Design and Implementation of a Digital Control Unit for …


JPE 8-2-2

Design and Implementation of a Digital Control Unit for an Oxygenaire Servo Baby Incubator
Mohamed Zahran†, Mahmoud Salem*, Yousry Attia* and Aref Eliwa*


Electronics Research Institute, NRC Blg., El-tahrir St., Dokki,12311-Giza, Egypt

ABSTRACT This paper introduces a design and implementation of a digital control unit for an Oxygenaire Servo Baby Incubator. The control unit is designed and implemented according to international standards. The control unit is based on an AVR Atmel microcontroller unit. It is built for monitoring and control and displays the three main temperature values: set point temperature, baby skin temperature and air temperature. User friendly software is implemented. The implemented control unit was tested in the laboratory as well as in the field. The control unit is sensitive to change of 0.1OC. At startup, based on a unique control strategy, the incubator reaches its steady state in about 14 minutes. The system schematic diagrams are shown in the paper. Also, programs flow charts are presented. The control unit was designed and implemented based on a contract between the Electronics Research Institute (ERI) and ENGIMED Company. The authors would like to thank ERI and ENGIMED for introducing all required finance and shoring to complete this work. Keywords: Temperature control, Microcontroller, Thermistor, Baby incubator, Skin probe, Signal conditioning, Sensor transmitter

1. Introduction
Of all the advances that have taken place in the care of newborn babies none has had more impact than the realization that small babies need to be kept warm. Preterm babies who are allowed to get cold are more likely to die. It is recognized that the thermal environment of the pre-term baby is one of the most important aspects of medical and nursing care. It is an area where obsessive attention to detail can pay dividends in terms of increased
Manuscript received Dec. 18, 2007; revised Jan. 21, 2008 Corresponding Author: Tel: +202-26225821, Electronics Research Institute * Electronics Research Institute, Egypt

survival and growth of small babies [1], [6], [8]. Thus, the incubator temperature control is an essential matter in the field of pre-term baby care [10].

2. Heat Balance in a Newborn Baby
A baby’s temperature is a balance between the heat which he produces himself and the heat which he loses. If the heat production and heat loss are exactly balanced, then this temperature is stable. If a baby loses more heat than it produces, his temperature will fall; if he produces more heat than he loses, his temperature will rise. It is, therefore, important in keeping babies warm to have some knowledge of how a baby gains and loses heat [7],[9],[11].

Table 2 show the suggested abdominal skin temperature setting for babies cared for in an incubator in baby skin temperature mode. • Low temperature.122 Journal of Power Electronics. 4) A digital display system is provided to measure the enclosure humidity inside the incubator. The various chemical reactions which occur in the cells of the body release energy as heat. 6) A bar graph LED system is provided to indicate the heater output.1 The Need for an Incubator When a baby's body temperature is stable. 5) Feather touch keys are provided for easy operation. The air temperature inside the canopy is controlled by a thermostat which is set by the nursing staff (incubator operator). in which a baby loses heat when water evaporates from his skin or his breath.2 Modes of Operation Most of the standards recommend two modes of operation for baby incubators: air temperature mode and baby skin mode. 2.3 Air Temperature Mode This mode has been widely used in the nursing care of newborns for many years. . 7) Fault indications and alarms are provided for: • Baby skin probe failure either short circuit or open circuit for incubators with both air and skin temperature controllers. • High temperature. • High temperature cut off (independent hardware circuit). 8. It measures the baby's skin temperature rather than air temperature. allowing the baby to cool down. • Fan failure. 2. No. air temperature and to set the required temperature. Incubators can provide a safe way of compensating for a baby’s lost heat [1]. • Heater failure. the nurse must choose an appropriate air temperature. Vol. April 2008 A baby produces heat by metabolic activity. 2. in which a baby loses a small amount of heat by direct conduction to solid surfaces in contact with him. in which a baby loses heat by radiating energy from his skin to all surroundings. the proposed TCOSBI has the following features: 1) The controller is based on the AVR Atmel AT90S8535 Micro controller system. The average temperature needed to provide a suitable thermal environment for a healthy naked baby cared for in an incubator is shown in Table 1. and • Power failure The baby probe / air probe is made of a highly sensitive sensor which is interchangeable and does not need field calibration. and ● Conduction. 2. ● Radiation. ● Evaporation. A baby can lose heat in four ways: ● Convection. The safest and most pleasant way to keep a baby warm is to care for the baby clothed. 2. 3. Having decided that a baby requires care in an incubator. Its principle is simple. heat gain and heat loss are balanced. Each 1 ml of water lost by evaporation removes about 600 calories of heat. the baby lies on a mattress in a Perspex canopy. in which heat is lost to the air surrounding the baby. wrapped and in cot.4 Baby Skin Temperature Mode The temperature sensor is a thermistor probe which is taped to the body's skin. 3) A digital display system is provided to measure the infant temperature. The air in the canopy is warmed by a heater and is continually circulated by a fan. and vice versa to warm the baby up. • Air probe failure. Features of the TCOSBI Unlike [4]. 2) Large bright displays based on seven segments are easy to monitor and view from a distance. If the baby's skin temperature exceeds the set temperature then the power fed to the heater is reduced and the air temperature falls. • Baby skin probe failure as open circuit for incubators with either an air or a skin temperature controller (not both). so the heater warms the air until the baby's skin reaches the set temperature.

and • Mode key that is used to toggle between air and skin modes. Table 2 baby skin temperature Birth-weight (kg) Less than 1. 1 Controller System Block Diagram .2.0 2. o High temperature (HI TEMP).1 Controller Subsystem Block Diagram The system block diagram is shown in Fig. The output ports are established to present the following: • Displaying the measured variables air and baby skin and set point temperature values.5 – 2. o Baby skin probe (SKIN PROBE) either short or open circuit failure.5oC 36.5 . • Up key that is used to increase the set temperature value (in set temperature mode) • Down key that is used to decrease the set temperature value (in set temperature mode) • Alarm key that is used for silencing and checking the alarm.0 .9oC 36. 1. o Air temperature sensor (AIR SENSOR) either short or open circuit failure. o Power failure (POWER FAIL) that indicates the failure of any of the different power supply channels for the electronic circuits and microcontroller cards. o Low set temperature (Low SET TEMP) if the temperature in the incubator goes out of range during normal operation. like low set temperature but for higher temperature.0 1. o High set temperature (HI SET TEMP).5 1. The second input port is dedicated for the keypad interface that has five keys classified as follows: • Set key that enable the functionality of all the other keys. baby skin temperature and humidity. • Displaying the heater bar. The first input port is dedicated for analog input variables such as air temperature.0 2. if the skin probe is not being used.0 – 2.7oC 36.5 1.5 35oC For 10 days 34oC After 10 days For 10 days For 2 days 33oC After 3 weeks After 10 days After 2 days For 2 days 32oC After 5 weeks After 4 weeks After 3 weeks After 2 days The third input variable is the fan speed that is conditioned as a stream of pulses counted by one of the microcontroller counters. Two input ports and a counter are used to monitor the incubator system variables.3oC 36.1. Fig. Hardware Description 4.5 Greater than 2.Design and Implementation of a Digital Control Unit for … 123 Table 1 Air Temperature Birth-weight (kg) 1.5 Abdominal skin temperature oC 36.2. • Displaying the mode of operation of the incubator either "AIR" or "SKIN" mode.0 .0 . o Air flow (Air Flow) which refers to the fan operation. the word "OFF" is written instead of displaying the baby skin temperature (upper left corner of the control panel).1. • Displaying the visual alarm signals for.5 Greater than 2.0oC 4. the set temperature value has not been changed. that is.

• fan fail function.) and to minimize the over and undershoot values. and its control signal is generated from the microcontroller according to the required power percentage that has been calculated. 4. This project was mainly undertaken to improve the performance of the old ENGIMED Company incubator system. The output voltage: Vo =Vs k . Incubator System Description 5. Vol. the method of integral cycle control or burst-firing is used for heating n n⎞ ⎛ = ⎟ . Though. It is a low-power CMOS 8bit microcontroller based on the enhanced RISC architecture. Where: k is the duty cycle 5.2 Heater Temperature Control As an alternative to phase control. The period (T) is divided into two sections: in the first section (n) the power is applied to the heater. April 2008 4. One (triac) is used to control the power flow from main to the heater. the fan fail routine is executed every 1 sec. 2. 50Hz. in the second section (m) the power is switched off as shown in figure 8 and figure 9.5 msec. and • faults function. supplied from 220V AC supply. Fig. As the Triac used here are turned-on at the zero-crossing of the input voltage and turned-off at zero current. The software is written in assembly language. Most of the instructions are executed in one clock cycle. So. a traic is used to control the power . So. • display refresh function. and the display refresh interrupt routine is executed every 0. Here the switch is turned on for a time tn with n integral cycles and turned off for a time tm with m integral cycles. The control panel is located on the front of the incubator where the nurse is staying for easy access to the keypad and monitoring of the display signals [5]. The power rating is 400W.124 Journal of Power Electronics. • keypad check function. ATmega8535 can execute 1 million instructions per second (1MIPS) per MHz. No. The device can operate up to 8MHz.1 Body of the Incubator The body of the incubator is shown in figure 7.3 System Control Flow Charts The flow chart of the system controller is divided into the five main flow charts shown in figures 2-6. the microcontroller converts the actual temperature to a digital number via the A/D.2 The Controller Features The system heart control unit is the ATMEL ATmega8535 microcontroller.1oC. The temperature degrees in the control range (from 22oC to 41oC) are stored in a lookup table as digital numbers in steps of 0. the heater temperature is controlled by the “Integral Cycle Control” technique. • A/D conversion function. and ⎜k = n+m T ⎠ ⎝ Vs is the rms value of main voltage. Each subroutine is used to do one of the following functions: • temperature control function. 5. and then it looks up the temperature degree corresponding to this number from the lookup table. so a high execution speed can be achieved with a single chip microcontroller unit. 8. In the new system. It was necessary to decrease the settling time (it was about 45 min. supply harmonics and radio frequency interference are very low. The control routine is executed only every 2 sec. It consists of a main program and a number of subroutines. 2 body of the incubator and control panel loads [2]. • number transformation function.

m. 5 (1) Control Signal Flowchart Based on this equation the system performance is greatly improved. So. Fig. in which.Design and Implementation of a Digital Control Unit for … 125 flow from the main to the heater and the triac control signal is generated from the microcontroller according to the required power. 7 Fan-Fail subroutine Flowchart Fig. 9. the period T is divided into two sections: in the first section. 8 and Fig. the triac is turned on for a time Ton with n integral cycles and turned off for a time Toff with m integral cycles. 6 Power Bar Subroutine Flowchart Fig. the power is switched off as shown in Fig. 8 power circuit of heater Fig. in the second section. n. the power is applied to the heater. 9 Integral Cycle Control Waveform . 4 The Display Signals Interrupt Subroutine Flowchart Fig. The following empirical equation is suggested to calculate the Ton period: Ton =Ton + k1 ( Tref -Tact ) . The heater temperature is controlled by "Integral Cycle Control" technique. 3 The Main Program Flowchart Fig.k 2 ( Tact -Tacto ) Where: k1& k2 Tref Tact Tacto are constants is the required temperature set point is the actual temperature of air/skin the previous actual temperature of air/skin Fig.

31 D4 ? 2 4 PD5 1 C3 10m 6 PA5 PC4 5. R62 12K R63 6. HI TEMP 15 16 17 18 19 20 GND. baby skin probe and humidity sensor. Of course the skin probe is taped to the body of the baby in the place that is determined by the nurse.1V R80 300K 11 70 U21 GND. A signal conditioning circuit based on the zero crossing detectors technique is implemented for enhancing the shaped signal for possible counting (monitoring) with the help of one of the built-in microcontroller counters and timers. April 2008 G F A B G F A B G F A B G F A B G F A B G F A B G F A B G F A B G F A B G F A B G F A 5.3V R32 16K T4 D30 ? 42 39 POWER GND. 20 POWER 22 D5 4. No.1m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Bus419 HDR_10 Bus419 HDR_24 Fig. PD0 PD1 PD2 SKIN PROBE 22 GND. 8 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 S4 2_SEGMENT 2_7SEGMENT E D C E D C S1 3-SEGMENT 3_7SEGMENT R37 10 Ω S2 3_SEGMENT 3_7SEGMENT R38 10 Ω S3 3_SEGMENT R39 3_7SEGMENT 10 Ω 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 E D C E D C E D C E D C E D C E D C E D C E D C E D Bus76 C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 B Bus76 Bus263 C AIR MODE 7 5V 5 5V T1 TIP126 T2 TIP126 9 5V T3 TIP126 10 5V T4 TIP126 11 5V T5 TIP126 12 5V T6 TIP126 13 5V T7 TIP126 14 5V T8 TIP126 B 12 G 10 1 2 3 3 2 1 4 5 6 6 5 4 7 9 8 9 8 D9 A LED D10 LED F Y1 0 Y1 1 Y1 2 Y0 Y8 Y1 Y9 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 D11 Bus251 15 5V 16 5V 17 5V C D2 T9 TIP126 T10 TIP126 T11 TIP126 18 5V T12 TIP126 19 5V T13 TIP126 LED D12 D LED D4 LED 11 10 12 13 Bus263 U1 R17 R18 15K R19 15K R20 15K R21 15K R22 15K R23 15K R24 15K R25 15K R26 15K R27 15K R28 15K R29 15K 15K Bus263 AIR FLOW E LED D 7 D13 D1 Y0 Y1 B0 Y2 B1 Y3 B2 Y4 B3 Y5 B4 Y6 B5 Y7 B6 Y8 Y9 Y10 Y11 Y12 Bus251 C1 1 2 3 4 LED D14 F U5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 GND 2004 2004 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 R30 R31 10 Ω R32 10 Ω R33 10 Ω R34 10 Ω R35 10 Ω R36 10 Ω 10 Ω A B C D E G F G LED D5 33nF 23 PC0 PC1 PC2 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 18 19 16 17 74154 SW1 Bus419 SW_SPST LOW SET TEMP D15 D6 D18 LED LED LED C LED Bus419 22 21 20 12 LED B 3 PC3 D16 GND. It looks like a single coil generator. Fig. 3. Schematic diagram for the power supply card.1V R79 100 W 36 4 U15 T13 12A J1 2 1 1 2 3 R42 4K7 HDR_3 J2 1 2 HDR_2 J3 1 2 3 HDR_3 R8 56K R7 560K 3 GND. 33nF PD3 PD4 PD 3 PD 2 PD 1 PD 0 Bus522 C2 0. 2 HDR_2 1 B0 B1 Bus419 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 3 27 GND. 1K R73 1K 64 GND. 11 4 U21 7 R59 1K R75 62 GND. 11 9 10 4 U21 8 12 14 13 4 LM324 D29 D14 4. Schematic diagram for the signal conditioning card. 46 T15 BC109 C17 71 100nF R53 27K 4 R34 1K 50 BC109 25 5V 2 C13 U20 6 P3 10K 67 56 POWER GND. and 4. 2. P4 1K 1K D10 ? 11 U21 AAIR R58 5K 6 5 LM324 61 GND. R2 15K T14 R1 15K BC109 C5 P1 1K AIR SENSOR D22 D3 LED ? 23 POWER C SKIN MODE 26 POWER 20 GND.2m R46 100K BC327 ? 1K T9 BC109 D20 R45 3. 12 T14 MOC3010 33 R52 10K BC109 35 GND. 7 U2 9 6 10 LM324 11 4 U5 13 8 12 LM324 R21 10W C10 BUZZER D24 ? BC109 32 BC327 R50 27W D25 ? C5 R47 10K C9 10m C8 10m D21 ? R49 1K C7 2. 8. Schematic diagram for the keypad card. Fig. 16K R20 10K 5 LM324 4 U5 7 D6 ? D7 ? D13 17 BC109 ? R28 GND. 13.4 Air Temperature. 12.3V T12 29 BC109 POWER R3 1K4 R4 1K4 4 POWER R17 10K R18 11 10K POWER R19 10K GND. 10 GND. 10 Sensors Box with connector Fig. A piece of permanent magnet is fixed on the fan blade (mechanical stability is considered) while the coil is fixed on the body of the incubator in the front of coil. Three sensors are indicated in the box: air temperature sensor (thermistor).1V GND. 15. 68 ? 69 POWER D31 ? LM324 65 R78 1K R77 1K GND. D11 ? R29 33K 54 POWER PC4 PD5 4 8 PA3 SW1 SW_SPST 7 2 3 R37 10K T5 BC109 R40 10K BC109 D1 ? 4 U5 14 26 GND. PA7 R11 30K R10 10K R9 10K R14 470nF 7 511K POWER R26 10K R12 1K 7 U4 2 6 3 LM741 4 1 5 8 POWER 4 1 5 6 POWER P2 5K R15 22K C4 10nF 3 LM741 11 13 POWER D3 5. Fig. 5. 60 POWER R72 2K R71 12K HDR_6 BC10958 1K T3 GND. 14.1V 12 7 U3 9 6 10 LM324 11 4 U9 13 8 12 LM324 R51 R25 14 10K POWER R24 10K R23 6 5 4 1K 1 10K R41 34 5V 220W U14 RELAY U9 7 8 9 14 GND. 13 Schematic diagram of signal conditioning circuit's card . 16 32K R27 18 5V R36 22K R35 314K 6 U13 R64 47K R66 47K GND. R70 1K 2 7 GND.8K 47 5V GND. 12 Schematic diagram of Microcontroller and Display Card J5 R69 1K 53 POWER R68 52 POWER 51 POWER 19 5V J6 AA CA 5V 4 3 2 1 HDR_4 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 HDR_24 15V T2 4K7 R30 33K BC109 D12 ? D8 ? D9 ? 11 U5 15 5V 6 3 R65 15K R67 15K 1 2 4LM324 R13 11 85K 2 POWER R1 30K R2 1K 7 U1 2 6 3 LM741 4 1 5 3 POWER 4 1 5 5 POWER P1 1K R16 22K R5 4K R6 10K C1 10nF 3 LM741 11 12 POWER D2 5.3V R31 16K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 J1 J2 PA5 T1 R33 1K 27 5V PD7 R38 16K T6 D28 ? 55 GND. 44 POWER 4 5 6 37 POWER D27 ? D26 5. 2 POWER 24 Bus251 Bus76 Bus394 Bus394 Bus394 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 25 POWER 9 10 11 12 13 14 U2 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 ATMEL AT90S8535 PC4 PC3 PC2 PC1 PC0 HIGH SET TEMP 29 Bus76 Bus76 POWER LED C AIR MODE J3 C6 10m 28 GND.3 Fan Speed Sensor The fan speed sensor is a permanent magnet with a coil which acts as a pulse generator. 2. Schematic diagram for the microcontroller and display card. C11 10nF 1 10M 38 R74 63 POWER R76 10nF R56 TLC555 10nF 1 TLC555 41 POWER 66 C15 6 3 C12 GND. Fig. Fig. D32 5. The output signal is a semi-sine wave signal with a positive half cycle only.3V D15 ? GND. 23 POWER 57 POWER D19 11 U9 ? D17 4. R22 10W 59 POWER R60 U19 RELAY 10K 43 5V 7 U17 6 9 8 7 R61 10K 2 UA741 45 POWER 4 1 5 GND. D16 ? 1 3 LM324 11 24 5V 4 U9 2 5 7 6 4 LM324 D18 ? 21 GND. GND.126 Journal of Power Electronics. Skin Probe and Humidity Sensors The box of sensors is shown in the following figure. Vol. POWER FAIL D7 D17 D20 ? ? D21 LED LED D8 D19? LED 33nF 21 C4 C3 QUAR 24 GND. 1 2 3 4 5 6 J4 48 GND. 3 LM741 4 1 5 49 GND. Bus76 1 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 GND 4 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 GND. 10m CAIR AHI CHI GND. The box is located in the appropriate location in the incubator to reflect the actual values of the system variables: air and skin temperatures and humidity level. 3 C6 220m TLC555 1 28 R39 10K T7 30 BC109 POWER 2 T8 R48 1K R44 R43 1K 15K C2 10m 1 Fig. 11 Sensors Box to view 9 POWER GND. 2 C14 10nF 2 4 8 C16 R54 R55 100nF 156K 1K U18 6 7 3 3 1 LM324 4 8 U16 R57 100K 40 POWER GND. ? D22 T11 T10 D23 GND.5 Schematic Diagrams and Circuit Design The schematic diagrams of the TCOSBI are introduced in four separate circuits illustrated as follows: 1.

The three temperature values are displayed in two digits and one decimal place. The fourth seven segment display indicates the humidity as a percentage. The power bar is also displayed on the front panel. Details about the conditions and function of each alarm will be illustrated in place. The PCB cards are assembled in the housing shown in Fig. 17 the PCB cards. interfaced together and working .1m BRIDGE 3 J6 1 2 HDR_2 R1 15K R2 15K R3 15K R4 15K R5 15K 2 5V 4 GND Fig. components side. either the air temperature or the baby skin temperature should adjust to and maintain the set temperature value.6. 18 shows the PCB cards while they are interfaced together and with the incubator as they are in operation.1 oC.Design and Implementation of a Digital Control Unit for … 127 4 5V J2 1 2 HDR_2 3 GND U1 J1 4 2 B1 1 C1 2200m 7815 C3 0.1m J5 1 2 HDR_2 2 B2 1 2 C4 0. The mode of incubator operation. 16 Housing of the PCB cards 5. The accuracy of the set point and the measured and displayed air or baby skin temperature is 0. It consists of eight LEDs. either air or baby skin temperature mode. is also displayed on the front panel.1 Front Panel Display Card The front panel shows the three main temperature values: set point temperature (target temperature). Based on the mode of operation. full brightness indicates the need for full power to accelerate the warming up of the incubator when it is turned on.1m J4 BRIDGE 1 2 2 GND C2 2200m GND 3 IN OUT U4 7915 U2 7805 IN OUT GND 3 C5 2200m BRIDGE C6 0. 5. Fig. Fig. it is displayed in only two digits from 00 to 99%. 14 Schematic diagram of the keypad Fig. The set of alarms are also displayed on the front panel. 15 Schematic diagram of the power supply card Fig. 17.6 PCB Cards The printed circuit boards contain four separate cards for the four separate schematic diagrams. air temperature and baby skin temperature. interfaced together Fig.1m 3 HDR_3 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 HDR_10 18 1 2 3 J1 1 GND 3 HDR_3 C AIR MODE C SKIN MODE PD0 SW1 2 3 SW_SPST SW2 J2 1 2 4 PD1 3 SW_SPST SW3 SW_SPST SW4 HDR_2 PD2 D1 ? D2 ? 3 3 GND 3 PD3 3 SW_SPST SW5 IN U3 7818 OUT GND 3 PD4 SW_SPST 3 1 GND J3 1 2 HDR_2 4 2 2 B3 1 C8 2200m C7 0. 18 the PCB cards. components side. 16.

Seven Segments Side 5.6.3 Power Supply Module The power supply card consists of three independent channels. baby skin temperature and humidity. 19 Front panel card Fig. The bridges help the sensors to be more sensitive and amplify the signals.2 SC Card and Display Card. Three signal conditioning circuits were built for the new incubator variables: air temperature. 2. 2.128 Journal of Power Electronics. The PCBs were manufactured in Benha Electronics Factory. Fig. No. ±12V for the operational amplifiers and the analog circuit's power supply and 18V for fan power supply. Vol. ENGIMED introduced the body of the incubator as shown in Fig.6. 23 Signal Conditioning Circuits and Display Card. Components Side . 8. 20 Display Card. The conditioning circuits were designed and implemented with the help of operational amplifiers and the technology of circuits bridges usage. April 2008 Fig. 22 Image of the implemented and interfaced signal conditioning circuits Fig. 21 SC Card before Assembly Card Fig. 5V for microcontroller and display card. Components Side The signal conditioning card was complex because we built up all the transmitter and signal conditioning circuits needed to match the measured variables to the microcontroller requirements. 5.

.C. The accuracy of the temperature is 0. 1992. [1] N. San Diego. and the over or under shot temperature values match the international standards. Conclusions A fully digital and programmable temperature system was designed and implemented for the Oxygenaire Servo Baby Incubator. and the overshoot and undershoot are limited to less than 1OC. The controller has the capability to set the temperature value and control the incubator temperature according to the selected mode of operation.Design and Implementation of a Digital Control Unit for … 129 7.. while some incubators on the market now need up to 2 hours to get to the steady state mode of operation. The transmitter circuits were also designed and implemented for all the variables of the incubator that are used as control signals like the air temperature sensor (thermistor). Academic Press. Two modes of operation are implemented in the control algorithm: air or skin mode. 25 PCB of Keypad Card Fig. left one. Rashid. is the main key since none of the other keys will be active without pressing and holding this key first.R. The system settling time is about 14 min. The settling time of the temperature of this incubator is about 14 minutes. The silent time is programmable and can be modified at any time. “Power Electronics Handbook”. All the alarm signals are displayed in audible and visual ways. California. The set key...D. the old version of this incubator took 45 minutes to reach the settling time. Fig. humidity sensor and air flow sensor. M. M. Fig. [4] D4 Surgicals (INDIA) PVT. The system controller display is optimized to be seen from appropriate distance for easy monitoring. 24 Power Supply Card 5.1OC. Hall "Microprocessors and Interfacing programming and hardware". "Infant Incubator". The AVR microcontroller is used as a control device and the control program is developed using ATMEL assembly language programming.6. Test Results References The incubator with the implemented control unit was tested and approved by Cairo University staff according to international standards. 26. baby skin temperature sensor (probe).H. [2] M. This function is introduced to protect the system settings from being altered accidentally. To set the mode of operation. 2001. first you have to press the set key plus the mode key and hold them for several seconds to be sure that you mean to change the mode of operation from air to skin mode. 26 Part of Front Panel Showing Keypad 6. . The two LED's that display the mode of operation are included in the keypad card as illustrated in figures 25. The keypad is programmed to prevent any accidental changes to the system settings by requiring parallel pressing of two keys simultaneously. [3] Douglas V. Rutter. The controller has an added feature that can check the running program at any time with the help of the audible discontinuous alarm when you press the set and alarm keys at the same time. The temperature control accuracy and the intelligent software used are the most important features of the system. A silent circuit is designed to stop the audible alarm during maintenance if necessary. "A Guide to Incubator Care of Infants". McGraw-hill Inc. Vickers Medical Ltd (1995).4 Keypad Card & Keys Functions The keypad consists of five keys. LTM.P.

Bologna Italy. He is currently a researcher in the Electronics Research Institute. Online ISSN: 1098-4275 SAUDI Standard Organization. M. Via Cicogna 20. June 2006. San Lazzaro Di Savena. Mahmoud Mohamed A.130 Journal of Power Electronics. 35. neural He is an Associate Professor Researcher at the Electronics Research Institute. Luiz C. Chris Hutchinson and Alan de Klerk. electrical drives.pediatrics.Sc. Attia) received his B. No.Sc from Kima High Institute of Technology. Yousry Attia Abdel-gawad (Y. No. Egypt. he is working as a researcher at the Electronics Research Institute.Sc in 1995 and Ph. Faculty of Engineering. Issue 1. From 1989 -2003. April 2008 [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http://www.D. Electrical Power and Machines Dept. Vol. Faculty of Eng. Salem) received the B. was born in Egypt in 1964.Sc.pdf Mohamed Bayoumy A. He received the M. http://www. he was a researcher at the Electronics Research Institute. Print ISSN: 0031-4005. Zahran). and the Ph. Copyright © 2001 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. systems design.d4 medical-surgicalequipments. "Incubator Baby Shows: A Medical and Social Frontier". Nowak.Sc in 1993 and Ph. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CRITICAL CARE. "A Clinical Comparison of Radiant Warmer and Incubator Care for Preterm Infants From Birth to 1800 Grams". Salem ( /bitstream/2438/1701/1/Medical Enginering & Physics. Payton.D. in 1999 from Cairo University. Now.html. Faculty of Eng. His experience is mainly in the field of renewable energy sources.D degrees in Electrical Engineering from Cairo University. Ginalski. http://www. Photovoltaic Cells Dept. Ain Shams University. Italy. Egypt in 1994 and /medicalsurgical-equipments.historycooperative.. Space Division as System Engineer of MisrSat-2 Project and Satellite Power Subsystem Designer.pdf [10] Hannah Lieberman.draeger. He has been employed full time by the National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Science (NARSS) since 2002. Matthew J. received his B. 8. He received his B.. A.brunel. Photovoltaic Cells PerinatalCare/pc_incu 8000_humidity_book_en. Egypt. Cairo. Andrew Salmon. His research interests include artificial intelligence. 2003. All rights reserved. Jan. Michael P. where he conducted research on solar cell technology and applications. http://www. 2..html# infant-incubator.1/lieberman. "Neonatal incubators". "A combined study of heat and mass transfer in an infant incubator with an overhead screen". Currently he is a lecturer at the Telecommunication and Electronics Engineering Dept. [11] Maciej K.1. His experience in the field includes working with renewable energy sources and systems / ht/35. M. Marshall. ” Humidification without risk of infection in the Dräger Incubator 8000". Egypt in 1987.html#company profile Sandra Lee Smith. Zahran (M. was born in Egypt.Sc in Electrical Engineering from Zagazig University in 1987. respectively. Ducker and N.Sc in 1993 and Ph. and digital controller hardware. Eliwa). COBAMS SRL. 12.. faculty of Eng.. Vol. and M. in the field of Power Electronics. "Heart Period Variability of Intubated Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants during Incubator Care and Material Holding".. degree in Electrical Engineering in 1988 from Minofia University. . Photovoltaic Cells Dept. Munofia Univ. management and control. Electrical power and Machines Dept. http://www. in 2000 all from Faculty of Engineering. control systems.Sc from the Electrical Power and Machines Dept. http://bura. M. Aref Yosef Eliwa (A. Andrzej J. "Medical Electrical Equipment Part 2: Particular Requirements for Safety of Baby Incubators" D. management and control.D in 2001 from Cairo Univ.

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