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Lesson #2 Examination of Arthropod Classes

RATIONALE STATEMENT This lesson revisits some of the concepts that were introduced in the first lesson, and builds upon them while focusing more on specific classes of arthropods. The PLO for this lesson is to contrast members of two or more classes of arthropods. The matching activity at the beginning of this lesson reviews some of the vocabulary terms that were introduced in the previous lesson. It also serves as a probe to find out how familiar students are with terms that are to be discussed in this lesson. The notes and discussion on complete and incomplete metamorphosis will provide additional information on arthropod growth and development. In the second activity the students visit different stations and observe the characteristics of arthropods in order to determine the class that each belongs to. This activity requires higher-level Blooms taxonomy because the students need to compare and contrast the various classes of arthropods. It will also prove to be meaningful learning because it is a hands-on activity that is guided by the questions on their worksheet. STUDENT LEARNING OBJECTIVES SWBAT Define vocabulary terms related to arthropods Distinguish between complete and incomplete metamorphosis Name the five major classes of arthropods Observe similarities and differences in body structure between five classes of arthropods

MATERIALS NEEDED FOR THE LESSON Vocabulary matching game- 2 different colours of construction paper (one colour for vocabulary terms and another for definitions) - there should be one vocabulary word or definition on each piece of construction paper Metamorphosis notes -cartoon overhead - overheads - worksheets for students Arthropod station activity- 5 different specimens of arthropods, 1 from each of the 5 classes (Arachnida, Crustacea, Diploda, Chilopoda, and Insecta) -Key Characteristics student handout -Stationary Arthropods student worksheet Resources: Biology ( Miller and Levine) textbook , ANTICIPATORY SET SCED 313 Arthropod Unit Plan Sabrina Versteeg, Joni Sanford, Ceara Mullin Page 1 of 13

The matching activity at the beginning of the class can be used as a motivation for the students. The teacher can start by saying, Were going to play a game today! The activity will get the students out of their seats and interacting with each other. The students will be reminded of terms that they learned in the previous lesson, and will have to work together in order to make sure that everybody finds their match. They will be able to see just how much they have learned about arthropods already, and will be curious to learn about some of the terms that they were unsure about. This will lead into the discussion and notes about metamorphosis, after which the distinctions between arthropod classes can be introduced. MEANINGFUL LEARNING ACTIVITIES Teacher information: Matching Game (15 mins)Hand out one piece of construction paper to each student. They will either have an arthropod vocabulary word or definition. The purpose of this activity is to have the students match up the word with its definition. The students can walk around in order to find their match. The teacher should also circulate in order to assess participation and help out with some of the harder words that may not have been taught yet. After everyone has matched up correctly, each pair will read out their word and definition to the rest of the class. Provide students with a copy of the vocabulary list with definitions. Discussion and Notes on Metamorphosis (15 mins)Show cartoon on overhead. Ask students about caterpillars and butterflies. Are they two different creatures, or are they in some way connected? How does a caterpillar turn into a butterfly? Hand out notes and go over complete and incomplete metamorphosis, with students filling in the blanks on their sheets. Preview of Stationary Arthopods Activity (5 mins)Provide a very brief introduction of the names of the 5 different classes of arthropods. Explain activity to students, and give them the Key Characteristics sheet, as well as the Stationary Arthropods handout, which they will be expected to fill in. Stationary Arthropods Activity (30 mins)Divide students up into groups of five. Each group will start at a different station, and will have 5 minutes at each station in order to record their data on their worksheet. (Students will fill out their sheets individually, not as a group). After they have each been to all of the stations, they get an extra five minutes to go back to any stations that they might need more time at. Discussion and wrap-up (10 mins)-

SCED 313 Arthropod Unit Plan

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Discuss with students the identity of the arthropods by having them guess what they thought each one was. Review some differences between the classes by referring back to the Key Characteristic worksheet. Collect activity worksheet that each student filled in. Assign homework, which is to read pg. 615-616 in text and do Q #2 on p. 616. Student information: All notes that are on the overhead will be handed out to the students so they can fill in the blanks while the teaching is explaining the concept. Worksheets will be provided, with information describing the activity in addition to the teachers explanations. (All student worksheets are included in the following pages). Formative Assessment Procedure/ Activity/ Event: The worksheets that the students filled out for the Stationary Arthropods Activity will be handed in at the end of class. This will be assessed according to the rubric to follow. The homework question will be checked for completion. CLOSURE TO LEARNING The wrap-up to this lesson is the discussion about the classification activity, where students can participate and share what they learned. The homework will review some of what was taught in class, and the assigned question will reinforce the differences in metamorphosis between arthropods.

SCED 313 Arthropod Unit Plan

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GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: In order to grow, all arthropods must molt, or shed, their exoskeletons A new exoskeleton is secreted, and the arthropod pulls completely out of the old one The arthropod expands in size, and the exoskeleton stretches The exoskeleton then needs to harden, which can take a few hours to a few days

Most arthropods molt several times between hatching and adulthood The process of growth and change is most often dramatic in form, and called metamorphosis

2 types of metamorphosis- complete and incomplete Incomplete metamorphosis: -change from young to adult is gradual
SCED 313 Arthropod Unit Plan Sabrina Versteeg, Joni Sanford, Ceara Mullin Page 4 of 13

-young resemble adults but lack functioning sex organs or other adult structures -goes from egg to nymph (immature form that looks like an adult) to adult Complete metamorphosis involves 4 stages:

Egg- will undergo metamorphosis in order to become larvae Larva look nothing like parents, and molt repeatedly as they grow Pupa- during this stage the adult structures begin to grow and larval structures are broken down for raw materials Adult- has internal and external body parts that are completely different from before




Instars are growth periods between molts of nymphs and larva

SCED 313 Arthropod Unit Plan

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Key Characteristics of 5 classes of Arthropods


No wings No antennae 1 or 2 body segments 8 legs


No wings 2 pairs of antennae 2 body segments 8 or more legs

DIPLOPODA No wings 1 pair of antennae Many body segments 2 pairs of leg on each body segment Round body

CHILOPODA No wings 1 pair of antennae Many body segments One pair of legs on each body segment Flat body INSECTA

Can have none, 1 or 2 pairs of wings. 1 pair of antennae 3 body segments (head, thorax, and abdomen) 3 pairs of legs Sabrina Versteeg, Joni Sanford, Ceara Mullin Page 6 of 13

SCED 313 Arthropod Unit Plan

BIOLOGY 11 ARTHROPODS LESSON 3 - MOVING TO LAND Rationale: Students will continue to become aware of species included in the phylum arthropoda by examining and discussing body features and how they help them survive on land. Students will take random notes from discussion and organize them into a complete set by filling in their hand out. Biology 11 Animal Biology Arthropods It is expected that students will demonstrate knowledge of the adaptations of arthropods to a terrestrial environment. Students Learning Objectives: 1) Students will be able to identify adaptations in body structure and processes that have lead to the success of terrestrial arthropods. 2) Students will be able to explain why these adaptations are advantageous to terrestrial arthropods. 3) Students will be able to organize a random set of facts into a complete set of notes. Materials Needed: Overheads - Moving to Land, species pictures Student handouts - Moving to Land class handout, pre-lab handout. Pen Pal assignment instructions Anticipatory Set: Arthropods are considered the most successful phylum, but what does that mean? How do we measure success? Longevity of fossil records Number of species Number of individuals Range of habitat Meaningful Learning Activity: Show photo of one organism at a time and ask class: What adaptations does it have to help it survive on land? Write suggestions on overhead while explaining or elaborating concepts. Scorpion Hard exoskeleton impermeable to water, provides protection, stinging fang and pincers to grasp prey Spiders piercing fangs, digest externally, book lungs, tracheae, sensory adaptations (in legs, large brain, 8 simple eyes). Grasshopper big legs, simple and compound eyes, sensory hairs, air sacs Butterfly wings, camouflage, colour warning, mimicry, complete metamorphosis Write adaptations discussed with each organism on overhead. Before moving on to next organism, get students to organize notes into their handouts about 5 minutes. Do this SCED 313 Arthropod Unit Plan Sabrina Versteeg, Joni Sanford, Ceara Mullin Page 7 of 13

after each organism, students can discuss with the person next to them where they think the facts should go. Teachers Notes Put photo of each arthropod on overhead and ask students if they pick out any features that may help that organism to survive in a terrestrial environment. Make brief notes on overhead as they are discussed. Teacher lecture/discussions should last approximately 10 minutes. When finished, explain handout and ask students to organize the notes made on the overhead in the appropriate places on their sheets. Scorpions (10 minutes, 5 minutes for class to organize notes) hard exoskeleton impermeable to water, prevents dessication and physical protection. Pincers to grasp prey Stinging fang to paralyze prey to eat and for protection Spiders (10 minutes, 5 minutes for class to organize notes) Piercing fangs with poison sacs used to kill prey. Few are dangerous to humans Digests externally pumps enzymes from digestive tract onto prey. Food is then pulled into esophagus by pharynx contractions. Silk production all have silk glands to make webs. Small insects get stuck, some spiders wrap food in cocoons. Females wrap eggs in protective silk. Does anyone know where silk fabric comes from? Silk worm cocoons. Book Lungs Gas exchange. Folded membranes in stacks (Analogy pages of a book). Arrangement exposes large surface area of lung tissue to air. Open to outside by small opening in exoskeleton called a spiracle. Tracheae tubes that bring air close to spiders cells and circulating blood. Small openings in abdomen then tracheae branch through the inner spaces. Sensory large brain. Eight simple eyes light sensitive organs arranged in rows. Sensors in legs for vibrations. Reproduction Females produce eggs and males release sperm directly into female. Females are bigger than males and are often more interested in devouring male instead of mating. To avoid being eaten, male offers insect in silk, while female is busy with gift male mates and gets away fast. Or male strums web a certain way. Grasshopper (10 minutes, 5 minutes for class to organize notes) Big legs jump to avoid predators fast Simple and compound eyes. Simple detect change in brightness. Compound detect shapes and movement Sensory hairs all over body Antennae detect smells Trachial system open to outside via spiracles. Air goes to air sacs moves a lot of air, important for an active insect. Butterfly (10 minutes, 5 minutes for class to organize notes) SCED 313 Arthropod Unit Plan Sabrina Versteeg, Joni Sanford, Ceara Mullin Page 8 of 13

Camoflage blend in to environment Colour warnings Bright colours tell other organisms that they are poisonous Mimicry looks similar to another organism that is dangerous, so species tend to avoid it. Wings avoid predators and allowed insects to inhabit many environments. Evolution of wings (picture OH silverfish, mosquito, butterfly) Complete Metamorphosis egg larva pupa adult. Go through larval stage during spring/summer when there is lots of food. Often larva and adult have different diets, therefore it eliminates competition for food.

While students are organizing the notes, walk around the classroom to check for understanding. Ask students why they placed adaptations under certain headings and how the adaptations help the species survive on land. Closure: Ask students to share an adaptation each sample arthropod has that allows it to successfully live on land, ask them why that adaptation is important for living on land or what the crustaceans do differently. Hand out writing assignment, and Pre-Lab handout (see Lesson 4 for handout and answer key) for next class. Homework read through text, look on internet to complete handout.

SCED 313 Arthropod Unit Plan

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NAME: _______________________


Answer all questions on test paper. Look through entire test before you begin to make sure you have all pages. Attempt all questions, you have 75 minutes to complete your test. Good luck! Multiple Choice: 1 point each Circle correct answer. 1. Each of the following is an important characteristic of all arthropods except a. A tough skeleton b. Book lungs c. Jointed appendages d. A segmented body 2. In incomplete metamorphosis, the insect that hatches from the egg a. Lacks wings b. Lacks appendages c. Is a pupa d. Is a larva 3. Tracheal tubes in arthropods are connected to openings on their body surface called a. Sinuses b. Gills c. Spinnerets d. Spiracles 4. An insect does not have a. Cephalothorax b. Two pairs of wings c. One pair of antennae d. Three pairs of mouthparts 5. Arthropods that match the colour and texture of their surroundings so closely that they seem to disappear are displaying a. Regeneration b. Metamorphosis c. Mimicry d. Camouflage 6. If an animal has one pair of antennae and unbranched appendages, it SCED 313 Arthropod Unit Plan Sabrina Versteeg, Joni Sanford, Ceara Mullin Page 10 of 13

a. b. c. d.

Must be a uniramian Must be an insect May be a crustacean May be a chelicerate

7. Insects are in the same subphylum as a. Lobsters b. Scorpions c. Horseshoe crabs d. Centipedes 8. An arthropods exoskeleton is made out of a. Bones b. Chitin c. Chelicerae d. Tubules 9. What are the three major divisions of an insects body? a. Head, appendage, tail b. Cephalothorax, midsection, wings c. Thorax, midsection, tail d. Head, thorax, abdomen 10. What is the name for the process in which arthropods shed their exoskeleton? a. Incomplete metamorphosis b. Molting c. Regeneration d. Exfoliation 11. A developmental stage between two successive molts is called a. Instar b. Resting phase c. Exuberation d. Metamorphosis 12. Among the following, insects are least important in a. Pollinating flowers b. Manufacturing honey c. Destroying crops d. Carrying diseases

13. The subphylum in which all arthropods are now extinct is a. Diptera SCED 313 Arthropod Unit Plan Sabrina Versteeg, Joni Sanford, Ceara Mullin Page 11 of 13

b. Uniramia c. Trilobita d. Crustacea 14. Which arthropods are considered the bugs of death. a. Spiders b. Insects c. Beetles d. Scorpions 15. Insects that imitate the warning colouration of poisonous or dangerous species are using a. Regeneration b. Camouflage c. Metamorphosis d. Mimicry

Short answer: 4 points each 1. Compare and contrast complete and incomplete metamorphosis. a) Complete metamorphosis 4 stages egg, larva (segmented and look like worms, specialized for eating, no wings or reproductive organs), pupa (appears to be resting, body transformed into adult) b) Incomplete metamorphosis 3 stages egg, nymph (hatches from egg, look similar to adult, no wings or reproductive organs), adult (after a few molts, develop into adult) 2. What characteristics of insects allow them to live on land successfully? c) d) e) f) g) h) 3. Ability to fly disperse to wide areas, escape predators Complete metamorphosis exploit a variety of food sources Exoskeleton prevent dessication Sensory adaptations compound and simple eyes Respiratory systems air sacs, book lungs Internal fertilization

Describe the structure and function of each of the following organs. You may draw a diagram to help explain your answer. Antennae, book lungs, chelipeds

SCED 313 Arthropod Unit Plan

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a) Contain sensory receptors that give the organism information about its surroundings. b) Highly folded surfaces that facilitate gas exchange between air and blood. Only have one external opening to prevent dessication. c) Pincerlike structure is used for grasping prey and protection from enemies. 4. List four functions of the exoskeleton. protection of soft body parts from predators prevent dehydration body support attachment point for muscles

SCED 313 Arthropod Unit Plan

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