE VALUE AND BEAUTY OF ORDER, AND THE USE Of THINGS, AS TAUGHT BY ISCHOMACHUS TO HIS WIFE.

A
^-

ND

did you observe, Ischomachus, said of yours stirred
?

I,

that
to

I

these words

your wife

greater earnestness

Yes,
well

said

he,

most

assuredly

so

;

indeed,
it

I

remember the pain and blushes
I

cost her,

when once
brought
it.

asked for something that had been
the house,
I

into

and

she

could

not
I

find
said,

However, when

saw her annoyance,
this
I

Never mind, good
being able to give
for.

wife,

is

nothing, your not 2

me what
"

happen

to ask

you

It

is,

of course,
"
;

poverty indeed, not to have

what you need

but to need a thing, and just
it,

not to be able to find
is

which

is

your case now,

not nearly so bad as never to think of looking
it,

for

because you are sure that

it

is

nowhere

to

look

for.
I

Now, however, you
for not

are

not to blame,
I

but

am,

having told you as

gave you

54
everything,
to

THE ECONOMIST.
put this here and
to

[CHAP. VIII.

that
it

there,

that

so you
3 to

may know where
it

place

and whence

take

again.
fair

For nothing
for

is

more
Order.
if

useful,

nothing more

men

than this
;

For
all

suppose a chorus* of so
just

many men
is

they

do

what each
;

likes,
let

the result

utter

confusion,

ugly to see

but

Order

rule their

every word

and

gesture,

and

that

same

chorus

may
alike.
it

well

4 demand
so

attention

from eye

and ear

And
is

too

with
;

an

army

:

without

Order,
it
;

all

confusion
find

its

foes can easily master

its

friends

grief in

the sight

of

it

;

it

is

a thing that

cumbers the ground, a mass of troopers, pack-asses, and light infantry, carriers, cavalry, and carriages,
all

thrown

together.

For how can
each
in

a

march be

made with men
those going

like this,
in

the other's

way

;

slow
that

that

of those
halting
:

going

quick,

and

they

in

of

the

carriage

and

cavalry, pack-ass
5

and

carriage, carrier
?

and trooper,
how,
in
if

each

in

the

way
in

of the other

And

fight

they must, can they possibly do so
order
?

such disto

For
before

all

probability those
foe will

who have
in

retreat

the advancing
their

so doing

6 trample under foot
*

fighting

comrades.

But

The

English reader

is

that of the ancient

Greek drama

reminded that the chorus here spoken of is its part included both dance and
;

song, and thus has no parallel in the

modem

theatre.

2io.]
let

THE VALUE OF ORDER.
Order hold sway, and that army
;

55
is

a sight of

joy to friend

to foe, of

wonder and dismay.
not

For
an
not
set

who

of friends would

gaze with
order

joy on
?

armed host marching
look with admiration
array
?

in

perfect

who
in

at

cavalry riding on
fear,

who

of foes

not

when

his

eye

be-

holds troopers and cavalry, targeteers, archers, and
slingers, all
in

their ranks, all
?

duly following those

that lead

them

And

as they

move
still

along, though
all

7

they number tens of thousands,

are they

as

one
one

man
from

in

the perfect ever

quiet of their

march, as
fills

behind

comes
what

up
is

and
it

the 8

vacant ground.
a well-manned

Or, again,

that

makes
to

galley a thing of fear to foes,
?

friends of great joy
it

Is
?

it

not the

way
is

in
it

which
that

swiftly

voyages

along
to

And what
there on
;

enables

the

crew

sit

their

benches,

or to embark moving backwards and forwards and disembark, all without troubling each other,
if
it

be not Order
:

?

But look you now
like

at

Dis-

9

order

it

is,

I

think,
his
;

unto

a

husbandman

that throws into

granary barley and corn and
so

pease

all

together

when

in

due time he has

need of barley or of corn for bread, and of pease
for pottage,

he

is

driven to plucking out grain by

grain, since

they are not carefully set apart, that

he

should take of them.

And

so,

good

wife,

if

I

o

56

THE ECONOMIST.
strive

[CHAP. VIII.

you would avoid such confusion, and
an
accurate

after

knowledge whereby to arrange our possessions, readily taking of them for any need, and gratifying me by giving me that which I

may
into

ask of you,

let

us

now

think

on some

suit-

able place for
it,

everything, and putting our goods show our housekeeper whence everything
taken,

may
this
is

and where put back again. In way we shall know what is used and what
be
:

left

the very emptiness of a place will
is

show

us what

gone, and a single glance
;

tell

us what

needs attention
is,

we

shall

knowing where everything never be at a loss when we want it
whilst

for use.
\
I

and accurate piece of arrangement, Socrates, that I ever remember seeing, was
beautiful

The most

when

I

went

on

board

the

great

Phoenician
I

merchantman
the
largest

to look over her.

For there
arranged
it

saw
the

number

of

things

in

12 smallest possible space.

Now

requires
to

a great a
;

many
into

things

oars

and

cordage

put

ship

harbour and to take her out again
deal

and a
before

great

of tackle

too,

as they call
is

it,

she can

sail

along
of

;

she

equipped with
hostile
for the
vessels,

many
and

instruments
carries
fn

war

against

about

many weapons
mess,

men, having

her also for each

all

such, appliances as

io

16.]

THE PHOENICIAN MERCHANTMAN.
in

5/
this

are used

a

house

;

whilst

beside

all

she

has
with

a

heavy cargo,

which
profit

the
on.

shipmaster

takes
these 13

him
that
in

to
I

make

And
of,

all

things

am

telling

you

said

he,

were

stowed
in

a place

not

much
that

bigger than a room

which ten dinner-couches could be comfortably

set

And

I

observed

they

were

all

so

arranged that they did not get confused together,
nor was there any need to hunt for them, since

they
at,

were
as

quite

ready

to

hand

and

easily

got

so

to cause

no delay when

any one had
I

sudden
the

need

of them.

steersman's
call

mate,

And then the man at

found

that
as

1

4

the

prow,

knew where everything was so they that even when not on the spot he could
him,

well,
tell

where each thing was, and
thing
the
his
in

how many
as

of every-

ship

had,

as

easily
tell

a

man who

knows
letters

alphabet
'

can

Socrates,'

and

you the number of what their different
I

places in

the
this

word

are.

And
the

saw, Ischomachus
his
in

1

5

went on,
everything

same man
in

inspecting at
ship
:

leisure

ever used
it,

and

some
;

wonder at
sir,

I

asked him what he was doing
of an
or

I,

said he,
in

am

inspecting the state of everything
accident,
to

on board
is

case

see

if

there

anything

missing

not

handy.

For when 16
he
there

Heaven

raises

a storm on

the sea, said

58
is

THE ECONOMIST.
no time
to

[CHAP. VIII.

look about for what you want, or
is

to hunt for

what

not at hand.

For the Deity

threatens the

foolish-hearted,

and punishes

them

;

and

if

He

refrain

from
fain

destroying

those that do
;

no wrong, we must

be content
aright,

while

if

He

keep those that serve

Him

we must render

Heaven great thanks. So then, after observing 17
ment,
I

his

accurate

arrange-

said

to

my
so

wife

:

We
?)

should
if

be very
people
their

foolish-hearted
in

(should
are

we not
small,
in

while

ships,

that

find

room
despite

for
all

goods, and
tossing

keep
get,

them

order,

the
find

they they

knowing
even
we,
in in

too

where

to

what

want
yet

moments
our

of

the
its

greatest
large
firm
1

panic,

house
itself

with
too

and

separate

store-rooms,
find

on

a

foundation, do not
places and

out

for

everything
I

8 good
said

convenient.

So

far,

have
thing
find

enough to accurate Order

you about how and how easy is,
in

good
it

a
to

is

a

1

9 place
fair

for everything
it

a house.

And

then,

how
bed
too,

a sight

is

to

see

an

orderly arrangement or garments,
;

of even
linen,

any kind of

shoes,

or
fair

or vessels of brass, or table-gear
graceful,

and

(though

this

might seem
to

especially

ridiculous
sense,)

to

some
pots

wit,

not

a

man

of sober
in

even

and

pans

when

arranged

I6-23-]

THE BEAUTY OF ORDER.
order.*
for

59
seem
fairer

And

thus,

too,
;

does
for
;

all

else

20

being set in order
like

the

kinds
fair
is

of vessels the
;

seem

some chorus

and

space
as

between them, as each stands out clear
a chorus moving in
a fair sight of
is
it

just

measured

circles

is

not only

in
fair

itself,

but the space in the midst
to view.

also

is

and clear
said
I,

That

all

this 2

I

true,

good
fear

wife,

any great
have

loss or trouble.

we may test without But we need not either
shall

any
will

but

that

we

find

some one

who
to

keep
in

learn where everything is, and remember For we know, of course, 22 all separate.

that

the

whole
as

city

there
;

is

ten

thousand

times

as

much

we have
a
it,

and

yet

whatever

you bid a servant go and fetch from the marketplace,

he

is

never at

loss,

but

always

knows

whither to go and get
everything has looking looking
out
its

and that only because But often when 23 proper place.

for

a
you,

man,

who

is

himself,

too,

out

for

you

might grow weary of

(Cpu6fj.os.

A

rhythm

(j>v0fjAs)

remarkable word as significant of the complete whether of sound or motion, that was so great a
(c/.

characteristic

of the Greek ideal

xi.

16,

utrafyvQulfa).

The

statement here that even pots and pans

may
They

look

fair

and graceful
the various

when arranged
reliefs at

in order,

finds certain verification in

one of the bas-

the

base of Giotto's Tower.

represent

trades of Florence, the subject of the one in question being pottery, and exhibiting the potter with all his wares set out in the true

beauty

of perfect order.

60
waiting
before

THE ECONOMIST.
you
find

[CHAP. VIII.
23-

him,

and

that

just

through not having agreed on some meeting-place
to wait
in.
I

Such, as far as

remember, was

my

talk with

her about the arrangement and use of things.

CHAP. IX.
i,

THE HOUSE OF ISCHOMACHUS.

61

2-J

CHAPTER

IX.
HIS

OF THE HOUSE OF ISCHOMACHUS AND ITS ORDERING.

CHOICE OF A HOUSEKEEPER, AND ADVICE TO HIS WIFE AS MISTRESS OF THE HOUSEHOLD.

A ND how

did

it

end

?

said

I.

Did you
to

find

i

that your wife

paid

any
?

attention

what

you so earnestly taught her

Why,
just as

it

ended
it,

thus

;

she

promised

to

apply

herself to
if

and was evidently mightily pleased, she had now left doubt behind her, and
plain
to

found

all

begged

me

and straightforward. And so she lose no time in arranging everyI

thing in the

way

had mentioned.
the

And what was
said
I,

arrangement,
for her
it
?

Ischomachus, 2

that you
I

made

Of
her

course

thought

best to begin
it

by showing
decorations,

over

the

house
all
its

:

for

had no

Socrates, but

rooms were
all

built with a

view

to containing, with

possible convenience, everyto put in

thing that

we were going

them

;

and so

they suggested of themselves what they were most

62
3 suited to

THE ECONOMIST.
be used
for.

[CHAT. IX.

First there

was the

store-

room.
so

This was
us
to

in

a safe part of the house, and
it

invited

place in
;

our

most valuable

and then the corn must be bedding and vessels the wine where it was put where it was driest
;

coolest

and the vessels and pieces of fine workmanship that wanted a good light, where they
;

4 would get a good light upon them. showed her how the rooms of the
which
are
well

I

next
house,

ornamented,

are

cool

in

the

summer,

whilst in winter they have the sun

upon
whole
is

them
house
w.ell
5

;

and
faced

then
the

I

let

her

see

how

the

south,

and

thus,

of course,
well

in

the sun in winter, and in

summer

in

the shade.
quarters,

And
to

then

I

separated

by

showed her the women's a bolted door * from
anything
being

wrongly removed, and in order that the servants might not have children without our knowing of it For

the

men's,

prevent

good servants

are,

as

a

rule,

all

the

more
it

loyal

when

children

are

born
all

to

them,

but

makes

those that are bad

the

more prone

to mischief.
to

6 After going through
set apart our

all

this,

we now went on

goods and chattels
first,

after their various

kinds.

And

we began by
in

collecting together

everything

used

sacrifice
xai

;

then

we

set

aside

Reading Ovp?

a

lo.]

HOUSEHOLD ARRANGEMENTS.
the
clothes,

63
of
the

women's holyday men, with their armour

and

those

as well, ending

by arranging
kinds of
grinding
7

the bedding in both their quarters, and the shoes

belonging to each of them.
appliances
corn,
:

We

had

all

some
for

for

spinning,

some

for

some

cooking bread, others for washing,
;

kneading,
all

and the table
sets,

and we divided

them

into

two

one

for every-day use,

and the
such
8

other

for

state

occasions.

We
in

set

aside

things as

we always consume
those

a month, storing a

elsewhere
so

reckoned
certain
all

to

last

year
is

;

since
finally

we

are

more

how
our

everything

spent.

After

setting

goods
in

and
the

chattels
several

properly apart,
places

we next put them
them
;

meant
as

for

after

which we took such

9

things

the

servants

use every day for making

bread, cooking, spinning, and everything else there

and after showing those might be of the kind who use them where to put them, we handed
;

them
care

into their charge

and bade them take good
however,
or
as

of

them.
or

Such,

we

use

for

10

festivals

entertainments,
into

only

on

rare

occasions,
after

we gave
her

the

housekeeper's charge,

showing

where

they

should

be

kept,
;

counting them over and making a list of them we bade her give any one of them to such as

had need of

it,

remembering

to

whom

she gave

64
it,

THE ECONOMIST.
and putting
it

[CHAP. IX.

back

again

in

its

place

when

returned to her.
i i

And
was

the

this.

way we appointed our housekeeper We sought out her who had, we
concerned.
consideration

* where thought, the greatest self-restraint eating,
wine, sleep, or the passions were

Nor
the
at

did
best

we omit

to

take

into

our

memory

and

foresight,
for

which

aimed
at

avoiding

punishment

neglect,

and

looking

how
1

she might give us satisfaction, and be by us
it

2

duly remembered for
with
to
feelings

We

further inspired her
us,

of loyalty towards us

making her
and calling
a zealous

rejoice

with

when we

rejoiced,

her to help us in any time

of grief or trouble.
feel

And we
interest

set
in

about teaching her to

increasing the

prosperity of the house,
all
its its

by acquainting
1

her
a

with
share
into
just

concerns,
welfare.!

and

3 letting

her

have

in

And
and

further,

we

instilled

her a notion

of justice

by honouring

the

beyond

the

unjust,

showing her that they enjoyed a life of greater And so we luxury and liberty than the latter.

made
14
*

her our housekeeper.
this,

But more than
On

Socrates,

said

he,

I

told

the Greek word fyKpar-^t, see note on Chapter II.,

i.

t Probably by
themselves.

the addition of small luxuries, as they grew richer
6.

C/. XII.,

io

16.]

THE HOUSEKEEPER.

6$

my
kept

wife

that

all

this

was of no use unless she

too attended in person to the proper order being
:

and

I

showed

her

that

in

well-ordered

states the

people are not satisfied with a code of

good

laws merely, but, further, appoint guardians

of the laws,*
to

who

are

overseers,
to
I

and give praise
the
transgressor

him
the

that acts lawfully, but

of
said

laws

punishment.

So

bade

my

wife,

1

5

he, look on herself as guardian of the laws

of our household, and go over the furniture from

time to time at her discretion, just as the officer
of a
garrison
if

reviews
is

his

guards
the

;

to

give
in

her
the

approval
case

all

well,

like

Senate
royal

of the

horses and cavalry,

in

fashion

bestowing praise and honour on him
well

who has done
has
failed

according to his power
fall

;

but letting disgrace

punishment But of the right.
feel

and

on

him

who
at

moreover,
I

said
her,

he, she

could
setting

l

&

no just annoyance, her more to do than
her for reason
*
i>o/jL(xf>6\aKas.

told

my

the

servants

had, giving
of servants

that

the only concern

This

office

of "guardian of the laws" existed at

Sparta and

in

some other

states.

At Athens

it

was established
its

in

the time of Pericles, but held of no high account,
to prevent the passing of
It
is

function being

mentioned

in Plato,
is

any measure inconsistent with existing laws. Laws, 755, 770, and in Aristotle, Pol. vi.
especially suited to an

8, 24,

where

it

stated to be an institution

aristocratical

government.
5

66
in

THE ECONOMIST.
their

[CHAP. IX.

1619.
master's

possessions
;

is

just

to

carry or

look

to

or

guard them

since

they

may

never

use any of them, unless their
leave
1
:

master gives
to

them

but
It
is,

everything
then,

is

his,

use
to

what he
her,

7

will.

as

I

pointed
its

out

to

him who gains most by
by
fitly
1

safety

and

loses

most

its

damage, that the care of property most
said

belongs.

8

Well,

Ischomachus,

I,

and what
all

answer
?

did your wife

make

in

obedience to

this
I

What

but

this,
if

Socrates, said he, that
I

greatly

misjudged her

thought
I

that

in

bidding

her

look after our property a

was

setting

her to do

hard
to

thing.
set

It

had

been surely harder, said

she,

me

to

neglect
care

my

property,

than to

bid

me
it

take

good

of what

was

my

own.
so

!Q

For

seems, he concluded, that
things,

Nature has

ordered
it

that just

as

a good

woman

finds

easier

to

care for her

own
(in

children than to be

careless

of them, so too
it

my
to

opinion, at

least)

she

finds

of more

joy

take

care

of

her
so

property, in

the possession

of which she finds
it.

much

delight, than to be careless of

CHAP X

WIFELY OBEDIENCE.

6/

CHAPTER

X.

HOW THE WIFE OF ISCHOMACHUS READILY OBEYED HER
HUSBAND, AND GAVE UP ALL FALSE ADORNMENTS, SEEKING HOW SHE MIGHT BECOME A GOOD MISTRESS

AND

WIFE.
said

hearing,

Socrates,

that

this

was the
Ischo-

i

answer
machus, cried
a brave soul. Yes,
said

his
I
;

wife

made

him,

Marry,

you

imply that

your wife

has

Ischomachus

;

and

I

wish

to

give

you further proofs of her magnanimity, by you of certain cases where she obeyed
once, without

telling

me

at
I

my
I,

having

to

repeat

the advice

gave

her.
!

Indeed
I

said

then

tell

me
hear

about them
of

;

for

would

far

more

gladly
that

some
the

living
heart,

woman endowed
than

with

beauty

of

have

Zeuxis
fair.

show me some

portrait

of a

woman
Well

passing
then,

Socrates,

said

Ischomachus,

I

one 2

day saw that she had a quantity of white lead rubbed into her skin, to make her look whiter

68
than
she
really

THE ECONOMIST.
was,
as
well

[CHAP. X.

as

a

quantity

of

alkanet *
was,

to

make
she

her

redder

than

she

really

while her

had
taller

on
than

high-heeled

shoes

to

make
3 so
I

look

she

really

was

;

and

said to her, Tell me, wife, in

which of these your proif I were

cases would

you think

the

partner in
love
:

perty the
to

more worthy of your
all

show you
that

that

I

really have, with

no vain
and

boasting

I

am
and

richer

than

I

am,
I
I

no

concealment of any deficiency, or
deceiving
you,
true,

if

set

about
richer

told

you

that
at

am
money

than

is

bidding
at

you
of

look

that

was

false,

and
at

golden necklaces that were
purple whose
I

of

wood, and
could

garments
but
?

colour

not

last,

which

told

you

were

genuine and real

4

And
talk

she
so,

caught

me up
;

at

once.
forbid
to

Nay,

nay,

not
act
feel

she said
for
real

Heaven

you should
so,
I

ever

thus,

were you

do

could

never

any
I

love for you.

Well then,
that
I

asked, did

we

not marry, good wife,
?

might be yours and you mine
think

Yes, said she, at least so the world says.
5
*

And would you

me more worthy

of your

yields a red dye, used for rouge.

Alkanet, tyxovtra, or S.yx ovffa (Lat. anchusa), a plant whose root It is the wild bugloss (Anchusa

Alcibiadion or lubra),

a

full

account of which

may be

found

in

Gerarde's Herbal, chap. 271.

28.]
love,

OF FALSE BEAUTY.
more
fit

69
if
I

to

hold

you mine,

set

about

being

careful

of myself, trying to keep myself for
really

you healthy and strong, so having a
complexion
milion,
;

good
ver-

or

if

colouring
painting

and

daintily
lived

my my
life

face
eyes,

with
I

came
pre-

forward and

with you a

of

deceit,

senting to your sight and touch, not Ischomachus,

but only paste and paint

?

As
should
in in

far

as

I

am

concerned,

she

answered,

I

6

not find more pleasure for touch or sight
fine
;

the

fellow

with
I

his

paste and

paint than

you

nor would

rather see your eyes painted

than have them look healthy and strong.

So

also

be
(as

sure

that

I,

good
find

wife,

replied /

Ischomachus,
sure
in
in

than

no more pleaa complexion of white lead and alkanet that which is your own. But just as
he told me)

Heaven made horses and oxen and sheep to find most delight each in its own kind, so too do

men
these

think

that

there

is

most
man.

delight

in

the

natural

form
deceits

and

colour

of

And
the

though 8
passing
those

may

possibly

escape

stranger,

and he be deceived by them,
is

still

whose
to

life

spent together, must,

if

they attempt
in

deceive
:

one

another,

ever
rise

be
in
or,

caught
the
if

so

doing
before

either

when
is

they

morning
so,

the

deceit

renewed,

not

the

70
sweat

THE ECONOMIST.
of their brow
to
is

[CHAI.

V

convicts

them, or
whilst

tears

put

them
eye
seen.

the

test,

or again

bathing

some

upon
in

them, and

they are

unmasked and
what

9

And
What
forward
rather

the

name
said

of
?

Heaven,

said

I,

answer made
but

she to this
this,

he,

that

from

that

time

she never did anything of the kind, but
all

she
;

could

to

make
to

herself

fair
if I

and
could

natural to see

nay, she once asked

me

give her any advice

how
to

become
so.

really beau-

10

tiful,

and not merely
he,
I

seem

And, Socrates,
I

said

did

give her
sitting

some

advice.

told

her

not to be ever
try

down
to

like a slave, but to

with

Heaven's

help

be

a
in

true

mistress,

standing
she

by
the

the

loom,

teaching

aught

where
others

was

wiser,

and
I

learning

where

were wiser than she.
baking,

told

her to look after the out
if

and
;

watch
going

the

housekeeper dealing
too,
:

the stores

her
its

rounds

and

seeing

everything was in
I
1 1

proper place

which would,

thought, give her
I

well.

told
in

employment, and a walk as her too that she would find good
it
;

exercise
as
also

making the dough and kneading
shaking
out
the
clothes

in

and

bed-

And this exercise, linen, folding them up. I continued, would make her appetite better, her
and

813.]

A WIFE'S NOBILITY.
healthy,

71

body more
yet

and
a

not

false.

Let
wife,

her complexion fairer husband look from a
if

r

2

servant

to

his
fair,

and
dress

he

sees

his

wife

more

really

her

too
;

more

becoming,
all

his love for

her grows

warm
his

and that above
her

when she
instead

gives

him

pleasure of

own

accord,
service.

of

only

doing
in

compulsory
dignity

But
rise

women
such

who
as

a

pompous
us
to

never 13

from their

seats,

force

consider

them
deceit.

amongst

are

decked

out

with
said

And

now, Socrates,
wife
is

do

not doubt,
in
all

he,

that
living

my
after

circumspect
I

she
as

does,

the

teaching

gave

her,

you have

just

heard.

72

THE ECONOMIST.

[CHAP. XI.

CHAPTER
USE OF WEALTH.
HIS DAY,

XI.
OF THE RIGHT

OF SOCRATES AND THE HORSE OF NICIAS.

ALSO

HOW ISCHOMACHUS SPENT

SEEKING TO PROMOTE JUSTICE AT HOME

AND ABROAD.

HERE,
begin
you.
with,

Ischomachus, said
I

I,

about what your

wife does

think

I

have heard enough to
it

and very creditable
now,
that
I

is

to

both of

But
so

continued,

let

me
the

hear what
pleasure of

you do,

you

may

have

recounting the causes of your good

report,

and

I

an opportunity of gratitude to you for describing to me thoroughly what the duties of the true
gentleman
so I can.
2
are,

and helping
exclaimed

me

to learn

them,

if

Nay, Socrates,

Ischomachus,

I

shall

be quite delighted

my
3

daily duties

;

to give you an account of and to look too for your cor-

rection, wherever you

may
a

think

me

wrong.
could
I

What,
the
that
right

I

!

was

my
call

answer,

how

have
;

to

correct

finished

gentleman

and

when they

me

a

prating and

specula-

,_ 7< ]
tive
is,

THE HORSE OF
fellow,*
it

NICIAS.

73

and charge me moreover with what seems, the most monstrous crime of all

my

poverty.

And

I

should have been quite dis- 4
this

heartened,

Ischomachus, at
I

reproach

;

but the

day before yesterday
the foreigner, followed

met

.the

horse of Nicias
of spectators,

by

a crowd

some of them
and
if I

talking

quite

eagerly

about

him

:

went up to the groom, and actually asked the horse was very wealthy. He stared at
as

5

me
such

though
question,

I

must be
and

utterly insane to

ask
earth

a
a

answered,
?

How

on

could

horse
relief

be
;

wealthy
so

me

great

then
if
I,

a

horse

These words gave need not be
it

wealthy to

become good, Even of good mettle.
good

only
then,
full

was naturally may become a 6
what
I

man

;

so

give

me
I

a

account of what
learn

may you do, from you, and to-morrow make
in

order that

can

my

first
I

efforts to

imitate you.

For a favourable day,

continued,

for the beginning of virtue will be

to-morrow.

All your jesting, Socrates,
will

replied

Ischomachus, 7
I

not prevent
v,

my

telling you how, as far as

'to measure the air,' hence 'to lose oneself in vague

speculations.'

Part

of the
to

charge against
death,
is

Socrates,

on which
'

he
'

was condemned and put
(p.

given in

Plato's

Apology

19):

"Socrates

is

a doer of

evil,

and
in

searching into things under earth and

speculative person, heaven, and making the
25.)

a

worse appear the better reason."

(Compare below,

74
8

THE ECONOMIST.
able,
I

[CHAP. XI.

am

try to
I

spend

my

life.

I

have thoroughly
it

learnt,

as

believe, that

Heaven has made

un-

lawful for

men

to succeed unless they recognize their
;

while duty, and are diligent in accomplishing it to the wise and diligent it has given sometimes
happiness,
I

sometimes misfortune

:

so then, though
I

begin by doing worship to Heaven,
act
in

endeavour

to

such a

way

that

it

may

be meet and
for

right

that

my
for

prayer be

heard
in

both

health

and strength,
goodwill of
in

high position
friends,

the State and the

my
I

for

an

honourable safety

war and an honourable increase of wealth.

9

At
with
brings
I

this,

asked,
for

What

Ischomachus,
the
?

wealth
troubles

do you and many
!

really

care,

possessions,

many

that

the

care

of

them

care

very much, replied
of

Ischomachus, for
ask
to
;

all
it

those
is

things

which

you
both

for

I

think

pleasant,
all

Socrates,

worship

Heaven
they
I

with

due honour,

to

help

friends

when

have need

of anything, the

and

to

see

that where

am
IO

rich,

State

shall

never

lack

adornment

from me.
Yes, Ischomachus, said
cerned, and the
position.
I,

for here

honour

is

con-

How

duty assuredly of a man of high can it be otherwise, when there are
are

many men who

not able to

live

without de-

7

* 3-1

THE RIGHT USE OF WEALTH.
pendence on
others, while

75
if

many

are glad
life ?

they

be able to get the necessaries of

But those

who

are able not only to support their

own

houses,

but also have a superabundance, so that they can

even spare money to adorn the State and to
lieve

re-

their friends

what should we
?

call

these but
1

But praise of these I continued, is an easy matter for all of us men, do you rather go on telling me as you began, what attention do you pay to your health, and
to

men

of substance and power

1

:

your strength
right

;

and

how you make
find

it

meet

and

that
in

you
war.

should
It

an

honourable
to

safety

even

will

be
all
I

time enough
this.
it,

hear about your business after
Well,
all

said

Ischomachus,

as

take

Socrates,
after

1

2

these depend

upon one another.
to
eat,
it

For
that
;

one
is

has
best
is

had enough
the
best

I

think

health

kept by working

off

properly
;

and work
practice
in

means

to

strength

and
to

military exercises

the best

means
with

safety

;

and
of

proper

diligence,

together

all

avoidance

effeminacy, the most likely
estate.

means

to increase one's

Well,

I

follow you so

far,

Ischomachus, said

I,

1

3

that in your opinion
tice

work and diligence and practo

are
I

most

likely

bring

good
I

to

a

man

;

but

should

be glad to learn,

continued,

how

76

THE ECONOMIST.
after

[CHAP. XI.

you labour you
to practise

health

and

strength,

and

how

military

exercises,

and

are

diligent

get

abundance,

so

that

you

may

even

help
the

your
State.

friends,

and contribute

to the support of

14

Well

then,
to

Socrates,
rise

said

Ischomachus,
in

I

am
if

accustomed

from bed
I

time to find at
see.

home any one whom
I

may
if

wish to
I

And

have any business
it
;

in

town,

make

use of this

1

5

walk to transact

but

there

be no need to

go
to

into town,

my

servant takes the horse out
I

on

the estate, while

perhaps gain more
lanes,

benefit

from a walk through the country than I should from pacing up
'

Socrates,

and
at

down
the

in

1

6 the

Arcade.
I

And when
find

I

arrive

estate,

whether
fallow

them

planting,

or

ploughing
I

up

land,

or

sowing,

or

harvesting,
it,

look at the

way they
I
I

are doing

always and make any
being
horse,
to

improvements
1

7 After

that,

upon what generally mount
can
as
like

is

done.

my

and
re-

practise

riding,
in

as

I

can

that

quired
ditch,
1

war,

and shirk neither
;

downhill,
all

nor

nor
not

stream
to

taking,

however,

possible

8 jare

lame

my
roll

horse.

This
grass,

done,

my

servant gives

him a

on the
time
into

and takes
anything

him home, at the wanted from the

same
estate

carrying

town.

Meanwhile

1322.]
I

A WELL-SPENT DAY.
go

77
running,
I

home,
rub

partly

walking,
*
;

partly

and

then

myself down
meal,f

after

which

take
last

my
me
I

morning

Socrates,

enough

to

through the day, without over-eating myself.
Marry,

Ischomachus
doing

!

cried
this
!

I,

how
at

pleased
the

19

am
time

at to

your

all

For

same

busy yourself in arrangements contrived for your health and strength, and in military exercises, and diligently to further your fortunes, is I
think
that
all

admirable.
are
for,

For you give proof enough 20
diligent
in

you
;

rightly

each

of these

matters
see you

Heaven helping you, we generally

and strong, and we know that you are accounted a most excellent rider and a very
well

wealthy man.

Yet though
tinued,
I

my

life

is

such,

Socrates,
in

he conquarters
;

2

1

am

greatly calumniated
I

many
the

but you perhaps thought
it
'

was going

to say

how
of

is

that
'

many have
?

given

me

name

gentleman

Yes

;

but here
I

is

another thing,

Ischomachus, 22
I.

about which

was going

to ask you, said

Do

you
*

ever
with

take
the

any pains to be able
'strigil,'

to

render
used

i.e.

or

'

ffr\eyyk,'

an instrument

by

both Greeks and Romans after the bath or exercise in the
nasium, to scrape and clean the skin. f Gr. ipurrof, our breakfast.
the
first

Gymthan

regular

meal of the day,

but

'.ater

78 account
should
it

THE ECONOMIST.
of
yourself,

[CHAP. XI.

and

require
?

it

of

another,

chance to be necessary

What
this
is

do you not see, just what I spend
!

Socrates, he replied, that

my

life

in

practising, to to
?

defend myself from
one, and
to

all

charge of

injustice

any

do good as widely

as

I

can

Do

you not see that I practise myself in accusation, and so find out many who wrong both individuals
and the
state,

but do good to none
I,

?

23

Well, Ischomachus, said

of interpreting

all

this,

I

you make a habit should be glad of some
if

farther explanation.

Well then, Socrates, said
practise speaking.

he,

I

never cease to

For

I

am

always either trying
I

to

sift

the

accusations

and excuses

hear from

my my my
we

servants, or praising
friends,

and blaming some one to
reconcile
their

or endeavouring to

some of

acquaintances, and to show them
in friendship rather

own

ad-

24 vantage

than in enmity.

When

are on service under a general,

we

are always

bringing a charge against some one, or defending

any

one
;

against

whom

an

unjust

charge

is

brought

or accusing amongst ourselves any

that

have been unjustly promoted to honour.
often
also

And
where

very
\ve

we

have debates
the course

together,

always praise

we

are

anxious to take,

and blame that which we wish to avoid.

But as

2225-1
it

A SERIOUS ARREST.
is,

79

Socrates,

he continued,

I

myself

am

often 2 5
in-

arrested

and brought to the bar on
fine.
?

charges

volving punishment or

By whom, Ischomachus
heard of
this.

I

cried

;

for

I

never

By my wife, he replied. And pray how do you
asked.

defend

yourself

?

I

Quite
truth
;

fairly,

when

it

is

my
can

interest to tell the

though when a

lie

would help me, Socrates,

upon

my

word

I

never
!

make

the

worse

appear the better reason
Yes,

Ischomachus,

I

replied,

perhaps you can-

not

make

falsehood true.

80

THE ECONOMIST.

[C HA

i

XII.

CHAPTER
CAREFULNESS.

XII.
BOTH GOODWILL AND
CARE-

HOW THAT STEWARDS MUST LEARN
OF THOSE
FULNESS
:

WHO CANNOT LEARN

ALSO

OF THE FORCE

OF THE MASTER'S

EXAMPLE.
1

*\JAY,
Not
at

but Ischomachus, said
if

I,

do not

let

me

keep you,
all,

you would go away now. Socrates, said he, for I would not
is

leave before the court

finally dismissed.

2

Verily,

said

not
just

to

lose

you taking wondrous care For your surname of gentleman
I,

are

'

'

!

now,

notwithstanding
call

the

many
since
for

cares

that

no doubt
to

you away, yet
friends,

you

agreed

meet those

you

wait

them, that

your word

may

not be broken.

And you
for
I

know, Socrates, said

Ischomachus,
either

I
:

do not neglect the matters you speak of
have stewards over
are
in

my

estate.
Is-

3

And when you
chomachus,
I

need of a steward,

said,

do

man
and

with
then

stewardship

you ascertain where a is in him to be found,
just

endeavour to buy him

as

when

i

6.]

OF GOODWILL.
in

8

1

you are

need

of a carpenter you ascertain,

I

am
then

sure,

where such a

man

is

to

be found, and

endeavour to

buy him

;

or

do

you

train

up your stewards yourself?
I

endeavour, Socrates, said he, to train them up 4
myself.
to
suffice

from childhood

For why need the
in

man
I

whose care
absent

is

my
I

place

when
?

am
if

know anything
to

that

do not

For

I
I

am

able

manage

the

business,

then

surely

might teach others what I know myself. Goodwill, then, toward you and yours is the first thing, said I, that he will require to have,
if

5

he

is

to

suffice

in

your place when
this

absent.

For without
use
?

you are goodwill, what would
having ever so

be the

of a steward's

much
so

knowledge

None

at

all,

certainly,

said

Ischomachus
is

;

goodwill toward
I

me and mine
asked,

the

first

thing

try to teach him.

And

how,

I

how

in

Heaven's name do 6

you teach this goodwill toward you to whomsoever you may wish ?

and yours

By good
ever

treatment,*

said

Ischomachus, when-

Heaven bestows upon us any abundant and

ungrudged good.
*

Compare Chapter

IX.,

12.

82

THE ECONOMIST.

[CHAP. XII.

7

Do you

say

then,
in

asked

I,

that

those

who

enjoy a share

your good things bear goodwill
?

toward you, and wish you good success
Yes,
Socrates,
for
I

see .that this

is

the best

means of producing
8
Well,
you,

goodwill.

suppose

a

man
said
I,

bears
is

goodwill

toward
fit

Ischomachus,
?

he therefore
not see

to

be your steward
all

you goodwill toward themselves, yet there are many of them who will" not take the

Do

that almost

men

bear

care necessary

to

obtain

those good

things

they

would

?

9

Yes, indeed, said

Ischomachus

;

so whenever
I

I

wish to appoint such
to be careful too.
i

men

stewards,

teach them

o

How,
always
fulness.

in

Heaven's name

?

cried

I

;

for

this

I

thought

utterly impossible

to

teach care-

Well,

it

certainly

is

not possible, Socrates, said

he, to teach every
1 1

one carefulness straight away.

What
by
all

kind of

men can be

taught
to

?

I

asked

;

means point them out
the
first

me

clearly.

In

place,
in

Socrates,
their

said

he,

those

who
could

are

intemperate

not

make

careful.

you For drunkenness makes

use

of wine

one forget everything that needs doing. 12 Is it then the intemperate in wine

only,

I

7

IS-I

OF CAREFULNESS.
become
careful,

83
or
are

asked, that are unable to
there others also
?

Yes,

indeed,
too.

said

Ischomachus, there are

slug-

gards
neither
to

For

when

one

is

asleep,

one

can

do what should be
it
I,

done, nor get others

do

Well, said

and are these the only ones we 13
be
unable
to learn
this

have that

will

lesson
?

of

carefulness, or are there
I

still

some others

certainly

think,

said

Ischomachus, that those
incapable
beside
of
learning
passion.

also

who
take
it

are

lovesick

are

to

care

of

anything

their

For

would be hard to
to
their

find

any hope
which
is

or

care 14

more
about
inflict

mind than
;

that

they
it

take

their

passion

nor,

indeed,

easy to

on them any harsher punishment, whenever business interferes, than to separate them from the
object of their affections.
too,
I

So

I

pass by

all

those,

whom

I

know

to
to

be of
appoint

this

disposition,

and
as

never

attempt

any
as

of

them

stewards.

But what, said
gain
?

I,

of such

are in

love

with

1

5

Are

they,

too,

incapable of being trained
?

to carefulness in farm-work

No, indeed, said
but

Ischomachus,

by no means
led

;

they with extreme ease
things
:

may be
is

to

care

for such

for

nothing

needed

but just

84
to

THE ECONOMIM'.
show
them
that
their

[CHAP. XII.

carefulness

is

profit-

able.
1

6

But other men,
self- restrained

said

I,

supposing

they

are

in

the

points

moderately fond of gain,

you require, and are how do you train such
?

to be careful in your affairs

That

is

simple

enough,

Socrates, said
I

he

;

for

when
give

I

see

them taking
credit
for
it

care,
;

praise

them and
they
are

them
I

but
I

when

careless
feel
1

say

and do

all

can to

make them
us
turn

it

7

Come,
the

Ischomachus,

continued
education
to

I,

let

conversation
;

from

to

the
also

subject
if
it

of carefulness
possible
for

and

explain
is

me

is

a

man who

himself

careless

to

make
1

others careful.

8
it

No,
is

indeed, replied Ischomachus,

no more than
to teach

for

a

man who
sets
;

is

himself

illiterate
it

others the grace of

letters.

For

is

hard when

the

teacher
it

a
as

bad

do
an

well

and

example of a thing, to hard when the master sets
for
I

1

example of become careful. 9
that
learnt

carelessness,

the

servant

to

In
of
;

a a

word,

do

not

think

the
to

servants

bad

master

have

ever

be good

I

have,

however, before

now

seen those of a good

master do badly, but never

without suffering for

it.

Hut he

who would make

1520.]

"THE MASTER'S
careful

EYE."

8$

any
to

ought also himself to be watchful and he should be willing able to examine their work
;

reward

those

who
said

do
the

well,

nor shrink
it

from

inflicting

on

neglect

punishment
Ischomachus,
his

deserves.

There

is

related,

an

answer 20
I

made by
ever

a

Persian

to

king,

which
lately

have

admired.
of a
sleek

The
fine

king

had

become

possessed
to

horse, which he was anxious

make

And

and strong, as soon as might be. thereunto he made inquiry of one who was
in

reputed to be skilful
soonest
to
this

such matters, what
sleek

would
;

make
he

the

horse
"

and strong

and
so,

replied,

His master's eye."
in
all

Even
think
fair

Socrates,

he concluded,
eye best able

else

I

the

master's

to

make

things

and

good.

86

THE ECONOMIST.

[CHAP. XIII.

CHAPTER

XIII.

CONCERNING THE TRAINING Of STEWARDS.

1

T3UT
"^
needs

when

pressed

you have ever on any one, said
wherever you

so
I,

firmly

im-

that

he must

be careful

would have him

.be so, will
act
as

such an one be able then and there to
;

steward

or will

he have

to

learn

some?

thing besides,
2

if

he
said

is

to be an able steward

Yes,

indeed,
left

Ischomachus
to

;

there

is

still

something is to be done, and when
not,

for

him

understand

both what
it
;

and how to do
this

if

knowledge of more use than a physician who would care for a late, yet was patient, attending him early and
is

how

a steward

without

ignorant
.

as

to

what treatment would be

for

his

patient's
3

good ? But if he have
I,

also
will

learnt

how farm-work

is

he need anything besides, or will your steward now be perfect ? I think he should learn, said he, to manage
to be done, said

the labourers.

i8.]

OF MANAGING MEN.

8/

What

!

exclaimed

I

;

do you

also train

up your 4
?

stewards to be capable of managing
Well, 1
try, said

men

Ischomachus.
said
?

And

how,

in

Heaven's name,

I,

do you

teach them to be managers of

men

In so simple a way, said he, that perhaps you

would even
Nay,
said I
;

ridicule
is

it

when you heard
for
ridicule,

it.

it

no matter

Ischomachus,

5

for
is

of men,

any one that can create skilful managers no doubt able to create masters over
but

men

too

;

he

that

can

create

masters

can

also create

kings.

So
I

that not ridicule but great
for

praise
this.

is

meet,

think,

one

who can do

Well then, Socrates, said he, the lower animals 6 learn obedience from two things they are always
:

punished
treated

if

they attempt
zealous
service.

to

disobey

;

and wellrate,

for

At any

colts 7

learn thorough obedience

to

the horsebreakers

by

receiving

some

pleasant

reward

whenever

they

obey, and
restive,

suffering

until

punishment whenever they are they submit to the mind of the

same way also little 8 dogs, though they have not the mind and language
horsebreaker.
in

And

the

man, yet learn to scamper round and round, and gambol, and do many other tricks for whenof
:

ever

they

obey

they

get

something

that

they

88

THE ECONOMIST.
;

[CHAP. XIII.

want

but

whenever

they

will

not

attend,

they

But men can be taught to be far 9 are punished. more obedient, and that by word only, when
they are shown that obedience
while
as
for
slaves,
in
is

to

their

profit

;

teaching
to

them

obedience

we

may
fit

even
only

have
for

use
:

a

training
their

which
appetite

seems
in
its
;

beasts

gratify

desires,

and

you

might

do

much with
a

them
is

whilst

to

natures desirous of honour, praise
spur.

the

keenest
after

For
in

there

and
10 than
are

thirst

praise

some
in

hunger no less natures,

is

after

meat and drink
I

others.
I

Such then
think,
I

the

means

use,

and which,
;

make
teach

my
to

servants
that

more obedient
I

and

these

But any my I have other plans besides. The garments and shoes with which I have to furnish my labourers
stewards.
I

would appoint

do not provide
better, in

all

alike,
I

but some worse

and

some
the
1 I

order that

may

be able to honour

more

diligent with the better, and to the more

idle

give the worse.

For

I

am

quite sure, Socrates,

said he, that

good workmen become disheartened, whenever they see that, whilst they do all the
work, a like reward
is

given
toil

to those

who never

1

2 will

undergo
opinion
shares

necessary
the worse

or
in
;

risk.

And
I

so

in

my

ought
better

nowise to receive

equal

with

the

and

praise

my

J

I*.]

REWARD AND PUNISHMENT.
I

8r>

stewards whenever
the best
things
I

see that they have distributed

among

those

who

deserve most

;

but
or

if

ever

see preferment
profitless

won

either

by

flattery,
I I

by any other
it

means of
it
;

favour,

do
try,

not pass
Socrates,

over,

but rebuke
that,

and thus

to

show

even

to

him who does

them, such things are both vain and void.

90

THE ECONOMIST.

ICHAP. XIV.

CHAPTER
HOW STEWARDS ARE TO
1

XIV.

BE TAUGHT JUSTICE.
said

T T TELL,
* *

Ischomachus,
has

I,

suppose
able
to

that
to

your steward

now become
them

obey do you consider him by this time perfect, him, or does he still need something beside the
qualities of

manage

men, so that he can bring

2

Yes,

which you have been speaking ? to keep indeed, said Ischomachus
;

his
all

hands

from

his

master's

goods,

and

from

manner of

theft.

For

if

he who has the manageto

ment of the harvest should dare
with
so

make away
on
the
in

much

as

would

leave

no

profit

what advantage would there be carried on under his care ?
labour,

farming

3

Do

you then undertake, asked
?

I,

to

teach jus-

tice as well

Certainly,
find

said
all

Ischomachus,

though
to

I

do not
teaching.

that

readily

submit

that

4 And yet by adopting some of the laws of Draco,
and
others

from

the

code of Solon,

I

try,

said

,_,

.]

OF JUSTICE AND INJUSTICE.
he, to

9!

lead

my

servants into
too,
I

the path of justice.
think,

For these great men

continued he,
of
their

made
laws.

justice

the

foundation
is

of

many
for

For there
for

a
is

law of
caught

fine in

theft,

of

5

bonds
for

him that
of
death.
in

the
then,

act

;

and

assault,

These
wish

laws,

they no
unjust
there-

doubt enacted

the

to

make

the
I

love of gain a vice that profits nothing.
fore,

6

he went on, by quoting some of these, as well as others from those of the kings of Persia,
try
to

render

my

servants

just

in

all

that

they
7

have
of no

in hand.

For the laws
penalties for

first

mentioned treat
;

more than

wrong-doers

while

those
unjust,

of the kings

of Persia not only punish the
;

but reward the just
just

so

that

when they
the
unjust,
will

see

the

becoming
with
all

richer
their

than
of

many

men

love

gain

steadfastly

persist
I

in

shunning
trying

injustice.

But

8

wherever
said
he,

perceive
spite

men
all

to

do

injustice,

good treatment, I count them as incurably grasping, and straightway disAnd again, charge them from their place of trust
in

of

9

whenever

I

see

men

that are just, not only from

a desire to be benefited by their justice, but also
in

anxiety to win
as freemen,

my

praise,

I

at

once treat

all

such

do them honour

and not only enrich For as gentlemen.

them, but
in

this

I

10

92
think,

THE ECONOMIST.
Socrates, he

[Oi \r.\lV.
10.

concluded,
loves

lies

the

difference
that

between a man
loves gain
in

that

honour and one
for

the willingness of the one,

the
if

sake of praise and honour, to undergo labour,

need

be,

and danger

;

and to keep

his

hands from

dishonourable gain.

XV
I,*]'

OF PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE.

CHAPTER

XV.
:

OF PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE IN STEWARDS

AND THE

GENTLE COURTESY OF AGRICULTURE.

T WILL

no longer ask you, said I, whether anything more is required in a man with
For any one
in

i

,

such qualities as these.
create
careful

whom you

not only a wish for your prosperity, but a
desire
;

that

your business

be fully accom-

plished

to

whom you
;

give the gain of knowledge

how each
.

part of the farm-work might prove ever

more

profitable
to
all,

who, further, has learnt from you
the

how
than

manage
in
is

men under

him, and
fruit

more
of the

showing you that of the
in its season all possible
is

earth there
feels

abundance,
to

a pleasure which
sight,

altogether equal
I

your
sure,

joy at the

such an one would,
of

am

be

already
yet,

a

steward

no

insignificant
I,

value.

And

Ischomachus, continued
that part

do not leave
which
has

unexplained

of

our

subject

been most slightly touched upon.

What may

that be

?

asked Ischomachus.

2

94

THE ECONOMIST.
You
said,

[CHAP. XV.

did

you not

?

replied

I,

that a

most

important thing for a

steward to learn was
;

how

everything should be wrought out
his carefulness,

if

not, even of

you
to

said,*

no

profit

would come,
to

unless

he

were

understand

what was

be

Well, Ischomachus, said 3 done, and how to do it from what you told me I think I have learnt I,

thoroughly enough
I

how

to

train

a

steward

;

for

believe

I

have learnt from what you said how
taught
goodwill and carefulness, and
;

he must be

4 management

of men, and justice

but as to what

you said, that he who is to have the care of farm-work in a right way must learn both what
to

do and how and when each thing
all

is

to

be

done,
5

this,

I

think,

has
It

been
is

too

slightly

you were to say that one must understand letters to be able to write from dictation, and read writing
for this

touched upon

in

our

talk.

as though

;

would
letters
;

tell

me

that
this

it

is

necessary to undernot,
I

stand

yet

knowledge would

fancy, give

me any
this

further understanding
I

of them.
that
it

6 So too

in

case,

am

easily

persuaded

one must understand farm-work to take care of
in

a right

way
if

:

but this does

not give

me any
an

further understanding of

how one
it
2.

should farm
into

7 estate.

But

I

were to take
Chapter XIII.,

my

head

*

2_io.]

THE COURTESY OF AGRICULTURE.
to
set

95
I

forthwith

about farming,

I

fancy
his

should

be

like

a

physician
patients,

who makes
but

rounds

and

looks

at his

knows nothing of the

right treatment for them.

ignorance, I concluded,

To save me from such teach me the actual details
Socrates, said

of farm-work.

You
bandry

ask

me

nothing

less,
.

Ischo-

8

machus, than to teach you the whole art of hus?

Yes, replied

I,

for this

same

art is

probably the
understand
it,

one that most enriches those who
while, labour

as

they

will,

it

condemns the igno-

rant to a

life

of poverty.

Well, then, Socrates, said he, you shall
the courtesy* also of this art

now hear 9

For being as it is most profitable and pleasant to work, and fairest and most beloved by gods and men, moreover
'
'

the easiest to learn,

And

gentle

is

a word

how can it help being gentle ? we apply even to beasts,

and great and serviceable are obedient to the hand of man. Nay more, Socrates, 10
such as being
fair

continued he, in that
require
its

it

does not, like other

arts,

learners to labour

and

toil,

before their
is

work

is

worth their daily bread
;

husbandry

not

so irksome to learn
*
<j>i\avOpuirla.,
is

but after seeing some details
'
'

translated

courtesy

rather

than

'

'

philanthropy,

as the latter

open

to misunderstanding.

96
in

THE ECONOMIST.
practice,

[CIIA>.

XV.

-0-13.

1 1

and hearing others from precept, the learner would at once understand them well enough even to teach others, if so he wished. And I
think, said he, that

you are very
it

little

aware how
all

much you understand about
their
arts.

For somehow,

other artists hide the most important processes of

Not
in

so

with farmers.

For those who
find
:

excel

both

planting

especial

pleasure in
will

sowing would being watched at work

and

ask

what you

about any good piece of work, and
always
tell

a farmer would
1

you

how he
does

did

it.

2

So

too,

Socrates,
its

he

concluded,

husbandry

seem

to adorn

votaries with peculiar gentleness

of character.
1

3

Well, your beginning, said

I,

is

fine

;

and

after

hearing so much, one cannot turn away from the
question.

And

its

being

so

easy to learn

is

all
it

the

more

reason

why

you should go through
feel

with

me

thoroughly.

For you need
;

no shame

in teaching

me

an easy lesson

far greater

shame
it

were mine not to understand

it,

especially
profit.

when

happens

to be so

much

to

my

CHAP. XVI. 1-3- J

THE NATURE OF THE

SOIL.

97

CHAPTER
HOW TO LEARN THE NATURE
LAND.

XVI.
SOIL.

OF THE

OF FALLvW

TN
what

the

first

place, then, Socrates, said he,

I

would
in

i

show you
is

that

there

is

no

real

difficulty

husbandry by the most thorough people who, though they possess and accurate knowledge in theory, have absolutely no practical experience of it. For it is said that
he who would
ought
first

called

the great

riddle

of

set

about farming

in

the right

way
3

to

know
said

the nature of the soil
too,

And
does not
I

rightly

replied

I.

For he who

know what
know

the soil can bear, would not,

imagine,

either

what

to

sow,

or

what

to

plant.

Well then, said Ischomachus, by observing their crops and trees, we can learn from the lands of
other
bear.

3

men what

soils

can and what
this,

they cannot
is

And when
use
in

one knows

any

fighting

against

no longer Providence. For a
there

man would

not obtain

the

necessaries

of
7

life

by

98

THE ECONOMIST.

[CHAP. XVI.

sowing and planting whatever he might want himself, rather than what the soil willingly bore and

4

nourished.
sessors,
it

But

if,

through the

sloth

of

its

pos-

have no chance of showing
estate
it

its

power,

from

a

neighbour's

one

may
it

learn

many
nature

times more truly about
.5

than from a neighbour's

advice.
all

Even when

lying waste

shows
soil

its

the same.

For cultivate the
beauty, and

which brings
will

forth

wild
in

things in

yield

their

you no longer beauty things
soil,

find

it

wild.

The
are

nature of the

therefore,
in

even those

who

not very experienced
learn

husbandry can nevertheless
have already refraining from husI

by these means.
I,

6

Well, Ischomachus, said

perhaps

courage enough to forbid

my

bandry through any fear of my ignorance of the For I cannot help thinking, 7 nature of the soil. continued I, how fishermen though all their work
is

at

sea,

and they must neither stand
along,
to

still,

nor

sail

leisurely

observe

the

corn-fields

minutely

yet at the instant they scud past them,
at
soil

and

glance
the

their
is

crops,

conclude
;

at

once

whether
parts

good
others.

or bad

blaming some
I

and
in

praising

And

see

that

the

adepts

husbandry

for the
soil

conclusions about good
8

most part form their in the same manner.
he,

At what

point, Socrates, said

would you have

3

'3- ]

OF FAL LOW LAND.
?

99

me begin putting you in mind of husbandry For I am quite sure that you know already many of
the precepts for farming that
I

I
I,

shall give you.

think,
I

Ischomachus, said

that

in

the

first

9

place

should

be

glad
all

to

hear what
to

a

philo-

sopher
if
I

more than
I

men ought
till

know, how,

wished,

could so

the ground as to raise

most barley and wheat.
Well, you

know

that you
?

must plough up the 10

fallow land for sowing

Yes,

I

know

that,

replied
he,

I.

Suppose,

then,

said
in
all

we
?

xvere

to

begin

i i

ploughing the land

winter

Nay,

it

would be

mud, said

I.

Well, what think you of the summer ? The soil would be hard, I replied, to break with
the plough.
It

seems, then, said he, that
in

we ought

to begin

1

2

work

the spring.
it

Yes, for

is

likely,

I

replied, that the soil

would

be most easily broken up,

if ploughed then. and the weeds being ploughed in Yes,

at

that

season, Socrates, said he, will afford a ready
for

manure
their
1

the

soil,

nor can
so

they any longer shed

seeds,

and

spring
that
if

up again.
the
it

For
land

I

suppose
is

3

you know

also

fallow

to re-

ward you with

success,

should be both clear of

100
weeds, and as
of the sun.
Certainly,
I

THE ECONOMIST.
much
as possible open to the

[CHAP. XVI i3-'5-

warmth

replied,

for

so

I

think.
that
this

14

Do you
be done
in

then

think,

asked

he,

could
soil

any

better

way

than by turning the

as often as possible in the
I

summer

?

am

quite sure,

I

replied, that in

no way would

the

weeds come to the and the

top,
soil
it

and be withered by
be mellowed by the
with the plough in

the sun's heat,
sun, better than

by turning
at

midsummer and
1

midday.
if

5

But

is

it

not quite clear, said he, that

men

were to work the fallow land with the spade, they would have to deal separately with soil and with

weeds

?

Yes,

said

I,

they

would

have

to

throw

the

weeds down on

the ground for the sun to scorch
soil,

them, but turn up the

that so

its

crudeness

might mellow.

CHAP XVII

'

THE TIME OF SOWING.

IOI

Bi-3-1

CHAPTER

XVII.

OF THE SEASONS AND MANNER OF SOWING.

A BOUT
we
Yes,
Well,
it

fallow land, said he, you see, Socrates,

I

are both of the

same
I.

opinion.

seems

so,

said

any opinion on the season for sowing, other than that which all our forefathers from experiment, and all the prehe continued, have

you

sent
best
?

generation

from

tradition,

agree

to
is

be

the
all

For when the end of autumn
I

come,
the

2

men,

suppose, look up to
It

Heaven
earth

for

time

when
forth

shall

water

the

and

send

them

to

sow.

Yes,

Ischomachus, said

I,

all

men have

learnt
is

that they
if

must not sow while the ground
it,

dry,

they can avoid

since they see that those

who

sow before the

signal

has been

made

to

them by

Heaven, have to struggle with
so doing.

many

penalties for

Then on
agreed with

this
all

point,

said

Ischomachus, we are 3

men.

IO2

THE ECONOMIST.
I,

[CHAP. XVII.

Yes, replied

for thus

are

all

men

in

perfect

agreement

about

the

teaching

of

Heaven.

For

instance, every one thinks it better to dress in warm clothes and light a fire, in winter, if he have

warm
4
at

clothes,
in

and firewood.
next matter,
said Ischomachus,

But

this

we

once find much difference of opinion, Socrates,

concerning sowing,
or
late,

whether

it

is

best

done

early,

or in the

mid
I

season.

But

Heaven,

replied,

does

not

ordain

the
;

weather of every year according to a fixed rule
but
at

one
at

time

it

is

best

to

take
at

the earliest

season,
latest
5
is

another

the

middle,

another

the

Then which, Socrates, asked he, do you think better, to make choice of one of these sowing
and

times,
little,

sow your

seed,

be

it

much

or

be

it

or to begin at the earliest opportunity,
till

and

keep on sowing
6
is

the last

?

My
sure
it

opinion,

Ischomachus,
all

I

replied,

is

that
I

it

best to share in
is

seasons for sowing.*
ever
to

am
and

much
one

better

reap a sufficient
great
live

harvest,

than

year

a

very

deal,

another year not even enough to
*

on.

Compare,
this

" In the morning sow thy
;

withhold not thine hand
either

for

seed, and in the evening thou knowest not whether shall prosper,

or that,
xi. 6.

or whether

they both shall be alike good."

Ecclesiastes

39.]

THE MANNER OF SOWING.
Then on
agree
this

IO3
said are
he,

point too,
;

Socrates,

we

master and scholar
in

and you
not
the

before-

hand with me

declaring your views.
I.

To
needed

proceed, said
in
?

Is there

much cunning
seed
into

7

the

art

of

casting

the

ground

By
this

all

means, Socrates, said he,
too.
I

let

us consider the

you know that seed has to be cast from the hand ? said he.
subject

suppose

Yes, said

I,

for

I

have seen

it

done.
able
to

But some persons, said

he, are

cast

it

evenly, whilst others cannot.

Well,

then,

we have
I,

already

something
that

that

needs practice, said

like

lyre-playing,

the

hand may be able
Certainly,
lighter

to

do the mind's bidding.

he replied, but suppose some ground 8
richer.

and some

Why, what do you mean ? asked I. mean weaker, and richer stronger ?
That
like
is

Does

lighter

what

you

to tell

mean, he replied and I should me if you would allow the same
I
;

amount of seed

to each kind of
?

soil,

or to which

would you allow most

The
water,
I

stronger
believe,

the

wine,

I

answered, the
it
;

more 9
in

can be

mixed with

and

carrying weights the stronger the
the

man
;

the heavier

burden we

may

lay

upon him

and

so,

too,

104

THE ECONOMIST.
to be fed, to the richer
I

[CHAP. XVII.

when men have
give

should

the

greater

number

to

feed.

But

whether

weak
me.

land, like beasts of burden,
into
it

by putting more corn
10

becomes stronger this you must tell
a

Ischomachus

answered
Socrates,

with
said

laugh.
;

Nay,
assured,

you

are

jesting,

he

be
the

however,

that

after

sowing,

when

soil

has

plenty of nourishment from

the rain, and a green
if

blade has sprung up from the seed,
this

you plough

into the
will

soil,

it

will

enrich the land, and like
If,

manure

give

allow the land
as difficult for
perfection,

you go on ripening seed, it will be a weak soil to bring much corn to
it

strength.

however,

to

as

it

is

for

a worn-out

sow

to

suckle

to maturity a large litter of pigs.
1 1

You mean, Ischomachus,
soil,

said
?

I,

that in weaker

less

seed should be sown
certainly,

Yes,

he
in

replied,

and
that
to

you
the

yourself

agreed

with

me

saying

weaker

should always be given a lesser task.
1

2
I

But

why do you hoe
doubtless,

the

corn,

Ischomachus

?

asked.

You know,
fall

said

he, that

heavy rains

in

winter.

Of

course,

I

replied.
let

Well,

then,

us

rcmc-nibcr

that

some

part

915-1
of

OF HOEING.
the

105

corn

will

often

be

even
the

covered
roots
in

by

it,

and
parts

smothered
laid

in

mud, and
Weeds,
too;

some

bare.

nourished
the

moisture,

often

spring

up

with

by the corn, and

choke
All

it.

this,

said

I,

is

likely to happen.

Do you

not

think,

then,

said

he,

that

in
?

this

1

3

case our corn already needs
Certainly, said
I.

some

assistance

What
save
it

could
in

be

done

then,

do you

think,

to

this

deluge of
soil

mud
for

?

Relieve the

of the water, said
he,

I.

And

what,
?

asked

the

unearthing

of

the roots

Fresh earth could be heaped up about them,
replied.

I

Well, and

what, he

asked,
it,

if

weeds spring up 14
its

with the corn

and choke
just

nourishment,

as

by robbing it of useless mouths drones,

as

they
for,

are,

rob bees
laid

of the honey they have toiled
?

and

up as nourishment

Cut down the weeds, by Heaven
as

!

cried

I

;

just

drones are destroyed out of the hive.
Well,
then,
said
he,

do not we seem
?

to

have

1

5

good

reason for using the hoe
all
I,

By
said

means; and
useful
it

I

begin to sec, Ischomachus,
to

how

is

draw your

illustrations

106
well.

THE ECONOMIST.
For you
weeds,

[CHAP.

XVII

'5-

have

quite

enraged

me
the

against

the

than

by mentioning the drones, when you were talking only of

far

more
weeds

themselves.

CHAP. XVIII.

OF REAPING.

IO/

CHAPTER

XVIII.

OF REAPING, THRESHING, AND WINNOWING.

\ ^7ELL
we
if

then, continued
shall

I,

after
:

this

it

is

likely

I

have

a harvest
this

so

teach me,

you can, something about
Yes, said
he,

too.

unless

you
I.

show yourself about
Well, the corn has
?

this too

quite as learned as

to be reaped,

you know that
replied
I.

Of

course,

you are reaping it, he asked, would you stand with your back or your face to the wind ?
I

When

should

not

face

the

wind,
for

I

replied,

for

it

would be troublesome, both

eye and hand, to

reap with chaff and sharp ears of corn flying into
one's face.

And would you
or crop
If
it

only cut off the tops, he asked, 2

close to the
stalks

ground
I

?

the
it

were

short,

answered,
the

I

should
the
I

cut

near the ground,

that
if

straw
I

may
believe

rather

be

sufficient.

But

long,

108
should do right
neither

THE ECONOMIST.
in

[CHAP. XVIII

cutting

it

at

the

middle,

that

threshers

nor winnowers
necessary.
will,

may
what

have
is

more
left

trouble

than

is

But
I

in

the earth
soil
;

when burnt
if

believe,

enrich

the

and

mixed with the manure

will

increase

it

3

Do
are

you not
in

see,

Socrates,
act
?

cried

he,

that

you

caught

the
as

You know, even about
I

reaping, as

much
so,

I ?
I

Perhaps
out
too.
if
I

said

;

and

should

like

to

find

understand

anything

about

threshing

4

Well, said he, at any rate you

know

that beasts

of burden thresh out the corn

?

Of course, replied I. You know, too, that
of
are
he,
this,

beasts

of burden
alike
for

go by the name oxen, mules, and horses
all

that

used

this.

Well

then,

continued

do you think
to

that

they know nothing beyond
corn,

tread

out

the

as

they

are

driven

over it?
Yes, said
I,

for

what more could beasts under-

stand
5

?

But whose business
out what
is

is

it

to see that they tread

wanted, Socrates, he asked, and that
is

the threshing

the

same

all

the floor over
said
I.

?

The

drivers'

business,

of course,

For

3_8.]

OF THRESHING AND WINNOWING.

IOQ

always turning and throwing under the beasts' feet

what remains untrodden,
keep the floor* levelled

it

is

clear that they

would

best,

and get the work

done soonest.

On

this point,

then, said he, your

knowledge

is

equal to mine.

Well then,

Ischomachus, said

I,

we must
do

clear 6

the corn by winnowing.
Tell

me,

Socrates,
if

said

Ischomachus,

you
side,

not

know

that

your chaff will

you begin on the windward be blown all over the floor ?
reason,
I

That stands to
Well then,
fall
it is

replied.

likely, said

he, that

it

will

also

7

on to the corn.
I

Yes,

replied

;

for

this
fly

is

much more
across

likely
to

than that

the

chaff

will

the

corn

where the

floor is empty. But suppose one begins
?

winnowing

from

the

leeward side
It
is

said he.
I,

clear, said

that the chaff will fly straight

into the chaff-bin.

But when you have cleared the corn, said he, 8 as far as the middle of the floor, will you go straight on winnowing the rest of it while the
grain
is

still

lying there, or
f

first

heap together the

* Adopting the reading ri>i> Sivov,' the circular threshing-floor around which the beasts went, in treading out the corn.

110
cleared

THE ECONOMIST.

[CHAP. XVIII. 8 10.

grain towards the centre,* in the smallest
?

possible space

By Heaven
to

!

I

exclaimed,

I

should

heap the
fly

cleared grain together, that the chaff

may

over

where the

floor

is

empty, and that the same

might not have to be winnowed twice over.

9

It

seems
teach
!

then,

Socrates,

said

he,

you
to

could
clear

even
corn

others

the

quickest

way

All

this,

then,

I

replied, I
it
I

understood years ago,
I

and never knew

wonder whether

under-

stand working in gold as well, and

flute-playing,

and painting,
taught

and do not know

me

these arts

but

I

take as

For nobody more than husbandry any much pains in watching men emit.
;

ployed in them as in it

10

That

was why

I

told

you
this

at

first,

returned

Ischomachus, that
is

even for
art,

reason husbandry
it

the most gentle

because

is

also

easiest

to learn.

Come
stood
* all

then, Ischomachus, said

I,

surely

I

underit
with

about sowing
'

though

I

never
it

knew

Some

translate ir6Xo

ploughed land,'

is

difficult to see
it

what sense

in reference to the context.

Why
rotate

should
in

not

mean the

pivot or centre round which the oxen

the threshing-floor,

where also the

com was winnowed

?

CHAP XIX
I-3-]

OF PLANTING TREES.

Ill

CHAPTER

XIX.

OF PLANTING TREES, AND ESPECIALLY VINES, OLIVES, AND HOW THAT AGRICULTURE IS EASY TO LEARN. FIGS.
the of
trees
I

planting

also,
?

asked,

I

belong to the art of husbandry
Yes,
it

does, replied
I,

Ischomachus.
I

How
tails

then, said

could

understand

the

de-

of sowing, and yet understand nothing about
?

planting trees

Well, do
it ?

not

you

understand

anything

about 2

asked Ischomachus.

How
know

should
in

I ?

was

my

answer
of
soil

;

I

who do
ought

not
to

either

what kind

one

plant, nor what depth and breadth and length the

holes should
in

be dug

;

nor

how

to

set

the

plant

might grow best ? said Ischomachus, and learn what- 3 Come, then,
it

the earth so that

ever

you
dig
he.

do
for

not

understand.
I

The
you

sort

of

pits

they
said

plants

am

sure

have

seen,

112

THE ECONOMIST.
I

fCHAP. XIX.

Yes, often,
Well, did
feet
?

replied.

you ever see one deeper than three
nor deeper than two and

No, indeed,

I

replied

;

a

half.

Well, did you ever see
three feet?

the breadth

more than

No, indeed, said

I

;

nor more than two.

4

Come,

then,

said

he,

answer

me

this

too
?

:

Did

you ever see their depth less than a foot
No, indeed
for digging
if
;

nor

less

than

a foot and a half

;

round the plants would root them up, they had been set so near the surface.

5

Then, Socrates, said he, you know well enough that they do not dig the pit deeper than two and
a half
feet,

nor shallower than one and a half?
I,

Yes, replied

for

that

is

too

evident

not

to

be seen.

6

Well, he resumed, can you
soil
I

tell

dryer or moister

when you
is

see it?

suppose the soil about
dry,
it,

Mount Lycabettus, and
and the Phaleric Marsh,

such-like,

I

replied

;

and
7

soil

like

is

wet
dig your pit for planting, he
?

Then would you
asked, deeper
In dry, by
in

dry or moist ground
!

Heaven

cried

I

;

since
find

if

deep

in

wet ground, you would

water

you dig and
;

2

i<x]

OF PLANTING TREES.

I I

3

when once

the water came, there would be an end
!

of your planting
I

think you are right, he said.

Well then, suppose your pits have been dug, do you know when to plant each kind of tree ?
Certainly, said
I.*

Then
loosened
strike

since

you wish them
that,

to
if

grow
of

as

quickly
in
soil

8

as possible,

do you think

you plant
the

by working,

the shoots
soft

slip

will

sooner into the
?

earth,

than

into

hard

and unbroken clods

Of
earth.

course,

I

replied,

they
than

would

sprout

more

quickly

through

loosened

through

unbroken

Then we ought
tilled
?

to plant

in

soil

that has

been

9

Undoubtedly, said

I.

And do you
root better
if

think

that
it

the

slip

would

take

the whole of

upright;

or would

you
lie

were placed standing place part of it bent in
the letter
;

the earth, so as to

like

L?

t

In this

last

way, certainly
the earth
:

for so there

would be IO

more buds
I

in

it

is

from the buds that

observe
*

shoots

come even when above-ground,
lost

The

passage discussing this subject has evidently been

from

the text,
f
i.e.,

F

tfirTtw,

or a reversed V.

8

114
and
I

THE ECONOMIST.
suppose

[CHAI.

XIX

likewise.
in

when below-ground the buds do For if a great number of shoots strike
I

the

earth,

suppose

the

plant

will

grow

speedily to strength.
1 I

you know all about this too. But would you, he continued, merely heap earth round the plant, or stamp it down very up
So,
said
he,
I

find

hard, as well
I

?

should certainly stamp
it

it

down,

I

said

;

for

were
such
the
right

not stamped down,
earth

I

know very
it

well that

loose
rain
;

would

be turned into

mud by

while

by the sun

would be parched
so that the plants

through to the bottom
in

;

would be
the

danger of either rotting away from
or

moisture,

being

withered
looseness

owing
of

to

the
soil,

dryness

and

consequent

the

which would
1

suffer the roots to vines,
alike.

be scorched.
said
he,
I

2

find

About planting that we think Ought one

too,

Socrates,

to plant a fig tree also,

I

asked, in

this

way
I

?

Yes,
other

suppose
trees
:

so,

said

Ischomachus,
find

and

all

fruit

for

do you

any method
in

which
cases
?

answers

in

vine-planting

fail

other

13

But how,
Ischomachus
?

I

asked,

are

we

to

plant an

olive,

10-15- 1

OF VINES AND OLIVES.
In
this

115
me, said he,

too you

are

but proving
it

for I

know you understand
pits

better than

any one.
as

Well,

for
see,

olives
for

are

dug
are

deeper,

of
the

course

you

they

generally

by

see too that stakes are set by and that there is a coating of clay every shoot, over the tops and upper parts of all the plants.

roadsides.

You

Yes,
Well,

I

see
if

all

that,

I

replied.

so,

said

he,
?

what

is

there

about

it

14

you do not understand
Socrates,

You know

well enough,

continued

he,
?

how you would
I

place the

potsherd on the clay

Why
enough
recollect

really,

Ischomachus,

cried,

I

know
;

well
I

everything

you
at

are

telling

me
I

but
it

why when
question
I

the

first

you put
if I

all

in

a

single

and asked
It

me

understood

planting,
I

said

No.

was that

did not think
;

could give any directions for planting
to question
are,

but

when

you began

me on
tell

each point separately,

my

answers

as

you

me, just
call

your own
you.
?

opinions,

clever

farmer though they

Is
I

15

questioning,

then, the

same thing

as teaching

have only just learnt each thing about which you
for it is by leading have been questioning me me on through what I do know, and by pointing
:

out

things that are
I

similar,

but which
that

I

used

to

think

did

not

understand,

you

persuade

Il6
me,
well.
1

THE ECONOMIST.
I

[CHAt.

XIX

suppose,

that

I

really understand

these

as

6

Well then, said Ischomachus,

if I

were to question
say, Is this pure

you about a piece of
or not
?

silver,

and

could
it,

I

persuade you that you understand
find

how
base

to test
?

and

out whether
I

it

is

pure or

And
could

in
I ?

flute-playing,

could not persuade

you
flute
:

that you

understand playing the
all

and so on through painting and
?

other

arts of the kind

Perhaps you could, said
suaded

I

;

since

you have perin

me
I

that

I

am

an adept even

farming,

although
art

am

sure

no one ever taught
but
is

me

this

17

No, Socrates, said

he,

I

told

you at the

very outset that husbandry

an

art so courteous

and so

gentle,

that she

straightway makes those
ears

who
1

have

eyes

and

thoroughly

intimate

8 with

herself.

For

she herself teaches
greatest profit

in many cases, he continued, how one may find in her the

A
will
It

vine,

whenever there are
;

trees

near at hand,
to support
clusters are
it.

climb them
spreads out
;

and so we learn
leaves, while

its

the

still

tender

and we learn that

at that

season

they must ever be shaded from the
the

sun.

And when

time has come for the clusters to
it

be ripened by the sunshine,

sheds

its

leaves

;

and

IS

18.]

AGRICULTURE EASY TO LEARN.
learn to strip
it

I

17

we
are

of them, so that
it.

the
its

autumn
branches

warmth may mellow
loaded
:

And

then

yet unripe

some mellowed, others and once again we learn to pluck them
with
clusters,
figs,

from

it,

just as

as they swell to ripeness, are
tree.

gathered from the

fig

Il8

THE ECONOMIST.

[LHAF. XX.

CHAPTER

XX.
IS

HOW THAT CAREFULNESS RATHER THAN KNOWLEDGE
THE SECRET OF TRUE SUCCESS.

1

A T
every

this

I

asked,

How

is

it,

Ischomachus,

if

the

details of

farming are so easy to learn, and
as well as
his
all

man knows
the

neighbour what
farmers do not

has to be done,

how
same
and

is

it

that

meet with
live

success,

but

some of them
and
to spare,

in

plenty,

have

enough

while others are not only unable to provide themselves with the necessaries of
life,

but are even

in

debt
2
is

?

I

will

tell

you,

Socrates, said

Ischomachus.
it,

It

not knowledge, nor the want of
;

that

makes
he

a farmer rich or poor
3 continued,

you would never
as
this

hear,

such

a

report

that

an estate

has gone to ruin because the sower did not scatter
the

seed

evenly

;

nor

because the
;

rows of trees

were not planted straight
did not

nor because the farmer

know

the right soil for vines, and planted

i

8.]

THE SECRET OF
in

SUCCESS.

I

19

them
not

an unfruitful place
that
it

;

nor because he did

was good for sowing to plough up nor because he did fallow land more than once
;

know

not

know

that

it

improved the earth to manure

it.

4

Nay, but you would rather hear it said that a man has got no harvest from his estate because he is
careless

about his sowing and manuring
failed,

;

or

that

a man's vineyard has
take
care
in

because he does not
vines,

planting

his
fit

nor

in
;

seeing
or that

that those he has are in

state to bear
failed

a man's olives and
not take care

figs

have
to

because he does
succeed.
5

or trouble

make them

This

it

is,

Socrates, he continued, that
different,

makes the

success

of different farmers

much more
usually 6

than a fancied discovery of some clever improve-

ment

in

working.

So among
and

generals,

it

is

not through a greater or less knowledge of tactics
that

some

are

better

others worse,

but

un-

doubtedly through greater or less carefulness.

For 7

what

all

generals and
is

even most private persons

recognize,

fully

acted

upon by but few comthey
all

manders.

For example,

recognize

that

while marching through

an enemy's country, their
so
as

army should be arranged
need
be.

best to

fight,

if

though they all recognize this, some act accordingly, and others do not. They 8 all know that it is most important to set sentinels
Well,

I2O
before
their

THE ECONOMIST.
camp both by day and
to

[CHAP.

XX.

night

;

but

some take care
9 no
care
it

have
Again,

it

so, while others take

at

all.

in

passing
to

through

a

defile,

would
not

be

very

hard
fact

find
it

any one
is

who
to
i

did

recognize

the

that
:

better
here,

seize

strong
are

positions

beforehand

but

o

too,

some

careful,

and others

careless.
is

And

so every one
for farming,

tells

you that manure
it

most useful
:

and sees that

can be got naturally

and

yet, while they draw clever distinctions as to
it

how
of
it,

is

got,

and are able
this
it,

easily to
is

make

plenty
take

even in

case

it

only some

who

care to collect
1 1

while

many

take no care about
rain,

it

at

all.

all

the
soil

Again, Heaven sends down hollow spots become standing
brings
forth

and and

pools,

the

weeds of

all

kinds,

which
if

must be cleared away before sowing.
is

Now

what

thus cleared

out of the

way be cast into the
it

pools, time itself

would make
is

such as to enrich
or
earth,

the
that
1

soil.
is

For what

there,

vegetable

not turned to manure by soaking in stag?

2 nant water seed,

Again, when land
bitter for planting,
is

is

too

moist for

and too

everybody knows

the treatment that
carried
off
in

needed

;

how
the

the

water

is

ditches,

and
all

how
about

bitterness

is

tempered by a mixture of
both moist

manner of
this,

correctives
too,

and

dry

;

yet

some

8

16.]

THE NEED OF CAREFULNESS.
are
utterly careless.

121
3

farmers

But
his

if

any one be
can
bear,

1

altogether

ignorant

of

what

land

and

if

there be neither fruit nor plant to be seen
it,

upon
learn
for

and

if

he

have
it,

nobody from
is
it

whom

to

the
to

truth about

not

much

easier

him

make experiment upon
far
in

soil

than upon

a horse,
the
soil

and
can
it

easier than

upon a
;

man

?^

For
all
it
1

nowise

dissemble
it

but

with

simplicity

shows truly what
whilst
it

can and what
I

cannot do

;

very clearly points out,

fancy,

4

the bad farmers and the good,

by presenting every-

thing so that

it

may

be easily known and learned.

For husbandry is not like all other arts, in which those who do no work can excuse themselves on
the ground of their ignorance
;

all

know

that the

Earth treats well those who treat her
in

well.

No

;

husbandry there

is

sure betrayal of a base mind.
1

For that a man
of
life,

could live without the necessaries

5

no

one

persuades
profitable to
live
is

himself
art,

;

but one
will

who
dig,

knows no other
evidently intends

and
thief,

not

as

a

a robber,

or

a beggar,
It

unless he

an utter

fool.

makes a great

difference

in

the

profits

of 16

farming, he continued, where there are even a great

number of workmen,
care that
time, whilst

for

one master to take some
be at their work
this.

his labourers

in

good

another neglects

For generally

122 one

THE ECONOMIST.
man
in
in

[CHAP. XX.

the

gang*
you

work
1

7 too early.
will

good But
in

time,
if

marked by being at another by leaving off work
is

let

men work
making

lazily on,
full

you

find

the whole day's work a
It is

half day's

1

8 difference made.

as in

a journey of

twenty-five miles, one

man
but

will

sometimes outstrip
though
both
in

another

by half the
and
strong
:

distance,

are

young
walk

one
;

perseveres

the

on which he has started
of his heart,

while the other,
ever resting and

in the slothfulness

is

looking
1

about
courting
there
is

him
the

9 shade,
work,

by fountains and under the So in farm gentle breeze.
difference
in

great

the

amount

done by those who do the work that has been set them, and those who do not, but are always
finding

excuses for not working, and are allowed
lazy.

20

to

be

There

is

as

much

difference between

a good
is

workman and an
industry
in

inattentive one
utter
to

as there

between

and

idleness.

For
from

instance,

when,

digging

clear

vines

weeds, your

workmen
all

so dig that the weeds afterrankly,
?

wards grow
2
1

the

more

how

could you say

that such labour
far

was not vain
this

Estates then are

more often ruined by
extreme
"
TO/>A rovt

kind of thing than
if,

by
*

ignorance.
fad." Greek and

For
Roman

when

all

the
gangs

slaves

worked

in

of ten.

16

25.]

THE EVILS OF SLOTH.
household
labour
it

123
in
full,

expenses

are
in

going
profit

on
to

the

done brings
no
of

no

defray them,

is

longer
plenty.

place

any wonder if want takes the Those however who can be 22
diligently

careful,

and

who

attend
it
;

to

farming,
this

make most

effectual

profit out of

and

was
For

my

father's

constant aim
let

and lesson to me.

he would never
ground
neglect
;

but advised
or

me buy a well-tilled parcel of me to buy one which through
its

through

possessor's

want of means
For well- 23

was lying
tilled

unproductive

and

untilled.

estates,

he would say, are both dear to buy,
of
increasing

and
this

incapable

value

;

and

without

increase in value, they did
in

not give so

much

pleasure
delight,

their

cultivation
in

;

indeed our greatest
that

he
is

thought,
in
its

everything

we have
Nothing
piece

or hold,

continual improvement.

then
land,

is

capable

of such

increase

as
is

a

of

which,

after

long

lying

idle,

reclaimed

to

fertility.
I

For be

assured,

Socrates,

continued 24

he, that

have often before now made a plot of

land

worth

many
easy
will

times

its
is

original

value.

This
worth,
it

device,

Socrates,

he
to

said,

of
that

so

great

and
this
I

yet

so

learn,

after

hearing
it
it

once you
;

go away as wise about
if

as
to

am

and
also.

able,

you

desire,

to

teach
it

others

My

father

did

not

learn

from 25

1

24

THE ECONOMIST.
it

[CHAP. XX.

any one, nor did
discover
it
;

even take much reflection to
his

but

it

was through

love of farming

and of work, as he

said, that he set his heart

upon

such a plot of ground, that he might at the same

26 time have occupation,
I

profit,

and

pleasure.

For,
father

believe, Socrates, he concluded, that
for

my

had a greater natural bent

farming than any

man

in

Athens.
this, I

On

hearing

asked him, Did your father,
the
plots of
if

Ischomachus, keep
improved,
offered

all

land

that

he

or
?

sell

them,

a

good

price

were

him

Why

truly he sold

them, replied

Ischomachus

;

but he would at once
untilled, just for the

buy more

land,

and

that

pleasure of work.
say,

27

From what you
father

Ischomachus, said
as

I,

your

was

in

reality just

fond of farming as
it

merchants are of corn.
love of corn that

For

is

their
sail

exceeding

makes merchants
most of
it
;

to

wherever

they hear there

is

28 Euxine, and

Sicilian

seas

;

and cross the ./Egean, and then when they
it

have got as much as they can, they bring
the
sea,

across

stored
sail.

in

the

very

ship

in

which

they

themselves

And whenever
likely

they want money,

they
at

are

not

to
;

throw

away

their

corn

the

first
is

opportunity
dearest and

but wherever they hear

that corn

most thought of by the

2$

29-]

LOVE OF WORK.
inhabitants, thither they carry
it,

and
in

sell

it

there.

And
father

this,

perhaps,

was the way

which your

loved

farming.
replied

Ah,
jesting
call
!

Socrates,

Ischomachus, you are but 29
quite as

but

I

think
of

we ought
building

much

to

those
sell

lovers

who

build

houses

and

them, only to build others.
I

By Heaven, Ischomachus,
heartily

replied,

I

swear

I

believe

you

that

all

men
profit
!

naturally

love

whatever they think to their

126

THE ECONOMIST.

[CHAP. XXI.

CHAPTER

XXI.
IS

HOW THAT THE ART OF MANAGING MEN

DIFFICULT OF

ATTAINMENT, AND IN SOME MEASURE GIVEN OF GOD.

1

T
A

AM

thinking,

Ischomachus, said

I,

how
For

well

you have brought up the whole
to

train of

your

argument
stated
all

support

your statements.

you

that the art of husbandry
;

was the

easiest of

to learn
all

and now

I

have been quite persuaded
it

by
2

you have said that
really,

is

undoubtedly
I

so.

But

Socrates,

said

Ischomachus,

quite

the one thing common to all these pursuits, to husbandry, and state governthat is, in the management, economy, and war,

agree with you that in

3

ment of men, some have more wit than is so in a galley at sea, he continued
the

others.
;

It

whenever
of whole

crew

are

obliged

to

make voyages
*

days over the ocean, some coxswains
say just
*

can do and

what spurs the
'

spirits

of

their

men
this

to

Kt\tvffT/it.

Coxswain

'

is

scarcely an equivalent

for

word,
rowers

the duty of the Greek wXtwrrijt being to

mark time

for the

by shouting or by

signs.

I

7.]

UK MANAGING MEN.
;

127

willing labour

while others are

so dull that they
to

take
the

more

than

double

the
the
in

time
first

accomplish

same voyage.
other while
officer

And
all

crew, coxswain

and men, go ashore
each
hating
:

a sweat, congratulating

the
as

second

come

lazily

in,

their

much
he

as

he hates
there

them.
is

Among
same

generals
:

too,

continued,

the

4

difference

for

some can only show troops
or
for

unready either
of
discipline

for

labour

danger,

careless

and
to

unwilling

to

obey
even
:

it,

except
of
are

when

forced

do

so

;

nay,

proud
such

thwarting
the
officers

their

commanders'
produce
them,
feel

wishes

that

soldiers,

who,

whatever
of

disgrace

befall

no

sense

shame.
5

On
will

the

other hand, noble, good, and wise officers
those

make
to

very

troops,

with

many
;

more,

ashamed
that

do
is

anything
best
for

disgraceful

convinced
to

discipline

them

;

delighted

show obedience
all

individually

;

and when they must

work

will.

together, working with thorough goodBut just as we sometimes see in individuals 6

an

unwonted
see
in

willingness

to

work,

so

too

may
prothat

we

a
of

whole

army
officers,

also,

when

under the

command
duced,

good
an
seen

a

love

of work
the

and

ambition

among

men

they

may

be

by

their
officers

officers

doing

some
7

deed of honour.

And

whose men arc so

128

THE ECONOMIST.
all

[CHAP. XXI.

disposed toward them, they at

events get great

power
their

;

not those indeed, by Heaven,
are

who

of

all
;

soldiers

most

careful

of their

strength

not those

who

hurl the javelin, or shoot best of

all,

nor those

who have

the best horse, so

that
;

they

can lead cavalry or targeteers to the charge
those

but
they

who can make

their

troops
fire

feel

that

must follow

their leader

through

and flood and
such as these

8 every kind of danger.

Officers, then, in

whom

great numbers follow

this conviction,
;

we

should be right in calling powerful minds

he

may

truly be said to march with a strong arm, whose

mind
great

so
is

that

many arms are man who
than

ready to obey; and really
can do grander deeds by
of
if is

might of mind

by any strength
life,

body.
rule

9

And
is

so too in the duties of private

be

in the hands of steward or overseer,

it

he

who
and

able to

make
are

the labourers willing and -diligent
it,

at

their work,
he,

and to keep them to
the

he,

such as
to
I

men who bring every duty a happy completion, and make the profit of

o

it

great.

And when

the

master

comes

afield,

Socrates, he continued, with his absolute power to

punish bad
if

workmen and

to

reward the diligent,
I

they do not show unwonted exertions,
:

should

have no high opinion of him
urge them on work, and

but

if

his

instil

into each of

coming them

7

12.]

THE EVIL PLIGHT OF TYRANTS.
spirit

I

29
the

and

emulation and ambition, which

is

most powerful spur to every one, I should say that there was about him some character of true royalty.

And
work
in

this is in

most important, as I believe, in every which men are engaged, and not least
But
verily
I

1 1

agriculture.

power can be learnt from seeing
or from hearing
that one
it

no longer say that this it once exercised
;

once described
it

nay,

I

assure you

who

desires

has need of long training and
first

of a noble nature from the of that greatest
this
gift,

his

own,

yes,

and

a spark of Inspiration.
so
that

And
are

12

power

of

managing men
is,

they

willing to be ruled,

I

think, a blessing not

human,

but divine

;

nor can

we doubt

that

it

is

given to

those alone that have been perfected in true goodness.

But lordship over rebel subjects, as to me, Heaven gives to none but those
thinks

it

seems
it

whom
with
is

deserving to

live

in

constant

fear of

their

end

;

a

life

like

that which

Tantalus,

the

terror of a second death

hanging over him,

fabled

to drag out in
*

Hades' realms for ever.*
(Ol.
i.

Compare Pindar
in

98),

who

states that Tantalus,

nectar and ambrosia from the tables of the gods, was by

having stolen them con-

demned

Hades

to the terror of a rock suspended over his head, ever
its fall.

threatening to crush him by

The better-known
xi.

story of his

punishment

is

given

in

Homer, Odyssey

581 (Pope):

" There Tantalus along

the Stygian bounds Pours out deep groans (with groans all hell resounds) ....

9

130
When

THE ECONOMIST.
to the water he his lips applies,
his lips the treacherous water flies his hapless
;

ICHAP. XXI.
I 12.

Back from
Trees of

Above, beneath, around
all

head

The
Toss

fruit
it

he

kinds delicious fruitage spread, .... strives to seize, but blasts arise,
it

on high, and waft

to the skies."

INDEX.

INDEX.
Sea, xx. 27.
v,

to

measure the
the

air,

engage

in

die speculation
3 (note).

;

part of the charge against Socrates,

xi.

Agriculture:

all

courtesy of, xv.

other arts dependent 9; easy to learn, xix. 17
;

on
;

it,

v.

17;

enjoyable and
labour,
10,

honourable,
v.

v.

i

excellences
healthy,
v.

of, xv.

9

;

demands
vi.

4

;

makes men
12;
;

4

;

courageous,
v.

and
18

generous, xv.
patriotic, v.
5

panegyric on,
of,

7-12 (and passim};
foresight, v.
;

results
v.

bsyond our
;

connection with war,
Alkanet,
x.

13

details of, discussed, xvi.-xx.

2 (note).
xi.

Arcade, a favourite promenade at Athens,
Architect,
i.

15.

3. iv.

Ariaeus, general of Cyrus the younger,
AptoT-oi/,

19.

the morning meal,
;

xi.

18 (note).
ii. i
;

Aristotle

Ethics, quoted on tyKparrjs,
;

referred to,

vi.

8

(note)

Politics quoted,

ix.

8 (note).
viii.

Army,

in order

and disorder contrasted,
vi.
7.

4, 5

;

xxi.

5

8.

Artizans, mean-spirited,
Arts, one

man
iii.

cannot excel

in all, iv.

i

;

mechanical, rightly

despised,

and why,

iv.

2.

Aspasia,

14 (note).

t,

or mechanical,
virtue
43.

iv.

2 (note).

Beauty

and
vii.

not

always

combined,

vi.

16;

of

the

heart,

1

34

INDEX.
compared
to those of a wife,

Bee, the queen, and her duties,
vii.

32.

Buds of
Bugloss,

vine-plant, xix. 10.
x.

2 (note).

Builders, xx. 28.

Carefulness, necessary to a steward,
16, seqq.
;

who

ii, seqq.

;

xii. 9 ; how to teach, ib. capable of learning it and who not, ib. importance of it to farmers as to generals, xx.

is

4, seqq.

Carpenters,

xii.

3.

Chaff, xviii. 6.

Charge against Socrates, xi. 3 (note). Children a support to their parents, vii.
Colts, training of,
xiii.

12 (and note), 19.
viii.

Chorus, in order and disorder contrasted,
7.

3, 20.

Conquerors, benefiting those they conquer,

i.

23,

Corn merchants,

xx. 27.

Cosmetics, x. 2, seqq. Courtesy of agriculture, xv. 9.

Coxswain,

xxi. 3.

Craftsmen, secret about their processes, xv. u. state claims on, Critobulus, poor, and why, ii. 2
;

ii.

6

;

his

wife,

iii.

12

;

goes to the theatre betimes,
in
;

iii.

7,

9.
iv.

Cyrus (the younger) excelled
iv.

agriculture

and war,
his

6

;

iv. deservedly happy, 1 8 ; his death, iv. 19 planted trees with his own hands, iv. 22 his conversation with Lysander, iv. 20.
; ;

24

his

war with

brother,

Deceit, the vanity

of, x.

8.

Aa

(gang), xx.

1

6.

Divine appointments sanctioned by human law, vii. 30. Dogs, their use to man, v. 6 their training, xiii. 8.
;

Draco, laws

of,

xiv. 4.
xvii.
12.

Drainage of corn land,

INDEX.
Drones,
xvii.
14.
xii.

135

Drunkards cannot learn carefulness,
Earth, various kinds
of,
i.

12.

xvi.
2, 3,

xvii.

8

;

xix.

6.

Economist, duties of,

15.
ii.

Economy,

i.

i

(note);

how

learnt,

17,

18.

"Eyxova-a, x. 2 (note).

Enemies, how they are a kind of property,
those they conquer,
'
'

i.

14

;

may

benefit

i.

23.
1

Supplices quoted, vii. ESpvdfiot, note on, viii. 19 (note).
Euripides'

2 (note).

Euxine Sea,

xx.

27.
xii.

Example,
Exercise,

influence of master's,

18, seqq.

recommended
xi.
ii.

to

his wife

by Ischomachus,

x.

11

;

military,

15, seqq.
of,

Experience, value

13.

Eye, the master's,

xii. 20.

Failure and success, causes

of,

ii.

17,

18

;

xx.

i,

seqq.

Fallow ground,
Falsification

xvi.

10, seqq.

of

argument
of, xvi.

charged
xi.

against
25.

Socrates,

xi.

3

(note)

;

declared impossible,
xx.

Farming, details

Farms, varied success on adjoining,
Fig-trees, planting of, xix.
12.

iii.

15.

Fishermen,

xvi. 7.
xviii. 6.
i.

Floor, threshing,

Friends, a kind of property,
Galley, value of order
xxi.
3.

14.

in, viii.

8

;

function of the /crXtuor^f in

Gang

of labourers, xx. 16.

Generals, their worth proved by the faithfulness of their men,
iv.

19

;

need carefulness,

xx. 6, seqq.

tact

in

managing

men,

xxi. 4, seqq.
to,
x.

Gerarde's Herbal referred

2 (note).

136
r,

INDEX.
vii.

12 (note).
viii.

Giotto's Tower, bas-relief on,

19 (note).

Gods, lords of

all, v.

19.
xii.

Goodwill toward the master necessary to a steward,

5

;

how

to teach,

xii.

6, seqq.

Government,

art of, xxi.

Granary, value of order in a, viii. 9. Ground, how to find tho nature of, xvi.

i,

seqq.

Hades,

xxi.

12.
x. 2.

Hair, use of false, condemned,

Harmony,
Henbane,
Hoeing,

part of the
xvii.
7.

Greek

ideal, viii.

19 (note).

Harp-playing,
i.

13.
12.

xvii.

Homer,

referred to, xxi. 12 (note).
to

Honesty necessary
seqq.

stewards, xiv.

2

;

how

taught,

ib.

3,

Horses, their use to man,
xi.
xii.
;

v.

6

;

horse of Nicias the foreigner,
;

4 horse exercise, xi. 17 horse. of the king of Persia, 20 their training, xiii. 7.
;

House, definition

of,

i.

5

;

building of useless houses,
ix.
iii.

iii.

i.

Housekeeper of Ischomachus,

u.
15; supplies the household, ; ought to teach his wife

Husband provides
vii.

the money,
vii.

39; his duties,
iii.

12, seqq.

her duties,

u.

(See also s.v. Man.)

Idleness,

its

results, xx. 20.
of, xvii. 15.

Illustration, use

Improvement

of land, xx. 23, seqq.
of, ii.

Inexperience, danger

13.
ix.

Ischomachus, arrangement of his house,

3, seqq.
vi.
1

;

man,
xi.

vii,

i

;

reputation
life,
\

of,

as gentleman,
;

7,

xi.

a busy 20
;

his object
14,

in

xi.

7, seqq.

how he
xx.

passes his day,
22,
st-qq.
;

seqq.

his father's character,

his

INDEX.
wife,
vii.
\

137
5
;

3,

seqq.

;

married at

fifteen, ib.
vii.

strictly

brought

up,

ib.

taught by her husband,

9, seqq., viii., ix., x.

Justice, taught
KoXo'r

men by

the Earth,

v.

12.

Tt KayaQos, or 'gentleman,' times treated as, xiv. 9.

vi.

2 (note).

Slaves some-

K.(\(vo-TT)s, xxi.

3 (note).
to the idle,
2,
i.

Knowledge not property
will

16; without carefulness

not ensure success, xx.

seqq.

L, the letter, or

T vimov,
ii.

xix. 9.
vii.

Law, sanction of divine ordering by,
Afirovpyt'a, or
'

30.

liturgy,'

6

(note).
x.
2.

Lead, use of white, as a pigment,
Loss, defined,
i.

7.

Lovers cannot learn carefulness,
Loyalty of servant to master,
Lycabettus,
xix. 6.
iv.

xii.

13.
ix.

how

created,

12

;

x'i.

16.

Lysander and Cyrus,

20. in uniting, vii.
ib.

Man and woman,

God's design
vii.

18

;

man
;

the

bolder, and why,

25

;

his strength,

23, 28

has the
39; his

same opportunities
work,
ib.

for self-restraint as

woman,

ib.

22, seqq., 30.

(See

s.-v.

Husband.)
stewards,
xiii.

Management
learnt,
ib.

of
;

men
10,
;

necessary
;

to

3

;

how

1 1

xxi. 2, seqq.
2.
xii.

Manure,
'

xvi.

12

xviii.

Masters' influence
master's eye,'

over servants,
xii.

17, seqq.,

xxi.

10

;

the

20.

Mechanical

arts, iv. 2.

Megara, iv. 20. Methodical habits,
Milton's

xi.

13, seqq.

'Comus' quoted,
ii.

v. 4.

Mina, value of a,

3.

Mistresses, the deceiving,

the passions so called,
i.

i.

20.

Money

not always property,

13,

14.

138

INDEX.

Nature, teaching of, xix. 17. Nicias 'the foreigner,' xi. 4.
f,

ix.

14 (note).

Obedience, value

of, xxi.
i.

5,

10.

OiKovonia, oucow/KKor,

i

(note).

Olives, planting of, xix. 13, seqq.

Order, use

of,

iii.

3, viii.

10, seqq.

;

beauty

of, viii.

3,

seqq.

;

a

characteristic of the

Greek

ideal, viii.
vii.

19 (note).

Ordering of the world by Heaven,

18, seqq.

Parable of
Paradise,

Ten
13.

Talents,

iv.

7 (note).

iv.

Partners in business,
Passions, restraint
of,

vi.
i.

3.

19, seqq.

;

vii.

6.
iii.

Pericles, his connection with Aspasia,

14 (note).

Persia,

king
;

of,

his

interest
iv.
;

in

agriculture
;

and war,
6
;

iv.

4,

seqq.

his

paradises,
xii.

13

laws

of, xiv.

a king of
iv.

Persia's
seqq.

horse,

20

military

affairs

of Persia,

5,

Philosopher's interest in agriculture, xvi. 19.

Phoenician vessel,

viii.

u,

Stiqq.;
xiii.

pilot of, ib.
7.

14.

Physicians, similes from,

2, xv.

Pilot of Phoenician vessel,

viii.

14.

Pindar, his story of Tantalus, xxi.
Pits for planting vines, xix. 3, seqq.

12 (note).
;

for olive-planting, ib. 12
;

\

3,

Planting of vines,
seqq.

xix.

\,seqq.

;

fig trees, ib.

olives, ib.

13.

Plato's
ix.

Apology quoted,
8 (note)
;

xi.

3 (note)

;

his

Laws
ib.

referred

to,

his Republic referred to, vi. 8 (note).
;

Pleading

in law-courts, xi. 23, seqq.

special,

25.

Pleasure, final

pain of wrongful, i. 20. Ploughing, season for, xvi. n, seqq. ' ' Plutarch's Pericles quoted, vi. 8 (note).
xix.
14.

Potsherd used in olive planting,

INDEX.
Poverty of Socrates,
xi.

1

39

xi.

3
ii.

;

not incompatible with goodness,
2.

5

;

of Critobulus,

Prayer

in all undertakings, v.
i.

20

;

subjects

for,

xi.

8.

Property denned, Proverbs quoted,

7,

seqq.

xi.

25.
in,
xi.

Public speaking, exercise Puppies, their training,

23.

xiii.

8.

Queen

bee,

vii.

32.

Rains, winter,

xvii.
xi.

12.
10.

Rank,

its

duties,
xviii.
i,

Reaping,

seqq.
vi.

Recapitulation of conclusions about agriculture, Riches, the advantage of, xi. 9.
Rising, Ischomachus' hour
Rulers, 'the invisible,'
of,
xi.

4, seqq.

14.
i.

passions so called,

18.

Sardis, paradises of Cyrus (the younger) at, iv. 20. Secrecy of craftsmen about their processes, xv. n. Servants, their share in their masters' property, ix. 16

;

how
s.v.

made

loyal,
xii.

ix.

12,
;

xii.

6

;

effect

on,
ix.

of their masters,
5.

example,
Slaves.)

18

of having children,

(See also

Shelter, necessary to

man,
2.

vii.

20, seqq.

Shoes, high-heeled,
Sicilian Sea, xx.
27.
s.v.
;

x.

Slaves (see also

Servants), effect of restraint
fair

and
;

liberty

upon,

iii.

4

have need of
9
;

hopes,

v.

16

treatment
xiv.

suitable

to, xiii.
i.

sometimes treated as gentlemen,
xii.
;

9

;

of passion,

22.
12.

Sluggards cannot learn carefulness,
Socrates,

charge against,
vi.

xi.

3 (note)

his search

for

a true

gentleman,
1

13, seqq.;
ii.

how he
8
;

learnt

8

;

rich,

and why,
xi.

24,

story

economy; ii. 17, of him and the horse

of Nicias,

4.

140
Soil, various

INDEX.
kinds
of, xvi.
i,

seqq., xvii.

8

;

how

to learn,

xvl

3

;

for planting, xix. 6.
of, xiv.
4.
vii.
;

Solon, laws

Sophocles' 'Ajax' referred to, Sowing, time for, xvii. i, seqq.

12 (note).
of, id.
7,

minnsr
xix.
;

seqq.

Stakes used in planting olives,
Steward, duties
of,
xii.

13.

3,

seqq.

xiii.,

xiv.

ZrXryyiV, or strigil,

its

use, xi. 18 (note).

Story of king of Persia and his horse, xii. 20 ; of Cyrus and Ly sander, iv. 20; of Socrates and the horse of Nicias,
xi.

4.
xviii.
2.

Straw,

Success, and failure, causes of duty essential to, xi.

of,
8.

ii.

17, 18

;

xx.

i,

seqq.

;

sense

Sun's influence on

soil, xvi.

14.
ii.

Surplus should be kept in hand,
Tantalus, xxi. 12 (note).

10.

Threshing,

xviii.

3

5.
xii.

Training of servants,

3

;

of children,

vii.

24.

Travellers, simile from, xx. 18.

Tpi;papxa, ii. 6 (note). Tyranny of evil passions,

i.

20.
of, xxi.

Tyrants, the wretched state
'Yypa
al
v.

12.

rjpa,

2O

(note).

Vessel, the great Phoenician,

viii.

ii, seqq.

Vines, planting

of, xix.

I,

seqq.
;

Virgil, quoted, v.

4 (note)

on bees,

vii.

38 (note).
vi.

Virtue and beauty not always combined,

15, seqq.

War, the

benefits of,

i.

15

;

and

agriculture,

v.

13.
all, xi.

Wealth, the advantage

of, xi.

Weeds, how

utilized, xvi.

12

;

9; readily praised by choke the corn, xvii.
2.

n.

14.

White

lead, used as a pigment, x.

INDEX.
Wife, a help or hindrance,
iii.
iii.

141
;

10

ii

;

regulates expenditure,

ib.

taught by her husband, duties of compared 15
;

to those of

queen bee,
;

vii.

32,

seqq.

;

stores

under her
;

36 tends her servants when sick, ib. 37 the * wife held in increasing honour, ib. 42 is the good ' of the laws in her household, ix. guardian (fo/io$uAo)
charge,
ib.
;

15

;

care of the good wife for her property,

ix.

19.

(See

also s.v.

Woman)
s.v.

;

wife of Critobulus,

iii.

12

;

of Ischo-

machus, see

Winnowing, xviii. 6 9. Winter rains, xvii. 12. Woman and man, God's design in uniting, vii. 18 her vii. 31, seqq. her work indoors, vii. 22, 30 weak,
; ;

duties,

28

ib. 23 her love of young children, ib. 24 her fearfulness of heart, ib. 25 has the same powers of self-restraint as man, ib. 27 teaches her servants and learns of them,
; ;
; ; ;

vii.

41.

(See also s.v. Wife.)
(note).

3t)pii,

v.

20

Zeuxis the painter,

x.

i.

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