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――From a Historical Point of View:“Yokonarabi Behavior” and The Countervailing Force to the Social Trend―― Hokaji Mino
キーワード：横並び行動 Countervailing Force to Yokonarabi アブストラクト： 「横並び」行動は歴史を作らない。歴史を作るのは「反・横並び」の行 動である。元禄15年（1702）12月15日早朝、未曾有の重大ニュースが江 戸市中を貫いた。その前夜、赤穂浪士46人は霏々と降る大雪のなか、本 所・吉良邸に討ち入った。みごとに吉良義央の首級をあげ、夜明けとと もに品川・泉岳寺まで引き揚げた。首は亡君の墓前に供えて公儀の処置 を仰いだ。46人全員が切腹して果てた。本当は47人いたのだが、リーダ ーの大石内蔵之助は最下級武士だった足軽の寺坂吉右衛門のみ討ち入り に参加させずに逃がし、この事件を目撃して亡君・浅野内匠頭未亡人に 討ち入り成功を報告させたのである。 この事件は世に『忠臣蔵』と呼ばれる。爾来、300年間、文学、映画、 演劇はもとより、歌舞音曲等々にもなって、今日なお大衆の絶大な人気 を得ている。元禄時代は五代将軍・綱吉の治世（1680∼1709）である。 この時代は260年余に及ぶ江戸時代の中で、巨大な消費需要が発生し、消 費経済が最も繁栄し、GDPの高度成長を実現した時代であった。21世紀 の現代用語でいうと、まさしく「Bubble」の時代であったといえよう。 人々は贅沢に走り、文化は爛熟した。学芸は発展した。貨幣経済は一 気に浸透した。武士に代わって町人が実力を得た。将軍綱吉は「生類憐 れみの令」を発して狩猟を禁じた。とりわけ、人は「犬」に一指の危害 も加えてはならぬという異常さであった。江戸市民は横並びで、表面上 はたとえ野良犬でも「お犬様」とうやまい、たてまつった。 であったから、死を賭した赤穂浪士46人の討ち入りは、そのような時 代と社会への強烈なアンチテーゼとして理解されなければならない。当 初は亡君の仇討ちが動機だったが、しかし、実は当時の“元禄社会”の 横並びに対する「反・横並び行動」として大きな意味があった。利害を 超えた「反・横並び」の行動が絶大な大衆人気の源泉であろう。 このような「反・横並び」の行動は現代でもさまざまな点で意味を持
― ― 19
っていよう。従って、今回の論文を「Part One」として、以下、歴史を 作ってきた日本人の、日本社会における「反・横並び」の行動を歴史か ら拾い上げ、それが現代にいかなる影響と関連性を残しているか、につ いて考察する。
Introduction Japan has a history of thousands of years. About five thousand years ago, the early ancient period began. Thus we have the long-established structure which has become an unbreakable barrier in Japan’ mura culture” s“ （village culture） Japan’ yokonarabi behavior” “yokonarabi”means . s“ （ copycatting or following the herd or lining up side-by-side）is unique. This is my hypothesis that the origin of“yokonarabi behavior”can be traced back to the“mura”in the ancient times. The Japanese word“ mura ”means village or hamlet in English. The “Mura”is the smallest and basic administrative unit of local government. Originally it was a self-contained and self-sufficient agricultural community. Many institutions were introduced to Japan from the continent of China through the Korean Peninsula in the ancient times. The term“mura”is believed to be closely related to the Korean words“mul” （district）and “ mail ” （village）and is thought to be derived from the Japanese word “mureru” “group”as an intransitive verb）and“muragaru” “cluster （ （ about[or around]”as an intransitive verb） . A number of ancient punishments were still maintained in Japan until World War II in the villages and hamlets as an autonomous act. For example, one of those punishments was the so-called“mura-hachibu”and the origin of this can be traced back to the“Kamakura period” （1192−1297） It was . equivalent to the ostracism of“shunning”and it was more or less publicly practiced in the“mura society,”but it has strictly been prohibited in the middle of 20th century. In my personal view, there are broadly two categories of the Japanese people’ collective behavior. The one is a strict obedience to the social or s group trend. The Japanese people are strong group-oriented mind. For ― ― 20
example, when one of them said he would do something, the others said the same and they all do together. We call this“yokonarabi behavior.” Contrary to this, the other is a countervailing force to the social or group trend. The Japanese people’countervailing force to the trend is the origin in s the punitive“mura-hachibu”shunning. You have to adapt yourselves to the current circumstances and follow your ordinary routine. The countervailing force to the social trend is disobedient to do altogether to the tide, rule, order, custom, taboo and the spirit of the times or the
zeitgeist. This category is indispensable for transformation of Japan’ mura s“
society” （village society）and to rapid reform. From the historical point of view, there were many acts of the countervailing force in Japan. This paper focuses to one of the historical facts of“Ako
Ronin Incident.”This example will illustrate what I mean.
1 ．Ako Incident Story Begins in 1701 Three hundred years ago, on December 14, 1702, according to the lunar calendar then in use −January 30, 1703, according to the Gregorian （Western）calendar− the capital city Edo（present-day Tokyo）was covered white with snow. Three hundred years later, on December 14, 2002, a memorial service was held at Sengakuji temple in Takanawa, Minato Ward, Tokyo, to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the so-called“Ako Ronin Incident.”This was known to the West as the most famous revenge of the forty-six ronin（masterless samurai）and also as one of the most famous examples of samurai pledged allegiance to their samurai society’ code of s loyalty to a hanshu（the lord of Ako han） . The story began in 1701. In early January 1701, Kira Kozuke-no-suke （1641−1702）was sent to Kyoto from Edo on behalf of the fifth Shogun Tsunayoshi（1646−1709）to pay the New Year’ greetings to the Emperor s and the Imperial court. This was one of very important annual events for Tokugawa Bakufu which were held traditionally at the beginning of January every year. ― ― 21
The Kira family was called“koke hitto”in Japanese and it was“a top elevated family”among twenty-six families which included Otomo family, Hatakeyama family, Kyogoku family and so on, all of whom traced their lineage to the Muromachi period（1333−1565） Kira was given a daimyo . domain and also honorary daimyo status. In response, the Tokugawa Bakufu had received official notice from the Imperial court that the Emperor Higashiyama’ representatives was scheds uled to come to Edo to pay an official visit to Shogun Tsunayoshi on March 14, 1701. Receiving an Imperial envoy from Kyoto to Edo was an annual ceremony that represented one of the few contacts between the Emperor, who was ruler in name only, and the Tokugawa bakufu, who had unified and administered Japan since Tokugawa Ieyasu（1542−1616）established the Tokugawa Bakufu in 1603 by military force and became the actual ruler of the country. The Tokugawa Bakufu had prepared immediately for the reception of the Imperial envoy. First, Shogun Tsunayoshi had chosen two lords as hosts from among the many daimyo（lords）of above 10,000 koku（1） One was lord . Asano Naganori（1665−1701）of Ako domain in Harima province（53, 000
koku）and the other was Date Muneharu of Yoshida domain in Iyo province present-day Ehime prefecture（30, 000 koku） Shogun Tsunayoshi had also .
ordered Kira Kozuke-no-suke to instruct them in the court ceremonies for reception. The Imperial court was especially particular about their customs, rules or unwritten rules of etiquette, food, attire and so on. Both lords Asano and Date, however, were country warriors and they knew nothing about the Imperial Court of ceremonies, manners, customs and etiquette. Some of the Tokugawa Bakufu’ documents are still available at the s Tokugawa Library in Tokyo. According to the documents for 1702, on the morning of February 4, lord Asano and lord Date were called to the Edo Castle（today’Imperial Palace in Tokyo） s . They were given new jobs by the roju （the Council of Elders in the ― ― 22
Tokugawa Shogunate）Akimoto Tajima-no-kami that their new jobs as hosts should be started at once. The . Lord Asano’discipline was basically s samurai stoicism from the childhood. But there was no knowing what might become a bribe between them and Kira. he succeeded s to lordship of the Ako clan（53. He had been constant in his devotion to“Bushido”“Bushido”means literally“the way of the warrior. s vassals of Asano were not bold enough to give a lot of gold away to Kira without their lord’permission. According to one hypothesis.” （ ） The Asano clan was famous for its rigorous discipline and insisted on accuracy over their retainers children. they had to make a gifts of money and articles to Kira as token of their appreciation. ― ― 23 . It was a traditional Japanese-style expression of appreciation. Date seems to have made gifts to Kira before the ceremony. to act as host for the bakufu was an honorable duty. After his father’death. It seems probable that lord Asano did plan to make a gifts of money and articles to Kira after the ceremony was over as an expression of his thanks. Kira had a poor reputation in a high-ranking shogunate official society because he was a corrupt official and was very mean about money matters. According to the tradition of“Ako Ronin Incident. There were. Asano’ vassals offered nothing. s Born in 1665 as a son of lord Asano Nagatomo. Asano grew up as a successor to lord of Ako clan. the vassals of lord Date gave Kira a roll of silk and a little box full of koban（Japanese traditional oval gold coins） However. Asano was 34 years old at the time. customs and manners of traditonal ceremonies at the Imperial court. In those days in 1700s. he was educated in the neoConfucian tradition and trained in budo（martial arts） . As a matter of course.”Kira expected as a matter of course to be given money and articles from both lords. 000 koku）in 1675. Naturally. however. Asano and Date had met Kira and asked him for teach them the way. no any historical documents or evidences to prove this. Lord Date differed from lord Asano in this regard.
manners and etiquette.“you will die in a way that at least will not be shameful. ways. relating a story about （2） Count Katsu Kaishu（1823−99） in the book. For example. it was said that Asano was never taught by Kira any programs. there were no any historical documents and evidences to substantiate this.”In the past war this became an Army maxim for the enlisted soldier. on March 14. He was of samurai family but his family had been reduced to beggary. this was a bribery and this applied to every Tokugawa bakufu official. However. A passage of the episode is as follows:− The tales of samurai stoicism are famous. lord Asano was left to the tender mercies of Kira. I’ killed. He could not give him any gifts in advance and if he had done it. The book well describes samurai stoicism.The American anthropologist Ruth Benedict（1887−1948）published her outstanding book“The Chrysanthemum and the Sword −Patterns of Japanese Culture”in 1946 and the book has widely been read in Japan and the West. While the doctor operated upon him. Nor must they give way to pain.”the maxim went.“Baby birds. They were enjoined when they were starving to pretend they had just eaten: they must pick their teeth with a toothpick. his sin and crime would have deserved capital punishment. As a result. lord Asano did not know anything about the ceremonies until the third day and final day of the reception. 1701. In fact.“cry for their food but a samurai holds a toothpick between his teeth. It is told of Count Katsu who died in 1899 that when he was a boy his testicles were torn by a dog. sir.”A samurai m should give no sign of suffering till he fell dead and he must bear pain without wincing.”he told （3） him.” To return the main topic. Surely. his father held a sword to his nose. The Japanese attitude was like the boy soldier’ s rejoinder to Napoleon:“Wounded? Nay.“If you utter one cry. lord Asano Naganori must have thought it was a sin and crime to give Kira his money and articles as a gift beforehand in such a matter. They were forbidden to give way to hunger but that was too trivial to mention. Asano probably ― ― 24 .
In after years Kajikawa wrote a memorandum s about his action at that time. On the same s day. the story of the“Ako Ronin Incident”had begun s on that day. Kajikawa Yosobei. 1701. Tsunayoshi immediately sentenced Asano to death by beheading. Asano was s taken into custody at the residence of the lord Tamura Ukyodayu in Shimbashi. Tsunayoshi had a fear of having it become“yokonarabi ― ― 25 . s Asano domain and Ako Castle in Harima province（present-day Hyogo prefecture）were confiscated by the shogunate. not his wife. The Shogun Tsunayoshi was furious to hear that the ceremony had been disrupted. lord Asano’only brother s Asano Daigaku was also arrested and confined to his house because he was lord Asano’nearest of kin. It appears that Asano was greatly angered by Kira’arrogance. No one could have a final meeting with him before his execution. where he committed ritual suicide（seppuku）later the same day. On the same day. At about 10 o’ clock in the morning of March 14. This event instantly became a major incident in a blink inside Edo Castle and in the city of Edo. In the afternoon. Needless to say. Asano and Kira passed each other and suddenly Asano drew his sword from its scabbard and lunged at Kira. lord Asano was executed at once.expressed to Kira his concern about that day’ ceremony and he was s denounced by Kira to do his job. Shogun Tsunayoshi might have considered that he should punish Asano quickly because he was afraid that the same sort of incident might happen again inside the high-ranking samurai society of Tokugawa administrative power. etc. Thus. It was illegal behavior and a great crime to draw a sword inside the shogun’palace of residence. At the age of 34. his vassals nor his servants. wounding Kira in the forehead and his back. The swiftness of Tsunayoshi’reaction was amazing. in a corridor inside Edo castle. Edo. According to Kajikawa’ memo. but allowed Asano the opportunity to keep his honor by committing ritual suicide （seppuku）instead. who was a bodyguard of an important person saw the event as it happened and he restrained Asano.
Kira and Asano. There was an outstanding leader in Ako clan at that time. He retired soon after the incident. the Shogun Tsunayoshi’judge decided s that only Asano had to commit ritual suicide. if it had not been for his quickness. Kira only retired. 1868） this practice continued and became part of the fundamental code of . the shogunate confiscated both territories and s punished both. the shogunate also took control of Ako castle in Ako. the shogunate’ decision to order only Asano to commit suicide s was partial and lenient punishment to Kira. In order to be a warning to others. In the eyes of the ronin and the public. the Asano clan（53. namely Oishi Kura-no-suke（1658−1703） who was a karo of the Ako clan. when two samurai engaged in a private fight over territorial rights rather than asking the shogunate’ judgment. Karo means a head of the vassals in English and Oishi was one of the highest-ranking officials in the government of Ako clan. It was clearly unfare of Kira to only help him. the Tokugawa shogunate. According to this rule. 000 koku）collapsed and several hundred vassals and servants have scattered without any livelihood. In accordance with its rules. However. With its lord’ s death.” He may have thought that. Tokugawa administrative power might have capsized. This rule was continued the Muromachi period（1393−1575） and the Azuchi-Momoyama period（1576−1600） In the Edo period（1603− . Harima. it was necessary to infect a cruel punishment on Asano. There were two karo in the Ako clan and the other was Ono Kuro-be-i ― ― 26 . Kira was not guilty and was never punished. It was first institutionalized in the Nambokucho Age（the Age of Northern and Southern Courts in 1335−1392 in Japanese history）in order to prevent the increasing private fights among samurai. 2 ．Both Asano Naganori and Oishi Kura-no-suke Were Confucian Disciples It seems to me that there was a sense in which was a stormy quarrel between the two.behavior. One of the rules in the Edo period was the established practice and principle according to which both parties in a private fight were to be punished. However.
”Oishi was educated Confucianism by two scholars of extraordinary ability. He succeeded to his grandfather’ position at the age of 21. ents were so common that they were of“no use in the daytime. in the 1660s. in Aizu（present-day Aizu-Wakamatsu City in Fukushima prefecture） . Yamaga Soko（1622−85）and Ito Jinsai（1627−1705） Confucian Yamaga was born . Oishi was born as an eldest son and a successor of a karo house. back of his mind about the bakufu’unfair disposition toward lord Asano.）to Oishi in Ako after that. He was raised by his grandfather because his father died when he was a child. Hayashi had died several years earlier. Yamaga went to Edo from Aizu when he was at the age of 6. Ito Jinsai was born in Kyoto and he studied first Chu Hsi philosophy in Kyoto but also he changed his study toward Ancient Learning from Chu Hsi philosophy at the age of 36 in 1662. Yamaga shifted his study to Ancient Learning from Chu Hsi philosophy. But s Ono had fled from the country soon before the castle was confiscated by the shogunate. In 1635. the official philosophy at that time in Tokugawa Japan. Why did Yamaga and Ito change their study to the Ancient Learning from the Chu Hsi philosophy? According to a chronological table of Japanese history.C. Ito founded the Horikawa school in Kyoto. In 1666. the Ako clan to come as a teacher of Chu Hsi philosophy in 1652.（unknown the year of birth and death） Oishi was full of complaints in the . Hayashi was retained by the third shogun Iemitsu（1604−51）Yamaga was invited by . At the same time. at the beginning of the 17th century. Any criticism of Chu Hsi philosophy as an official philosophy was not permit by Hayashi Razan. His nickname was s “hiru-andon” paper-lamp in the daytime） The naming of this was his tal（a . Hayashi was employed by the founder of Tokugawa shogunate Ieyasu （1542−1616）in 1605. Yamaga Soko was exiled to Ako from Edo in order to severely criticize Chu Hsi philosophy and he taught Ancient Learning on Confucius（552∼479 B. it is written that the old Chinese Confucianism was first introduced ― ― 27 . However. and studied Chu Hsi philosophy under Hayashi Razan（1583−1665） Chu Hsi philosophy was .
the Sung philosophy or the Chu Hsi philosophy was also imported into Japan from China by Zen monks. a leader of a small fief in Mikawa province（present-day Aichi Prefecture） He spent his youth as a . he attacked the Osaka Castle and won. ― ― 28 . This period was divided into two. the Sung philosophy or the Chu Hsi philosophy was established in China and in the Kamakura period（1185−1333）in Japan. some theories date its entry even earlier. In the winter of 1614 and again in the following summer of 1615. In 1561. all his life was spent in battles and the alliances. Hayashi Razan became Ieyasu’political adviser and gained his trust and confidence. 1600. About four or five hundred years later. Of course. Thus. day in and day out. during the reign of Emperor Ojin. The 1st Shogun of Tokugawa regime Ieyasu had shown his great interest in Confucianism even before he established the Tokugawa regime. he took control of s his father’domain. 1616. moreover. the Northern Sung （960−1127）and the Southern Sung（1128−1279） In the Southern Sung . Confucianism has a long history in Japan. the Sung period（960−1279） started in China. D. became the golden age of Confucianism in Japan because the philosophy was the most rapid development of Confucianism. During the Edo period （1603−1867） the Sung philosophy. The battle in the summer of 1615 was the last battle of his life because he passed away on April 14. respectively. the Sung philosopher the Chu Hsi philosophy was the one traditionally preserved by the monks of the Five Zen Monarsteries in Kamakura... On October 21. s Until the beginning of 17th century.e. period. Therefore. He was continued as a s hostage to his father’allies. especially the Chu Hsi philosophy . captive of his father Hirotada’enemy.000 warriors into the“Battle of Sekigahara”and won. s Why was Ieyasu very much interested in Confucianism? Ieyasu was born in 1543 as the first son of Matsudaira Hirotada. i. the Oda family. Ieyasu led an army of 104.into Japan from China around the end of 4th or the beginning of 5th century A. the Imagawa family.
school’ thought and his methodology was what Sorai called“the study of s old phrases and syntax” Kobunji-gaku） As Sorai will be observed later in （ .） among the Confucian classics. Hsi school. not because of its literary or exegetical values.” Ieyasu who was fond of Mencius believed also in the“goodness of human nature. had placed particular emphasis on the Great Learning and the Doctrine of the Mean as learning texts.”later in his life.C. （Chuyo） Mencius Moshi） . it is obvious that Ieyasu was interested in Confucianism because of its fundamental moral principles and its concepts of political legitimacy. and s “holding fast to seriousness. Therefore.. Ieyasu had gained the highest political power in Japan by military force. of course. the Ancient Learning originated with Yamaga Soko and was after developed it further by Ito Jinsai （1627−1705）and Ogyu Sorai（1666−1728）Especially.e. Nearly half century after the death of Ieyasu in 1665. He felt compelling to encourage learning and turn the people’ minds away from violence and warfare in s order to strengthen the foundations of his regime. this paper. Yamaga was dissatisfied above all with the methods of the Chu Hsi school’ practical ethics. i. Mencius taught that human nature is good and he believed in“the goodness of human nature was expressed mainly for the benefit of those who were in a state of despair and self-abandonment. at the beginning of the 17th century. At any rate. The Four Books” Shisho ）had constituted the core of the Sung “ （ philosophy. the Great Learning（Daigaku） the Doctrine of the Mean . however. （ and Analects of Confucius Rongo） The Chu （ . It was natural that Ieyasu became the most powerful and （4） reliable patron of the Chu Hsi philosophy. an interpretation of the ancient classics based on the current meanings of their vocabulary could not grasp the true meaning of the ancient ― ― 29 . It was said that Ieyasu liked particularly the Book of Mencius（ 375− 289 B. But the world changes and words change historically. however. the exhaustive investigation of principle.Thus.”Yamaga insisted: Reurn to ancient classics like the Book of Analects of Confucius（ Rongo ）and the Book of Mencius （Moshi） . the point of the Sorai .
Thus. I（1660−1704）and Sakata Tojuro（1645−1709） Yamato-e painter Ogata . s Chikamatsu Mon-za-e-mon（1653−1724）kabuki actors 1st Ichikawa Danjuro . When Yamaga Soko criticized the Chu Hsi philosophy in 1666. . but the Way cannot be incriminated. . all the people’ energies were turned internal and s produced the brilliant and enchanting works of art of Genroku culture. Three years later. It is the fault of the political currents of our （5） time that the Way of the Sages is in criminated. the Tokugawa Bakufu had proceeded to carry out step by step a policy of isolationism in 1633. After he died.” It is said that he was treated as a guest in his place of exile and it is thought that he taught the Ancient Learning to lord Asano. This“farewell message”is included at the present time in his book“ Haisho-zampitsu ” （An Autobiography in Exile） His“farewell . he had given up all hope of life then and determined to be sentenced to death. karo Oishi Kurano-suke and retainers of the Ako clan. message”was as follows:− Those who hold me to be a criminal must hold the Way of the Duke of Chou and Confucius to be criminal also. so he had written his“farewell message”at that time. he kept it in his possesion. I may be incriminated. From the death of Ieyasu to the beginning of the Genroku era. But since he was only exiled to Ako in Harima province. Korin（1658−1716）ukiyo-e painter Hishikawa Moronobu（1618−94）potter .text. In the beginning of the Genroku era （1688−1702）in Japan’ history. Yamaga was pardoned and allowed to return to Edo. building up an internally peaceful society and the completing of the internal stabilization of the country. The policy of seclusion from the outside world was completed. 1635 and 1639. Ogata Kenzan（1663−1743）and many others. The Genroku era between the latter half of 17th century and the beginning ― ― 30 . including these of the haiku poet Matsuo Basho（1644−94） poet and writer . of popular fiction Ihara Saikaku（1642−93） Japan’ greatest playwright . nearly 80 years had passed since the death s of Ieyasu who was the founder of the Tokugawa Bakufu.
The passing days and months are eternal travellers in time. and I set off on a journey to roam along the seashores. The years that come and go are travellers. the god of temptation possessed me with a longing to pass the Barrier at Shirakawa. So I mended my breeches. Playwright Chikamatsu Monza-emon and novelist Ihara Saikaku had played an active role of Genroku literature and in later years Chikamatsu was even called the“Japanese Shakespeare. too. For example. Permanent kabuki theaters had opened in Edo and Osaka. but at the same time these promoted demand. I was already dreaming of the moon over Matsushima. the increase increativity in the cultural sphere was closely related to the growth in the economic power of the chonin （merchants） . I sold my home and moved into Sampu’guest house. ― ― 31 . the increase in creative works and artistic activities were based. And some poets of old there were who died while travelling. these creative works and artistic activities were concentrated in large cities like Edo（present-day Tokyo）Kyoto and Osaka. and by the time I had swept away the cobwebs. their very home is the open road. and as I burned moxa on my knees to make them strong. In fact. There came a day when the clouds drifting along with the wind aroused a wonderlust in me. and the road gods beckoned.”Thus. of course. I returned to my hut on the riverbank last autumn. on an eagerness to improve living standards. The Genroku spirit first took the form of increasing chonin extravagance. First of all.of 18th century was the most unique period of Japanese history. ukiyo-e painter Hishikawa Moronobu had made a sudden rise in Edo and he became a founder of ukiyo-e painting. But when spring came with its misty skies. but before I left s my cottage I composed a verse and inscribed it on a poem strip which I hung upon a pillar. the year was over. Life itself is a journey. . and I could not set my mind to anything. put new cords on my hat. and as for those who spend their days upon the waters in ships and those who grow old leading horses.
he passed the two years following his northward pilgrimage sojourning at various summer cottages lent him by disciples. the nothern area of Honshu. ― ― 32 . the 7th year of the Genroku era（1694）He was fifty years old.This rude hermit cell Will be different now. setting off into eternity. Now homeless. this time to walk to the southwestern provinces in Japan as far as the great island of Kyushu. he fell grievously ill of dysentry and died on October 12. he set off once more. with little lingering on the way even for the illness that plagued him at times. 1689. . But then poets like Saigyo（real name: Sato Yoshikiyo. Basho had sold his house in Edo before he left. As might have been expected. But alas. the 2nd year of the Genroku era（1689） in the lunar . calendar then in use. the master piece of his prose-and-poetry travel diaries. in the Gregorian calendar May 16. （From a Prologue of“Narrow Road to a Far Province”（6） ） In March 27. and was not really expecting ever to return alive. In 1692. the trip was difficult. 500 miles（2. when he was forty-five.“Oku-no-Hosomichi” （The Narrow Road to a Far Province）is . He wanted to see for himself the places mentioned in their poems. and the poet and his disciple Kawai Sora （1649−1710）traveled mostly on foot. knowing the Doll’ s Festival as well. The journey was a difficult and perilous undertaking. Japan’ s greatest traveler and poet Matsuo Basho left Edo and traveled some 1. as it were. It was also a long journey to the most underdeveloped part of Japan. This was the most famous journey of haiku poetry and his longest trip. Mino province（present-day Gifu prefecture）on August 21 of that the 2nd year of the Genroku era（1689） . 1118−90）and Iio Sogi（1421−1502）had trod the same path even centuries earlier. 400 km）in 156 days. It was his desire to follow in their footsteps that prompted Basho to set off on his arduous pilgrimage. his disciples built him a new house named“Basho-an”in Edo on the bank of Sumida River. His account of it. His long journey ended in Ogaki. In 1694.
Yashiki means the Edo residences of the daimyo himself. and also came s from streets in Edo. Incident”occurred in Edo. not only the castle-towns and the agricultural villages but also Edo and all feudal domains were bound closely together by the commercial economy. ― ― 33 . As a result. and shimo-yashiki was the residence of his vassals and servents. Great daimyo had two kinds of yashiki in Edo.3 ． The Genroku Era. After studying military arts under Kusunoki Fuden （unknown the birth and death） Shosetsu opened his school. Between 1635 and 1642 sankin kotai system was regularized and made compulsory under the 3rd Shogun Iemitsu. The term referred to the obligation of the daimyo to attend the shogunal court in Edo at fixed intervals. Mothers. the“Keian . dividing their time equally between Edo and their local domains. the aggressive spirit of the Age of Civil Wars had disappeared completely in the Genroku era. The secondly aim was that daimyo had to spend huge amount of money for the cost of sankin kotai. his family and his vassals and servants. The sankin kotai system was a device to maintain control over the more than 270 daimyo. Money and Commercial Economy Spread Widely The money economy which had already spread widely when the Tokugawa Bakufu came into power in the beginning of the 17th century grew even more because of many feudal vassals and servants concentrated in the castle-towns. The so-called“Keian Incident”had become a tale of bygone days told by old men. The sounds of gaiety were echoing through daimyo’yashiki. which was . Instead. The first object of this was detained them in Edo by shogunate in order to prevent the plot of daimyo’rebelion against s Tokugawa government. wives and children of all daimyo were to live in Edo compulsory and permanently. This was the plot to overthrow the Tokugawa Bakufu. A leader of the conspiracy was Yui Shosetsu（1605−51）who was a teacher of military science in Edo. In the year of Keian 4（1651） soon after the death of the 3rd Shogun Iemitsu. Kami-yashiki was the residence of daimyo and his family. kami-yashiki and shimoyashiki.
Marubashi Chuya and others were executed. it was said. This process was perfected in the Edo period. hatamoto （direct samurai retainers of the Tokugawa Shogunate）and the ronin（masterless samurai） . not to plot the overthrow the bakufu. The conspiracy was discovered in advance. In the feudal society of the first half of the Middle Ages（from the 12th to the 16th century）in Japan. The samurai class itself constituted a hierachical group beneath the top feudal lords. the samurai class concentrated in the castle-towns away from their land. the vassals of all at that han（clan or fief）became ronin. i. . in the latter half of the Middle Ages（from the 16th to the 19th century） there were a differ.e. When a feudal lord had been deprived of his domain by the bakufu. Almost all of the people were clearly divided into the four classes as a social hierarchy.attached by several daimyo. Therefore. However. when strife broke out over the land or some other develped between their family or group and an other. In the 17th century. Shosetsu committed suicide. depriving them of the right to bear swords in 1588. It was believed that Shosetsu left a note saying that they had only wanted to focus attention on the plight of the ronin. these changes could be seen in distinction between the samurai and the rest of society.. In contrast to this. the samurai（shi）the . The higher-ranking class of samurai still had his own fief and managed to ― ― 34 . They became peasants in the peaceful times making their living from the soil. peasants（no） the artisans（ko）and the merchants（sho） At the same . time. Shosetsu and his fellow Marubashi Chuya（?−1651）and others sympathized with ronin samurai and organized them and hatched a plot to overthrow the Tokugawa Bakufu. ence from the feudal society of the Middle Ages because of the changes in warfare that resulted from the introduction of firearms from the Portuguese in 1543 and from Toyotomi government’policy of tying the peasantry to the s soil. almost all samurai were tied to the soil. they put aside their hoes and took up their swords temporarily to again become warriors and fought against the opposing family or group.
They received a rice stipend as a salary from the lord. He who is governed by others has a duty to feed others. The common people. the peasants and those below them use their muscles. Therefore. The samurai use their minds. 4 percent of the total population in the Akita clan （present-day Akita Prefecture in nothern Japan）were peasants and they were permitted to exist only to serve the samurai class and to feed the samurai family. while he who governs others is fed by them.maintain some contact with the land through his fief and the need to tax it.”After receiving a rice stipend. there would be. high ideals. This was called “fuchi-mai”in Japanese and literally meant“support. The Chu Hsi scholar Ame-no-mori Hoshu（1668−1755）wrote the four classes as a social stratum in his book as follows:− There are the four classes of people: samurai. peasants. it was exchanged for money. there was a saying tinged with evident sarcasm that the pronunciation“no”means “agriculture. This is the principle of the world. and profound wisdom. ― ― 35 . at worst. that is. But the vast majority of the lower-ranking class of samurai were left with only a symbolic tie to the land through the grant of a rice stipend. When these positions were reversed. who constituted the vast majority of the common people. In particular. The peasants and those of lower classes use only their muscles to sustain themselves. Those who use their minds have broad visions. According to Professor Maruyama Masao（1914−1996）this was based on the old Chinese philosopher Mencius’statement that“some men use their s minds while others use their muscles. were to exist merely to pay taxes. discontent in the land and.” For example. those who use their muscles are inferior. chaos.”same pronunciation“no”means“paying taxes”because agriculture produced equaled the taxes paid. artisans and merchants. 76. at best. Those who use their minds are superior.（7） （From Ame-no-mori Hoshu’ Kisso Sawa” s“ ） . the peasants.
1 ssho equaled 10 go.12 US bushels）was the basic exchange unit of society. but socially and culturally it clearly distinguished its pattern of life from that of the common people（peasants. secondly the Tokugawa Shogunate in Edo and the daimyo house all over the country. Kokudaka protected the farmers from the vagaries of rice prices in an increasingly progressive moneybased economy. 5. and thirdly the temples and the shrines in the country. In the Edo period. the world of the rulers was sharply distinct from the world of the subjects. Paddy fields were classified in four grade with average annual yields of 1. 25 acre）of the area. Not only did the ruling military（bushi）class monopolize all political authority. 1. which was established by the complete separation between the military and the peasantry. 1 koku for each tan （about 0. 1 hectare or 0. and 1 go equaled 10 shaku. artisans and merchant） . an estimate of the annual yield of unpolished rice all over the country totaled 30 million koku. the rice stipends of samurai.Only about 10％ of the total population was in the samurai class in the Akita clan. 3. 4 ．The Ratio of Monetary Conversion in the Year of Keicho 14 （1609） ［Quantity］ ・A single gold coin called a koban” one ryo” “ or “ ＝Four silver coins called a chogin” “mame-ita-gin” “ or ― ― 36 . Land productivity. In Tokugawa feudalism. a koku of grain harvest（5. In the beginning of the 18th century. The total 30 million koku of unpolished rice was distributed among three groups as the annual incomes of each part: firstly the Imperial Court in Kyoto. Multiplying the average annual yields of a paddy field by its number of tan produced its kokudaka. and the wealth of daimyo were all measured in koku of unpolished rice. 2. Because a koku was theoretically enough rice to feed one person for a year. or assessed tax base. 1 to equaled 10 sho. 1. tax assessments. The following hierachy of measurement units was adopted from China: 1 koku equaled 10 to. and 1.
directly responsible through Goto Sho-zabu-ro to the Councill of Elders （roju） . and in 1670. gin（silver） za and zeni（copper） za. they were placed directly under the kanjo-bugyo（a commissioner of finance of Tokugawa Bakufu） . 75 kilogramms） ＝One thousand mon（one mon equaled one copper coin） As Tokugawa Ieyasu extended his power during the last decade of the 16th century and the first decade of 17th century. the ― ― 37 . Each of za had been − − − located in several big cities. Next to Fushimi. With this. Continuously. The zeni-za was first set up in 1636. Ieyasu established a gin-za in Fushimi. Kyoto. The gold coins. silver coins and copper coins in 1595. Sho-zabu-ro.・A single silver coin called a chogin” “mame-ita-gin” “ or ＝Two silver coins called a shu” “ ［weight］ ・A single gold coin called a koban” one ryo” “ or “ ＝Silver 15 momme（3. Ieyasu established another gin-za in Sumpu（ present-day Shizuoka City in Shizuoka Prefecture）in 1606. but later moved it from Sumpu to Edo. Omi province （present-day Shiga Prefecture） Sakamoto was the birthplace of Goto . 75 kilogramms）of silver coins called a chogin” “mame“ or ita-gin” ＝Four kan of zeni（copper）coins（15 kilogramms） ・One kan of zeni（copper）coins（3. in 1601. Ieyasu ordered a goldsmith and metalworker Goto Sho-zabu-ro（unknown the birth and death dates）to mint gold coins. the use of older coinage was proscribed. called koban and ichibu-kin were minted from 1601. From the death of Ieyasu（1616）to the Empo era（1673−81） all gin-za operations were . . During the Genroku era（1688−1704） however. the mintage was called the zeni currency officially. when shogunate ordered a copper mint established in Edo and another in Sakamoto. In the same year. 75 kilogramms） ・One kan（3. he had set up mints called kin（gold） za.
thus he became the lord of Kawagoe Castle with an income of seventy thousand koku of rice. his ruling was characterized by his relying on too much his grand chamberlain （ soba-yonin ） At that time. Thirdly. In 1694. Originally. thus strictly limited hunting to authorized persons.premodern system of gold. Ieyasu’ larger strategy to regulate the commercialism and s political life and his aim of directly control the output of gold and silver mines were all achieved. From 1687. Tsunayoshi. During the following years and centuries. were forbidden. The resulting confusion was eliminated in 1871. s To return the main subject of the Genroku era. A new post of “Commissioner for Living Things” shorui-bugyo）was established in the （ ― ― 38 . He issued it in 1685 to prohibit falconry. and an inflationary spiral resulting from misguided financial policies and legislation ensued. Firstly. especially dogs. he issued“Edicts on Compassion for Living Things”prohibiting the cruelty to animals. Tsunayoshi was characterized by lavish spending. the various domains（han）issued their own paper money so-clled“han-satsu”“satsu”means paper）So the （ . the speed of issue coins was so late and could never be able to catch up with the speed of circulation. silver and copper was fully established. paper money“han-satsu”continued to be issued until the Meiji period （1868∼1912）there were 244 domains that had their own currency in 1860s.the circulation and the use of coins increased dramatically. and a great variety of copper and iron coins was minted. and the period of his rule coincided largely with the Genroku era. Secondly. . Yoshiyasu（1658−1714） at the zenith of his career as the favorite of Shogun . Yanagizawa had been made a member of the Council of Elders（roju）and also had been given Kawagoe（present-day Kawagoe City. reducing their values. The trapping and killing of all birds and animals. his grand chamberlain was Yanagizawa . the fifth shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi（1646−1709）ruled for 28 years between 1680 and 1709. Therefore. when the Shinka Jorei（The Regulations of the New Currencies）made the yen（equivalent to one ryo） the basic unit of modern Japan’currency. the edicts became most extreme. Saitama Prefecture）as his fief. At the same time.
Tsunayoshi constructed three large“doghouses”in Nakano. in Buddhist terms. for these edicts on dogs was that Tsunayoshi had been born in the year of the dog of the twelve zodiac signs.000 dogs were housed in Nakano. Commenting on this situation. On the other hand. Instead. He was a shogun who believed that“the pen is mightier than the sword”emphasizing the importance of learning for government. In 1695. His nephew and successor. In the Genroku era. The following year he assembled the daimyo. in 1690. as a consequence of Tsunayoshi’having taken the lives of many sentient beings s in a prior incarnation. the sixth shogun Tokogawa Ienobu（1663−1712）rescinded the edicts soon after taking office in 1709. Ogyu Sorai（1666−1728）later described it in his“Seidan” ― ― 39 . Until the Genroku era in the 17th century Japan. and Confucian scholars and lectured to them personally on the Confucian Classics. The samurai were influenced by this atmosphere in Genroku era and their way of life changed quickly from one founded on real wealth to one based on the credit. Tsunayoshi took the death of his son and his inability to sire another as evidence that he was not governing properly. Yotsuya and Okubo in Edo and it was said that about 100. the money economy rapidly permeated the various parts of nation. people had usually used the“barter”system. A Buddhist monk explained the problem to him. What about the samurai retainers among the samurai class? After they were paid by their rice stipends by their feudal lords. He was advised that he might nullify his bad karma by showing compassion for living things. a Confucian scholar in the middle of Edo period. with the diffusion of the commercial economy in nationwide. money was not used so much in the society. hatamoto.government to enforce the edicts. they exchanged the rice stipends for gold pieces and then turned these in for zeni（copper） coins to purchase their everyday necessities. people nicknamed him“Inu-kubo” （dog shogun） It seemed that the explanation . in particular for dogs. Therefore. however. Tsunayoshi built a Confucian shrine at Yushima in Edo and wrote the words“The Palace of Perfection” Taisei（ den）to be displayed in the shrine.
69 per. none of the lower police officials had tatami mats in their houses.（Political discourses）as follows:− Thirty or forty years ago. in the Genroku era. but that of the Genroku koban one ryo had the gold content reduced to 55. Then the retainers of the hatamoto came to be regarded as the equals of the vassals of daimyo. the spread of the Genroku culture to the samurai class quickly resulted in a crisis which first emerged in the bakufu’ s financial management. cent gold content before the Genroku era. had 85. This was the first debasement but not the last. and none wore formal ceremonial men’ attire s ［kami-shimo］Now they have tatami mats on the floor and sliding doors . later he became kanjo-bugyo）proposed a policy of recoining gold and silver bullion. Be that as it may. 41 percent. about half of keicho koban. should be of equal standing with the daimyo. The house and private circumstances of these well-to-do samurai are as good as those of their superiors. As mentioned above. But all this changed because it was said that the hatamoto. the amount of money was raised ― ― 40 . the 1695 debasement was a measure of historical significance vis-a-vis the end of Tokugawa feudalism in 1868. covered with Chinese paper. Formerly those who wore formal suits when they went out were the recipients of sizable stipends. ter. Such debasement occurred nine times from 1695 to 1860 as the“yokonarabi behavior. younger samurai never wore hakama［formal men’skirts］ No one wore silk or anything bets .” In this respect. s gimmiyaku at that time. A face value of the Keicho koban one ryo（one ryo was a standard monetary unit）for instance. The object of this was to debase the currency in order to increase government funds. In the 8th year of the Genroku era（1695） Hagiwara . When the founder of the Tokugawa Bakufu first established his domain in Kanto. Hideshige（1658−1713） the bakufu’ Finance Commissioner（ kanjo . being the immediate retainers of the Shogun. Finally even wakato［lowest class of （8） samurai］ began to live in a grand style.
as they feared that the Ako ronin might attack him and they could become involved in trouble. The debasement. however. even where the samurai and the townspeople congratulated themselves on their “Era of Tranquilty.”We shall examine the growth of the countervailing to the trend of the times in the Genroku era. ― ― 41 .“Bad money drives out good.e. Three hundred years ago −on December 15. Moreover. After killing Kira. of course forced up consumer prices for the necessities of life. It is said that his move came after pressure from his neighbors in the daimyo mansion district outside the castle. they had retired to the Sengakuji Temple in Shinagawa.”The gold content 85. 1703 of the Gregorian（Western）calendar− the awakening citizens of Edo were greeted with an astonishing story. there are countervailing force to the social trend of the times. There was heavy snow on the day before and during the night that forty-six of the former retainers of the lord of Ako had ventured to assault the residence of Kira Kozuke-no-suke. too. Matsuzaka. 1702 of the lunar calendar then in use. and the“Keian Incident” （the Confucianism scholar Yui Shosetsu’ plot to overthrow the s Tokugawa Bakufu in 1651）and became a late of bygone days told men. near Ryogoku in Edo. s Kira’residence had been relocated from near Edo Castle to a new one he s had built on an 8. i. meter lot in Honjo.. 5 ．The Death and the Dishonor “ The Ako Forty-six Ronin Incident” exemplified the spirit of the countervailing force to the social trend of the Genroku era in the early 18th century. In the Genroku era. as Sir Thomas Gresham（1519−79）already told us. their late lord Asano Naganori’bitter adversary. At any time. on January 17. there were counter trend to the hedonistic life of the Edo samurai in Edo. 7 million−5 million ryo.by the bakufu to have been 4. even when ronin（masterless samurai）with secret hopes for an uprising had nearly all been disposed of.500 sq. 69 percent of the Keicho-koban disappeared completely from the markets to the pots under the floor.
Commoners enjoyed life on tatami mats and people started taking three meals a day. Shogun Tsunayoshi was viewed as the most fearful shogun of all fifteen rulers of the Edo period of 264 years（March 24. and told in countless books. 1603−November 10. the Genroku era was a time when popular culture bloomed. Politically and culturally. They repeatedly met in small groups twos and threes in Edo to exchange intelligence gathered and to report to former karo（chief retainer） Oishi Kura-no-suke. as Edo was still blanketed with unthawed snow from the day before. the public sentiment in Edo swung even more toward the ronin −although no one publicly supported them for fear of the authorities. （ （10） Takatoshi 1622−82） They made their fortunes in the logging business （ .Edo and asked the authorities to pass judgement on their act of vengeance on Kira. Known as“Chushingura” （literally. Life was even better （9） for wealthy merchants such as Kinokuniya Bunza-e-mon （the birth and the death year unknown） Naraya Moza-e-mon ?−1714）and Mitsui . The action of vengeance on Kira provoked heated public discussions. on the night of December 14. they secretly ― ― 42 . peddlers and other professionals. and spent their money very publicly. The incident has become the most famous vendetta in Japan. Nonetheless. which had been cons verted into a maz-like fortress. as we saw above. In fact. The Treasury of Loyal Retainers） the . The allure of the values it embodies has never faded. especially Kira’ new residence. 1867） for the severity of the“Edicts on Compassion for Living Things”which he issued. as historians tell us. sometimes eating at outdoor stalls selling soba noodle and snacks. joruri（the ballad dramas with shamisen accompaniment）and movies. 1702. Many security guards were employed by Kira. It was also a time of prosperity and tranquillity. the Genroku era was the high point reached by the Tokugawa Bakufu. The Ako forty-six ronin spent many months singlemindedly gathering information on Kira. When the fifth Shogun Tsunayoshi had refused the Ako clan the right to rebuild. story has been depicted in a kabuki drama. The forty-six ronin disguised as merchants. Finally.
Although Kira hid himself in the cabin. Terasaka Kichi-e-mon to go away from there and to record the action and to report it to their former lord’ widow and to Asano s Daigaku who was the younger brother of late daimyo Asano Naganori. they were given the passwords s by leader Oishi“yama” （mountain）and“kawa” （river） . Terasaka was also given the secret mission to report to Asano’ brother Asano Daigaku s that the attack had been successful! ― ― 43 . Moreover. It was nearly dawn and it was said that Kira’ s security guards fought well. The s leader at the front gate was Oishi Kura-no-suke and the rear was Oishi Chikara who was a son of Oishi. Just before the entering the gate. the Ako ronin split into two groups −one entering Kira’ residence from the front gate. it is believed the number of forty-seven members was reduced to forty-six. With that detail attended to. that her husband had been avenged. Yozen-in. with white cloth bands sewn around their sleeves for recognition in the dark. On the way to the temple. where their late master was enshrined. there were large crowds in the street and all the crowds were watching the parade. the forty-six ronin s achieved finally their goal. who had became a nun and was leading a s cloistered life at the time. Oishi ordered one member. When they arrived at the temple. After two or three hours of fighting at Kira’residence. From Kira’ residence. Clothed in black coats resembling those of firefighters. the other from the rear.gathered at one of their hideouts in Honjo near the Kira residence. he was discovered by them and beheaded. did Terasaka Kichi-e-mon leave the company and disappear into the crowd. but 17 of Kira’ men were killed and 28 were s wounded. they drew water from the temple’ well and washed the head of Kira and offered his head. He was of the lowest-ranking samurai“ashigaru” （foot soldier）and had been given a secret mission by leader Oishi to report to the late lord Asano Naganori’widow. the ronin proceeded to Kira’ residence. s the squad of forty-six ronin paraded down the street to Sengakuji Temple in Shinagawa. None of the forty-six ronin were killed. Only s then. Therefore. Edo.
with lord Matsudaira Sadanao of the Matsuyama domain. including Oishi Kura-nosuke. with the lord Mizuno Tadayuki of the Okazaki domain. Until the bakufu’ verdict was decided. and also to the relationship between the lord and the subjects on the same moral plane.. The list of each group was as follows:− ［At the Residence of the Lord Hosokawa Tsunatoshi＝17 ronin］ ・Oishi Kura-no-suke ・Kataoka Gen-go-e-mon ・Hazama Ki-he-i ・Chikamatsu Kan-roku ・Hayami To-za-e-mon ・Yada Go-ro-e-mon ・Yoshida Chu-za-e-mon ・Mase Kyu-da-yu ・Isogai Juro-za-e-mon ・Tomimori Suke-e-mon ・Akabane Gen-zo ・Oishi Se-za-e-mon ・Hara So-e-mon ・Onodera Ju-nai ・Horibe Ya-he-i ・Ushioda Mata-no-jo ・Okuda Mago-da-yu ［At the Residence of the Lord Matsudaira Sadanao＝10 ronin］ ・Oishi Chikara ・Sugaya Han-no-jo ・Kimura Oka-e-mon ・Otaka Gen-go ［At the Residence of the Lord Mouri Tsunamoto＝10 ronin］ ・Okajima Ya-so-e-mon ・Kurahashi Den-suke ・Yoshida Sawa-e-mon ・Muramatsu Ki-he-i ・Takabayashi Tada-shichi ・Sugino Ju-hei-ji ・Hazama Shin-roku ・Horibe Yasu-be-i ・Fuwa Kazu-e-mon ・Okano Kin-e-mon ・Nakamura Kan-suke ・Chiba Sabu-ro-be-i ・Kaiga Ya-za-e-mon ・Katsuda Shin-za-e-mon ・Maebara I-suke ― ― 44 . 17 ronin. i. on which the bakufu itself was based. including Oishi Chikara.The incident delivered a deadly blow to the relationship between the feudal master and the retainers. with lord Mouri Tsunamoto of the Choshu domain and 9 ronin. 10 ronin. the forty-six ronin were divided into four s groups and each group was placed under house arrest at four daimyo residences outside the Edo Castle.e. with lord Hosokawa Tsunatoshi of the Kumamoto domain. It implied a direct conflict between the bakufu’ position as the unifying s political authority and the feudal private relationship. The incident was strongly supported by the public and even the shogun was sympathetic. 10 ronin.
― ― 45 .・Onodera Ko-e-mon ［At the Resicence of the Lord Mizuno Tadayuki＝9 ronin］ ・Hazama Ju-ji-ro ・Muramatsu San-da-yu ・Kanzaki Yo-go-ro ・Okuda Sada-e-mon ・Mase Mago-ku-ro ・Yokogawa Kam-pe-i ・Yato Emo-shichi ・Kayano Wa-suke ・Mimura Jiro-za-e-mon 6 ．The Countervailing Force to the Trend of the Genroku Era Most of the Confucian scholars. A very conscientious Chu Hsi scholar. Ogyu must certainly have had something to do with the incident of the Ako righteous ronin. None of Ogyu’ works or s collections on“The Ako Ronin Incident. Six years had passed since Ogyu became a retainer of Yanagizawa. too. the forty-six ronin’behavior. s Hayashi Hoko（1644−1732）who was the head of the bakufu’ official s Confucian college proposed that the lives of the loyal forty-six samurai be spared. ? What was the attitude of the Confucian Ogyu Sorai（1666−1728） He was retained by Yanagizawa Yoshiyasu in 1696 with a stipend sufficient to maintain fifteen people. his position seemed to have been consistently one of demanding that the forty-six ronin commit ritual suicide.”As a Confucian of the Yanagizawa family. Yanagizawa had already been made a member of the Council of Elders in 1694 and been given Kawagoe（present-day Kawagoe province in Saitama Prefecture）as his fief from Shogun Tsunayoshi. were in confusion and embarrassment by the incident immediately after it occurred. Muro Kyuso（1768−1734）wrote promptly“Ako Gijin Roku” （A （11） Record of the Righteous Men of Ako） a quick response in admiration of . on the basis of existing historical documents. but his opinion was not accepted by the bakufu’ Council of Elders s （roju） . Ogyu’ fragmentary comments about that have s survived and.
it will be impossible to uphold the law of the land. s Law is the standard of measurement for the entire society. Their action was righteous. the petition of the Uesugi family will be upheld. s The Yanagizawa hiki（The Secret Recording by Yanagizawa）states that the bakufu was about to impose the penalty of execution by decapitation.”but. But this aspect of the situation concerns only tnem and is a private matter. fataly. Thus. The fact that the forty-six samurai avenged the wrong done their lord shows that they possessed the sense of honor of the samurai. in accordance with the principle of rei fitting to a samurai. The fact is that they came to regard Kira as their enemy when Naganori［their lord］was punished for improper behavior in the Palace. strongly opposed this measure and had it changed to death by seppuku（self-disembowelment） Here he is clearly . Gi［righteousness］is the way to uphold one’ personal integrity. they conspired to create this public disturbance. are permitted to commit seppuku. If private considerations are allowed to undermine public considerations. one that stemmed from“a private cause”because the forty-six ronin took revenge without having the necessary shogunal approval to do so. Rei［rites or etiquette］ is used to control the heart. They followed the path of integrity. ― ― 46 . And without sanction from the government. and the royal conduct of the forty-six samurai will be properly honored. This policy will best serve the public interest. Senior shogunal officials concluded that their attack on Kira could be interpreted as“an act of righteousness. In the end. An action of this kind is prohibited by law. through Yanagizawa. the forty-six ronin were dealt with in the manner suggested by Ogyu Sorai.Ogyu wrote his view in his book“Sorai Giritsu-sho” （Sorai’Application s （12） of the Law） Ogyu Sorai wrote:− . while gi is used to control to events. they ruled that the forty-six ronin would be ordered to commit ritual seppuku or harakiri（suicide） −the utmost courtesy for a samurai’last hurra. but Ogyu. If the forty-six samurai are judged guilty and.
in disagreement with his chief disciple. Although on the one hand he fully recognized“Gi” ［the righteousness］ of the samurai’conduct −and therefore he opposed extreme penalties such s as decapitation− he saw this as a matter strictly limited to the private realm. Let us consider how the two terms were used by Sorai. or external matters. based as it was on personal considerations. Their leader Oishi Kura-no-suke was 45. This was the best possible policy to keep the similar incidents from happening again. Dazai Shundai（1680−1747） where . internal matters. In both cases he was clearly consistent in using the terms“public”and“private. The oldest ronin was 77-year-old Horibe Yahei. On February 4. while“private”refers to individual. The dead bodies of the forty-six ronin were soon buried ceremoniously next to the late lord Asano Naganori’ grave at Sengakuji Temple s in Shinagawa. social. Edo. as in many other instances. s with the result that Ogyu’ position on this question has been persistently s misrepresented. 1703. Yanagizawa Yoshiyasu and other members of the Council of Elders（roju）most feared of the possibility of recurrent similar incidents because“yokonarabi behavior”was a strong tendency in Japan. while a willingness to inform in the interest of the state is an example of“public”loyalty. he would not permit private morality to influence matters that demanded political decisions. Shogun Tsunayoshi. Three hundred years have just passed since then. He opposed any tendency to allow personal considerations to undermine public ones. a retired former Edo-assigned vassal of the Ako clan.”That is. that is. while the state’ need to punish them was a“public”matter. the forty-six ronin simultanously finished their lives by committing ritual seppuku（suicide）at the residences where they had been held. yet almost all of Japanese people never forget the“Incident of Ako forty― ― 47 .“public”refers to political. Dazai’ opinion has been ascribed to Ogyu. What matters is Ogyu’attitude（Geisteshaltung） s . Sorai believed that s to regard informing as dishonorable is to adhere to a“private”code of duty. In that work Sorai argued that the“honorable”convictions of the samurai that led them to avenge their dead lord were a“private”matter. His son Chikara was the youngest among them at the age of 16.
when forty-six of the former retainers . but it s was true that the white snow was the symbol of the historical incidents in Japan. It became a signal fire of the dead knell of the Tokugawa Shogunate. An America’greatest cultural s anthropologist.six ronin ”because the Japanese view of their life includes what their formulas of giri and human feelings say it is. another admirable aspect of the behavior of the forty-six ronin. Heavy snow blanketed the s ground in Tokyo. For example. of the lord of Ako attacked the residence of Kira Yoshinaka（1641−1702） there was heavy snow. Three days later the uprising collapsed. they showed“isagiyosa”in Japanese which can be interpreted as“grace with pride. 1941. Since then. anti-foreigner activists assassinated the shogun’ Chief Councilor. they did so gracefully ― ― 48 . They fought against the tide and at the same time they also gave people the flat refusal of“yokonarabi behavior. 1860. There was. On the morning of February 26. s Ii Naosuke（1815−60）at the Sakurada Gate of Edo Castle on the morning of March 3. 500 young officers and soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army seeking a true Imperial restoration seized the nation’ capital in an attempted coup. On the night of December 14. however. During the night there was heavy snow and the blood stained the snow. the tale of the forty-six ronin is still the true national epic of Japan.” The attack was a countervailing force to the social tide in the Genroku Era. 1702. heavy snow has been the backdrop to some of Tokyo’ most epoch-making incidents. the late Ruth Benedict（1887−1948）wrote in her book The Chrysanthemum and the Sword −Patterns of Japanese Culture. the forty-six ronin all knew they faced death and when their time to die did come. when pros emperor. but it was used by Japan’ s militarists to justify purges that set their fascist state on an even more warlike course to December 8.”Naturally. It is true that the white dove is a symbol of peace in today’ Japan. some 1. 1936.
So Tsunetomo asked to retire. Indeed.300 short anecdotes and reflections that give both insight and instruction in the philosophy and code of behavior that foster the true spirit of“Bushido” （The Way of the Warrior） . in the 3rd year of the Kanbun era（1663） the 4th Shogun Tokugawa Ietsuna（1641−80）had . On March 5. s Tsunetomo had gone into the service of his lord as a child and was at that time forty-two years of age. However.”too. Hizen Province on the Island of Kyushu） On May 16. In the summer of 1700. Yamamoto’ lord Nabeshima passed away at the age of sixty-nine. the social tide and the times changed perfectly. the 13th year of the Genroku（1700） . the popularity of“Chushingura”will s never melt down like snow. Tsunetomo wanted to perform junshi（committing suicide as self-immolation in sympathy following the death of his lord）very much because he was one of the closest retainers of lord Mitsushige. in the 7th year of the Hoei era（1710） a young samurai Tashiro Tsuramoto visited him and asked him . the third lord of the clan（present-day Saga Prefecture. 7． “Hagakure”as the True Spirit of the Way of the Warrior “Hagakure.” Hagakure”is believed to have been dictated by Yamamoto Tsunetomo（1659−1719） a middle-rank.with pride in order to live the“Bushido” （the code of samurai） Nowadays . ing retainer in the Nabeshima clan. in Japan. the spirit of the“Bushido”and their“isagiyosa”are still admired by today’people. . he moved to a small hermitage in a place called Kurotsuchibaru to live. we would like to consider here a book called“Hagakure. “ Considered one of the classics of“Bushido. was granted permission and became a Buddhist priest. although everything of the world. already prohibited junshi and the prohibition against junshi was formally added to the Buke Sho-hatto（The Laws of Military Houses） .”The book was completed in the 1st year of Kyo-ho era（1716）and is a manual for the samurai classes consisting of a series of 1. His lord was Nabeshima Mitsushige. Therefore. ― ― 49 . became the good example of the countervailing force.
s This is the substance of the Way of the Samurai. it is not necessary to gain oen’aim. To say that dying without reaching one’aim is s to die a dog’death is the frivolous way of sophisticates. s We all want to live. Be determind and advance. On September 10 of the first year of the Kyoho era（1716） Tsunetomo’ utterances were arranged . At that time. Tashiro was 33 years of age. But there is no shame in this. one is able to live as though his body were already dead. and he will succeed in his calling. Tsunetomo died at the age of 61. To die without gaining one’ s aim is a dog’death and fanaticism. And in large part we make our logic according to what we like. experiences. intellect and so on.”a word that could mean in Japanese either“Hidden by the Leaves”or“Hidden Leaves. there is only the quick choice of death.for the true meaning of life and proper advice how to live. The work’ often oft-quoted second entry expresses the theme that is s elaborated upon throughout the work: only a samurai prepared and willing to die at any moment can devote himself fully to his lord. But not having attained our aim and continuing to live is cowardice. If by setting one’ s heart right every morning and evening. When pressed s with the choice of life or death. he gains freedom in the Way. While“Hagakure” once served as a handbook for young samurai vassals of the Hizen domain. This is a thin dangerous line. The work represents an attitude far removed from our modern pragmatism and materialism. it became a source in the history of“ Bushido . and Tashiro wrote down Tsunetomo’ utterances as a first-class record of his s advice and thought. s as a book and given the title of“Hagakure.” The second entry of “Hagakure”reads as follows:− The way of the Samurai is found in death. It is not particularly difficult. His whole life will （14） be without blame. Their conversation lasted for seven years. When it comes to either/or. It possesses an intuitive rather than a rational ― ― 50 .” Three years later.
that it was dusted. and without fail pay attention to their personal appearance. and feels that nothing else matters as long as he is comfortable. a samurai’ work is in such things. if you are slain with with an unseemly appearance. and arranged. and rather passes his days in self-interest and self-indulgence. It goes without saying that their armor in general was kept free from rust. there should be no shame. It is neither busy-work nor time-cons suming. we saw the trend of the times in the Genroku era in which from all levels of society came the sounds of gaiety and the warlike atmosphere of the Sengoku era（the Age of Civil Wars）had vanished completely. But when the time comes. put lotion in their hair. Although it seems that taking special care of one’appearance is simis lar to showiness. will be despised by your enemy. cut their fingernails and toenails rubbing them with pumice and then with wood sorrel. Even if you are aware that you may be struck down today and are firmly resolved to an inevitable death. Even daimyo from the outlying regions abandoned their old political ambitions and plunged into the hedonistic life of Edo.appeal in its assertion that“Bushido is a Way of Dying. s deliberately becoming as one already dead. a person will be shamed if he is not concious of these things even in his dreams. Although you say that this is troublesome and time-consuming. however. And if he thinks that this is not shameful. As mentioned above. then his dissipate and ― ― 51 . it is nothing akin to elegance. Yamamoto Tsunetomo was exceedingly dissatisfied. you will show your lack of previous resolve. For this reason it is said that both old and young should take care of their appearance. and working at one’job and s dealing with military affairs. The 63rd entry of “Hagakure”reads:− Every morning. shave their foreheads. and will appear unclean. In constantly hardening one’ resolution to die in battle. shined.”and that only the samurai retainer prepared and willing to die at any moment can be totally true to his lord. the samurai of fifty or sixty years ago would bathe.
loss and gain. This new custom probably appears because people attach importance to being beautiful before society and to household finance. and it is doubtful that he would have felt any such restraint in the first place. “Hagakure”may be regarded as an expression of Yamamoto Tsunetomo’ s sincerity. there is no reason to gather together at all. This he set down in“Hagakure. and the single idea that focused his thought was not prone to compromise or dissuasion. if there is not just talk about money matters. now when young samurai get together. What things a person should be able to accomplish if he had no haughtiness concerning his place in society! It is a wretched thing that the young men of today are so contriving and so proud of their material possessions. His extremism and singularity were not held in check by any anticipation of judgment from the outside. clothing styles or matters of sex. Lacking in duty. Men with contriving hearts （15） are lacking in duty. he did not carry despicable things in his heart. during the last thirty years customs have changed. One can say that formerly when a man reached the age of twenty or thirty. secrets. Futhermore.” −To be continued.discourteous actions will be repeatedly regrettable. His mentors and perhaps geographical position gave encouragement to his own radicalness. Customs are going to pieces. He was keenly aware of the events and issues of the day and responded to them within the framework of his own insights. Tsunetomo dwelt on death as the greatest act that a samurai could perform for his master but was not simply a romantic who brooded on dark thought. The person without previous resolution to inevitable death makes certain that his death will be in bad form. If an elder unwittingly said something of that sort. and thus neither did such words appear. in what way can he be despicable? One should be especially diligent in this concern.− ― ― 52 . But if one is resolved to death forehand. he thought of it as a sort of injury. they will have no self-respect.
A woman may not cry out in childbirth and a man should rise above pain and danger.. the rice stipends of samurai. though he returned to service as naval minister from 1872 to 75. （ 3 ） Ibid. Land productivity. he studied a Japanese fencing. and the wealth of daimyo were all measured in koku of unpolished rice. pp. A founder of the Tokugawa shogunate Ieyasu won out over all rivals and ― ― 53 . 000 koku equaled 51. civil war had become endemic. he acted as the chief negotiator for the Tokugawa Shogunate. His name was Rintaro in his boyhood. he argued for surrender and followed the 15th shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu into retirement. 148∼9. He was greatly instrumental in the formation of the modern Japanese navy. the self-control that is required of a self-respecting Japanese is part of his giri to his name. It includes also plenty of quiet and temperate behavior. 200 US bushels because 1 koku was 5. Vengeance is only one of the virtues it may require upon occasion. becoming a commissioner of warships in 1862. 10. At the time of the Meiji Restoration in 1868. When the shogunate collapsed. In his boyhood. He opened his private school on the Dutch sciences in Edo and gained a good reputation as an expert in the Western military technology. 12 US bushels. The stoicism. a koku of harvested grain was the basic unit of the society.Notes （ 1 ） In the Edo period. Ruth Benedict also wrote on the page 148 as follows:− The full significance of giri to one’ name cannot be unders stood without placing in context all the non-aggressive virtues which are included in it in Japan. （ 2 ） Katsu Kaishu was born in Edo as an eldest son of a low-ranking and poorest hatamoto retainer of the Tokugawa Shogunate. So he rose from relatively humble origins to prominence. He spent the remainder of his life in scholary pursuits. and in 1887 he was awarded the title of count. In the 17th century in Japan. tax assessments. （ 4 ） The golden age of Confucianism was the Tokugawa period（1603− 1868）and we can see the most rapid development of Confucianism in this period. the Western military technology and the Dutch language.
1998. pp. The Tokugawa bakufu continued for two and a half centuries and was ended in 1868. Basho was said to have had more than 2. . 000 disciples all over the country at the time of his death. （ 6 ） This is the opening pagraphs of Matsuo Basho’ travel essay“Okus no-Hosomichi” （Narrow Road to a Far Province） Iwanami Library. 1915. The name of “Basho” （banana plant）was a sobriquet.“ published in the 6th year of the Kanbun era（1661−73）in Edo. This made it easy to apply Confucian ideas in Tokugawa Japan. to modern novelists such as the late Akutagawa Ryunosuke（1892−1927） Basho appeared to be a humanist . pp. Why was that? My personal opinion is that an armed peace was maintained up to the very last generation before it ended and it put into effect a centralized administration that admirably served the Tokugawas’ purpose. 16−7. A famous philosopher in Japan Tetsujiro Inoue（1855−1944）edited “Nihon Kogaku-ha no Tetsugaku” （The Philosophy of the Ancient Learning School in Japan）in tokyo. Matsuo Basho was a Haiku poet. Basho’reputation has become to be internationals ly minded. ― ― 54 . Tokyo. With the increasing interest in haiku outside Japan. This long Tokugawa era is one of the most remarkable in history. The social and political structure of Tokugawa feudal society were comparable with those on which Confucianism was based in the Chinese empire. （ 5 ） Yamaga’ s“farewell message”quoted from his“Haisho Zampitsu” （An Autobiography in Exile）which was included in his book“Seikyo Yoroku” （Essential Teachings of the Sacred） Seikyo Yoroku”was . Basho's influence has reached outside haikai circles: some considered Basho a Wordsworthian figure who sought a mystic union with nature. In present day Japan. he adopted around 1681 after moving into a hut with a banana plant alongside. for whom the highest good was poetry.in 1603 he became the first shogun. essayist and wrtiter of travel sketches in the Genroku era. 1−2. to others Basho seemed almost a precursor of French symbolism. His name was Kinsaku in childhood and Matsuo Munefusa after coming of the age.
he changed his business to a lumber merchant in the . （10） Mitsui Takatoshi was born in 1622 in Matsuzaka. There were a lot of fires in Edo every year. 320. His father was a medical practitioner in Takatsuki and he studied medicine under his father in his boyhood. Omi（present-day Shiga Prefecture） in 1668. He died at 88. The lumber from Kii was in good demand.. pp. He became a top of the wealthiest merchants in Japan in the middle of the Edo period（1680− 1730） After that. 1901−03. His view of business was always ahead of the tide.”This is contained“ Nihon Rinri I-hen” （Collection of Works on Japanese Ethics） ed. Tokyo. he met Ogyu Sorai in Edo and associated with him for long time. Hatcho-bori district of Edo. and Kaminoe Yoshimaru. ed. He did it at great risks of his life and got a huge profit.（ 7 ） See“Kisso Sawa. he went to Edo to study Chu Hsi philosophy under the Confucian Kinoshita Jun’ At the age of an. P.” Kisso”means“by the window”and “ “Sawa ”means“talking over tea. He devoted his life as a Confucianist and a retainer of the Tsushima clan to a good neighbor relations between Korea and Japan. carry full cargo of oranges from Kii to Edo in the bad weather. 77− 8. The author Ame-nomori Hoshu was born in Takatsuki. In 1717. When he was 17. He was a first class internationalist in Japan at that time. Inoue Tetsujiro . （ 9 ） Kinokuniya Bun-za-e-mon was born in 1660s in Kii Province（now Wakayama Prefecture）He planned to sail across the Pacific in winter to . He went to Kyoto to study medicine in later years. he was employed as a Chu Hsi scholar by the Tsushima clan. Takimoto Seiichi in Tokyo in 1928−30. but he changed his academic interest from medicine to Confucianism. Tsushima is an island and is located in the Tsushima Strait or Korea Strait. He died in 1730s presumedly. Chinese and Hangul.”Book II. 22. between Korea and Kyushu.“Seidan. He also studied Chinese and Korean languages and became a good speaker of two languages. Book I. （ 8 ） Ogyu Sorai’ Seidan” s“ （Political Discourses）is contained“Nihon Keizai Taiten” （Collection of Japanese Economic Histories）IX. Ise Province（now ― ― 55 . Japan.
Hosokawa was warlords and s shogunate of the Muromachi period（1333−1568） subseqently daimyo . p. ker. （12）“Ako Gijin Sansho”is also contains“Sorai Giritsu-sho” （Sorai’ s Application of Law） Vol. he went to Kyoto and Edo.” Sorai Giritsu-sho”survived as a document “ paper of a Hosokawa family’ papers. 1851−52. Takatoshi also instituted a system for the division of labor in his stores and encouraged productivity by granting bonuses. in the Edo period. tozama daimyo among the outer daimyo.” （11）“Ako Gijin Sansho” （Collection of Works on the Righteous Men of Ako） ed. Edo. a lord Hosokawa Tadaoki（1563−1646）fought on the side of Tokugawa Ieyasu and he was awarded with a large domain in Kyushu area afterward and became the lord of Higo province（now Kumamoto prefecture） assessed at 540. natural as the Chu Hsi scholar to write this. At the“Battle of Sekigahara”in 1600. ― ― 56 . He composed a poem expressing his anger and frustration because he proposed that the lives of the loyal forty-six ronin be spared. 150. which in accordance with its rationalistic ways. This is owned by the National Diet Library in Tokyo. roku ” （A Record of the Righteous Men of Ako） Muro Kyuso was . Nabeta Miyoshi in . In 1673. Hosokawa was the most important . Supplement.Mie Prefecture） He was the fourth son of a sake brewer and pawnbro. I. The situation was not so simple.”the forty-six ronin was divided into four groups and one group of 17 ronin were placed under the residence of the lord Hosokawa in Edo. accepting only cash and selling goods at a low profit in large quantities. He is a founder of the largest department store in Japan“Mitsukoshi. and opened Echigo-ya kimono shops （now Mitsukoshi Department Store）in Kyoto and Edo. Nabeta Miyoshi in Edo in 1851−52 contains“Ako Gijin. Hayashi Hoko was also admired the forty-six ronin’ s behavior. This is the most important documents concerned with “Ako Ronin Incident. He later became the official money exchanger to the shogunate. He made his initial fortune as a rice broker and moneylender. ed. 000 koku. But he was the head of the official Confucian college that time. After the“Ako Incident. Ltd.
cit. ・daimyo: Domanial lords. resources and the history of their relationship to the shogunal house as kinsmen.（13）“Hagakure”is translated into English by William Scott Wilson. hereditary vassals. but also loyalty to their lord. ・fudai: literally. pp. ・bakufu: literally. The term took on particular （ ） importance during the Edo period. direct samurai vassals of the Tokugawa shogunate） （ . ・bushido:（literally. Glossary ・ashigaru: Foot soldiers of the Muromachi（1333−1568）through the Edo （1600−1868）periods. Tozama means“outside vassal”who had become retainer recently. 000 hatamoto in number in the Edo period.. ・han: A feudal domain or fief. ・gi: literally.“name land. About 5. The same as shogunate. were sworn vassals of the shogun. There were 260 hanshu in the Edo period. 17−8.“successive generations”. They were the lowest-ranking samurai in the retainers. ・hanshu: A feudal lord. （15） op.“the way of the warrior”.”it means a private land） All lords . （ ） ・ budo : The martial arts. （14） op. Bushido involved not only ） martial spirit and skills. cit. They were classified by size of its manors. pp. 33−4. to dictates of society in relation to other persons. expected to provide absolute loyalty and obedience. All hanshu were the feudal lords of the manors and all of them were also daimyo.“tent government”. when a hereditary vassal family who served a powerful samurai family was known as fudai to distinguish them from tozama. Those were considered essential in training samurai in the Edo period. they occupied ― ― 57 . social obligation） It refers to the obligation to act according （ . dai means large and myo stands for myoden（literally. In this term. in Tokyo in 2002. It was published by Kodansha International Ltd..” ・hatamoto: literally. or allies called“outside lords.
Hyaku” “ means “many” “a lot of” or or “plenty of” and so on. ・karo: literally. ・hyakusho: literally. Karo was the highest-ranking posi（ ） tion in the officials of daimyo during the Edo period. and other exploitive practices. They attacked the government authorities and also set on wealthy merchants and other privileged segments of rulal comunities for lent gouging. more than 2. originally pronounced hyakusei. The position of this was usually occupied by men of middle level fudai daimyo status. Kira was in a different family “ of higher than the rest because of very good lineage. ・ronin: A retainer who had been dismissed from service or who had lost his master. ・koke: literally. Father of Katsu Kaishu was one of the lowest-ranking hatamoto. loan-sharking. There were 26 families eligigible for the position included the Kira family.” Therefore. ・hyakusho-ikki: peasant uprisings） According to the statistics of a book of （ . Usually two to four karo commonly held office at one time and had general responsibility for the administration of domanial affairs. hyakusei meant peope with a lot of names. 1966. 600 hyakusho. this term （ . ikki occurred in Japan. The author of this book is Aoki Koji.” the Edo period. “Hyakusho-ikki no Nenji-teki Kenkyu ” （A Chronological Study of Peasant Uprisings） from 1590 to 1867. ― ― 58 . Sei ” “ means “family name.“elevated families”. ・koke-hitto: Hitto”means the top of the tree. masters of rites and ceremonies for the Tokugawa Bajufu. Published by Shinseisha in Tokyo. They raised a riot defiance against Tokugawa government authorities.“the house elders”. The hereditary officials of the Edo （ ） period. the “ By pronounciation of hyakusei changed to hyakusho and became the synonymous with peasant and farmer because hyakusho had the largest population in the Edo period. ・roju: Senior councillors in the Tokugawa shogunate. peasant or farmer） In the ancient times.positions asthe official corps in a standing army or the bureaucracy of a central Tokugawa feudal system.
s suicide by self-disembowelment gradually became more ritualized and by the time of the Edo period. The system was a device to maintain control over the more than 260 daimyo who were the virtually autonomous feudal rulers of four-fifths of the country. shogunate in Edo and the various daimyo domains as centralized feudalism. it had become one of the five grades of punishment for wrong-doers among the samurai class. ・seppuku: Ritual suicide by disembowelment. During Japan’ early period. All daimyo or territorial lords were required to reside in alternate years in Edo in attendance on the shogun. witnesses. All aspects of the ritual seppuku were prescribed with precision: apparel. The Tokugawa central shogunate administration in Edo was far more complex and pervasive than either Kamakura and the Muromachi shogunates. There were three shogunates. and assistant.・samurai: warrior） Samurai was also known bushi（the military gentry） （ . The term designated the warrior elite of premodern Japan that emerged in the provinces from at least the early 10th century and became the ruling class of the country from the 12th century until the Meiji Restoration of 1868. site.”As chief of Japan’ warriors. time. which was usually rendered as“barbarian-subduing generalissimo. the Muromachi period（1338−1573）and the third was Edo period （1603−1868）The Japanese refer to the balance of power between the . Their mothers. a shogun was expected to keep the national s seclusion and prohibit doing the foreign trade between Japan and the foreign countries except Nagasaki and the Netherlands. inspector. wives and children were kept permanently in Edo. ・shogun: An abbreviation of the ancient title seii tai shogun. the first situated in the Kamakura period（1192−1333）the second was in . ― ― 59 . in Japanese. ・shogunate: Synonymous with bakufu. ・sankin-kotai: The term of this meant the system of alternate attendance by a daimyo in Edo.
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