Calgary

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City of Calgary
— City —

Calgary skyline

Flag Coat of arms

Nickname(s): Cowtown, The Stampede City Motto: Onward

Location of Calgary in Alberta

Coordinates: 51°02′42″N 114°03′26″W / 51.045°N 114.05722°W / 51.045; -114.05722 Country Province Region Census division Established Incorporated Government [1] - Mayor Dave Bronconnier
(Past mayors)

Canada Alberta Calgary Region 6 1875 1884 (town) 1894 (city)

- Governing body Calgary City Council - Manager Owen A. Tobert List of MPs[show] Diane Ablonczy Rob Anders Art Hanger - MPs Stephen Harper Jason Kenney Deepak Obhrai Jim Prentice Lee Richardson - MLAs List of MLAs[show] Craig Cheffins Cindy Ady Moe Amery Neil Brown Wayne Cao Harvey Cenaiko Harry B. Chase Alana DeLong Heather Forsyth Yvonne Fritz Denis Herard Paul Hinman Arthur Johnston Ron Liepert Richard Magnus Gary Mar Greg Melchin Hung Pham David Rodney

in an area of foothills and high plains.[3] making it the fifth largest metropolitan area in the country after Toronto. Contents [hide] .065.193[2] and the CMA had a population of 1.971.50 km2 (280.50 sq mi) 5.455 and the CMA had a population of 1. Vancouver. Economic activity in Calgary is mostly centred on the petroleum industry.43 km2 (1. tourism.5/km2 (3.5/km2 (589.9/sq mi) 1.Metro Density . Calgary is the third largest civic municipality.Population rank . As of the 2009 civic census. statisticians define the narrow populated area between these cities as the "Calgary-Edmonton Corridor. by population in Canada. Calgary is well-known as a destination for winter sports and ecotourism with a number of major mountain resorts near the city and metropolitan area. the city had a population of 988.Metro . and high-tech industries also contribute to the city's economic growth.048 m (3. In 1988.079.2/sq mi) 3rd 5th [2][3] MST (UTC−7) MDT (UTC−6) T1Y to T3R 403 587 City of Calgary Calgary (pronounced /ˈkælɡri.Metro Elevation Population (2006) .310.Metro rank Time zone .182.193 1. It is located in the south of the province.079.438 ft) 988.Summer (DST) Postal code span Area code(s) Website 726. however. approximately 80 km (50 mi) east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies.99 sq mi) 1.Density . and Ottawa. ˈkælɡəri/) is the largest city in the Province of Alberta.[4] Greater Calgary is now estimated to be the 4th largest metropolitan area in Canada according to Statistics Canada's 2009 estimate.310 227. In the Canada 2006 Census. [5] Located 300 km (200 mi) due south of Edmonton. Calgary became the first Canadian city to host the Olympic Winter Games. The city is located in the Grassland region of Alberta.Shiraz Shariff David Swann Dave Taylor Len Webber Area [2] .446."[6] Calgary is the largest Canadian metropolitan area between Toronto and Vancouver. Canada. Calgary's population was 1.107.435.717.City .City . Montreal. agriculture.

2 Climate • 2 Geography ○ ○ • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 3 Flora and fauna 4 Culture 5 Sports and recreation 6 Attractions 7 Demographics 8 Government and politics 9 Economy 10 Education 11 Media 12 Infrastructure 13 Health Care 14 Military 15 Contemporary issues 16 Sister cities 17 See also 18 Notes 19 References 20 External links [edit] History Main article: Timeline of Calgary history [edit] First settlement Before the Calgary area was settled by Europeans.3 Recent history 2.1 First settlement 1.[8] The native way of life remained relatively unchanged until the late 1870s.2 The oil boom 1. and John Glenn was the first documented European settler in the Calgary area. cartographer David Thompson spent the winter with a band of Peigan encamped along the Bow River. in 1873. . when Europeans hunted the buffalo to near-extinction.[7] In 1787.1 Calgary's neighbourhoods 2. it was inhabited by Pre-Clovis people whose presence has been traced back at least 11. He was the first recorded European to visit the area.• 1 History ○ ○ ○ 1.000 years.

The NWMP detachment was assigned in 1875 to protect the western plains from U. the natives began trapping beaver and other fur-bearing mammals for the Hudson's Bay Company and North-West Company. Agriculture and ranching became key components of the local economy. grew from a small agricultural show and rodeo started in 1912 by four wealthy ranchers to "the greatest outdoor show on earth". Between 1896 and 1914 settlers from all over the world poured into the area in response to the offer of free "homestead" land. Cala ghearraidh. The Calgary Fire of 1886 occurred on Sunday.000-12.000 acres for one cent per acre per year).200. This meant that the railroad had to be routed through Calgary. Nobody was killed or injured. meaning 'cold' and 'garden'. 1886. who set up trading posts in the Bow Valley and at Rocky Mountain House to the northwest. the Dominion Government started leasing grazing land at minimal cost (up to 100. As a result of this policy. which became a major supply station during the construction process. still held annually in July. The world famous Calgary Stampede. Calgary began to grow into an important commercial and agricultural centre. The Calgary townsite had the good fortune to be built at the entrance to the Kicking Horse Pass. George Murdoch. the Museum on the Isle of Mull explains that kald and gart are similar Old Norse words.[10] To ensure this would never happen again. it was incorporated as "The City of Calgary" in what was then the North-West Territories. 14 buildings were razed and losses estimated at $103. except for a narrow valley which led from Calgary into the heart of British Columbia. and to protect the fur trade. after NWMP officer Éphrem-A. It was named after Calgary on the Isle of Mull.S. shaping the future of Calgary for years to come. Calgary as it appeared circa 1885 The site became a post of the North-West Mounted Police (now the RCMP). it was renamed Fort Calgary in 1876 by Colonel James Macleod. 7. The Canadian Pacific Railway headquarters are located in Calgary today.[11] When the Canadian Pacific Railway reached the area in 1883 and a rail station was constructed. Originally named Fort Brisebois.[12] After the arrival of the railway. meaning 'beach of the meadow (pasture)'. Calgary was officially incorporated as a town in 1884 and elected its first mayor. . the name might come from the Gaelic. Calgary quickly became the center of Canada's cattle marketing and meatpacking industries.With the buffalo gone.000 foot-high peaks denied access to a railway all along their thousand-mile length. city officials drafted a law that all large downtown buildings were to be built with Paskapoo sandstone. The 10. In 1894. whiskey traders. that were likely used when named by the Vikings who inhabited the Inner Hebrides. Already a transportation and distribution hub. large ranching operations were established in the outlying country near Calgary. While there is some disagreement on the naming of the town. one of the few passages through the sheer eastern wall of the Rocky Mountains. Brisebois. Scotland.[9] Alternatively. Nov.

[17] The success of these games[18] essentially put the city on the world stage.1 million people was the fastest growing economy in . however. During these boom years. and Calgary became the staging point for people destined for the park. The city's economy grew when oil prices increased with the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973. the economy was in recovery. Calgary quickly found itself at the centre of the ensuing oil boom. [edit] Recent history Downtown Calgary With the energy sector employing a huge number of Calgarians. The unemployment rate soared. The relatively low-rise downtown quickly became dense with tall buildings.[16] By the end of the decade.[13] but it did not become a significant industry in the province until 1947 when huge reserves of it were discovered. However. Calgary's economy was so closely tied to the oil industry that the city's boom peaked with the average annual price of oil in 1981. the economy in Calgary and Alberta was booming until the end of 2008.000) and 1989 (675.[15] The subsequent drop in oil prices were cited by industry as reasons for a collapse in the oil industry and consequently the overall Calgary economy. Banff National Park became an international tourist attraction.000 in the next eighteen years (to 1.000) and another 345. Thanks in part to escalating oil prices. The period during this recession marked Calgary's transition from a mid-sized and relatively nondescript prairie city into a major cosmopolitan and diverse centre.[14] a trend that continues to this day. [edit] The oil boom Calgary circa 1969 Oil was first discovered in Alberta in 1902. The population increased by 272. and the region of nearly 1.With its inception in 1924. skyscrapers were constructed at a pace seen by few cities anywhere. and the city has since become much more diverse. when the city hosted the XV Olympic Winter Games.000 in the eighteen years between 1971 (403. This transition culminated in February 1988. both economically and culturally.000 in 2007). the fallout from the economic slump of the early 1980s was understandably significant.020. Calgary quickly realized that it could not afford to put so much emphasis on oil and gas. low oil prices prevented a full recovery until the 1990s. along with the Banff Springs Hotel.

24th in 2007 and 25th again in the 2008 Mercer Quality of Living Survey.5 sq mi) (as of 2006)[25] and as such exceeds the land area of the City of Toronto.the country. and is relatively hilly as a result. dense vegetation occurs naturally only in the river valleys. The city proper covers a land area of 726.251. Unlike most cities with a sizable metropolitan area. There are two major rivers that run through the city.[22] and 10th best city to live in according to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). most of Calgary's suburbs are incorporated into the city proper. The Elbow River flows northwards from the south until it converges with the Bow River near downtown.[19] While the oil and gas industry comprise an important part of the economy. The city has ranked highly[21] in quality of life surveys: 25th in 2006.440 ft) above sea level downtown. Calgary's elevation is approximately 1. Though it is not technically within Calgary's metropolitan area. . and the Springbank and Bearspaw acreages to the west. high-tech. The Bow River is the largest and flows from the west to the south. film.[24] [edit] Geography Map of Calgary Calgary is located at the transition zone between the Canadian Rockies foothills and the Canadian Prairies.5 km2 (280. and are bringing people into Calgary as a result. The city is large in physical area. The Calgary Economic Region includes slightly more area than the CMA and has a population of 1.[23] Calgary ranked as the world's cleanest city by Forbes Magazine in 2007. The nearby mountain resort towns of Banff.600[26] in 2008. and within Fish Creek Provincial Park. Other modern industries include light manufacturing. and Canmore are also becoming increasingly popular with tourists. Cochrane to the northwest. Strathmore to the east. especially the Calgary Stampede. the town of Okotoks is only a short distance to the south and is considered a suburb as well. and services. Over 3.1 million people now visit the city annually[20] for its many festivals and attractions. with the notable exceptions of the city of Airdrie to the north. on some north-facing slopes. consisting of an inner city surrounded by communities of various density. the city has invested a great deal into other areas such as tourism and high-tech manufacturing.048 m (3.550 ft) at the airport.083 m (3. Since the climate of the region is generally dry. and 1. Lake Louise. transportation. e-commerce.

Rosedale and. South Calgary (including Marda Loop). and in fact Chestermere's administration has a growth plan in the works that calls for it annexing the intervening land between the town and Calgary. Lying beyond these. and usually separated from one another by highways. the Beltline. Midnapore.[31] [edit] Climate . Rocky View No. the Downtown West End. The area includes a number of communities such as Connaught. most recently in 2007. surrounded by relatively dense and established neighbourhoods such as Rosedale and Mount Pleasant to the north. there are over 180 distinct neighbourhoods within the city limits. [edit] Calgary's neighbourhoods Main article: List of neighbourhoods in Calgary Downtown Calgary The downtown region of the city consists of five neighbourhoods: Eau Claire (including the Festival District). the Downtown Commercial Core. These include Bowness. Altadore. Hounsfield Heights/Briar Hill. the Entertainment District. Mount Royal. and place its boundaries adjacent to the hamlet of Balzac and within very short distances of the city of Airdrie and town of Chestermere. Montgomery. Chinatown. Parkdale and Glendale to the west. Hillhurst/Sunnyside (including Kensington BRZ). Park Hill. or directly radiating from the downtown are the first of the inner-city communities. Mission. Adjacent to. and the Downtown East Village (also part of the Rivers District).[27] Despite this proximity. These include Crescent Heights. Bankview. 31 to the south. The commercial core is itself divided into a number of districts including the Stephen Avenue Retail Core. and Forest Lawn/International Avenue to the east. Shepard. and Foothills No. the most recent was completed in July 2007 and saw the city annex the neighbouring hamlet of Shepard.[28] The city of Calgary proper is immediately surrounded by two municipal districts. there are presently no plans for Calgary to annex either Airdrie or Chestermere. The Beltline is the focus of major planning and rejuvenation initiatives on the part of the municipal government[29] to increase the density and liveliness of Calgary's centre. Bowness. the Arts District and the Government District. [30] Several of Calgary's neighbourhoods were initially separate towns that were annexed by the city as it grew. Forest Lawn. Distinct from downtown and south of 9th Avenue is Calgary's densest neighbourhood. Victoria Crossing and a portion of the Rivers District. In all. are the suburban communities. and Killarney to the south. west and east. 44 to the north. Bridgeland.The city has undertaken numerous land annexation procedures over the years to keep up with growth. The inner city is. Ramsay and Inglewood and Albert Park/Radisson Heights directly to the east. Renfrew. in turn.

with June averaging the most monthly rainfall. dry. In June 2005. winters and short. highland continental climate with long. July. dry Chinook winds routinely blow into the city from the Pacific Ocean during the winter months. Calgary received 248 mm (9. with 2. and may last several days.Northern lights over the city of Calgary Calgary has a semi-arid. Calgary may experience summer daytime temperatures exceeding 29 °C (84 °F) anytime in June. Calgary is a city of extremes.[32][33] The climate is greatly influenced by the city's elevation and close proximity to the Rocky Mountains. the average temperature in Calgary ranges from a January daily average of −9 °C (16 °F) to a July daily average of 16 °C (61 °F). Temperatures fall below −30 °C (−22. More than one half of all winter days see the daily maximum rise above 0 °C (32 °F).400 hours of annual sunshine. With an average relative humidity of 55% in the winter and 45% in the summer. Calgary has a semi-arid climate typical of other cities in the Western Great Plains and Canadian Prairies. These winds have been known to raise the winter temperature by up to 15 °C (27 °F) in just a few hours. but highly variable. and 126.[34] A chinook over Calgary.9 in) as snow. The chinooks are such a common feature of Calgary's winters that only one month (January 1950) has failed to witness a thaw over more than 100 years of weather observations. but warm. giving Calgarians a break from the cold.62 in) of that occurring in the form of rain. and occasionally as late as September or as early as May. with 320.24 in) of precipitation annually. Ottawa or even Winnipeg.[35] Droughts .[34] Most of the precipitation occurs from May to August. Montreal. Unlike cities further east such as Toronto. According to Environment Canada.76 in) of precipitation. & August. and temperatures have ranged anywhere from a record low of −45 °C (−49 °F) in 1893 to a record high of 36 °C (97 °F) in 1919.0 °F) on about five days per year.6 mm (16.7 cm (49. humidity is rarely a factor during the Calgary summer. Calgary International Airport in the northeastern section of the city receives an average of 412. on average. Calgary's winters can be uncomfortably cold. The average summer minimum temperature drops to 10 °C (50 °F). As a consequence of Calgary's high elevation and relative dryness. though extreme cold spells usually do not last very long. making it the wettest month in the city's recorded history. USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 3b). moderately warm summers (Koppen climate classification Dfb. The city is among the sunniest in Canada. summer evenings can be very cool.6 mm (12.

6 (64) 12. Calgary lies on the edge of Alberta's hailstorm alley and is prone to damaging hailstorms every few years.1 (97) -0.6 (60) 10.8 (18) -2.1 (26) -7.2 (61) 15.9 (29) 4. Precipitation decreases somewhat from west to east.are not uncommon and may occur at any time of the year.1 (28) 3.4 (85) 22.8 (73) 19.4 (85) 32.3 (45) 9.4 (42) -3.4 (62) 20. Calgary endures several very cold spells in most winters (although they are punctuated by warm spells).1 (54) 2.3 (30) 10.8 (73) 29. General seasons (not well-defined in Calgary due to highly variable climate) • • • • Winter: November through March Spring: April through May Summer: June through August Autumn: September through October [show]Weather data for Calgary.5 (67) 36. consequently.6 (73) 22.9 (73) 22.4 (90) 35 (95) 36. tornadoes are rare in the region.1 (97) 35.5 high (62) °C (°F) Avera ge -2.8 high (27) °C (°F) Daily mean -8.9 °C (16) (°F) Avera ge -15.5 (51) -6.6 (96) 33. AB Mont Jan h Recor d 16.3 (92) 29. groves of trees on the western outskirts largely give way to treeless grassland around the eastern city limit.9 (16) -13. was one of the most destructive natural disasters in Canadian history.8 (50) 13. 1991.4 (8) -2.5 (73) 17.1 (21) -1.4 (29) -8.4 (28) .[36] Being west of the dry line on most occasions. Located in Southern Alberta.1 (39) -12 (10) -7.3 (52) 16.6 (47) 4 (39) -1.4 (19) 4.1 low (5) °C (°F) Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year 22.1 (32) 4 (39) 11.6 (40) 9.8 (51) 5.1 (38) 7.8 (57) 16.8 (37) -1. Calgary averages more than 22 days a year with thunderstorms. Snow depths of greater than 1 cm are seen on about 88 days each year in Calgary compared with about 65 days in Toronto. with most all of them occurring in the summer months. A hailstorm that struck Calgary on September 7.4 (49) 8. with over $400 million dollars in damage.2 (68) 22. lasting sometimes for months or even several years.

9 (3.35) (0.31) (1.14) (2.5 123.8 17.07) (0.6 8.8 (1.24) (0.Recor d low -44.94) (2.[38] Another conifer of widespread distribution found in the Calgary area is White Spruce.55) (0.4 (6.5) 17.9 60.01) (inche s) Snowf all cm 17.4 (5.7 °C (-48) (-49) (-35) (-22) (2) (°F) -3.2 412.4 -45 -37.7 (inche (7) s) 0.48) (0.01) (12.8 67.7 280.7 11.7 (3.2 1.6 mm (0.64) (0.9 107.6 (6.67) (2.7 6.2 0.7 (-14) -35 (-31) -42.3 hours Source: Environment Canada[37] May 2009 [edit] Flora and fauna Numerous plant and animal species are found within and around Calgary. [edit] Culture Olympic Plaza in the Arts District Calgary's urban scene has changed considerably since the beginning of the city's rapid growth.9 281.1) 9.62) 13.05) (0.9) Sunshi ne 117.3 320.48) (16.8) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4.7 41.8 (-45) -45 (-49) Preci pitati on 11.6 218.3) 21.6) 15.4 141.37) (3.46) (0.9) 9. Calgary is a modern cosmopolitan city that still retains much of its traditional culture of .9 58.4 23.3 12.6 (31) -3.6 (0.4 177.9) 16.9) 126. The Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir has the northern limit of its range at Calgary.9 (8.9 58.3 (8) -25.8) (0.8 45.7 180.02) (3.31) (1.3 (26) -0.2 -30 -16.1 (0) 1.69) (0.8 253.7 (49.2 (26) -13.4 (6.4 79.4 2.405.9 12.3 314.14) (2. Today.45) (2.9 207.7 13.3 79.67) (2.24) (inche s) Rainf all 0.8 67.5 51.2 mm (0. Picea glauca.

" The 2. night clubs.[citation needed] The nightlife and the availability of cultural venues in these areas has gradually begun to evolve as a result. the other located in Edmonton. Calgary is the site of the Southern Alberta Jubilee Auditorium. western bars. as well as Theatre Calgary. the Kiwanis Music Festival. Alberta Theatre Projectsand Theatre Junction Grand. more central districts such as 17 Avenue. Calgary is also home to a number of theatre companies. as well as the International Festival of Animated Objects. The Calgary International Film Festival is also held in the city annually. Calgary has also become a centre for country music in Canada. a 4 million ft³ (113. the Calgary opera. It has one of the largest Chinatowns in Canada. There are a number of art galleries in the downtown. culture and community facility.hotel saloons. Calgary was also the birthplace of the improvisational theatre games known as Theatresports. Forest Lawn. and are run by the provincial government.538seat auditorium was opened in 1957[39] and has been host to hundreds of Broadway musical. which shares the EPCOR Centre for the Performing Arts with the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra. among them are One Yellow Rabbit. The Calgary Jube is the resident home of the Alberta Ballet. including a large central library in the downtown core.[citation needed] Following its revival in the 1990s. football and hockey.[40] The largest of these is the Art Gallery of Calgary (AGC). the area around 17 Avenue SE within the neighbourhood is also known as International Avenue. each being locally known as the "Jube. stage and local productions. Kensington. Visual and conceptual artists like the art collective United Congress are active in the city. theatrical.000 m³) performing arts. many of them concentrated along the Stephen Avenue and 17 Avenue corridors. Both auditoriums operate 365 days a year. The auditorium is one of two "twin" facilities in the province. Both received major renovations as part of the province's centennial in 2005."[citation needed] Calgary also has a number of multicultural areas. Marda Loop and the Mission District have become more popular and density in those areas has increased. The district is home to many ethnic restaurants and stores. it is referred to by some as the "Nashville of the North. Calgary is also home to the Alberta College of Art and Design. . While many Calgarians continue to live in the city's suburbs. culture house dedicated for the contemporary live arts. Inglewood. and the annual civic Remembrance Day ceremonies.[citation needed] The Calgary Public Library is a public library network with 17 branches throughout the city. As such. Forest Lawn is among the most diverse areas in the city and as such. as well as a "Little Italy" in the Bridgeland neighbourhood.

See also: Media in Calgary [edit] Sports and recreation . They include the Calgary Round-Up Band. It is one of the largest festivals in Canada.[43] Other major museums include the Chinese Cultural Centre (at 70. The Glenbow Museum is the largest in western Canada and includes an art gallery and first nations gallery.[41] Calgary hosts a number of annual festivals and events. the Calgary Stetson Show Band. which has occurred each July since 1912. and many other cultural and ethnic festivals. Global. Carifest. The Military Museums.000 sq ft (6. GlobalFest.Suncor Energy Centre A number of marching bands are based in Calgary.[42] Several museums are located in the city.500 m2). Festival. the Calgary Fringe Festival. with a 2005 attendance of 1. the Lilac Festival. FunnyFest Calgary Comedy Festival. the Regimental Band of the King's Own Calgary Regiment. Citytv. Summerstock. There are many other civilian pipe bands in the city. notably the Calgary Police Service Pipe Band. the Greek Festival. Calgary's bestknown event is the Calgary Stampede.928 at the 10-day rodeo and exhibition. Expo Latino. the largest stand-alone cultural centre in Canada). the Calgary Folk Music Festival. Wordfest Banff-Calgary International Writers Festival.242. Numerous motion pictures have been filmed in the general area. These include the Calgary International Film Festival. the Cantos Music Museum and the Aero Space Museum. Calgary Gay Pride.[44] the Canadian Olympic Hall of Fame and Museum (at Canada Olympic Park). the Folk Music Festival. as well as military bands including the Band of HMCS Tecumseh. The Calgary Herald and the Calgary Sun are the main newspapers in Calgary. and the Regimental Pipes and Drums of The Calgary Highlanders. the Calgary Stampede Showband. The Calgary area also draws filmmakers. and the two-time World Association for Marching Show Bands champions. The Tom Selleck picture Crossfire Trail was shot on a ranch near Calgary though the stated setting of the film is Wyoming. CTV and CBC television networks have local studios in the city.

most notably the rivalries between the National Hockey League's Calgary Flames and Edmonton Oilers. the Inglewood Bird Sanctuary. Confederation Park. Nose Hill Park. and some summer sports) and the Olympic Oval (speed skating and hockey). Golfing is also an extremely popular activity for Calgarians and the region has a large number of courses. Nose Hill Park is the largest municipal park in Canada. Calgary has traditionally been a popular destination for winter sports. downhill skiing. Pengrowth Saddle Dome As part of the wider Battle of Alberta. snowboarding. Calgary hosted the 2009 World Water Ski Championship Festival in August. Bowness Park. bike. Since hosting the 1988 Winter Olympics. and the Canadian Football League's Calgary Stampeders and Edmonton Eskimos. etc) path systems in North America. the Bow River is very popular among fly-fishermen. Edworthy Park. The city also has a large number of urban parks including Fish Creek Provincial Park. Professional sports teams Club League Calgary Flames National Hockey Venue Established Championships Pengrowth Saddledome 1980 1 . cross-country skiing. patriarch of one of the most prominent families in the history of the business.Main article: Sport in Calgary Canada Olympic Park In large part due to its proximity to the Rocky Mountains. rollerblading. These facilities serve as the primary training venues for a number of competitive athletes. the city's sports teams enjoy a popular rivalry with their Edmonton counterparts. Connecting these parks and most of the city's neighbourhoods is one of the most extensive multi-use (walking. and Prince's Island Park. the city has also been home to a number of major winter sporting facilities such as Canada Olympic Park (luge. at the Predator Bay Water Ski Club which is situated approximately 40 Kilometers south of the city. In the summer. ski jumping.[45] A founder of the city's professional wrestling tradition was Stu Hart.

Stephen Avenue and Eau Claire Market). and . shopping (most notably. TD Square. Stampede Corral 2007 0 Indoor Soccer League [edit] Attractions Main article: List of attractions and landmarks in Calgary Downtown Calgary seen from Prince's Island Calgary's downtown features an eclectic mix of restaurants and bars. cultural venues.League Calgary Canadian Football McMahon Stadium 1945 6 Stampeders League Calgary National Lacrosse Pengrowth Saddledome 2001 2 Roughnecks League Golden Baseball Calgary Vipers Foothills Stadium 2004 1 League Amateur and junior clubs Club League Venue Established Championships Western Hockey Pengrowth Calgary Hitmen 1995 1 League Saddledome Alberta Junior Calgary Canucks Max Bell Centre 1971 9 Hockey League Alberta Junior Father David Bauer Calgary Royals 1990 1 Hockey League Olympic Arena Calgary Oval XWestern Women's Olympic Oval 1995 4 Treme Hockey League Rugby Canada Super Calgary Mavericks Calgary Rugby Park 1998 1 League Calgary Speed Speed Skating Canada Olympic Oval 1990 10 Skating Association Canadian Major Calgary United F. Calgary Eaton Centre.C.

Located here is The Core Shopping center. depicting life in pre-1914 Alberta and featuring working historic vehicles such as a steam train. Among the largest are Chinook Centre and Southcentre Mall in the south. This area is quickly becoming one of the city's densest and most active mixed use areas. an urban park located just north of the Eau Claire district. South Trail Crossing and Deerfoot Meadows in the southeast. the Art Gallery of Calgary (AGC) and the EPCOR Centre for the Performing Arts. and shopping venues. The concentration of red jersey-wearing fans led to the street's playoff moniker. Office buildings tend to concentrate within the commercial core. Other major city attractions include Canada Olympic Park. resident to many popular stores including Urban. These buildings are iconographic of the city's booms and busts. initiated by the 1988 Winter Olympics and stimulated by the growing economy. while residential towers occur most frequently within the Downtown West End and the Beltline.5 acres (1." Downtown Calgary is easily accessed using the city's C-Train light rail (LRT) transit system. the "Red Mile. In addition to the many shopping areas in the city centre. many high-rise construction projects were immediately halted. Holt Renfrew and Harry Rosen. Directly to the south of downtown is Midtown and the Beltline. It was not until the late 1980s and through to the early 1990s that major construction began again. the Chinatown district. At 2. Attractions on the west side of the city include the Heritage Park Historical Village historical park. the Telus World of Science. The village itself comprises a mixture of replica buildings and historic structures relocated from southern Alberta. .public squares such as Olympic Plaza. Sunridge Mall and the newly built CrossIron Mills just north of the city limits in the northeast. The first skyscraper building boom occurred during the late 1950s and continued through to the 1970s. WestHills and Signal Hill in the southwest. and Spruce Meadows. the Telus Convention Centre. the Calgary Tower. Stephen Avenue Calgary's downtown can easily be recognized by its numerous skyscrapers. At the district's core is the popular "17 Avenue". Downtown tourist attractions include the Calgary Zoo. During the Calgary Flames' playoff run in 2004. Some of these structures. the Devonian Gardens is one of the largest urban indoor gardens in the world. Henry Singer.01 ha). such as the Calgary Tower and the Pengrowth Saddledome are unique enough to be symbols of Calgary. After 1980. which is known for its many bars and nightclubs. south of downtown. during the recession. The downtown region is also home to Prince's Island Park. 17 Avenue was frequented by over 50. there are a number of large suburban shopping complexes in Calgary. Market Mall in the northwest. the Glenbow Museum.[46] and it is located on the 4th floor of TD Square (above the shopping). and it is easy to recognize the various phases of development that have shaped the image of downtown. paddlewheel boat and electric streetcar. restaurants.000 fans and supporters per game night.

[47] Calgary's Bankers Hall Towers are also the tallest twin towers in Canada.19% .740 214. To connect many of the downtown office buildings.73% 15. Eighth Avenue Place (two towers). Centennial Place (two towers). Calgary had 264 completed high-rise buildings. which is the tallest office tower in Canada outside of Toronto.56% 12.[48] See also: List of Calgary's 10 tallest skyscrapers [edit] Demographics Ethnic Origin[49] Ethnic Group Canadian English Scottish German Irish Ukrainian French Populatio Percent n 237.665 164.720 113. and the highly anticipated (although only rumoured) Imperial Oil and First Canadian Centre II towers. another 13 approved for construction and 63 more proposed. the city also boasts the world's most extensive skyway network (elevated indoor pedestrian bridges).6 m) above grade. Jamieson Place. As of 2008.500 164.76% 17.13% 17. The tallest of these is the Suncor Energy Centre (formerly known as the Petro-Canada Centre). there are 10 office towers that are at least 150 metres (500 ft) (usually around 40 floors) or higher.030 125. The name derives from the fact that the bridges are usually 15 feet (4.420 140.005 25. with 42 more under construction.64% 23.10% 13. officially called the +15. Several larger office towers are planned for downtown: The Bow. City Centre (two towers).In total.

the average age in Calgary was 35.1 million.[54] Source: Statistics Canada 2006[55] City of Calgary 2006 Population % of Group 65. compared with an average of 5.065.2 1.[53] Calgary is the main city of Census Division No.9 1.000.365 20.7 years of age compared with 36.6 2.605 1.930 11. A net migration of 25.245 13. the population was 878.1 inhabitants per square kilometer (13.1 per cent were female. 2006 the municipal government officially acknowledged the birth of the city's one millionth resident.915 56.8 6. Of this population.2 % of Total Population Visible minority group Chinese Black Filipino South Asian West Asian Arabs Latin American Southeast Asian Korean Japanese Multiple minorities Not Included .2 per cent in Alberta. the population of Alberta increased by 10.7 0.2/sq mi) for the province.5 5.4 percent.6 6.794 persons/year was recorded in 2006.7 0. Calgary's population grew by 12. A city-administered census.8 5. Between 2001 and 2006.455. and the Calgary Economic Region posted a population of just under 1.[25] there were 988.540 24.193 people living within the City of Calgary proper.000 in 2006.210 5.710 4. Children under five accounted for approximately 6.6 4.2 inhabitants per square kilometer (3. showed a population of just over 991.6 0. On July 25. Visible Minorities and Aboriginals Peoples Calgary CMA is the third most diverse in Canada in terms of visible minorities after Toronto and Vancouver when considering only CMAs with population greater than 200. a significant increase from 12.866.7 24.360. while that of Canada grew by 5. In 2001.082 inhabitants.5 years of age for all of Canada.6 1. The population density of Calgary averaged 1.9/sq mi).410 6.7 2.5 0. conducted annually to assist in negotiating financial agreements with the provincial and federal governments.6 percent.7 0.0 per cent of the resident population of Calgary.490 6. 49.9 2.[50] According the 2006 Statistics Canada federal census.[51] while in 1996 Calgary had 768. The population of the Calgary Census Metropolitan Area was just over 1.1 8.120 15.8 0.3 1.17 million in 2006.9 per cent were male and 50.6 per cent for Canada overall.Calgary Stampede grounds.4 percent.8 10.522. The population of the City of Calgary according to its 2009 municipal census is 1.1 2. In 2006. This compares with 6. During the same time period. and almost 5.0 for Alberta and 39. with the census indicating that the population is rising by approximately 98 people per day. 6 and the Calgary Regional Partnership.117 in 2005.[52] This date was arrived at only by means of assumption and statistical approximation and only took into account children born to Calgarian parents.2 2.920 28.

5% of the vote across the city and 11. with $386 million from residential and $371 million from non-residential properties.8 100 [edit] Government and politics Calgary's New City Hall and Old City Hall Calgary is generally considered a conservative city. The mayor is Dave Bronconnier who was first elected in 2001.600 979. City Council consists of the mayor and 14 ward aldermen. did not manage to make inroads in the 2008 Provincial election. and benefits. the Alberta Alliance and its successor. Municipal politics Calgary is governed in accordance with Alberta's Municipal Government Act (1995). One growing alternative movement was recently active during the 2000 World Petroleum Congress demonstrations and the J26 G8 2002 protests. and the Progressive Conservatives provincially. Protesters were a mix of locals and outsiders.425 722.5 73.465 24. the Wildrose Alliance. wages. supported 41% by property taxes.485 100 23. a high percentage of the workforce is employed in white-collar jobs.1 billion for 2007. However. The high concentration of oil and gas corporation led to the rise of Peter Lougheed’s Progressive Conservative Party in 1971. However.3% in the Calgary North Centre riding. The city has chapters of various activist organizations. as Calgary's population has increased.[58] The citizens vote for members of the Calgary City Council every three years with the most recent vote in October 2007.[56] As the city is a corporate power-centre. so has the diversity of its politics. The right-wing Alberta Alliance became active during the 26th Alberta general election and campaigned for fiscally and socially conservative reforms. For exactly 14 years (from December . $757 million in property taxes are collected annually.Elsewhere Total Visible Minorities Total Aboriginal Identity Population Not A Visible Minority or Aboriginal Total population 232.[57] During the 1990s the city's mainstream political culture was dominated by the right-wing Reform Party of Canada federally.[59] Provincial politics Calgary is represented by 23 provincial MLAs including 18 members of the Progressive Conservatives and five members of the Alberta Liberals. dominated by traditional small-c social conservatives and fiscal conservatives. exemplified by results of the 2004 federal election where they achieved 7.7 2.[59] 54% of expenditures are for city employee salary.[1] The city has an operating budget of $2. The Green Party of Canada has also made inroads in Calgary. as well as an Anti-Capitalist Convergence.

Bennett from Calgary West.[62] In the run up to the 2008 general election pundits predicted significant Tory losses in traditional stronghold that many felt was being taken for granted and ignored. the same seat was also held by Preston Manning.4% 5.[63] The CPC's predecessors have traditionally held the majority of the city's federal seats. The 2008 election saw the Liberals increase their seat count in the city by one to five.[60] He was succeeded as provincial premier and leader of the Progressive Conservative Party by Ed Stelmach. the leader of the Reform Party of Canada. Klein was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Alberta in 1989 and resigned on September 20. who held that position from 1930 to 1935. meaning for the first time ever the majority of their caucus represents Calgary ridings.9% 15. a seat the PC Party held since it took office in 1971 fell to Alberta Liberal Craig Cheffins during a by-election. The first was R. held the riding of Calgary Centre.8% 15.14. The federal electoral district of Calgary Southwest is held by Prime Minister and CPC leader Stephen Harper. In June 2007 Ralph Klein's old riding. two have represented a Calgary riding while prime minister. Coincidentally. While the results in Calgary were not particularly surprising given the grievances especially in Central Calgary with the Stelmach administration. Joe Clark.9% 15.0% . Following this leadership change Calgary saw its leadership and representation on provincial matters further reduced as its representation on the provincial cabinet was reduced from eight to three[61] with only one Calgary MLA. Ralph Klein. the fact that they happened in the face of significant PC gains in Edmonton was. held the Calgary Elbow seat. 2006). Federal politics All eight of Calgary's federal MPs are members of the Conservative Party of Canada (CPC). B. former Prime Minister and former leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (also a predecessor of the CPC). The Liberals were reduced to nine seats overall. 2006. Greg Melchin. retaining a cabinet seat.1% 10. MLA for Fort Saskatchewan-Vegreville. a predecessor of CPC.8% 15. [edit] Economy Headquarters of WestJet See also: Economy of Alberta Employment by industry[51] Industry Agriculture Manufacturing Trade Finance Calgary Alberta 6. 1992 to December 14.8% 6. the provincial premier and leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Alberta. Of Canada's 22 prime ministers.

Imperial Oil.3% 6. both skilled and unskilled. Canadian Pacific Railway moved its head office from Montreal to Calgary. Calgary's housing boom.8% 16.8% In 1996.[67] As of 2005. although it is still the single largest contributor to the city's GDP. Dow Chemical Canada (2. Shell Canada. CNRL (2.500 employees). and TransCanada. NOVA Chemicals (4. EnCana announced the construction of the Bow.9% 62.[71][72] Downtown hotels have had to shut down floors due to a lack of staff to clean all the rooms. Imperial Oil moved its headquarters from Toronto to Calgary in order to take advantage of Alberta's favourable corporate taxes and to be closer to its oil operations.Health and education 25.[70] It is common to see signing bonuses for workers in the service industry as well as starting wages for grade school students up to $15 per hour at local fast food eateries. [64] The larger Oil & Gas companies are BP. has created a strain on the labour force. Calgary had a labour force of 649. a 58-floor skyscraper in the downtown core of the city.386 billion.000 employees).7% Calgary's economy is not dominated by the oil and gas industry to the extent it used to be. of which Oil & Gas and Mining contributed 12%). combined with large road construction projects and competition from oil fields with high wages to the north. Shell Canada (2.6% Participation 75.9% 66.[65] Labour force (2006)[25] Rate Calgary Alberta Canada Employment 72.500 employees).1% 18.1% 4.8% Business services Other services 25.100 employees. This new corporate headquarters for the company will become. when completed.500 employees). is among the city's top employers. . there is an extreme shortage of workers.3% 70. Suncor Energy. Some other large employers include Shaw Communications (7.[citation needed] In 2005. Telus (4. EnCana. with 3.[66] This involved the relocation of approximately 400 families.3% participation rate).[68] In 2006.300 (a 76.200 employees). In 2006.2%) among major cities in Canada.900 employees).1% 18. Nexen (3. and. Calgary's real GDP (in constant 1997 dollars) was C$52. [citation needed] In October 2006.200 employees).4% 70.5% 18. Calgary had the lowest unemployment rate (3.[69] and as a result. making the city home to 87% of Canada's oil and natural gas producers and 66% of coal producers. the tallest building in Canada outside of Toronto.4% Unemployment 4.

granting certificates.[73] Prior to its dissolution. just north of downtown. provides polytechnic and apprentice education. West Island College and Edge School. and enrolled 28. Clear Water Academy. Mary's University College. Menno Simons Christian School.[79] Other post-secondary institutions include Mount Royal University. official Canadian university college of the Church of the Nazarene and the Christian and Missionary Alliance and St.000 students attended K-12 in about 215 schools in the English language public school system run by the Calgary Board of Education. Lord Beaverbrook High School. As well. Air Canada subsidiary Zip was headquartered in Calgary.807 students in 2006. Chinook Winds Adventist Academy. Canadian Airlines was headquartered in Calgary by the airport.000 attend about 95 schools in the separate English language Calgary Catholic School District board. There are also several private liberal arts institutions including Ambrose University College. Calgary has a number of unique schools. by Calgary International Airport. Calgary is home to DeVry Career College's only Canadian campus. Masters Academy. with over 14. diplomas and applied degrees.[78] Calgary is the site of five major public post-secondary institutions. [edit] Media Main article: Media in Calgary [edit] Infrastructure . with 13.000 students. Webber Academy. with 2241 students enrolled in the 2005-2006 school year. the National Sport School. including the country's first high school exclusively designed for Olympic-calibre athletes. but serve a larger regional district.[77] The much smaller Francophone community has their own French language school boards (public and Catholic).Delta West Academy.WestJet is headquartered in Calgary. Rundle Academy. Smaller post-secondary institutions include Bow Valley College and Alberta College of Art and Design. SAIT's main campus is in the Northwest quadrant. The University of Calgary is Calgary's primary large degree-granting facility. Calgary is also home to many private schools including Rundle College.[74] Prior to its dissolution. There are also several public charter schools in the city.[75] [edit] Education SAIT Heritage Hall In the year 2005 roughly 97. Calgary is also home to Western Canada's largest public high school.000 students. and SAIT Polytechnic. which are both based in Calgary. granting degrees in a number of fields.[76] Another 43.

the city has a network of multi-use (bicycle.[82][83] As an alternative to the over 260 kilometres (162 mi) of shared bikeways on streets. VIA Rail no longer provides intercity rail service to Calgary.[81] The bus system has over 160 routes and is operated by 800 vehicles. rollerblading. it is a developer and city convention in Calgary that non-numbered streets within a new community have the same name prefix as the community itself so that streets can more easily be located within the city. Calgary Transit provides public transportation services throughout the city with buses and light rail. Much of the system is on a grid where roads are numbered with avenues running east–west and streets running north–south. and Asia. The Rocky Mountaineer and Royal Canadian Pacific operates railtour service to Calgary. is the third largest in Canada by aircraft movements and is a major cargo hub. Calgary's rail system. Calgary maintains a major streets network and a freeway system. known as the C-Train was one of the first such systems in North America and consists of three lines (two routes) on 42. the C-Train system had an average of 218. Central America.[45] [edit] Health Care Medical centres and hospitals Main article: Health care in Calgary . Roads in predominantly residential areas as well as freeways and expressways do not generally conform to the grid and are usually not numbered as a result.1 kilometres (26. walking. etc) paths spanning over 635 kilometres (395 mi).[80] the Toronto Transit Commission's light rail system and Boston's Green Line. Europe.Transportation Main article: Transportation in Calgary Calgary's C-Train system.2 mi) of track (mostly at grade with a dedicated right-of-way carrying 42% of the downtown working population). Calgary is considered[by whom?] a transportation hub for much of central and western Canada.200 riders per weekday. In the third quarter of 2009. the United States. However. Calgary's presence on the TransCanada Highway and the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) mainline (which includes the CPR Alyth Yard) also make it an important hub for freight. the fourth busiest light rail system in North America behind the Monterrey Metro. Calgary International Airport (YYC). Non-stop destinations include cities throughout Canada. in the city's northeast.

respectively. In addition. Calgary is also home to the Tom Baker Cancer Centre. diabetes. cardiovascular. the Peter Lougheed Centre. the Sheldon M. which provides a variety of care. by researching cancer.[84] The four largest Calgary hospitals have a combined total of more than 2. which is the largest hospital in the prairie provinces for sick kids.Alberta Children's Hospital Tom Baker Cancer Centre and the Special Services Building (SSB) Calgary has three major adult acute care hospitals and one major pediatric acute care site. the Grace Women's Health Centre.100 beds. the Rockyview General Hospital. Chumir Centre (a large 24 hour assessment clinic). arthritis and genetics. which is the largest hospital in Alberta. as well as hundreds of smaller medical and dental clinics operate in Calgary. the leading cancer centre in Alberta (located at the Foothills Medical Centre). and employ over 11. They are all overseen by the Alberta Health Services: Calgary Health Region.500 people.and the Libin Cardiovascular Institute. joint injury. and the Alberta Children's Hospital. the Foothills Medical Centre. and the Richmond Road Diagnostic and Treatment Centre (RRDTC). The University of Calgary Medical Centre also operates in partnership with the Calgary Health Region.[85] Peter Lougheed Centre South entrance .

The King's Own Calgary Regiment (RCAC). Calgary has experienced issues such as urban sprawl. 746 Communication Squadron. garrisoned throughout the city. the city spread out at an accelerated rate. beginning with the assignment of a squadron of Strathcona's Horse.Rockyview General Hospital overlooking the Glenmore Reservoir Foothills Medical Centre -the largest hospital in Alberta. The Calgary Highlanders (and band). 41CER detachment Calgary (33 Engineer Squadron). The base remained the most significant Department of National Defence (DND) institution in the city until it was decommissioned in 1998. when most of the units moved to CFB Edmonton. along with a small cadre of Regular Force support. With no geographical barriers to its growth besides the Tsuu T'ina First Nation. the 103rd Regiment (Calgary Rifles) was finally authorized on April 1. This has led to difficulties in providing necessary transportation to Calgary’s population. Calgary is also home to several cadet units [edit] Contemporary issues As a city that has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Despite this closure. 1910. Condominiums in the Downtown West End . Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Calgary was established as Currie Barracks and Harvie Barracks following the Second World War. They include the HMCS Tecumseh Naval Reserve Unit. After many failed attempts to create the city's own unit. 15 (Edmonton) Field Ambulance Detachment Calgary. Calgary is still home to a number of Canadian Forces Reserve units. Main building [edit] Military Main article: Military in Calgary The presence of the Canadian military has been part of Calgary's economy and culture since the early years of the 20th century.

The cost of living and inflation is now the highest in the country.[90] Certain portions of downtown core and inner city have been singled out as being home to much higher proportions of disadvantaged residents. the construction has not yet begun.[95] Even though Calgary has a relatively low crime rate when compared to other cities in North America.With the redevelopment of the Beltline and the Downtown East Village at the forefront. The project began in early 2009. recent figures show that inflation was running at 6% in April 2007. They are being deployed in the East Village and along the Stephen Avenue Mall. the combined population of the downtown neighbourhoods (the Downtown Commercial Core.600.200.[86] In 2003. A total of sixteen CCTV cameras are being installed in three downtown locations. In 2009. efforts are underway to vastly increase the density of the inner city.3% between 1980 and 1990. City Council approved a pilot project to test closed circuit television surveillance cameras. primarily being led by Animal & Bylaw Services. Recent residential developments in the deep southwest of the city have created a demand for a major roadway heading into the interior of the city.[88] but because of complications in negotiations with the Tsuu T'ina about the construction. cultural and educational partnerships in twinning agreements with six cities:[97][98] Country Canada India Mexico City Jaipur Province/State Rajasthan Date 1956 1973 1994 1995 Quebec City Quebec Naucalpan Mexico State Heilongjiang People's Republic of China Daqing .[91] Although Calgary and Alberta have traditionally been affordable places to live. and into 2008. but the sprawl continues.4% to 20. the Downtown East Village. and Chinatown) was just over 12.[89] The city has many socioeconomic issues including homelessness. gangs and drug-related crime have increased along with the booming economy in Calgary.[96] [edit] Sister cities The city of Calgary maintains trade development programs.[93] and the second most expensive city (second to Vancouver) for residential real-estate. Eau Claire. Calgary is the most expensive city in Canada for commercial/downtown office space. The share of poor families living in very poor neighbourhoods increased from 6. but have stagnated over the last half of 2007. 62 additional police officers were deployed as foot patrols in the downtown area. house prices in Calgary have increased significantly in recent years. the Beltline to the south of downtown had a population of 17. As a result. as well as some neighbourhoods in the city’s east.[87] Because of the growth of the city. the Downtown West End. its southwest borders are now immediately adjacent to the Tsuu T'ina Nation Indian reserve. substantial growth (much of it due to the prosperous energy sector and the northern oil sands projects) has led to increasing demand on real-estate. In addition.[92] As of November 2006.[94] Crime In March 2008.

South Korea USA Daejeon Phoenix Chungnam Arizona 1996 1997 .

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