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Editor: Paul Muljadi
portrait by Nadar, 1874
Birth name Édouard Manet
Born 23 January 1832
Died 30 April 1883 (aged51)
Field Painting, printmaking
Movement Realism, Impressionism
Works The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l´herbe), 1863
A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (Le Bar aux Folies-Bergère),
Young Flautist or The Fifer (Le Fifre), 1866
Édouard Manet (US /mæne/ or UK /mæne/; French:[edwaman]; 18321883) was a French painter. One of
the first 19th-century artists to approach modern-life subjects, he was a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism
His early masterworks, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l´herbe) and Olympia, engendered great
controversy and served as rallying points for the young painters who would create Impressionism. Today, these are
considered watershed paintings that mark the genesis of modern art.
Born into an upper class household with strong political connections, Manet rejected the future originally envisioned
for him, and became engrossed in the world of painting. The last 20 years of Manet's life saw him form bonds with
other great artists of the time, and develop his own style that would be heralded as innovative and serve as a major
influence for future painters.
Édouard Manet was born in Paris on 23 January 1832, to an affluent and well connected family. His mother,
Eugénie-Desirée Fournier, was the daughter of a diplomat and goddaughter of the Swedish crown prince, Charles
Bernadotte, from whom the current Swedish monarchs are descended. His father, Auguste Manet, was a French
judge who expected Édouard to pursue a career in law. His uncle, Charles Fournier, encouraged him to pursue
painting and often took young Manet to the Louvre.
In 1841 he enrolled at secondary school, the Collège Rollin. In
1845, at the advice of his uncle, Manet enrolled in a special course of drawing where he met Antonin Proust, future
Minister of Fine Arts and subsequent life-long friend.
At his father's suggestion, in 1848 he sailed on a training vessel to Rio de Janeiro. After Manet twice failed the
examination to join the Navy,
the elder Manet relented to his son's wishes to pursue an art education. From 1850 to
1856, Manet studied under the academic painter, Thomas Couture. In his spare time, Manet copied the old masters in
From 1853 to 1856 he visited Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands, during which time he absorbed the influences of
the Dutch painter Frans Hals, as well as the Spanish artists, Diego Velázquez and Francisco José de Goya.
In 1856, Manet opened his own studio. His style in this period was characterized by loose brush strokes,
simplification of details and the suppression of transitional tones. Adopting the current style of realism initiated by
Gustave Courbet, he painted The Absinthe Drinker (185859) and other contemporary subjects such as beggars,
singers, Gypsies, people in cafés, and bullfights. After his early years, he rarely painted religious, mythological, or
historical subjects; examples include his Christ Mocked, now in the Art Institute of Chicago, and Christ with Angels,
in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. At the Salon in 1861 Manet had two canvases accepted. A portrait of
his mother and father, the latter paralysed and robbed of speech at this time by a stroke, was ill received by critics.
The other , The Spanish Singer, was admired by Theophile Gautier , and placed in a more conspicuous location as a
result of its popularity with Salon-goers. And Manet's work, that appeared "slightly slapdash" when compared with
the meticulous style of so many other Salon paintings intrigued some young artists. The Spanish Singer, painted in a
"strange new fashion [-] caused many painters' eyes to open and their jaws to drop."
Mas/c /n the Ta//er/es
Music in the Tuileries, 1862
Music in the Tuileries is an early example of Manet's painterly style.
Inspired by Hals and Velázquez, it is a harbinger of his life-long
interest in the subject of leisure.
While the picture was regarded as unfinished by some,
atmosphere imparts a sense of what the Tuileries gardens were like at
the time; one may imagine the music and conversation.
Here, Manet has depicted his friends, artists, authors, and musicians
who take part, and he has included a self-portrait among the subjects.
Lanchean an the Grass (Le déjeaner sar /´herbe)
The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur
A major early work is The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur
l´herbe). The Paris Salon rejected it for exhibition in 1863 but he
exhibited it at the Salon des Refusés (Salon of the Rejected) later in the
year. Emperor Napoleon III had initiated The Salon des Refusés after
the Paris Salon rejected more than 4,000 paintings in 1863.
The painting's juxtaposition of fully dressed men and a nude woman
was controversial, as was its abbreviated, sketch-like handling, an
innovation that distinguished Manet from Courbet. At the same time,
Manet's composition reveals his study of the old masters, as the
disposition of the main figures is derived from Marcantonio
Raimondi's engraving of the Judgement of Paris (c. 1515) based on a drawing by Raphael.
Two additional works that are cited by scholars as important precedents for Le déjeuner sur l´herbe are Pastoral
Concert (c. 1510, The Louvre) and The Tempest (Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice), both of which are attributed
variously to Italian Renaissance masters Giorgione or Titian.
The Tempest is an enigmatic painting that features a
fully dressed man and a nude woman in a rural setting. The man is standing to the left and gazing to the side,
apparently at the woman, who is seated and is breastfeeding a baby; the relationship between the two figures is
In Pastoral Concert, two clothed men and a nude woman are seated on the grass, engaged in music
making, while a second nude woman stands beside them.
As he had in Luncheon on the Grass, Manet again paraphrased a
respected work by a Renaissance artist in the painting Olympia (1863),
a nude portrayed in a style reminiscent of early studio photographs, but
whose pose was based on Titian's Venus of Urbino (1538). The
painting is also reminiscent of Francisco Goya's painting, The Nude
Manet embarked on the canvas after being challenged to give the Salon
a nude painting to display. His uniquely frank depiction of a
self-assured prostitute was accepted by the Paris Salon in 1865, where
it created a scandal. According to Antonin Proust, "only the
precautions taken by the administration prevented the painting being punctured and torn" by offended viewers.
The painting was controversial partly because the nude is wearing some small items of clothing such as an orchid in
her hair, a bracelet, a ribbon around her neck, and mule slippers, all of which accentuated her nakedness, sexuality,
and comfortable courtesan lifestyle. The orchid, upswept hair, black cat, and bouquet of flowers were all recognized
symbols of sexuality at the time. This modern Venus' body is thin, counter to prevailing standards; the painting's lack
of idealism rankled viewers. The painting's flatness, inspired by Japanese wood block art, serves to make the nude
more human and less voluptuous. A fully dressed black servant is featured, exploiting the then-current theory that
black people were hyper-sexed.
That she is wearing the clothing of a servant to a courtesan here, furthers the
sexual tension of the piece.
Olympia's body as well as her gaze is unabashedly confrontational. She defiantly looks out as her servant offers
flowers from one of her male suitors. Although her hand rests on her leg, hiding her pubic area, the reference to
traditional female virtue is ironic; a notion of modesty is notoriously absent in this work. A contemporary critic
denounced Olympia's "shamelessly flexed" left hand, which seemed to him a mockery of the relaxed, shielding hand
of Titian's Venus.
Likewise, the alert black cat at the foot of the bed strikes a sexually rebellious note in contrast to
that of the sleeping dog in Titian's portrayal of the goddess in his Venus of Urbino.
"Olympia" was the subject of caricatures in the popular press, but was championed by the French avant-garde
community, and the painting's significance was appreciated by artists such as Gustave Courbet, Paul Cézanne,
Claude Monet, and later Paul Gauguin.
As with Luncheon on the Grass, the painting raised the issue of prostitution within contemporary France and the
roles of women within society.
Life and times
Berthe Morisot, 1872
The roughly painted style and photographic lighting in these works was seen as
specifically modern, and as a challenge to the Renaissance works Manet copied
or used as source material. His work is considered 'early modern', partially
because of the black outlining of figures, which draws attention to the surface of
the picture plane and the material quality of paint.
He became friends with the Impressionists Edgar Degas, Claude Monet,
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley, Paul Cézanne and Camille Pissarro
through another painter, Berthe Morisot, who was a member of the group and
drew him into their activities. The grand niece of the painter Jean-Honoré
Fragonard, Morisot had her first painting accepted in the Salon de Paris in 1864,
and she continued to show in the salon for the next ten years.
Manet became the friend and colleague of Berthe Morisot in 1868. She is
credited with convincing Manet to attempt plein air painting, which she had been
practicing since she was introduced to it by another friend of hers, Camille Corot. They had a reciprocating
relationship and Manet incorporated some of her techniques into his paintings. In 1874, she became his sister-in-law
when she married his brother, Eugene.
Self-Portrait with Palette, 1879
Unlike the core Impressionist group, Manet maintained that modern artists
should seek to exhibit at the Paris Salon rather than abandon it in favor of
independent exhibitions. Nevertheless, when Manet was excluded from the
International exhibition of 1867, he set up his own exhibition. His mother
worried that he would waste all his inheritance on this project, which was
enormously expensive. While the exhibition earned poor reviews from the major
critics, it also provided his first contacts with several future Impressionist
painters, including Degas.
Although his own work influenced and anticipated the Impressionist style, he
resisted involvement in Impressionist exhibitions, partly because he did not wish
to be seen as the representative of a group identity, and partly because he
preferred to exhibit at the Salon. Eva Gonzalès was his only formal student.
He was influenced by the Impressionists, especially Monet and Morisot. Their influence is seen in Manet's use of
lighter colors, but he retained his distinctive use of black, uncharacteristic of Impressionist painting. He painted
many outdoor (plein air) pieces, but always returned to what he considered the serious work of the studio.
Manet enjoyed a close friendship with composer Emmanuel Chabrier, painting two portraits of him; the musician
owned 14 of Manet's paintings and dedicated his Impromptu to Manet's wife.
Throughout his life, although resisted by art critics, Manet could number as his champions Émile Zola, who
supported him publicly in the press, Stéphane Mallarmé, and Charles Baudelaire, who challenged him to depict life
as it was. Manet, in turn, drew or painted each of them.
The Cafe Concert, 1878
Manet's paintings of cafe scenes are observations of social life in 19th-century
Paris. People are depicted drinking beer, listening to music, flirting, reading, or
waiting. Many of these paintings were based on sketches executed on the spot.
He often visited the Brasserie Reichshoffen on boulevard de Rochechourt, upon
which he based At the Cafe in 1878. Several people are at the bar, and one
woman confronts the viewer while others wait to be served. Such depictions
represent the painted journal of a flâneur. These are painted in a style which is
loose, referencing Hals and Velázquez, yet they capture the mood and feeling of
Parisian night life. They are painted snapshots of bohemianism, urban working
people, as well as some of the bourgeoisie.
In Corner of a Cafe Concert, a man smokes while behind him a waitress serves
drinks. In The Beer Drinkers a woman enjoys her beer in the company of a
friend. In The Cafe Concert, shown at right, a sophisticated gentleman sits at a bar while a waitress stands resolutely
in the background, sipping her drink. In The Waitress, a serving woman pauses for a moment behind a seated
customer smoking a pipe, while a ballet dancer, with arms extended as she is about to turn, is on stage in the
Manet also sat at the restaurant on the Avenue de Clichy called Pere Lathuille's, which had a garden as well as the
dining area. One of the paintings he produced here was, Chez le père Lathuille (At Pere Lathuille's), in which a man
displays an unrequited interest in a woman dining near him.
In Le Bon Bock (1873), a large, cheerful, bearded man sits with a pipe in one hand and a glass of beer in the other,
looking straight at the viewer.
Paintings of social activities
The Races at Longchamp, 1864.
Manet painted the upper class enjoying more formal social activities.
In Masked ball at the Opera, Manet shows a lively crowd of people
enjoying a party. Men stand with top hats and long black suits while
talking to women with masks and costumes. He included portraits of
his friends in this picture.
Manet depicted other popular activities in his work. In The Races at
Longchamp, an unusual perspective is employed to underscore the
furious energy of racehorses as they rush toward the viewer. In Skating
Manet shows a well dressed woman in the foreground, while others skate behind her. Always there is the sense of
active urban life continuing behind the subject, extending outside the frame of the canvas.
In View of the International Exhibition, soldiers relax, seated and standing, prosperous couples are talking. There is a
gardener, a boy with a dog, a woman on horsebackin short, a sample of the classes and ages of the people of Paris.
The Execution of Emperor
Maximilian, 1867. Museum of Fine
Arts, Boston. The least finished of
three large canvases devoted to the
The Barricade (Civil War),
Manet's response to modern life included works devoted to war, in subjects that
may be seen as updated interpretations of the genre of "history painting".
first such work was the Battle of the Kearsarge and Alabama (1864), a sea
skirmish from the American Civil War which took place off the French coast,
and may have been witnessed by the artist.
Of interest next was the French intervention in Mexico; from 1867 to 1869
Manet painted three versions of the Execution of Emperor Maximilian, an event
which raised concerns regarding French foreign and domestic policy.
several versions of the Execution are among Manet's largest paintings, which
suggests that the theme was one which the painter regarded as most important. Its
subject is the execution by Mexican firing squad of a Habsburg emperor, who
had been installed by Napoleon III. Neither the paintings nor a lithograph of the
subject were permitted to be shown in France.
As an indictment of formalized
slaughter the paintings look back to Goya,
and anticipate Picasso's Guernica.
In January 1871 Manet traveled to Oloron-Sainte-Marie in the Pyrenees. In his
absence his friends added his name to the "Fédération des artistes" (see:Courbet)
of the Paris Commune. Manet stayed away from Paris, perhaps, until after the
semaine sanglante: in a letter to Berthe Morisot at Cherbourg (10 June 1871) he
writes, "We came back to Paris a few days ago..." (the semaine sanglante ended
on 28 May).
The Prints and Drawings Collection of the Museum of Fine Arts (Budapest) has
a watercolour/gouache (The Barricade) by Manet depicting a summary execution
of Communards by Versailles troops based on a lithograph of the execution of
Maximilian. A similar piece (The Barricade), oil on plywood, is held by a private
On 18 March 1871 he wrote to his (confederate) friend Félix Bracquemond in Paris about his visit to Bordeaux, the
provisory seat of the French National Assembly of the Third French Republic where Emile Zola introduced him to
the sites: "I never imagined that France could be represented by such doddering old fools, not excepting that little
If this could be interpreted as support of the Commune a following letter to Bracquemond (21
March 1871) expressed his idea more clearly: "Only party hacks and the ambitious, the Henrys of this world
following on the heels of the Milliéres, the grotesque imitators of the Commune of 1793..." He knew the communard
Lucien Henry to have been a former painter's model and Millière, an insurance agent. "What an encouragement all
these bloodthirsty caperings are for the arts! But there is at least one consolation in our misfortunes. that we´re not
politicians and have no desire to be elected as deputies". (The letters are published in Julliet Wilson-Bareau, ed.,
Manet by himself UK: Little Brown, 2004.)
Manet depicted many scenes of the streets of Paris in his works. The Rue Mosnier Decked with Flags depicts red,
white, and blue pennants covering buildings on either side of the streetanother painting of the same title features a
one-legged man walking with crutches. Again depicting the same street, but this time in a different context, is Rue
Mosnier with Pavers, in which men repair the roadway while people and horses move past.
The Railway, 1872
The Railway, widely known as The Gare Saint-Lazare, was painted in
1873. The setting is the urban landscape of Paris in the late 19th
century. Using his favorite model in his last painting of her, a fellow
painter, Victorine Meurent, also the model for Olympia and the
Luncheon on the Grass, sits before an iron fence holding a sleeping
puppy and an open book in her lap. Next to her is a little girl with her
back to the painter, who watches a train pass beneath them.
Instead of choosing the traditional natural view as background for an
outdoor scene, Manet opts for the iron grating which "boldly stretches
across the canvas"
The only evidence of the train is its white cloud
of steam. In the distance, modern apartment buildings are seen. This
arrangement compresses the foreground into a narrow focus. The traditional convention of deep space is ignored.
Historian Isabelle Dervaux has described the reception this painting received when it was first exhibited at the
official Paris Salon of 1874: "Visitors and critics found its subject baffling, its composition incoherent, and its
execution sketchy. Caricaturists ridiculed Manet's picture, in which only a few recognized the symbol of modernity
that it has become today".
The painting is currently in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.
Manet painted several boating subjects in 1874. Boating, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, exemplifies in its
conciseness the lessons Manet learned from Japanese prints, and the abrupt cropping by the frame of the boat and
sail adds to the immediacy of the image.
X-rays and pentimenti indicate that the man originally held the rope in
his right hand.
Illustration for the Stéphane Mallarmé
translation of Edgar Allan Poe's "The
Raven", 1875. Digitally restored.
He completed painting his last major work, A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (Le
Bar aux Folies-Bergère), in 1882 and it hung in the Salon that year.
In 1875, a book-length French edition of Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven"
included lithographs by Manet and translation by Mallarmé.
In 1881, with pressure from his friend Antonin Proust, the French government
awarded Manet the Légion d'honneur.
A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (Le Bar aux
After the death of his father in 1862, Manet married Suzanne Leenhoff
in 1863. Leenhoff was a Dutch-born piano teacher of Manet's age with
whom he had been romantically involved for approximately ten years.
Leenhoff initially had been employed by Manet's father, Auguste, to
teach Manet and his younger brother piano. She also may have been
Auguste's mistress. In 1852, Leenhoff gave birth, out of wedlock, to a
son, Leon Koella Leenhoff.
Eleven-year-old Leon Leenhoff, whose father may have been either of
the Manets, posed often for Manet. Most famously, he is the subject of
the Boy Carrying a Sword of 1861 (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York). He also appears as the boy carrying a
tray in the background of The Balcony.
Manet painted his wife in The Reading, among other paintings.
Museum of Art,
The Old Musician, National
Gallery of Art, 1862
Mlle. Victorine in
the Costume of a
Museum of Art,
Battle of the Kearsarge
and the Alabama,
of Art, 1864
Dead Matador, National Gallery
of Art, 18641865
Still Life with Melon
and Peaches, National
Gallery of Art, 1866
of Art, 1866
Museum of Art,
Execution of Emperor
Maximilian of Mexico, 1868
Portrait of Emile
Zola, Musée d'Orsay,
Breakfast in the Studio (the Black
Jacket), New Pinakothek,
Munich, Germany, 1868
Boating, Metropolitan Museum
of Art, 1874
Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé,
Musée d'Orsay, 1876
Nana, 1877 Plum, National
Gallery of Art,
In the Conservatory, National
Gallery, Berlin, Germany, 1879
´´Chez le père Lathuille, 1879,
Musée des Beaux-Arts
Bunch of Asparagus, 1880,
The Bugler, 1882,
Dallas Museum of Art
House in Rueil,
National Gallery of
Garden Path in Rueil,
Beaux-Arts de Dijon,
Flowers in a Crystal Vase,
National Gallery of Art, 1882
Still Life, Lilac Bouquet, 1883 Carnations and Clematis
in a Crystal Vase, Musée
Still Life, Lilacs and Roses, 1883
The grave of Manet at Passy
Manet died of untreated syphilis and rheumatism, which he contracted
in his forties. The disease caused him considerable pain and partial
paralysis from locomotor ataxia in the years prior to his death.
His left foot was amputated because of gangrene, an operation
followed eleven days later by his death. He died at the age of fifty-one
in Paris in 1883, and was buried in the Cimetière de Passy in the city.
 Ross King. The Judgment of Paris. The Revolutionary Decade that Gave the World
Impressionism. New York: Waller & Company, 2006. ISBN 0802714668.
 Édouard Manet, Metropolitan Museum of Art (http:/ /www.metmuseum. org/toah/
 Ross King, The Judgement of Paris, p.20-21, from Fernand Desnoyers, Le Salon des
 Paul Hayes Tucker, Manet´s Le Déjeuner sur l´herbe, Cambridge University Press,
1998, pp.1214. ISBN 0-521-47466-3.
 John Rewald, The History of Impressionism, The Museum of Modern Art, 4th
revised edition 1973, (1st 1946, 2nd 1955, 3rd 1961), p.85. ISBN 0-87070-369-2.
 Neret, Gilles. Manet. Taschen, 2003. p. 22. ISBN 3822819492
 Hunter, Dianne. Seduction and theory. readings of gender, representation, and rhetoric. University of Illinois Press, 1989. p. 19. ISBN
 Delage, R. Emmanuel Chabrier. Paris: Fayard, 1999. Chapter XI examines in detail their relationship and the effects of each other on their
 Krell, Alan, Manet and the Painters of Contemporary Life, page 83. Thames and Hudson, 1996.
 Krell, pages 846.
 Krell, pages 8791.
 Krell, page 91.
 Krell, page 89.
 Julliet Wilson-Bareau, ed., Manet by himself, UK: Little Brown, 2004
 Gay, p. 106.
 Adams, Katherine H.; Michael L. Keene. After the Vote Was Won. The Later Achievements of Fifteen Suffragists. McFarland, 2010. p. 37.
 National Gallery of Art (http:// www.nga.gov/ cgi-bin/pinfo?Object=43340+0+none).
 Herbert, Robert L. Impressionism. Art, Leisure, and Parisian Society. Yale University Press, 1991. p. 236. ISBN 0300050836.
 Staroilpainting.com (http:/ /www. staroilpainting. com/p_1570. htm)
 The Digital Collection of the New York Public Library (http:// digitalgallery. nypl.org/nypldigital/dgkeysearchresult.
 Mauner, G. L., & Loyrette, H. Manet. the still-life paintings. New York: H.N. Abrams in association with the American Federation of Arts,
2000. p. 66. ISBN 0810943913.
· Edouard Manet. Rebel in a Frock Coat by Beth Archer Brombert (1996), ISBN 0316109479 and ISBN
0226075443 (1997 paperback)
· Manet by Françoise Cachin (1990 in French; English translation 1991), ISBN 0805017933
· The Drawings of Edouard Manet by Alain de Leiris (1969), ISBN 0520015479
· The Painting of Modern Life. Paris in the Art of Manet and His Followers by TJ Clark (1985), ISBN 0500281793
(2000 paperback edition)
· Manet. Painter of Modern Life by Françoise Cachin (1995), ISBN 050030050X
Short introductory works:
· Manet by Gilles Neret (2003; Taschen), ISBN 3822819492
· Manet by John Richardson (1992; Phaidon Colour Library), ISBN 071482755X
· Ross King. The Judgment of Paris. The Revolutionary Decade that Gave the World Impressionism. New York:
Waller & Company, 2006 ISBN 0802714668.
· Paintings by Edouard Manet (http:// www. ricci-art.com/ en/ Edouard-Manet.htm)
· Hecht Museum (http:/ /mushecht. haifa. ac.il/hecht/ art/Artist-Collection-eng. aspx?id=10)
· 241 works by Edouard Manet at www.ManetEdouard.org (http:/ /www. manetedouard.org)
· The Impressionsts. Manet at biography.com (http:// www.biography. com/ impressionists/artists_manet. html)
· Édouard Manet at Olga's Gallery (http:/ / www. abcgallery.com/M/ manet/manet.html)
· Works by Édouard Manet (http:/ /www. gutenberg.org/author/ Édouard_Manet) at Project Gutenberg
· Édouard Manet at Hill-Stead Museum, Farmington, Connecticut (http:// www.hillstead. org/collection/
· The Walters (http:/ / www.thewalters. org/ works_of_art/ itemdetails.aspx?aid=25/ )
· Manet Gallery at MuseumSyndicate (http:/ / www.museumsyndicate.com/ artist.php?artist=222)
· Manet works at the [[Minneapolis Institute of Arts (http:// artsmia. org/search/ index. cfm?term=manet&
· Édouard Manet at allpaintings.org (http:/ / www. allpaintings.org/ v/ Impressionism/ Edouard+ Manet/ )
· Édouard Manet paintings, media & interactive timeline (http:/ / www. mootnotes.com/ art/manet/)
· Union List of Artist Names, Getty Vocabularies. (http:/ /www. getty.edu/ vow/ ULANFullDisplay?find=manet&
role=& nation=& prev_page=1& subjectid=500010363) ULAN Full Record Display for Edouard Manet. Getty
Vocabulary Program, Getty Research Institute. Los Angeles, California.
· Edouard Manet Images at Artst (http:/ / www.artst. org/impressionism/ manet/)
· Composition (http:// www.francois-murez.com/ compomanet en.htm) The standing man! at Edouard Manet
Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Édouard Manet-crop.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Édouard_Manet-crop.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: ALE!, PRA, Scewing
File:Loudspeaker.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Loudspeaker.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bayo, Gmaxwell, Husky, Iamunknown, Mirithing,
Myself488, Nethac DIU, Omegatron, Rocket000, The Evil IP address, Wouterhagens, 18 anonymous edits
File:MANET - Música en las Tullerías (National Gallery, Londres, 1862).jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MANET_-_Música_en_las_Tullerías_(National_Gallery,_Londres,_1862).jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0
File:Manet, Edouard - Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe (The Picnic) (1).jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Manet,_Edouard_-_Le_Déjeuner_sur_l'Herbe_(The_Picnic)_(1).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Ardfern, Diligent,
EDUCA33E, Infrogmation, Javierme, LBE, Makthorpe, Mattes, Petrusbarbygere, Rlbberlin, Sparkit, Teox, Zolo, Zserghei, 1 anonymous edits
File:Manet, Edouard - Olympia, 1863.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Manet,_Edouard_-_Olympia,_1863.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ardfern,
Conscious, GeorgHH, Goldfritha, Makthorpe, Origamiemensch, Petrusbarbygere, Rlbberlin, TFCforever, 7 anonymous edits
File:Edouard Manet 040.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_040.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ardfern, Docu, EDUCA33E, Ecummenic,
Emijrp, Gilbertus, Rlbberlin, Wst, 1 anonymous edits
File:Manet Self-Portrait with Palette v3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Manet_Self-Portrait_with_Palette_v3.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Frank C.
Müller, Interpretix, Petropoxy (Lithoderm Proxy), Shakko
File:Edouard Manet 030.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_030.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ardfern, Bukk, EDUCA33E, Emijrp,
Infrogmation, Mattes, Rlbberlin, Shakko, Wst
File:Edouard Manet 053.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_053.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ardfern, Bukk, EDUCA33E, Emijrp,
Jean-Louis Lascoux, Millevache, Rlbberlin
File:Manet, Edouard - The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 1867.jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Manet,_Edouard_-_The_Execution_of_Emperor_Maximilian,_1867.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Ardfern,
Bohème, Emijrp, Makthorpe, Petrusbarbygere, Rlbberlin, Shakko, Warburg
File:TheBaricade.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:TheBaricade.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ardfern, FleetCommand, Homonihilis, Mogelzahn,
Shakko, TFCforever, Tm
File:Edouard Manet 021.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_021.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Ardfern, Bukk,
EDUCA33E, Goldfritha, Gryffindor, Ham, Krscal, Razr, Urban, Wknight94, Wst, 1 anonymous edits
File:Raven Manet D2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Raven_Manet_D2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: DIREKTOR, Durova, Julia W, Kozuch,
File:Edouard Manet 004.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_004.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ardfern, Bibi Saint-Pol, Bukk, Diligent,
EDUCA33E, Ham, Infrogmation, Kilom691, Makthorpe, Mattes, Oxxo, Rlbberlin, Simonxag, Thib Phil, Wst, 3 anonymous edits
Image:Edouard Manet 061.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_061.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ad Meskens, AndreasPraefcke, Aotake,
Ardfern, Dcoetzee, EDUCA33E, Emijrp, Infrogmation, Jastrow, Jkelly, Red Rooster, Rlbberlin, Shakko, Urban, Wst, 1 anonymous edits
Image:The Old Musician.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_Old_Musician.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors:
Image:Edouard Manet - Mlle Victorine Meurent in the Costume of an Espada.JPG Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_-_Mlle_Victorine_Meurent_in_the_Costume_of_an_Espada.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Ad Meskens, Ardfern,
CommonsDelinker, Dcoetzee, Jibi44, Razr, Rlbberlin
Image:Édouard Manet-Kearsarge-Alabama2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Édouard_Manet-Kearsarge-Alabama2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors:
Ardfern, Badseed, Jaqen, 2 anonymous edits
Image:Edouard Manet 073.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_073.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Ardfern, Asdf, Bukk,
EDUCA33E, Gryffindor, Ham, Jibi44, Mattes, Pomeranian, Urban, Wst, 2 anonymous edits
Image:The Philosopher.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_Philosopher.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: user:Rlbberlin
Image:Manet, Edouard - Young Flautist, or The Fifer, 1866 (2).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Manet,_Edouard_-_Young_Flautist,_or_The_Fifer,_1866_(2).jpg
License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Ardfern, Gilbertus, Juiced lemon, Makthorpe, Petrusbarbygere, Rlbberlin, Thib Phil, 1 anonymous edits
Image:Still Life with Melon and Peaches.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Still_Life_with_Melon_and_Peaches.JPG License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:AgnosticPreachersKid
Image:The Tragic Actor (Rouvière as Hamlet).JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_Tragic_Actor_(Rouvière_as_Hamlet).JPG License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: User:AgnosticPreachersKid
Image:Édouard Manet - Young Lady in 1866 - Google Art Project.jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Édouard_Manet_-_Young_Lady_in_1866_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: CommonsDelinker, Dcoetzee, Pitke,
Image:Edouard Manet 022.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_022.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: -Strogoff-, Ardfern, Bukk, EDUCA33E,
Emijrp, EvaK, Frank-m, Gryffindor, Gérald Garitan, Manuelt15, Paintman, Pixeltoo, Ruiz, Shakko, Sparkit, Warburg, Wmpearl, 1 anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Edouard Manet 049.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_049.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ardfern, EDUCA33E, Emijrp, Wst
Image:Edouard Manet 025.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_025.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Anna reg, Ardfern,
EDUCA33E, Emijrp, Infrogmation, Joseolgon, Razr, Skipjack, Trockennasenaffe, 1 anonymous edits
Image:Edouard Manet 016.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_016.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ardfern, Docu, EDUCA33E, Gilbertus,
Mu, Oxxo, Rlbberlin, Ronaldino, Shakko, Zolo
Image:Edouard Manet Boating.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_Boating.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: user:Rlbberlin
Image:Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé (Manet).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Portrait_of_Stéphane_Mallarmé_(Manet).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors:
AndreasPraefcke, Ardfern, Kevyn, Makthorpe, Petrusbarbygere, 1 anonymous edits
Image:Edouard Manet 037.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_037.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Ardfern,
EDUCA33E, Emijrp, Kilom691, Mattes, Shakko, Thib Phil, Wst, 3 anonymous edits
Image:Edouard Manet 039.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_039.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ardfern, Bukk, EDUCA33E,
Gryffindor, Ham, Razr, Urban, Wst
Image:In the Conservatory.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:In_the_Conservatory.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: A7N8X, AndreasPraefcke, Ardfern,
Bohwaz, Claus, Dcoetzee, Jean-Frédéric, Léna, Makthorpe, Paris 16, Rlbberlin, Shizhao, Zolo, 1 anonymous edits
File:Edouard Manet 031.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_031.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ardfern, Bibi Saint-Pol, BlackIceNRW,
EDUCA33E, Ies, Infrogmation, Olivier2, Paris 16, Razr, Rlbberlin, The Evil IP address, Thib Phil, 1 anonymous edits
File:Edouard Manet Bunch of Asparagus.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_Bunch_of_Asparagus.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors:
File:The Bugler - Edouard Manet (1882).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_Bugler_-_Edouard_Manet_(1882).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors:
Adrienlenoir, AndreasPraefcke, FA2010
Image:Edouard Manet 027.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_027.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ardfern, Dcoetzee, EDUCA33E,
Image:Manet - Gartenweg in Rueil.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Manet_-_Gartenweg_in_Rueil.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: user:Rlbberlin
Image:Flowers in a Crystal Vase, Edouard Manet, c1882.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flowers_in_a_Crystal_Vase,_Edouard_Manet,_c1882.jpg License: Public
Domain Contributors: Bukk, Scewing
File:Edouard Manet 065.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_065.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Ardfern, EDUCA33E,
Emijrp, Goldfritha, Rlbberlin
Image:Edouard Manet 011.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_011.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Ardfern, Bohème,
EDUCA33E, Gilbertus, Rlbberlin, Wst
File:Edouard Manet 064.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Edouard_Manet_064.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Ardfern, EDUCA33E,
Emijrp, Goldfritha, Xenophon
File:Manet-grave.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Manet-grave.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Martin Ottmann
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
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