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ELCT 551: Power System Analysis & Design

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Outlines

Definition of Symmetrical Components Sequence Network: Load Impedance and Transmission Line Impedance Sequence Network: Rotating Machines and Transformers Power in Sequence Networks

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1. Symmetrical Components

• Due to C. L. Fortescue (1918): a set of n unbalanced phasors in an n-phase system can be resolved into n sets of balanced phasors by a linear transformation

– The n sets are called symmetrical components

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Symmetrical Components

One of the n sets is a single-phase set and the others are n-phase balanced sets Here n = 3 which gives the following case:

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Definition of symmetrical components • Three-phase voltages Va. Vb. and Vc (not necessarily balanced) can be resolved into three sets of sequence components: 5 .

Vb2. Vb1.Definition of symmetrical components Assume normal system phase sequence is abc Zero sequence: Va0=Vb0=Vc0 Positive sequence Va1. Vc2 balanced with phase sequence cba 6 . Vc1 balanced with phase sequence abc Negative sequence Va2.

Zero Sequence c a Positive Sequence b a c b Negative Sequence Vb Vc Va 7 .

Va 1 1 1 V0 Vb = Vc 1 1 a2 a a a2 V1 V2 where a = 1/120º = (-1 + j 3)/2 a2 = 1/240º = 1/-120º a3 = 1/360º = 1/0º 8 .

A= 1 1 1 1 a2 a 1 a a2 V0 V1 V2 Vp = Va Vb Vc Vp = A Vs Vs = Vs = A-1 Vp 9 .

Vp = A Vs Vs = A-1 Vp 1 1 1 1 a a2 1 a2 a A-1 = (1/3) 10 .

Va = V0 + V1 + V2 Vb = V0 + a2V1 + aV2 Vc = V0 + aV1 + a2V2 V0 = (Va + Vb + Vc)/3 V1 = (Va + aVb + a2Vc)/3 V2 = (Va + a2Vb + aVc)/3 11 .

12 . • The other phases follow since the sequences are balanced.V0 = (Va + Vb + Vc)/3 V1 = (Va + aVb + a2Vc)/3 V2 = (Va + a2Vb + aVc)/3 • These are the phase a symmetrical (or sequence) components.

but the result applies equally well to current or any other phasor quantity Vp = A Vs Ip = A Is Vs = A-1 Vp Is = A-1 Ip 13 .• We used voltages for example.

2. Sequence networks: Load Impedance and Transmission Line Impedance • A balanced Y-connected load has three impedances Zy connected line to neutral and one impedance Zn connected neutral to ground Zy a Zy b Zy c Zn g 14 .

Sequence networks Vag Zy+Zn Zn Zn Ia Vbg = Vcg Zn Zn Zy+Zn Zn Zn Zy+Zn Ib Ic or in more compact notation Vp = Zp Ip 15 .

a b c g Zy Zy Vp = Zp Ip n Zy Zn Vp = AVs = Zp Ip = ZpAIs Vs = (A-1ZpA) Is Vs = Zs Is where Zs = A-1ZpA 16 .

Zy+3Zn Zs = 0 Zy 0 0 0 Zy 0 0 V0 = (Zy + 3Zn) I0 = Z0 I0 V1 = Zy I1 = Z1 I1 V2 = Zy I2 = Z2 I2 17 .

a V0 g I0 Zy 3 Zn n a V1 n I1 Zy a V2 n I2 Zy Zerosequence network Positivesequence network Negativesequence network Sequence networks for Y-connected load impedances 18 .

Note that these are equivalent Y circuits.a V0 g I0 ZD/3 n a V1 n I1 ZD/3 a V2 n I2 ZD/3 Zerosequence network Positivesequence network Negativesequence network Sequence networks for D-connected load impedances. 19 .

• Remarks: – Positive-sequence impedance is equal to negative-sequence impedance for any symmetrical impedance load (not a rotating machine) – Rotating machines can have different positive and negative sequence impedances 20 .

• Remarks: – Zero-sequence impedance is usually different than the other two sequence impedances – Zero-sequence current can circulate in a delta but the line current (at the terminals of the delta) is zero in that sequence 21 .

• General case unsymmetrical impedances (Unbalanced Load Impedance) Zaa Zab Zca Zp = Zab Zca Zbb Zbc Zbc Zcc Zs=A-1ZpA = Z0 Z10 Z20 Z01 Z1 Z21 Z02 Z12 Z2 22 .

Z0 = (Zaa+Zbb+Zcc+2Zab+2Zbc+2Zca)/3 Z1 = Z2 = (Zaa+Zbb +Zcc–Zab–Zbc–Zca)/3 Z01 = Z20 = (Zaa+a2Zbb+aZcc–aZab–Zbc–a2Zca)/3 Z02 = Z10 = (Zaa+aZbb+a2Zcc–a2Zab–Zbc–aZca)/3 Z12 = (Zaa+a2Zbb+aZcc+2aZab+2Zbc+2a2Zca)/3 Z21 = (Zaa+aZbb+a2Zcc+2a2Zab+2Zbc+2aZca)/3 23 .

• Special case symmetrical impedances (Transmission Line and Balanced Load) Zp = Zaa Zab Zab Zab Zaa Zab Zab Zab Zaa Zs = Z0 0 0 0 Z1 0 0 0 Z2 24 .

Z0 = Zaa + 2Zab Z1 = Z2 = Zaa – Zab Z01=Z20=Z02=Z10=Z12=Z21= 0 Vp = Zp Ip Vs = Zs Is • This applies to impedance loads and to series impedances (the voltage is the drop across the series impedances) 25 .

Generator Z 2 V o Io + Zero seq.3. Z 1 - Zn I2 V 2 + Negative seq. Sequence Network: Rotating Machines and Transformers E + I1 V 1 + Positive seq. 26 Z +3 Z o n .

V1 + I1 + Z V2 + Z G Vo + Io N Z I2 - Ungrounded Y load (Motor) 0 27 .

G Vo + Io N Z G Vo + Io 3 Zn (a) GROUNDED WYE LOAD (b) DELTA LOAD Z 28 .

Y-Y transformer A B C N H1 X1 a b c n Zeq+3(ZN+Zn) A a Va0 VA0 I0 g Zero-sequence network (per unit) ZN Zn 29 .

Y-Y transformer A B C N H1 X1 a b c n A Zeq a Va1 VA1 I1 n ZN Zn Positive-sequence network (per unit) Negative sequence is same network 30 .

D-Y transformer A B C H1 X1 a b c n A VA0 Zeq+3Zn I0 g Va0 a Zn Zero-sequence network (per unit) 31 .

D-Y transformer A B C H1 X1 a b c A VA1 I1 Zeq Va1 n a Zn Positive-sequence n network (per unit) Delta side leads wye side by 30 degrees 32 .

D-Y transformer A B C H1 X1 a b c n A VA2 I2 Zeq Va2 a Zn n Negative-sequence network (per unit) Delta side lags wye side by 30 degrees 33 .

Three-winding (three-phase) transformers 0 h Zh 0 Zx Zt x Zt Zh Zx t POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SEQUENCE ZERO SEQUENCE 34 .

Three-winding transformer data: Windings Z Base MVA H-X 5.39% 150 H-T 6.07% 35 .6 Convert all Z's to the system base of 100 MVA: Zhx = 5.6 X-T 4.38% Zxt = 4.44% (100/56.00% (100/56.39% (100/150) = 3.6) = 7.44% 56.00% 56.6) = 11.59% Zht = 6.

Zht)/2 = -0.359% Zt = (Zht + Zxt .95% Zx = (Zhx + Zxt .Zxt)/2 = 3.43% 36 .Zhx)/2 = 7.Calculate the equivalent circuit parameters: Solving: Zhx = Zh + Zx Zht = Zh + Zt Zxt = Zx +Zt Gives: Zh = (Zhx + Zht .

Typical relative sizes of sequence impedance values • Balanced three-phase lines: Z0 > Z 1 = Z 2 • Balanced three-phase transformers (usually): Z1 = Z2 = Z0 • Rotating machines: Z1 Z2 > Z0 37 .

Unbalanced Short Circuits • Procedure: – Set up all three sequence networks – Interconnect networks at point of the fault to simulate a short circuit – Calculate the sequence I and V – Transform to ABC currents and voltages 38 .

4. Power in sequence networks Sp = Vag Ia* + Vbg Ib* + Vcg Ic* Sp = [Vag Vbg Vcg] [Ia* Ib* Ic*]T Sp = VpT Ip* = (AVs)T (AIs)* = VsT ATA* Is* 39 .

Power in sequence networks Sp = VpT Ip* = VsT ATA* Is* 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 0 0 ATA* = 1 a2 a 1 a a2 1 a a2 = 0 3 0 1 a2 a 0 0 3 Sp = 3 VsT Is* 40 .

the sum of the power calculated in the three sequence networks must be multiplied by 3 to obtain the total power.Sp = 3 (V0 I0* + V1 I1* +V2 I2*) = 3 Ss In words. Some authors divide A by 3 to produce a powerinvariant transformation. This is an artifact of the constants in the transformation. Most of the industry uses the form that we do. 41 .

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