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3.1. INTRODUCTION
Overhead transmission lines constructions is only 15 to 60 percent as costly as underground cables and are therefore more economical. The first construction in the design of overhead transmission line, Its electrical characteristics. The electrical design of the line must be sufficient for the required power to be transmitted without excessive voltage drop and current or energy losses, and the line insulation must be adequate to cope with the system voltage. The mechanical factors influencing the design must then be considered. The conductor and poles must have sufficient strength with a predetermined softy factors to withstand the loads due to the line itself and stresses imposed by ice and wind loads. Thus, the OHTL should provide satisfactory service over a long period of time without the necessity for too much maintenance. For design of OHTL, it must take into consideration the following factors: 1. Voltage level. 2. Conductor type and size. 3. Line regulation and voltage. 4. Corona and losses. 5. System protection. 6. Ground. 7. Insulation Co-ordination. 8. Mechanical design. 9. Sag, stress. 10. Conductor spacing. 11. Structure design. 12. Structure type. 13. Stress calculation.

3.2. Resistance
The direct current resistance of a conductor is: R DC ! L A (3.1)

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Where, : Conductor resistively, .m L : Conductor length, m. A : Conductor Cross sectional area, m2. The resistance of a conductor at any temperature may be determined by: R 2 TO  t 2 ! R 1 TO  t 1 (3.2)

Where, R1 : Conductor resistance at temperature t1. R2 : Conductor resistance at temperature t2. t1,t2 : Conductor temperature in degree centigrade. T0 : Constant varying with conductor material. = 241 for hard-drown copper. = 228 for hard-drown aluminum. 3.2.1 Skin Effect The phenomena by which alternating current tends to flow in the outer layer of a conductor called "skin effect" skin effect is a function of conductor size, frequency, and relative rest resistance of the conductor material.

The factors affect the skin effect 1. Nature of material. 2. Diameter of wire: Increase with diameter of wire. 3. Frequency: Increase with the increase in frequency.

3.3

Inductance of Double Circuit Three Phase Line

Consider a three phase double circuit connected in parallel between the generating end and the receiving end represents conductors A, B, and C formatting one of three phase circuit while conductors A,B,C formatting other three phase circuit let the system be symmetrical so that :

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a1 b1

S11 S22 S33

c2 b2

c1

a2

Figure (3.1). Double circuit of three phase line The method of GMD can be used To find the inductance per phase, to do this ,we group phases together and use the following equations to find the GMD between each phase group

D AB ! 4 Da1b1 Da1b 2 Da 2b1 Da 2b 2 D BC ! 4 Db1c1 Db1c 2 Db 2 c1 Db 2 c 2 D AC ! 4 Da1c1 Da1c 2 Da 2 c1 Da 2c 2 The equivalent GMD per phase is then GMD ! 3 D AB D BC D AC GMR of each phase group is DSA ! 4 ( D b Da1a 2 ) 2 ! D b Da1a 2 s s DSB ! 4 ( D b Db1b 2 ) 2 ! D b Db1b 2 s s DSC ! 4 ( D b Dc1c 2 ) 2 ! D b Dc1c 2 s s

(3.3) (3.4) (3.5)

(3.6)

(3.7) (3.8) (3.9)

where Dsb is the geometric mean radius of bundled conductors The inductance per-phase is L x ! 2 v 10 7 ln GMD H /m GMR L (3.10)

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3.4

Capacitance of Three-phase Double Circuit Lines

The per-phase equivalent capacitance to neutral is obtained to: 2TI 0 GMD ln GMRc

C!

F /m

(3.11)

GMD is the same as was found for inductance calculation:


D AB ! 4 Da1b1 Da1b 2 Da 2b1 Da 2b 2 DBC ! 4 Db1c1 Db1c 2 Db 2 c1 Db 2 c 2 D AC ! 4 Da1c1 Da1c 2 Da 2 c1 Da 2c 2 The equivalent GMD per phase is then: (3.12) (3.13) (3.14)

GMD ! 3 D AB D BC D AC

(3.15)

The GMRC of each phase is similar to the GMRL, with the exception that rb is used instead of D b .
s

This will results in the following equations rA ! r b Da1a 2 rB ! r b Db1b 2 rC ! r b Dc1c 2 GMRC ! 3 rA rB rC

(3.16) (3.17) (3.18) (3.19)

3.5

EFFECT OF EARTH ON THE CAPACITANCE

For isolated charged conductor the electric flux lines are radial and orthogonal to cylindrical equipotential surfaces, which will change the effective capacitance of the line.

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The earth level is an equipotential surface. Therefore flux lines are forced to cut the surface of the earth orthogonally. The effect of the earth is to increase the capacitance. But, normally, the height of the conductor is large compared to the distance between the conductors, and the earth effect is negligible. Therefore, for all line models used for balanced steady-state analysis, the effect of earth on the capacitance can be negligible. However, for unbalance analysis such as unbalance faults, the earth s effect and shield wires should be considered.

3.6

CORONA DETERMINATION

3.6.1. General Consideration Free electrons are generally present in the air because of natural ratio-activity or cosmic rays, The electrons near the energized conductor, under the influence of electric field, would move either towards or away from the Conductor. During its movement along the path of high voltage gradient, it Would collide with the air molecules and thus ionize them. Due to ionization there would be a positive ion and a free electron leading to further collision and ionization. The process of ionization may be cumulative in nature. When the avalanche crosses the gap separating the conductors. A self-sustained discharge results. The ionization of the air causes a redistribution of the potential gradient. The redistribution may be such that the potential gradient in the region would be in excess of the breakdown potential gradient required for air. This would result in the breakdown of the insulating property of air in the entire region. If the redistribution lowers the potential gradient in the region except in the neighborhood of the conductor; the air surrounding the conductor would cease to remain non-conducting. The air layer at a distance from the conductor, however, retains its original insulating properties. 3.6.2. Phenomena of Corona When alternating potential difference is applied across two conductors whose spacing is large as compared to their diameter there is no apparent change in the condition of

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atmospheric air surrounding the wires if applied voltage is low. However when the applied voltage exceeds a certain value called critical disruptive voltage the conductors are surrounded by a faint violet glow called corona. The phenomena of corona is accompanied by a hissing sound protection of ozone power loses and radio interference. The higher the voltage is raised the larger and higher the luminous envelope becomes and greater are the sound the power loss and the radio noise. If the applied voltage is increased to breakdown value a flashover will occur between the conductors due to the breakdown of air condition. The phenomena of violate glow hissing noise and production of ozone gas in an over head transmission is known as Corona. If the conductor is polished and smooth the corona glow will be uniform throughout the length of the conductors otherwise the rough point will appear brighter. With DC voltage there is difference in the appearance of the two wires. The positive wire has uniform glow about it, while the negative conductor has spotty glow. 3.6.3. Factors Affecting on Corona 1. Atmosphere As corona is formed due to ionization of air surrounding the conductors, Therefore, it is affected by the physical state of atmosphere. In the stormy weather, the number of ions is more than the normal and as such corona occurs at much less voltage as compared with fair weather. 2. Conductor size The corona effect depends on the shape and conditions of the conductors, the rough and irregular surface will give rise to more corona because unevenness of the surface decreases the value of breakdown voltage. Thus, a standard conductors here regular surface and hence gives rise to more corona than a solid conductor. 3. Spacing between conductors In the spacing between conductors is made very large as compared to their Diameters there may not be any corona effect it is because larger distance between the conductors reduces the electrostatic stresses at the conductor surface. Thus avoiding corona formation.

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4. Line voltage The line voltage greater effects corona if it is low there is no change in the condition of air surrounding the conductors and hence no corona is formed however if the line voltage has much a value that electrostatic stresses developed at the conductors surface make the air around the conductor Conducting then corona is formed. 3.6.4. Corona Starting Voltages Since avalanche formation depends upon the initial velocities of the electrons and their acceleration during their movement along free-paths between collisions, there is a definite surface gradient (as seen as above) at which corona is established. The voltage corresponding to this gradient is known as corona starting voltage or more exactly visual corona starting voltage. This depends upon: 1. The atmospheric conditions. 2. The conditions of the conductor surface. 3. The conductor s configuration. The dielectric strength of air is proportional to its relative air density H ! 3.92b 273  t (3.20)

Where: P: Atmospheric pressure (mm of Hg). t : Temperature (0C). When, b = 760 mm of Hg. t = 20o C = 1.00 Any increase in voltage would increase the corona starting voltage. This has been established experimentally. An increase in temperature raises ionization and corona starts at lower voltages. Any decrease in pressure increases the volume and decreases the density. This results in increased free paths and therefore decreased ionization.

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Humidity also influences corona starting voltages. It has been found that an increase in humidity decreases the corona voltage Ionization is greatly affected by the surface condition of the conductor. Presence of sharp points, dirt, oil, and grease .etc. affects the corona starting voltage. The conductor configuration decides the pattern of the electric field and hence the corona starting voltage. 3.6.5. Disruptive Critical Voltage It is the minimum phase voltage at which corona occurs. The break down strength of air at 75cm Hg, pressure and at 25C equal = (30)KV per cm or equal (21.1) (r.m.s) kv/cm. This value is called go. At parametric pressure of (76cm) OF (Hg) and tC the break down Strength = go. D equ VC ! m o .Hg 0 .r.ln( ) (3.21) r Where: r: Radius of conductors. Dequ: The lowest distance between conductors. mo: Irregularity factor = 1.0, for clean, smooth conductors. = 0 .98 to 0.92, for dirty conductors. = 0.87 to 0.8 for stranded conductors. Bad atmospheric conditions such as fog, rain or steal may reduce Vc to 0.8 of the value given above. 3.6.6. Visual critical voltage: Experimental investigation have revealed that visual corona does not occur when the electric intensity becomes equal to critical value E0 but starts at a higher value of intensity Ev, this is because the dielectric breakdown of air requires a finite volume of overstressed air. In other words a finite amount of dielectric energy is necessary to cause visual corona .the empirical relation for calculating Ev is Ev ! 3 v 10 6 0.03 Hmv 1  Hr 2 V/m (3.22)

Where r is the conductor radius in meter and mv is the surface factor for calculating visual critical voltage. mv is generally called irregularity factor.

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mv = 1.0 for smooth conductor, 0.93 to 0.98 for rough conductor exposed to air, 0.72 for local corona on stranded conductor, and 0.82 for decided corona on stranded conductor. The visual critical voltage Vv for single phase and 3-phase lines can be obtained: 3 v 10 6 0.03 d eq r.H .mv 1  ln r Hr 2

VV !

(3.23)

3.7

Short Transmission Line Model

The medium transmission line model may be used when y The line length is less than 50 miles (80 km), or y The line voltage is not over 69 kV Modeling of the transmission line parameters: y The shunt capacitance and conductance are ignored y The line resistance and reactance are treated as lumped Parameters. y Circuit model

VS ! VR  Z line I R IS ! IR

(3.24) (3.25)

We can represent these equations as matrix form as following: VR 1 Z line VS (3.26) I ! 0 1 I S R A=D=1 B=Zline C=0 Z ! R  j[L (3.27)

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