Chapter 2

INTRODUCTION

In thermodynamic systems, the working fluid can be in the liquid, steam or
gaseous phase. In this unit, the properties of liquid and steam are investigated in
some details as the state of a system can be described in terms of its properties. A
substance that has a fixed composition throughout is called a pure substance. Pure
chemicals (H
2
O, N
2
, O
2
, Ar, Ne, Xe) are always pure substances. We all know from
experience that substances exist in different phases. A phase of substance can be
defined as that part of a pure substance that consists of a single, homogenous
aggregate of matter. The three common phases for H
2
O that are usually used are
solid, liquid and steam.
When studying phases or phase changes in thermodynamics, one does not
need to be concerned with the molecular structure and behavior of the different
phases. However, it is very helpful to have some understanding of the molecular
phenomena involved in each phase.
Molecular bonds are strongest in solids and weakest in steams. One reason is
that molecules in solids are closely packed together, whereas in steams they are
separated by great distances.


PHASES

The three phases of pure substances are: -

Solid Phase
In the solid phase, the molecules are;
(a) Closely bound, therefore relatively dense; and
(b) Arranged in a rigid three-dimensional pattern so that they do not easily
deform. An example of a pure solid state is ice.

Liquid Phase
In the liquid phase, the molecules are;
(a) Closely bound, therefore also relatively dense and unable to expand to fill a
space; but
(b) They are no longer rigidly structured so much so that they are free to move
within a fixed volume. An example is a pure liquid state.

Steam Phase
In the steam phase, the molecules;
(a) Virtually do not attract each other. The distance between the molecules are
not as close as those in the solid and liquid phases;
(b) Are not arranged in a fixed pattern. There is neither a fixed volume nor a
fixed shape for steam.

The three phases described above are illustrated in Figure below. The following are
discovered:
(a) The positions of the molecules are relatively fixed in a solid phase;
(b) Chunks of molecules float about each other in the liquid phase; and
(c) The molecules move about at random in the steam phase.




The arrangement of atoms in different phases

PHASE-CHANGE PROCESS

The distinction between steam and liquid is usually made (in an elementary
manner) by stating that both will take up the shape of their containers. However
liquid will present a free surface if it does not completely fill its container. Steam on
the other hand will always fill its container.
A container is filled with water, and a moveable, frictionless piston is placed
on the container at State 1, as shown in Figure below. As heat is added to the system,
the temperature of the system will increase. Note that the pressure on the system is
being kept constant by the weight of the piston. The continued addition of heat will
cause the temperature of the system to increase until the pressure of the steam
generated exactly balances the pressure of the atmosphere plus the pressure due to the
weight of the piston.







(a) (b) (c)
W
W
W
W
Liqui
d
Steam
Superheated
Steam
STATE 1 STATE 2 STATE 3 STATE 4
Heating water
and steam at
constant pressure

At this point, the steam and liquid are said to be saturated. As more heat is
added, the liquid that was at saturation will start to vaporize until State 2. The two-
phase mixture of steam and liquid at State 2 has only one degree of freedom, and as
long as liquid is present, vaporization will continue at constant temperature. As long
as liquid is present, the mixture is said to be wet steam, and both the liquid and steam
are saturated. After all the liquid is vaporized, only steam is present at State 3, and
the further addition of heat will cause the temperature of steam to increase at constant
system pressure. This state is called the superheated state, and the steam is said to be
superheated steam as shown in State 4.

Saturated and Superheated Steam
While tables provide a convenient way of presenting precise numerical
presentations of data, figures provide us with a clearer understanding of trends and
patterns. Consider the following diagram in which the specific volume of H
2
O is
presented as a function of temperature and pressure:















T-v diagram for the heating process of water at constant pressure

Imagine that we are to run an experiment. In this experiment, we start with a
mass of water at 1 atm pressure and room temperature. At this temperature and
pressure we may measure the specific volume (1/µ = 1/1000 kg/m
3
). We plot this
state at point 1 on the diagram.
If we proceed to heat the water, the temperature will rise. In addition, water
expands slightly as it is heated which makes the specific volume increase slightly.
We may plot the locus of such points along the line from State 1 to State 2. We speak
of liquid in one of these conditions as being compressed or subcooled liquid.

20
100
300
1
2
3
4
T,
o
C
v, m
3
/kg

Compressed
liquid
Saturated
mixture
Superheated
steam
State 2 is selected to correspond to the boiling point (100
o
C). We speak of
State 2 as being the saturated liquid state, which means that all of the water is in still
liquid form, but ready to boil. As we continue to heat past the boiling point 2, a
fundamental change occurs in the process. The temperature of the water no longer
continues to rise. Instead, as we continue to add energy, liquid progressively changes
to steam phase at a constant temperature but with an increasing specific volume. In
this part of the process, we speak of the water as being a saturated mixture (liquid +
steam). This is also known as the quality region.
At State 3, all liquid will have been vaporised. This is the saturated steam
state.
As we continue to heat the steam beyond State 3, the temperature of the steam
again rises as we add energy. States to the right of State 3 are said to be superheated
steam.

Summary of nomenclature:
Compressed or subcooled liquid (Between States 1 & 2)
A liquid state in which the fluid remains entirely within the liquid state, and below the
saturation state.
Saturated liquid (State 2)
All fluid is in the liquid state. However, even the slightest addition of energy would
result in the formation of some vapour.
Saturated Liquid-Steam or Wet Steam Region (Between States 2 & 3) Liquid and
steam exist together in a mixture.
Saturated steam (State 3)
All fluid is in the steam state, but even the slightest loss of energy from the system
would result in the formation of some liquid.
Superheated steam (The right of State 3)
All fluid is in the steam state and above the saturation state. The superheated steam
temperature is greater than the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure.

The same experiment can be conducted at several different pressures. We see
that as pressure increases, the temperature at which boiling occurs also increases.















P = 1.01325 bar
P = 5 bar
P = 10 bar
P = 80 bar
P = 150 bar
P = 221.2 bar
Critical point
374.15
T,
o
C
v,
m
3
/kg
Saturated
liquid
Saturated
steam
0.0031
7
T-v diagram of
constant pressure
phase change
processes of a pure
substance at various
pressures for water.


It can be seen that as pressure increases, the specific volume increase in the
liquid to steam transition will decrease.
At a pressure of 221.2 bar, the specific volume change which is associated to a
phase increase will disappear. Both liquid and steam will have the same specific
volume, 0.00317 m
3
/kg. This occurs at a temperature of 374.15
o
C. This state
represents an important transition in fluids and is termed the critical point.
If we connect the locus of points corresponding to the saturation condition, we
will obtain a diagram which allows easy identification of the distinct regions:


















The general shape of the P-v diagram of a pure substance is very much like the
T-v diagram, but the T = constant lines on this diagram have a downward trend, as
shown in Fig. 8.2-4.














P-v diagram of a pure substance
P
v
Critical
point
Saturated liquid line
Dry saturated steam line
T
2
= const.
T
1
= const.
COMPRESS
LIQUID
REGION
WET STEAM
REGION
SUPERHEATED
STEAM
REGION
T
2
> T
1

T
v
Critical
point
Saturated liquid line
Dry saturated steam line
P
2
= const.
P
1
= const.
COMPRESS
LIQUID
REGION
WET STEAM
REGION
SUPERHEATED
STEAM
REGION
P
2
> P
1

T-v diagram of a
pure substance






THE USE OF STEAM TABLES
The steam tables are available for a wide variety of substances which normally
exist in the vapour phase (e.g. steam, ammonia, freon, etc.). The steam tables which
will be used in this unit are those arranged by Mayhew and Rogers, which are suitable
for student use. The steam tables of Mayhew and Rogers are mainly concerned with
steam, but some properties of ammonia and freon-12 are also given.
Below is a list of the properties normally tabulated, with the symbols used
being those recommended by British Standard Specifications.

Symbols Units Description
p bar Absolute pressure of the fluid
t
s
o
C Saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure p
bar
v
f
m
3
/kg Specific volume of saturated liquid
v
g
m
3
/kg Specific volume of saturated steam
u
f
kJ/kg Specific internal energy of saturated liquid
u
g
kJ/kg Specific internal energy of saturated steam
h
f
kJ/kg Specific enthalpy of saturated liquid
h
g
kJ/kg Specific enthalpy of saturated steam
h
fg
kJ/kg Change of specific enthalpy during evaporation
s
f
kJ/kg K Specific entropy of saturated liquid
s
g
kJ/kg K Specific entropy of saturated steam
s
fg
kJ/kg K Change of specific entropy during evaporation
The property of steam tables

These steam tables are divided into two types:
Type 1: Saturated Water and Steam (Page 2 to 5 of steam tables)
Type 2: Superheated Steam (Page 6 to 8 of steam tables)



Complete the following table for Saturated Water and Steam:

t P
s
v
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g

o
C bar m
3
/kg
kJ/kg

kJ/kg K

0.01 206.1
0.02337 8.666
100 1.01325





Saturated Water and Steam Tables

The table of the saturation condition is divided into two parts.

Part 1
Part 1 refers to the values of temperature from 0.01
o
C to 100
o
C, followed by
values that are suitable for the temperatures stated in the table. Table 8.4.1-1 is an
example showing an extract from the temperature of 10
o
C.

t p
s
v
g

h
f
h
fg
h
g

s
f
s
fg
s
g

0
C bar
m
3
/kg

kJ/kg

kJ/kg K

10 0.01227
106.4

42.0 2477.2
2519.2

0.151 8.749
8.900

Saturated water and steam at a temperature of 10
o
C

Example 1








Solution
From page 2 of the steam tables, we can directly read:


t P
s
v
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g

o
C bar m
3
/kg
kJ/kg

kJ/kg K

1 0.006566 192.6 4.2 2498.3 2502.5 0.015 9.113 9.128
20 0.02337 57.84 83.9 2453.7 2537.6 0.296 8.370 8.666
100 1.01325 1.673 419.1 2256.7 2675.8 1.307 6.048 7.355

Complete the missing properties in the following table for Saturated Water
and Steam:

p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g

bar
o
C m
3
/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K
0.045 31.0 2558
10 0.1944
311.0 5.615



p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g

bar
o
C m
3
/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K
0.045 31.0 31.14 130 2418 130 2428 2558 0.451 7.980 8.431
10 179.9 0.1944 762 2584 763 2015 2778 2.138 4.448 6.586
100 311.0 0.01802 1393 2545 1408 1317 2725 3.360 2.255 5.615


Part 2
Part 2 (Page 3 to 5 of steam tables) is values of pressure from 0.006112 bar to
221.2 bar followed by values that are suitable for the pressures stated in the table.
Table 8.4.1-2 is an example showing an extract from the pressure of 1.0 bar.

p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g

bar
o
C
m
3
/kg
kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K
1.0 99.6
1.694
417
2506
417 2258 2675 1.303 6.056
7.359
Saturated water and steam at a pressure of 1.0 bar

f = property of the saturated liquid
g = property of the saturated steam
fg = change of the properties during evaporations

Example 2








Solution

From page 3 to page 5 of the steam tables, we can directly read:
PROPERTIES OF A WET MIXTURE

Between the saturated liquid and the saturated steam, there exist a mixture of
steam plus liquid (wet steam region). To denote the state of a liquid-steam mixture, it
is necessary to introduce a term describing the relative quantities of liquid and steam
in the mixture. This is called the dryness fraction (symbol x). Thus, in 1 kg of wet
mixture, there must be x kg of saturated steam plus (1 – x) kg of saturated liquid.







Liquid-steam mixture

The dryness fraction is defined as follows;





where m
total
= m
liquid
+ m
steam
















P-v diagram showing the location point of the dryness fraction

Specific volume
(1 - x ) kg of liquid
x kg of steam
total mass = 1 kg
At point A, x = 0
At point B, x = 1
Between point A and B, 0 < x < 1.0

Note that for a saturated liquid, x = 0;
and that for dry saturated steam, x = 1.

Sat. liquid
Sat. steam
Sat. liquid
P
v
t
s
A B
x = 0.2 x = 0.8
v
f
v
g
Sat. steam
mass total
steam saturated dry of mass
fraction dryness =
total
steam
m
m
x =
For a wet steam, the total volume of the mixture is given by the volume of
liquid present plus the volume of dry steam present.

Therefore, the specific volume is given by,

Now for 1 kg of wet steam, there are (1 – x) kg of liquid and x kg of dry steam,
where x is the dryness fraction as defined earlier. Hence,

v = v
f
(1 – x) + v
g
x

The volume of the liquid is usually negligibly small as compared to the volume of dry
saturated steam. Hence, for most practical problems,

v = xv
g
(8.2)

Where,
v
f
= specific volume of saturated liquid (m
3
/kg)
v
g
= specific volume of saturated steam (m
3
/kg)
x = dryness fraction

Specific enthalpy
In the analysis of certain types of processes, particularly in power generation
and refrigeration, we frequently encounter the combination of properties
U + PV. For the sake of simplicity and convenience, this combination is defined as a
new property, enthalpy, and given the symbol H.

H = U + PV (kJ)

or, per unit mass

h = u + Pv (kJ/kg)

The enthalpy of wet steam is given by the sum of the enthalpy of the liquid plus the
enthalpy of the dry steam,

h = h
f
+ xh
fg


Where,
h
f
= specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg)
steam wet of mass total
steam dry of volume liquid a of volume +
= v
For a steam at 20 bar with a dryness fraction of 0.9, calculate the
a) specific volume
b) specific enthalpy
c) specific internal energy
h
g
= specific enthalpy of saturated steam (kJ/kg)
h
fg
= difference between h
g
and h
f
(that is, h
fg
= h
g
- h
f
)

8.3.3 Specific Internal Energy
Similarly, the specific internal energy of a wet steam is given by the internal
energy of the liquid plus the internal energy of the dry steam,
u = u
f
+ x(u
g –
u
f
)

Specific Entropy
The entropy of wet steam is given by the sum of the entropy of the liquid plus
the entropy of the dry steam,
s = s
f
+ xs
fg



Summary:

v = xv
g

h = h
f
+ xh
fg

u = u
f
+ x(u
g –
u
f
)
s = s
f
+ xs
fg


Example 3





Solution
An extract from the steam tables

p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g

20 212.4 0.09957 907 2600 909 1890 2799 2.447 3.893 6.340

a) v = xv
g

= 0.9(0.09957)
= 0.0896 m
3
/kg

b) h = h
f
+ xh
fg

= 909 + 0.9(1890)
= 2610 kJ/kg

c) u = u
f
+ x( u
g
-u
f
)
= 907 + 0.9(2600 - 907)
= 2430.7 kJ/kg










Example 4

Find the dryness fraction, specific volume and specific enthalpy of steam at 8
bar and specific internal energy 2450 kJ/kg.

Solution
An extract from the steam tables,

p t
s
v
g
u
f
u
g
h
f
h
fg
h
g
s
f
s
fg
s
g

8 170.4 0.2403 720 2577 721 2048 2769 2.046 4.617 6.663

At 8 bar, u
g
= 2577 kJ/kg, since the actual specific internal energy is given as 2450
kJ/kg, the steam must be in the wet steam state ( u < u
g
).

u = u
f
+ x(u
g
-u
f
)
2450 = 720 + x(2577 - 720)
x = 0.932

v = xv
g

= 0.932 (0.2403)
= 0.2240 m
3
/kg
P
bar
v m
3
/kg
t
s
= 212.4
o
C
v
u
h
s
v
g
u
g

h
g

s
g

x = 0.9
20

u
f

h
f

s
f

P
bar
v m
3
/kg
t
s
= 170.4
o
C
v v
g
x = 0.932
8
h = h
f
+ xh
fg
= 721 + 0.932 (2048)
= 2629.7 kJ/kg

SUPERHEATED STEAM TABLES

The second part of the table is the superheated steam tables. The values of the
specific properties of a superheated steam are normally listed in separate tables for the
selected values of pressure and temperature.
A steam is called superheated when its temperature is greater than the
saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure. When the pressure and
temperature are given for the superheated steam then the state is defined and all the
other properties can be found. For example, steam at 10 bar and 200
o
C is
superheated since the saturation temperature at 10 bar is 179.9
o
C. The steam at this
state has a degree of superheat of 200
o
C – 179.9
o
C = 20.1
o
C. The equation of
degree of superheat is:



The tables of properties of superheated steam range in pressure from 0.006112
bar to the critical pressure of 221.2 bar. At each pressure, there is a range of
temperature up to high degrees of superheat, and the values of specific volume,
internal energy, enthalpy and entropy are tabulated.
For the pressure above 70 bar, the specific internal energy is not tabulated.
The specific internal energy is calculated using the equation:



For reference, the saturation temperature is inserted in brackets under each
pressure in the superheat tables and values of v
g
, u
g
, h
g
and

s
g
are also given.
A specimen row of values is shown in Table 8.5.2. For example, from the
superheated table at 10 bar and 200
o
C, the specific volume is 0.2061 m
3
/kg and the
specific enthalpy is 2829 kJ/kg.

p
(t
s
)

t 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600

10
(179.9)
v
g

0.1944
v 0.206
1
0.232
8
0.258
0
0.282
5
0.306
5
0.330
3
0.354
0
0.401
0
u
g
2584 u 2623 2711 2794 2875 2957 3040 3124 3297
h
g
2778 h 2829 2944 3052 3158 3264 3370 3478 3698
s
g
6.586 s 6.695 6.926 7.124 7.301 7.464 7.617 7.761 8.028
Superheated steam at a pressure of 10 bar


Degree of superheat = t
superheat
– t
saturation

u = h – pv
Complete the missing properties in the following table for Superheated Steam:
p
(t
s
)

t 300 350 400 450

40
(250.3)
v
g
0.0498 v 0.0800
u
g
2602 u 2921
h
g
2801 h 3094
s
g
6.070 s 6.364

Example 5










Solution
From the steam tables, we can directly read
p
(t
s
)

t 300 350 400 450

40
(250.3)
v
g
0.0498 v 0.0588 0.0664 0.0733 0.0800
u
g
2602 u 2728 2828 2921 3010
h
g
2801 h 2963 3094 3214 3330
s
g
6.070 s 6.364 6.584 6.769 6.935

Example 6
Steam at 100 bar has a specific volume of 0.02812 m
3
/kg. Find the temperature,
degree of superheat, specific enthalpy and specific internal energy.
Solution
First, it is necessary to decide whether the steam is wet, dry saturated or superheated.
At 100 bar, v
g
= 0.01802 m
3
/kg. This is less than the actual specific volume of
0.02812 m
3
/kg. Hence, the steam is superheated. The state of the steam is at point A
in the diagram below.











P
bar
v m
3
/kg
t
s
=

311.0

o
C
100
425

o
C
vg= 0.01802
v = 0.02812
A

An extract from the superheated table,
p
(t
s
)
t 425

100
(311.0)
v
g
0.01802 v x 10
-2
2.812
h
g
2725
h 3172
s
g
5.615
s 6.321

From the superheated table at 100 bar, the specific volume is 0.02812 m
3
/kg at
a temperature of 425
o
C. Hence, this is the isothermal line, which passes through
point A as shown in the P-v diagram above.

Degree of superheat = 425
o
C – 311
o
C
= 114
o
C

So, at 100 bar and 425
o
C, we have
v = 2.812 x 10
-2
m
3
/kg
h = 3172 kJ/kg

From equation 8.6,
u = h – Pv
= 3172 kJ/kg – (100 x 10
2
kN/m
2
)(2.812 x 10
-2
m
3
/kg)
= 2890.8 kJ/kg

Interpolation

The first interpolation problem that an engineer usually meets is that of
“reading between the lines” of a published table, like the Steam Tables. For
properties which are not tabulated exactly in the tables, it is necessary to interpolate
between the values tabulated as shown in Fig. 8.5-1 below. In this process it is
customary to use a straight line that passes through two adjacent table points, denoted
by o and |. If we use the straight line then it is called “interpolation”.








Interpolation
f(x)
x
o |
Interpolation
The values in the tables are given in regular increments of temperature and
pressure. Often we wish to know the value of thermodynamic properties at
intermediate values. It is common to use linear interpolation as shown in Fig. 8.5-2.









Linear interpolation

From Figure above the value of x can be determined by:

( )( )
( )
1
1 2
1 2 1
1 2
1 2
1
1
x
y y
x x y y
x
y y
x x
y y
x x
+
÷
÷ ÷
=
÷
÷
=
÷
÷


There are two methods of interpolation:
i. Single interpolation
ii. Double interpolation


Single interpolation
Single interpolation is used to find the values in the table when one of the
values is not tabulated. For example, to find the saturation temperature, specific
volume, internal energy and enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 77 bar, it is necessary
to interpolate between the values given in the table.

Example 7
Determine the saturation temperature at 77 bar.

Solution
The values of saturation temperature at a pressure of 77 bars are not tabulated
in the Steam Tables. So, we need to interpolate between the two nearest values that
are tabulated in the Steam Tables.

y
x

y
2
y
y
1
x
1 x

x
2

(x
2
, y
2
)
(x , y)
(x
1
, y
1
)

75 80
5 . 290 295
75 77
5 . 290
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
s
t



5
5 . 290 295
2
5 . 290 ÷
=
÷
s
t



( )
5 . 290
5
5 . 4 2
+ =
s
t

t
s
= 292.3
o
C

Example 8
Determine the specific enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 103 bar.
Solution

h
g
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
2725
103 100
2715 2725
105 100



( )
h
g
=
÷
+
3 10
5
2725

2719 =
g
h kJ/kg


Example 9
Determine the specific volume of steam at 8 bar and 220
o
C.
Solution
From the Steam Tables at 8 bar, the saturated temperature (t
s
) is 170.4
o
C.
The steam is at superheated condition as the temperature of the steam is 220
o
C > t
s
.

An extract from the Steam Tables,
p / (bar)
(t
s
/
o
C)
t 200 220 250
(
o
C)
8
(170.4)
v 0.2610 v 0.2933


v ÷
÷
=
÷
÷
02610
220 200
02933 02610
250 200
. . .


v = 027392 . m
3
/kg
P
t
s
80
77
75
290.5
t
s 295
P
h
g

105
103
100
2725
h
g 2715
P
v


250
220
200
0.2610
v
0.2933
Double Interpolation

In some cases a double interpolation is necessary, and it’s usually used in the
Superheated Steam Table. Double interpolation must be used when two of the
properties (eg. temperature and pressure) are not tabulated in the Steam Tables. For
example, to find the enthalpy of superheated steam at 25 bar and 320
o
C, an
interpolation between 20 bar and 30 bar is necessary (as shown in example 8.9). An
interpolation between 300
o
C and 350
o
C is also necessary.

Example 10
Determine the specific enthalpy of superheated steam at 25 bar and 320
o
C.

Solution
An extract from the Superheated Steam Tables:

t(
o
C)
p(bar)
300 320 350
20 3025 h
1
3138
25 h
30 2995 h
2
3117

Firstly, find the specific enthalpy (h
1
) at 20 bar and 320
o
C;

At 20 bar,


300 350
3025 3138
300 320
3025
1
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ h


2 . 3070
1
= h kJ/kg



Secondly, find the specific enthalpy (h
2
) at 30 bar and 320
o
C;

300 350
2995 3117
300 320
2995
2
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ h


8 . 3043
2
= h kJ/kg


T
h

350
320
300
3025
h
1 3138
T
h

350
320
300
2995
h
2 3117
Now interpolate between h
1
at 20 bar, 320
o
C, and h
2
at 30 bar, 320
o
C in order to find
h at 25 bar and 320
o
C.



20 30 20 25
1 2 1
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ h h h h


h ÷
÷
=
÷
÷
30702
25 20
30438 30702
30 20
. . .


h = 3057 kJ/kg.


Example 11
0.9 m
3
of dry saturated steam at 225 kN/m
2
is contained in a rigid cylinder. If it is
cooled at constant volume process until the pressure drops to180 kN/m
2
, determine
the following:
a) mass of steam in the cylinder
b) dryness fraction at the final state

Sketch the process in the form of a P-v diagram.
Solution
Data: V
1
= 0.9 m
3
, P
1
= 225 kN/m
2
= 2.25 bar,

P
2
= 180 kN/m
2
= 1.80 bar


a) Firstly, find the specific volume of dry saturated steam at 2.25 bar. Note that
the pressure 2.25 bar is not tabulated in the steam tables and it is necessary to use the
interpolation method.

From the Steam Tables,
v
g
at 2.2 bar = 0.8100 m
3
/kg
v
g
at 2.3 bar = 0.7770 m
3
/kg

v
g1
at 2.25 bar,
20 . 2 30 . 2
8100 . 0 7770 . 0
20 . 2 25 . 2
8100 . 0
1
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
g
v


v
g1
= 0.7935 m
3
/kg

Mass of steam in cylinder,
1
1
g
v
V
m = (m
3
x kg/m
3
)


= 1.134 kg
P
h

30
25
20
h
1
h
h
2
b) At constant volume process,
Initial specific volume = final specific volume
v
1
= v
2

x
1
v
g1
at 2.25 bar = x
2
v
g2
at 1.8 bar
1(0.7935) = x
2
(0.9774)

9774 . 0
) 7935 . 0 ( 1
2
= x
= 0.81



































P
bar
1.80
2.25
v m
3
/kg
1
2
0.7935 0.9774
v
1
= v
2

TUTORIAL
1. Each line in the table below gives information about phases of pure
substances. Fill in the phase column in the table with the correct answer.
Statement Phase
The molecules are closely bound, they are also relatively
dense and unable to expand to fill a space. However they are
no longer rigidly structured so that they are free to move
within a fixed volume.

i._____________

The molecules are closely bound, they are relatively dense
and arranged in a rigid three-dimensional patterns so that they
do not easily deform.

ii.____________

The molecules virtually do not attract each other. The
distance between the molecules are not as close as those in the
solid and liquid phases. They are not arranged in a fixed
pattern. There is neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape for
steam.


iii.____________


2. Write the suitable names of the phases for the H
2
O in the P-v diagram below.













3. Answer question below:
a. The internal energy of wet steam is 2000 kJ/kg. If the pressure is 42 bar, what is
the value of dryness fraction?

b. Determine the specific volume, specific enthalpy and specific internal energy of
wet steam at 32 bar if the dryness fraction is 0.92.

4. Find the dryness fraction, specific volume and specific internal energy of
steam at 105 bar and specific enthalpy 2100 kJ/kg.

P
v
( vi )
( ii )
( iv )
T
2
= const.
T
1
= const.
( i )
( iii)
( v )
T
2
> T
1


5. Steam at 120 bar is at 500
o
C. Find the degree of superheat, specific volume,
specific enthalpy and specific internal energy.

6. Steam at 160 bar has a specific enthalpy of 3139 kJ/kg. Find the temperature,
degree of superheat, specific enthalpy and specific internal energy.

7 Determine the specific enthalpy of steam at 15 bar and 275
o
C.

8. Determine the degree of superheat and entropy of steam at 10 bar and 380
o
C.

9. A superheated steam at 12.5 MN/m
2
is at 650
o
C. Determine its specific
volume.

10. A superheated steam at 24 bar and 500
o
C expands at constant volume until the
pressure becomes 6 bar and the dryness fraction is 0.9. Calculate the changes in the
internal energy of steam. Sketch the process in the form of a P-v diagram.

(a) Virtually do not attract each other. The distance between the molecules are not as close as those in the solid and liquid phases; (b) Are not arranged in a fixed pattern. There is neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape for steam. The three phases described above are illustrated in Figure below. The following are discovered: (a) The positions of the molecules are relatively fixed in a solid phase; (b) Chunks of molecules float about each other in the liquid phase; and (c) The molecules move about at random in the steam phase.

(a)

(b)

(c)

The arrangement of atoms in different phases PHASE-CHANGE PROCESS The distinction between steam and liquid is usually made (in an elementary manner) by stating that both will take up the shape of their containers. However liquid will present a free surface if it does not completely fill its container. Steam on the other hand will always fill its container. A container is filled with water, and a moveable, frictionless piston is placed on the container at State 1, as shown in Figure below. As heat is added to the system, the temperature of the system will increase. Note that the pressure on the system is being kept constant by the weight of the piston. The continued addition of heat will cause the temperature of the system to increase until the pressure of the steam generated exactly balances the pressure of the atmosphere plus the pressure due to the weight of the piston.
STATE 1 STATE 2 STATE 3 STATE 4

W W W W

Heating water and steam at constant pressure
Superheated

Liqui d

Steam

Steam

and the further addition of heat will cause the temperature of steam to increase at constant system pressure. the mixture is said to be wet steam. We plot this state at point 1 on the diagram. We may plot the locus of such points along the line from State 1 to State 2. At this temperature and pressure we may measure the specific volume (1/ = 1/1000 kg/m3). In addition. vaporization will continue at constant temperature. If we proceed to heat the water. We speak of liquid in one of these conditions as being compressed or subcooled liquid. oC 300 4 Superheated steam 2 Saturated mixture 3 100 Compressed liquid 20 1 v. As long as liquid is present. water expands slightly as it is heated which makes the specific volume increase slightly. the liquid that was at saturation will start to vaporize until State 2. we start with a mass of water at 1 atm pressure and room temperature. Consider the following diagram in which the specific volume of H2O is presented as a function of temperature and pressure: T. This state is called the superheated state. figures provide us with a clearer understanding of trends and patterns. and the steam is said to be superheated steam as shown in State 4. only steam is present at State 3. Saturated and Superheated Steam While tables provide a convenient way of presenting precise numerical presentations of data. and both the liquid and steam are saturated.At this point. the temperature will rise. The twophase mixture of steam and liquid at State 2 has only one degree of freedom. As more heat is added. m3/kg T-v diagram for the heating process of water at constant pressure Imagine that we are to run an experiment. and as long as liquid is present. . After all the liquid is vaporized. In this experiment. the steam and liquid are said to be saturated.

States to the right of State 3 are said to be superheated steam. As we continue to heat past the boiling point 2. Summary of nomenclature: Compressed or subcooled liquid (Between States 1 & 2) A liquid state in which the fluid remains entirely within the liquid state. Saturated liquid (State 2) All fluid is in the liquid state. The same experiment can be conducted at several different pressures. the temperature of the steam again rises as we add energy.State 2 is selected to correspond to the boiling point (100 oC). The temperature of the water no longer continues to rise. oC Critical point P = 221. We see that as pressure increases. This is the saturated steam state.2 bar P = 150 bar P = 80 bar P = 10 bar P = 5 bar P = 1. At State 3. Saturated steam (State 3) All fluid is in the steam state. even the slightest addition of energy would result in the formation of some vapour. liquid progressively changes to steam phase at a constant temperature but with an increasing specific volume.0031 7 Saturated steam v. a fundamental change occurs in the process. This is also known as the quality region. m3/kg . Instead. In this part of the process. We speak of State 2 as being the saturated liquid state. but ready to boil. the temperature at which boiling occurs also increases.15 T-v diagram of constant pressure phase change processes of a pure substance at various pressures for water. but even the slightest loss of energy from the system would result in the formation of some liquid. Saturated liquid 0. which means that all of the water is in still liquid form. we speak of the water as being a saturated mixture (liquid + steam). The superheated steam temperature is greater than the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure. Superheated steam (The right of State 3) All fluid is in the steam state and above the saturation state. and below the saturation state. as we continue to add energy. Saturated Liquid-Steam or Wet Steam Region (Between States 2 & 3) Liquid and steam exist together in a mixture. However. T. As we continue to heat the steam beyond State 3. all liquid will have been vaporised.01325 bar 374.

P Critical point SUPERHEATED STEAM REGION COMPRESS LIQUID REGION WET STEAM REGION Saturated liquid line Dry saturated steam line T2 = const. If we connect the locus of points corresponding to the saturation condition.2 bar.2-4. the specific volume increase in the liquid to steam transition will decrease. This occurs at a temperature of 374. Both liquid and steam will have the same specific volume. T1 = const. as shown in Fig.It can be seen that as pressure increases. T2 > T1 v P-v diagram of a pure substance . we will obtain a diagram which allows easy identification of the distinct regions: T Critical point COMPRESS LIQUID REGION Saturated liquid line Dry saturated steam line P2 = const. the specific volume change which is associated to a phase increase will disappear. This state represents an important transition in fluids and is termed the critical point. SUPERHEATED STEAM REGION WET STEAM REGION P2 > P1 T-v diagram of a pure substance v The general shape of the P-v diagram of a pure substance is very much like the T-v diagram. At a pressure of 221.00317 m3/kg. 8. but the T = constant lines on this diagram have a downward trend. 0.15 oC. P1 = const.

steam.THE USE OF STEAM TABLES The steam tables are available for a wide variety of substances which normally exist in the vapour phase (e. Symbols p ts vf vg uf ug hf hg hfg sf sg sfg Units bar o Description Absolute pressure of the fluid Saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure p bar Specific volume of saturated liquid Specific volume of saturated steam Specific internal energy of saturated liquid Specific internal energy of saturated steam Specific enthalpy of saturated liquid Specific enthalpy of saturated steam Change of specific enthalpy during evaporation Specific entropy of saturated liquid Specific entropy of saturated steam C m3/kg m3/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg K kJ/kg K kJ/kg K Change of specific entropy during evaporation The property of steam tables These steam tables are divided into two types: Type 1: Saturated Water and Steam (Page 2 to 5 of steam tables) Type 2: Superheated Steam (Page 6 to 8 of steam tables) . Below is a list of the properties normally tabulated. The steam tables which will be used in this unit are those arranged by Mayhew and Rogers. The steam tables of Mayhew and Rogers are mainly concerned with steam. but some properties of ammonia and freon-12 are also given. ammonia.). etc. with the symbols used being those recommended by British Standard Specifications. which are suitable for student use. freon.g.

5 2537.1 hfg kJ/kg 2498.02337 1.900 Saturated water and steam at a temperature of 10 oC 8.2 0.4.7 2256. followed by values that are suitable for the temperatures stated in the table.355 C 1 20 100 .01325 vg m /kg 192.01 100 8.666 7.01227 42.6 57. Table 8.4 0. Part 1 Part 1 refers to the values of temperature from 0.3 2453.2 8.02337 1.6 2675.113 8. t 0 ps vg bar hf hfg kJ/kg hg sf sfg kJ/kg K sg C m3/kg 10 106.2 83.0 2477.015 0. we can directly read: t o Ps bar 0.749 Example 1 Complete the following table for Saturated Water and Steam: t o Ps bar 0.307 sfg kJ/kg K 9.128 8.370 6.1 hf hfg kJ/kg hg sf sfg kJ/kg K sg C 0.Saturated Water and Steam Tables The table of the saturation condition is divided into two parts.8 sf 0.9 419.01oC to 100oC.01325 vg m3/kg 206.296 1.006566 0.666 Solution From page 2 of the steam tables.84 1.7 hg 2502.048 sg 9.1-1 is an example showing an extract from the temperature of 10oC.151 2519.673 3 hf 4.

586 5.255 sg 8.14 0.359 Saturated water and steam at a pressure of 1.4.431 6.0 0.6 417 417 2258 2675 1.615 C kJ/kg 130 2418 762 2584 31.303 1.694 2506 7.2 bar followed by values that are suitable for the pressures stated in the table.0 bar f = property of the saturated liquid g = property of the saturated steam fg = change of the properties during evaporations Example 2 Complete the missing properties in the following table for Saturated Water and Steam: p bar 0. p ts vg uf ug kJ/kg hf hfg kJ/kg hg sf sfg kJ/kg K 6.1-2 is an example showing an extract from the pressure of 1. we can directly read: p bar 0.Part 2 Part 2 (Page 3 to 5 of steam tables) is values of pressure from 0.451 2.01802 1393 2545 1408 1317 2725 .0 ts o vg m3/kg uf ug hf hfg kJ/kg hg 2558 sf sfg kJ/kg K sg C kJ/kg 31.615 Solution From page 3 to page 5 of the steam tables.045 10 311.138 3.360 sfg kJ/kg K 7.006112 bar to 221.448 2.0 bar.1944 3 uf ug hf 130 763 hfg kJ/kg hg sf 0.1944 5.0 0.056 sg bar oC m3/kg 1.0 99. Table 8.980 4.0 179.9 2428 2558 2015 2778 311.045 10 100 ts o vg m /kg 31.

This is called the dryness fraction (symbol x).x ) kg of liquid Liquid-steam mixture The dryness fraction is defined as follows. Thus. steam Sat.PROPERTIES OF A WET MIXTURE Between the saturated liquid and the saturated steam. in 1 kg of wet mixture. dryness fraction  mass of dry saturated steam total mass x msteam mtotal where mtotal = mliquid + msteam Sat. liquid P x = 0. there exist a mixture of steam plus liquid (wet steam region). there must be x kg of saturated steam plus (1 – x) kg of saturated liquid. x = 1.0 Note that for a saturated liquid. and that for dry saturated steam. x kg of steam total mass = 1 kg (1 .8 At point A. 0  x  1. x = 0 At point B. x = 1 Between point A and B. liquid Sat.2 x = 0. it is necessary to introduce a term describing the relative quantities of liquid and steam in the mixture. A B ts vf vg v P-v diagram showing the location point of the dryness fraction Specific volume . steam Sat. x = 0. To denote the state of a liquid-steam mixture.

Therefore. v = vf(1 – x) + vgx The volume of the liquid is usually negligibly small as compared to the volume of dry saturated steam. this combination is defined as a new property. Hence. per unit mass h = u + Pv (kJ/kg) (8. for most practical problems. the specific volume is given by. we frequently encounter the combination of properties U + PV. enthalpy. particularly in power generation and refrigeration. vf = specific volume of saturated liquid (m3/kg) vg = specific volume of saturated steam (m3/kg) x = dryness fraction Specific enthalpy In the analysis of certain types of processes. there are (1 – x) kg of liquid and x kg of dry steam.2) The enthalpy of wet steam is given by the sum of the enthalpy of the liquid plus the enthalpy of the dry steam. and given the symbol H. v volume of a liquid  volume of dry steam total mass of wet steam Now for 1 kg of wet steam. For the sake of simplicity and convenience.For a wet steam. the total volume of the mixture is given by the volume of liquid present plus the volume of dry steam present. H = U + PV (kJ) or. h = hf + xhfg Where. v = xvg Where. Hence. where x is the dryness fraction as defined earlier. hf = specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg) .

09957 907 2600 909 1890 2799 2. calculate the a) specific volume b) specific enthalpy c) specific internal energy Solution An extract from the steam tables p 20 a) ts vg uf ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg 212.4 0.7 kJ/kg v = xvg = 0.907) = 2430. the specific internal energy of a wet steam is given by the internal energy of the liquid plus the internal energy of the dry steam.3 Specific Internal Energy Similarly.9(1890) = 2610 kJ/kg . hfg = hg .hg = specific enthalpy of saturated steam (kJ/kg) hfg = difference between hg and hf (that is.893 6. s = sf + xsfg Summary: v = xvg h = hf + xhfg u = uf + x(ug – uf ) s = sf + xsfg Example 3 For a steam at 20 bar with a dryness fraction of 0.0896 m3/kg b) h = hf + xhfg = 909 + 0. u = uf + x(ug – uf ) Specific Entropy The entropy of wet steam is given by the sum of the entropy of the liquid plus the entropy of the dry steam.9(0.340 c) u = uf + x( ug -uf ) = 907 + 0.447 3.3.hf ) 8.9.09957) = 0.9(2600 .

4 oC v m3/kg uf hf sf v u h s vg ug hg sg Example 4 Find the dryness fraction.617 6.4 0.932 8 ts = 170.2403 720 2577 721 2048 2769 2.9 20 ts = 212. since the actual specific internal energy is given as 2450 kJ/kg.932 v = xvg = 0.P bar x = 0. u = uf + x(ug -uf) 2450 = 720 + x(2577 .4 oC v vg v m3/kg .720) x = 0. the steam must be in the wet steam state ( u < ug). p 8 ts vg uf ug hf hfg hg sf sfg sg 170.046 4.663 At 8 bar. specific volume and specific enthalpy of steam at 8 bar and specific internal energy 2450 kJ/kg.932 (2048) = 2629.2403) = 0. ug = 2577 kJ/kg.932 (0. Solution An extract from the steam tables.2240 m3/kg h = hf + xhfg = 721 + 0.7 kJ/kg P bar x = 0.

5. there is a range of temperature up to high degrees of superheat.9) ug 2584 u 2623 2711 2794 2875 2957 3040 3124 3297 hg 2778 h 2829 2944 3052 3158 3264 3370 3478 3698 sg 6.2061 m3/kg and the specific enthalpy is 2829 kJ/kg.9 oC = 20. A specimen row of values is shown in Table 8.1 oC.2. For example.006112 bar to the critical pressure of 221.301 7.926 7.028 Superheated steam at a pressure of 10 bar . The specific internal energy is calculated using the equation: u = h – pv For reference.9 oC. ug. and the values of specific volume.206 0.282 0. The steam at this state has a degree of superheat of 200 oC – 179. p (ts) t 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 vg v 0.354 0.232 0. internal energy. steam at 10 bar and 200 oC is superheated since the saturation temperature at 10 bar is 179.761 8. the saturation temperature is inserted in brackets under each pressure in the superheat tables and values of vg.2 bar. The values of the specific properties of a superheated steam are normally listed in separate tables for the selected values of pressure and temperature. from the superheated table at 10 bar and 200 oC.SUPERHEATED STEAM TABLES The second part of the table is the superheated steam tables. The equation of degree of superheat is: Degree of superheat = tsuperheat – tsaturation The tables of properties of superheated steam range in pressure from 0.617 7.401 10 0. the specific internal energy is not tabulated. A steam is called superheated when its temperature is greater than the saturation temperature corresponding to the pressure.1944 1 8 0 5 5 3 0 0 (179. When the pressure and temperature are given for the superheated steam then the state is defined and all the other properties can be found.124 7. the specific volume is 0.258 0.464 7. enthalpy and entropy are tabulated. hg and sg are also given. For example. For the pressure above 70 bar.586 s 6.695 6.330 0. At each pressure.306 0.

0498 v 0. The state of the steam is at point A in the diagram below.02812 m3/kg.01802 v = 0. dry saturated or superheated.769 6.Example 5 Complete the missing properties in the following table for Superheated Steam: p t 300 350 400 450 (ts) vg 0. Solution First.02812 .364 Solution From the steam tables. At 100 bar.0588 0. Find the temperature.584 6. we can directly read p t 300 350 400 450 (ts) vg 0.3) hg 2801 h 2963 3094 3214 3330 sg 6.0800 40 ug 2602 u 2728 2828 2921 3010 (250. specific enthalpy and specific internal energy.02812 m3/kg. degree of superheat.364 6.0498 v 0. P bar 100 A 425 oC ts = 311. Hence.070 s 6.0 oC v m3/kg vg= 0. the steam is superheated.3) hg 2801 h 3094 sg 6.0733 0. vg = 0.070 s 6.935 Example 6 Steam at 100 bar has a specific volume of 0.01802 m3/kg.0800 40 ug 2602 u 2921 (250. This is less than the actual specific volume of 0.0664 0. it is necessary to decide whether the steam is wet.

For properties which are not tabulated exactly in the tables. which passes through point A as shown in the P-v diagram above.02812 m3/kg at a temperature of 425 oC. u = h – Pv = 3172 kJ/kg – (100 x 102 kN/m2)(2. denoted by  and .01802 hg 2725 t v x 10-2 h s 425 2. it is necessary to interpolate between the values tabulated as shown in Fig.812 x 10-2 m3/kg) = 2890.812 3172 6.5-1 below.0) sg 5. p (ts) 100 vg 0. the specific volume is 0.321 (311. f(x) Interpolation   Interpolation x .615 From the superheated table at 100 bar. 8. like the Steam Tables. this is the isothermal line. If we use the straight line then it is called “interpolation”.812 x 10-2 m3/kg h = 3172 kJ/kg  From equation 8.8 kJ/kg Interpolation The first interpolation problem that an engineer usually meets is that of “reading between the lines” of a published table. In this process it is customary to use a straight line that passes through two adjacent table points. we have v = 2. Hence. at 100 bar and 425 oC.An extract from the superheated table. Degree of superheat = 425 oC – 311 oC = 114 oC So.6.

The values in the tables are given in regular increments of temperature and pressure. internal energy and enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 77 bar. specific volume. Single interpolation ii. y y2 y y1 (x1 . we need to interpolate between the two nearest values that are tabulated in the Steam Tables. 8. y2) Linear interpolation From Figure above the value of x can be determined by: x  x1 x 2  x1  y  y1 y 2  y1 x  y  y1 x2  x1   x 1  y 2  y1  There are two methods of interpolation: i. Example 7 Determine the saturation temperature at 77 bar. Double interpolation Single interpolation Single interpolation is used to find the values in the table when one of the values is not tabulated. . it is necessary to interpolate between the values given in the table. It is common to use linear interpolation as shown in Fig. y) (x2 . Often we wish to know the value of thermodynamic properties at intermediate values. to find the saturation temperature.5-2. Solution The values of saturation temperature at a pressure of 77 bars are not tabulated in the Steam Tables. y1) x x1 x x2 (x . For example. So.

5 295  290.5 295  290. An extract from the Steam Tables.2610 0.5  77  75 80  75 t s  290.2610  220  200 250  200 v  0.2933 v  0.5  2 5 290.4 oC.27392 m3/kg v 0.5  290.P 80 77 75 ts 295 t s  290.2610 v 0. the saturated temperature (ts) is 170.5 5 ts = 292. Solution P 105 103 100 hg 2715 hg  2725 103  100  2715  2725 105  100 hg  3 10  2725 5 hg  2719 kJ/kg 2725 hg Example 9 Determine the specific volume of steam at 8 bar and 220oC.2933 .2933  0. The steam is at superheated condition as the temperature of the steam is 220oC > ts.3 oC Example 8 Determine the specific enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 103 bar.4) P 250 220 200 t (oC) 200 0. p / (bar) (ts / oC) 8 v (170.5 ts ts  24. Solution From the Steam Tables at 8 bar.2610 220 v 250 0.

An interpolation between 300oC and 350oC is also necessary. to find the enthalpy of superheated steam at 25 bar and 320oC.Double Interpolation In some cases a double interpolation is necessary. and it’s usually used in the Superheated Steam Table.9). T 350 320 300 h 3025 h1 3138 h1  3025 3138  3025  320  300 350  300 h1  3070. For example. Example 10 Determine the specific enthalpy of superheated steam at 25 bar and 320oC. an interpolation between 20 bar and 30 bar is necessary (as shown in example 8. T 350 320 300 h 2995 h2 3117 h2  2995 3117  2995  320  300 350  300 h2  3043. find the specific enthalpy (h1) at 20 bar and 320 oC. Double interpolation must be used when two of the properties (eg. At 20 bar.8 kJ/kg . find the specific enthalpy (h2) at 30 bar and 320 oC. temperature and pressure) are not tabulated in the Steam Tables. Solution An extract from the Superheated Steam Tables: t(oC) p(bar) 20 25 30 2995 300 3025 320 h1 h h2 3117 350 3138 Firstly.2 kJ/kg Secondly.

find the specific volume of dry saturated steam at 2. h  h1 h  h1  2 25  20 30  20 P 30 25 20 h  3070.9 m3 of dry saturated steam at 225 kN/m2 is contained in a rigid cylinder.25 bar.8100  2.25 bar is not tabulated in the steam tables and it is necessary to use the interpolation method.7770 m3/kg vg1 at 2. If it is cooled at constant volume process until the pressure drops to180 kN/m2. P2 = 180 kN/m2 = 1. m  V1 vg1 (m3 x kg/m3) = 1. determine the following: a) mass of steam in the cylinder b) dryness fraction at the final state Sketch the process in the form of a P-v diagram.  25  20 30  20 h  3057 kJ/kg.Now interpolate between h1 at 20 bar.25 bar.7770  0.2 bar = 0. 320oC in order to find h at 25 bar and 320oC.7935 m3/kg  Mass of steam in cylinder.80 bar a) Firstly.8100 0.9 m3 . Note that the pressure 2.25 bar.20 2.134 kg . Solution Data: V1 = 0.3 bar = 0. P1 = 225 kN/m2 = 2.2 30438  3070. h h1 h h2 Example 11 0.2 .25  2. vg at 2. From the Steam Tables. and h2 at 30 bar. v g1  0.30  2.20 vg1  0.8100 m3/kg vg at 2. 320oC.

81 bar 2. Initial specific volume = final specific volume v1 = v2 x1vg1 at 2.25 bar = x2vg2 at 1.7935 0.7935) x2  0.b) At constant volume process.9774 .9774) 1(0.25 1.80 1 v1 = v2 2 v m3/kg 0.8 bar 1(0.9774 P = 0.7935) = x2 (0.

specific volume and specific internal energy of steam at 105 bar and specific enthalpy 2100 kJ/kg.TUTORIAL 1. ( iii) T2 > T1 T1 = const. Determine the specific volume. 2. There is neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape for steam. The internal energy of wet steam is 2000 kJ/kg. However they are i. 4. they are also relatively dense and unable to expand to fill a space.____________ do not easily deform. Each line in the table below gives information about phases of pure substances. Fill in the phase column in the table with the correct answer. The molecules virtually do not attract each other. Answer question below: a. The molecules are closely bound. ( ii ) P ( iv ) ( vi ) (v) (i) T2 = const. Write the suitable names of the phases for the H2O in the P-v diagram below. 3. v . The distance between the molecules are not as close as those in the solid and liquid phases. Statement Phase The molecules are closely bound.____________ pattern. They are not arranged in a fixed iii. specific enthalpy and specific internal energy of wet steam at 32 bar if the dryness fraction is 0. what is the value of dryness fraction? b. If the pressure is 42 bar._____________ no longer rigidly structured so that they are free to move within a fixed volume.92. they are relatively dense and arranged in a rigid three-dimensional patterns so that they ii. Find the dryness fraction.

Steam at 160 bar has a specific enthalpy of 3139 kJ/kg. specific enthalpy and specific internal energy. Find the degree of superheat. Find the temperature. . 7 8.9. Determine its specific volume.5 MN/m2 is at 650oC. specific volume. A superheated steam at 12. Determine the degree of superheat and entropy of steam at 10 bar and 380oC. degree of superheat. Steam at 120 bar is at 500 oC. 10. Sketch the process in the form of a P-v diagram. A superheated steam at 24 bar and 500oC expands at constant volume until the pressure becomes 6 bar and the dryness fraction is 0. 6. 9. Determine the specific enthalpy of steam at 15 bar and 275oC. specific enthalpy and specific internal energy.5. Calculate the changes in the internal energy of steam.

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