Separation of A Mixture SEPARATION OF A MIXTURE
PURPOSE: Separate the components of a mixture of sand and sodium chloride. Calculate the percentage of each component in the mixture and the percent recovery of the components. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Some naturally occurring materials are mixtures of two or more substances. Heterogeneous mixtures are not uniform throughout. You can often see the individual particles of the components. Rocks and soil are examples of such mixtures. A variety of methods are available for separating the components of a mixture. Physical methods of separation use differences in physical properties of the components of a mixture, such as solubility or boiling point. In the following discussion we will consider a number of physical methods of separation. We will demonstrate the use of each of these methods in separating a binary mixture, that is, a mixture containing two components. Filtration is a process of separating a solid from a liquid by passing the liquid through a porous material such as filter paper.. The solid is unable to pass through the pores in the filter paper and remains on the filter paper. This solid is called residue. The liquid that passes through the paper is called filtrate. For example, we can separate the components of a heterogeneous mixture of solid AgCl and water, by filtration. In such a separation, AgCl is the residue, and water is the filtrate. Evaporation is a separation process in which a solution is heated to remove the solvent. The substance, or residue, remaining after the solvent has evaporated is the substance originally dissolved in the solvent. For example, we can separate the components of a homogeneous mixture of potassium bromide, KBr, dissolved in water by evaporation. When we heat the solution, the solvent (water) evaporates, leaving the residue, KBr. Extraction is a separation process that can be used when one component of a binary mixture is soluble in a particular solvent and the other is not. The component that is insoluble in the extracting solvent can be recovered by removing the solvent containing the dissolved component by filtration. For example, we can separate the component of a heterogeneous mixture of solid KBr and solid AgCl by extraction with water. When we place the mixture in water, KBr dissolves and AgCl does not. We can then recover the AgCl by filtration. Finally, we can evaporate the solvent from the filtrate to recover the KBr. In this experiment you will use the different properties of the components of a mixture of magnetite, Fe, sand, SiO2, and sodium chloride, NaCl. You will separate the components by using a magnet to separate the iron, then adding water to dissolve the NaCl, filtering the insoluble SiO2 and evaporating the water from the filtrate to recover the solid NaCl. After drying and weighing the three recovered compounds, you will calculate the percentage of each component in your starting mixture. You will also calculate the percent error to determine the efficiency of your separation.
Chem 121 PRE_LAB QUESTIONS:
Separation of A Mixture
1. Explain, in your own words, how filtration separates the mixture in this experiment. 2. Explain, in your own words, how evaporation separates the mixture in this experiment. 3. Create a flow diagram to illustrate the separations in this experiment. Include the separation process used and location of mixture component following each separation. (You do NOT need to be an artist here!) 4. If you have a total of 5.2 grams of a mixture and 2.1 grams of that mixture is determined to be sodium chloride, what percentage of the mixture is sodium chloride? Please show your calculations. PROCEDURE 1. Weigh a 150 mL beaker and record the mass as mass of 2. Carefully transfer about 2 g of mixture to the beaker. Label it Beaker 1. 3. Separate the magnetite with a magnet. 4. Weigh the magnetite and set is aside. 5. Slowly add about 50 mL deionized water to the mixture in Beaker 1 while continuously stirring with a clean, glass stirring rod. After completing the addition, stir the mixture for an additional two minutes. 7. Identify a piece of filter paper using a pencil. Weigh the paper on a clean, dry watch glass. Record this mass on your Data Sheet. 8. Fold the pre-weighed piece of filter paper. See Figure 1 9. Open up the paper cone and place it in the funnel. 10. Label a clean, dry 250 mL beaker as Beaker 2. Weigh this beaker. Record this mass on your Data Sheet. 11. Set up your filtration apparatus as shown in Figure 2. 12. Moisten the filter paper in the funnel with deionized water from a wash bottle. Firmly press the edges of the filter paper against the funnel so that the paper adheres tightly to the funnel. This seal increases the filtration rate and prevents loss of product.
Beaker 2 Beaker 1
Figure 1: How to fold filter paper
Figure 2: Filtration apparatus
Separation of A Mixture
13. Decant as much of the supernatant liquid as possible into the funnel. Use a clean glass stirring rod to guide the liquid from Beaker 1 into the funnel to prevent splashing and loss of solid. Collect the filtrate in Beaker 2 (See figure 2). 14. Transfer the solid remaining in Beaker 1 to the funnel by using a stream of distilled water from a wash bottle. 15. Transfer any remaining solid by using a stirring rod fitted with a rubber policeman. 16. After you have transferred the solid, position the stirring rod so that the attached rubber policeman is directly above the funnel. Direct a stream of distilled water from the wash bottle onto the policeman. Allow the washings to go into the funnel and drain into Beaker 2. 17. Place Beaker 2 and the filtrate on a hot plate set at a high setting. Heat to boiling. Reduce the hot plate setting and continue to boil gently until only about 10 mL of solution remain. 18. Adjust the hot plate to a lower setting and continue heating the solution until it begins to turn white. Continue heating GENTLY until all of the liquid has evaporated. At this point you may want to place the beaker in the drying oven overnight to be certain that it is dry. 19. Allow Beaker 2 and its contents to cool to room temperature. Determine the mass of Beaker 2 and its contents. Record this mass on your Data Sheet. 20. After checking your calculations, wash Beakers 1 and 2 and rinse with deionized water. Place them in the used glassware tray. 21. Carefully remove the filter paper and SiO2 residue from the funnel. Place the paper and residue on the pre-weighed watch glass. 22. Use forceps to completely open the filter paper. 23. Dry the SiO2 by placing it in the oven 24. Do a second determination using the same unknown ONLY if your first trial did not go well. 25. Get the actual values for the composition of your mixture and record this in your data table.
Chem 121 DATA:
Separation of A Mixture
Code letter of your sample: _________________ Trial One Mass of Beaker #1 (Empty) Mass of Beaker 1 and original sample Mass of Magnetite Mass of Beaker # 2 (Empty) Mass of Beaker # 2 and recovered NaCl Mass of watch glass + filter paper Mass of watch glass + filter paper+ recovered sand Trial 2
Actual composition of unknown:
Chem 121 CALCULATIONS AND RESULTS: 1.
Separation of A Mixture
For each calculation, show your setup using your data from trial #1. Then, show just your answers for all of your trials. Express your answers to the correct number of significant figures.
Trial 1 Mass of Starting Sample Mass of Recovered Magnetite Mass of Recovered NaCl Mass of Recovered Sand % of Magnetite in starting mixture % of NaCl in the starting mixture % of sand in the starting mixture
2. Percent Error Determination: Using the theoretical composition of your mixture and your calculated (experimental) composition, determine the percent error for each component in your mixture. Express your answers to the correct number of significant figures. X 100% % error (trial 1) Magnetite in starting mixture NaCl in the starting mixture sand in the starting mixture % error (trial 2) Sample Calculation
POST LAB DISCUSSION Did the sum of your percent composition of components equal 100%? Did your results match the known (theoretical) composition of your mixture? Explain what could have happened at specific points in the procedure to cause these errors.