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Part I: Global I

Renaissance y A French word: Rebirth y Art and education Magna Carta y Created Parliament

Part II: Global II Topics (Oh joy!)


Absolutism Leaders
y y Controls all aspects of society; unlimited power Monarch: king or queen - Lineage - Divine Rights: appointed by God, only listens to God Philip II of Spain y Isabella and Ferdinands grandson y Defender of Catholicism y War against Muslims y Sent the Spanish Armada (Spains Navy) by the English - Downfall of Spain y This opened the door for other European countries to go to the New World y Under his rule - Spain went through a Golden Age - Art flourished y Problems - Inflation - Taxes; no middle class; poor feel tax burden - Spain went into debt with Prussia and Italy y Problems with the Spanish Netherlands - Dutch began to revolt - Philip killed Protestants - William of Orange defeated the Dutch Henry IV Bourbon of France y Became Catholic to keep his country happy y Edict of Nantes: Henry IV lets Huguenots (Protestants) worship in France Louis XIII Bourbon of France (Henry IVs Son) y Weak king y Cardinal Richelieu - Takes away the Huguenots rights - Weakened the nobles power - Goes to war with the Hapsburgs of Austria Louis XIV Bourbon of France y Most powerful ruler in French history y Known as the Sun King y Wars - War of Spanish Succession o Louis grandson, Philip of Anjou (Bourbon), takes over Spain o Many countries fight the Bourbons o Treaty of Utrecht/Peace of Augsburg Charles VI Hapsburg of Austria

No male heir, gave country to his daughter (with permission, of course: we wouldnt want other countries to be surprised when she uses perfume as a weapon! Silly women!) Maria Theresa Hapsburg of Austria y Mother of Marie Antoinette- wife of Louis XVI y Went to war with Prussia (Frederick the Great ((Hohenzollern)) hated her) Frederick William Hohenzollern of Prussia (the one who hated Maria Theresa) y Junkers did not like Frederick, so he made them army officers to please them Frederick the Great Hohenzollern of Prussia (Frederick II) y Loved music, poetry, and art: WEAK Ivan III of Moscow y Liberated Russia from the Mongols y Foundation for Absolute Monarchy in East Europe Vasily of Moscow (Ivan IIIs son) y Continued dads work Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) y Boyars (Russian landowning nobles) bullied him y Used czar y Won battles, added lands, made a code of laws y Wife died; Ivan IV accused Boyars of killing her - Organized a police force to kill anyone he thought was against him y Killed his firstborn son, so second son took over - Physically incapable of running a country Michael Romanov of Russia (same as Moscow I guess?) y Nephew of Ivan IVs wife; began the Romanov Dynasty of Russia Peter the Great (Romanov) of Russia y Westernized Russia y Great Embassy - Went to Western Europe with a disguise and learned western culture James Stuart of England y Offended Puritans (somehow) Charles I Stuart of England y Petition of Rights - He would not 1. Imprison subjects without cause 2. Add taxes without Parliaments consent 3. House soldiers in private homes 4. Impose Martial Law in times of peace And as a result comes the English Civil War (in the Wars section) Oliver Cromwell of England (NOT a Stuart) y Abolished Parliament y Tore up 1st written constitution of any modern European state (wow, way to be that guy) Charles II Stuart of England y Rule was called the Restoration y Brought back the monarchy and the things banned by Puritans y Habeas Corpus: law that gave every prisoner the right to a judge James II Stuart of England y Catholic y Tories supported him; Whigs opposed him y Oldest daughter was a Protestant and was wife of William of Orange y William and Mary overthrow James in the Glorious Revolution (In the Wars section) y

Wars

30 Years War y Catholic and Lutheran Princes of Germany gained followers y Both are threatened by Calvinism y Lutherans form the Protestant Union y Ferdinand II Hapsburg (Catholic) closed Protestant churches and the Protestant princes revolted y For 12 years, the Hapsburgs were winning y Protestant leader Gustavus Adolphus drove Catholics out of Northern Germany y Peace of Westphalia- hard to unify Germany 1. Weakened the Hapsburg States in Spain and Austria 2. Made France stronger by giving them German territory 3. German Princes became independent 4. Ended religious wars in Europe 5. Introduced a new method of peaceful negotiations (made by Cardinal Mazarin) War of Austrian Succession y Frederick William Hohenzollern of Prussia wanted a city (Silesia) in Austria - He did not think Maria Theresa would fight back y England, France, and Hungary vs. Frederick II 7 Years War y Maria Theresa (Hapsburg) made an alliance with France y Frederick Hohenzollern made an alliance with Britain y Austria, France, Russia vs. Prussia and Britain y War in North America y Britain won - France lost colonies in North America - Britain gained economic domination in India English Civil War y Charles I Stuart of England forced Presbyterian Scots to accept a version of the Anglican Prayer Book (what an idiot) y Scottish rebelled (what a surprise) and threatened to attack England y Charles needed money to fight Scotland but Parliament said YEAH RIGHT LIKE WE TRUST YOU WITH MONEY, YOU BROUGHT THIS ON YOURSELF (Editors note: This may or may not be exactly what the Parliament said.) y Split in England: - Royalists- supporters of Charles I (Cavaliers) - Roundheads- opposed Charles I (Puritans) y Oliver Cromwell - Puritan general - Defeated Cavaliers, took Charles as prisoner - Sentenced Charles to death for treason - Strict Puritan - Became a MILITANT DICTATOR (wow, way to be a total hypocrite) Glorious Revolution in England y William and Mary overthrow James II of England (it was totally bloodless. He ran away. BOOOOORING.) y William and Mary run England under a constitutional monarchy y Make a bill of rights y Creation of a Cabinet - Became link between king and Parliament - Called Prime Minister today

Scientific Revolution
y New view of human beings that emerged during the 17th and 18th Century.

Before Scientific Revolution, everything was THE CHURCH. Causes of the Scientific Revolution 1. The Renaissance stimulated science by rediscovering ancient mathematics 2. Navigational inventions in the age of exploration 3. Scientific method- Bacon and Descartes People y Nicolaus Copernicus 1. Heliocentric view- Earth revolved around the sun 2. Religious reaction- Lutherans and Calvinists condemned his ideas, but the Catholics thought it would go away y Johann Kepler 1. First great Protestant scientist 2. Mathematically proved heliocentric theory (which is against his religion) y Galileo Galilei 1. Laws of motion (acceleration, inertia) 2. First to use telescope as a scientific instrument- heliocentric theory 3. Faced inquisition by Pope Urban VIII, forced to recant his findings y Francis Bacon 1. Empirism- large amounts of data 2. Inductive method- question things to find the truth 3. One of the scientists who made the scientific method y Rene Descartes 1. Discourse on method- deductive method I think, therefore I am. 2. Cartesian Dualism- divided all existence into material and spiritual (Material: experimental method; spiritual: deductive reasoning) 3. Mixed math and science y Sir Isaac Newton 1. Gravity and motion 2. Discourage medieval ideas 3. Ideas become basis of reason during Enlightenment (Age of Reason) The Impact of the Scientific Revolution 1. Leads to Enlightenment 2. Enlightenment leads to Revolution 3. Experimentation leads to Agricultural Revolution 4. Improvements in exploration lead to Industrial Revolution

Enlightenment
Enlightenment Thinkers y John Locke - Consent of the governed. y Voltaire - Free speech, religious toleration. y Baron de Montesquieu - Separation of powers. - Impacted future constitutions y Rousseau - Direct democracy. - Founder of Romantic movement y Beccaria - Accused have rights, no torture - Bill of Rights acknowledges his ideas y Hobbes

- Believed in absolute rule - TOTALLY DIFFERENT Enlightened Despots

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Catherine the Great (Catherine II of Russia) - Reformed Russia under Enlightenment ideas Frederick the Great of Prussia - Religious freedoms, etc. Joseph II of Austria - Legal reforms and freedom of press

The French Revolution y Liberty, equality, fraternity y Encouraged by Enlightenment ideas y Science New thinking Revolution
Ingredients y Glorious Revolution removes absolute power and Catholic rulers y Enlightenment ideas y American Revolution and Constitutions y The estates in France 1- Clergy- no taxes 2- Nobles- little/no taxes 3- Everyone else (98%) y Monarchy (Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette) put France into debt - The second estate forces Louis to call meeting of Estates-General Revolution Begins y The 3rd Estate declares themselves the National Assembly (Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes) y Tennis Court Oath: National Assembly breaks into tennis court and refuses to leave until a constitution is created y Citizens storm the Bastille prison in search of weapons The Great Fear y Rumors go around that nobles are hiring outlaws to attack peasants. y Citizens steal food and destroy legal papers, burn houses and kill nobles. y Women riot outside Versailles over cost of bread y National Assembly abolishes Estate system Revolution y National Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen - Modeled off of the Declaration of Independence and Enlightenment y National Assembly controls Catholic Church y Louis and Marie Antoinette are arrested y National Assembly makes a new constitution and renames themselves the Legislative Assembly - Makes France a limited constitutional monarchy and strips king of most power - But all the old problems are still there Split France y Radicals- wanted change: no monarchy redo government (led by Maximilien Robespierre) y Moderates- wanted constitutional monarchy and Legislative Assembly y Conservatives- wanted limited monarchy with few changes y migrs- the rich who fled France y Sans-culottes had no power (lower class) War and Execution y Austria and Prussia pressure France to go back to monarchy, and they go to war with France

Parisians take royals as hostages Radicals force Legislative Assembly to set aside constitutions and make a new government, the National Convention y Declares France a republic y Louis XVI gets killed y War with Prussia continues; National Convention drafts men and women. Reign of Terror- Maximilien Robespierre y Many groups are fighting for power - Peasants and the RCC (Roman Catholic Church) - Clergy - Rival leaders in different regions of France y Maximilien Robespierre vows to build a Republic of virtue with an erased past - Changed calendars so it would have no Sundays (HAHAHAHAHA) - Closed churches y Reign of Terror- Robespierre is the leader of Committee of Public Safety (Oh Christ not another name for the government) and is basically a dictator - Goal: protect revolution from its enemies o Bogus arrests, trails, executions; torture and death - Enemies of Revolution are people who opposed Robespierre End of Terror y National Convention executes Robespierre for being a monarch (AKA a hypocrite) y The French are tired of terror and inflation y National Convention creates a THIRD GOVERNMENT (D:<) called the Directory with a 2-house legislature and 5 men in an executive branch - Based on Montesquieu - Give the army to Napoleon Bonaparte
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Napoleon Rise
Born into a poor family in Corsica, knows the plight of the poor Promoted to General after driving out the British Overthrows Directory of France in a coup dtat (military overthrow) France and Europe y Europe was afraid of the Revolution spreading, so they went to war with France y Coalition 1: Austria, Prussia, Britain, Spain, Holland Napoleon y Emphasizes artillery; levee en masse (the draft) y Restored order, the economy, and used Enlightenment ideas y Lyces- government-run schools y Napoleon signed a concordat with the pope which made a new relationship between Church and State. y Napoleonic Code- a uniform set of laws; limited freedom and restored slavery in the Caribbean y Napoleon names himself emperor Napoleonic Wars y Napoleon defeats the 1st Coalition y 2nd Coalition: Russia, Austria, Britain, Ottoman Empire - Napoleon removed the monarchs and replaced them with Frenchmen (puppet governments) he eventually controlled Spain, Holland, etc. Napoleon and the French Revolution y Napoleon makes unwanted reforms throughout Europe Battle of Trafalgar y Napoleon lost this battle to British commander, Horatio Nelson, who split the French army up and defeated them. 1. Ensured the supremacy of the British navy for the next 100 years
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2. Forced Napoleon to give up fighting Britain

Fall
y y y Napoleon defeats a 3rd Coalition and declares Continental System (blockade) which boycotts British goods, but ends up hurting France instead Napoleon sent an invasion force through Spain to get them to accept the Continental System. - Set his brother on the throne for Spain Spanish fought with guerrillas (peasant fighters) - Peninsular War- Napoleon lost Invasion of Russia y Napoleons most disastrous mistake y Russia didnt follow the Continental System y Napoleon made the Russians retreat, but y The Russians burned all French fields, called the scorched-earth policy. y Russia devastated Napoleons large army to only 10,000 people. Napoleons Downfall y Britain, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Austria all went to war with France. y Napoleon raised an ill-prepared army. y Napoleon gave up his throne The Hundred Days y Louis XVIII took the throne but had problems. y Napoleon escaped his banishment in Elba and became emperor of France again. y Napoleon attacked Belgian city Waterloo y British and Prussian armies defeated Napoleon again and shipped him to St. Helena.

Congress of Vienna y A meeting of European leaders to reestablish the monarchs y Led by Metternich - Did not like democracy - Concert of Europe- assured that if any revolutions broke out, nations would help each other. y Three Goals: 1) To prevent future French aggression by surrounding it with strong countries 2) Restore a balance of power so that no country would be a threat to others 3) Legitimacy: Restore Europes royal families

Industrial Revolution
Why Did It Begin in England? 1. Geography- water ports, rivers, resources 2. Agriculture- Agrarian Revolution improved farming 3. Factors of Production- land, labor, capital 4. Transportation- trains 5. Colonial Empire/Mercantilism y Handmade machine-made Causes 1. Agrarian Revolution- more food 2. Population increase- more demand 3. Energy to power machines How Does Life Change? y Middle class becomes more complex y Breakdown of the family unit Why Did People Move to Cities? y Job opportunities y Trains y Increased wages

Problems y Overcrowded tenements y Unsafe working conditions y Competition y Sanitation Inventions y Jethro Tull- Seed Drill y Required fewer workers to produce greater goods y Factories produced goods under one roof Transportation y Trains y Canals y Turnpikes (roads) y Steam-powered ships Rise of Big Business y Stock y Corporations- businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock y Cartel- an association to fix prices Other Countries y USA - Britain blockaded USA - Samuel Slater copied a British machine - Railroads y French Revolution and Napoleon Wars inflated the country y Belgium- people stole British designs y Germany was unified by industrialization Impact y Political: Political ideologies, power goes to big businesses y Economic: Big businesses, more production of goods y Social: Breakdown of the family unit (less family time, everyone works), bigger gap between industrialized and non-industrialized nations Political Ideologies Romanticism y Imagination > reason y Art, poetry, music, novels y Victor Hugo y Mary Shelley (Frankenstein) y Women Liberalism y Individual rights, liberty, private property, laissez-faire, representative government, right to vote y Capitalism - Adam Smith o The Wealth of Nations o Invisible Hands Theory- Laissez-faire y Mary Wollstonecraft (mother of feminism) y John Stuart Mill y Utilitarianism - Happiness - Jeremy Bentham y Liked Industrialization Conservatism y Status quo y Tradition preserves social order

Less optimistic about human nature Edmund Burke Liked Industrialization Communism y Saw the bad conditions y Karl Marx The Communist Manifesto y Stateless and classless y Didnt like Industrialization (all should share wealth) Socialism y Equality y Wealth should be shared y Robert Owen - New Harmony o No machines y The Fabian Society - Intellect rather than force - Democratic socialism y Violence is not needed y No private property y Didnt like Industrialization
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Imperialism
Large countries take over smaller nations and use their resources Reasons y Economical - Resources, New Markets, Global Empire, Trade Routes y Political - Powerful, Nationalism, Strong Military y Social - Spread of Christianity, Education y Science - New Inventions and Medicine Social Darwinism y Survival of the Fittest The Berlin Conference y All are competing for gold, diamonds, ivory in Africa y Avoid war with European nations y Divided Africa y Did not receive consent with African leaders y Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Belgium involved in Scramble for Africa Africa y Zulu tribe led by Shaka Zulu - Won many battles; changed the way of fighting the Europeans y France used paternalism (direct control) and assimilation (making them lose their culture) y Resistance - Many Africans revolted against the Europeans - Ethiopia was one of them that won o Menelik II  Played Europeans against each other  Used modern weapons  Battle of Adowa- Ethiopians win y Nigerian Tribes - Hausa-Fulani- Muslim (didnt mind the British) - Igbo and Yoruba- HATED British

British and Cape Town y Zulus Vs. Boers (Dutch) - British push Boers out and started moving north (Boers) y Zulu Vs. British - Boer Republic - Work for British but slaughtered by Zulu - British cant take Cape Town without ousting Zulu first - Lost battles initially to Zulu (Shaka trained soldiers differently) - British won after with the use of auxiliary Boer War (Dutch vs. British) y Cecil Rhodes (Prime Minister of Cape Town) - Forced British laws - Took over Ivory & Diamond trade Antislave Trade Legislation y Violation of human rights y Denmark 1803 y Great Britain 1807 y France - 1818 European Imperialism in Africa y European powers engage in a Scramble for Africa starting in the 1870s. By 1890, most of Africa came under European rule y By 1890, Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent y By 1914, Africa and Asia are partitioned y King Leopold (Belgium) ruled Congo: if the natives that did not fulfill their quota, their hands would be cut off. Effects y (+) Modern transportation and communication systems such as telegraphs, railroads, and telephones y (+) Introduction to European medicine and improved nutrition (Led to expansion of population) y (-) Africans were treated inferior, families were torn apart, culture was disrupted, Europeans divided and ignored the tribal, ethnic and cultural boundaries of the African people - Led to tribal conflicts in many African nations (still present today) Europeans Claim Muslim Lands y Ottomans downfall began with the death of the last great ruler; Suleyman I y Europeans seize territory - Geopolitics taking land because of its resources or location y Crimean War - Russia vs. Ottomans (With allies of Britain and France) y The Great Game - Britain vs. Russian - over Indias riches (Britain control) y Egypt initiates reforms - Started socialist political reforms to avoid Social Darwinism - Muhammad Ali - Reason for reforms y Nationalism - Albania, Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Armenia, Turkey, all at some point tried to break away from Balkans - Egypt was used as cash crop - Persia was used for its oil (Britain had control) - British takes over Suez Canal (helped pay for debt) Imperialism in India y Jewel in the Crown - Important for goods and 300 million people y Britain started with indirect control y East India Company y Sepoy Soldiers - Muslims and Hindus wanted to get rid of classes of India y As time progressed, Britain didnt respect Hindus and Muslims beliefs y Sepoy Rebellion- 1 year against Great Britain y Britain won, and took direct control of India