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**MRAS SENSORLESS VECTOR CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR USING NEW
**

SLIDING- MODE AND NEURAL NETWORK FLUX OBSERVER

1

Jaseena.S,

2

M.Dhivya

* 1

Pg Student (jasee900@gmail.com)

*

2

Research Scholar (dhivya.erts@gmail.com)

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Anna University Of Technology, Coimbatore,Coimbatore-47

Abstract-In this paper two novel adaptation schemes

are proposed to replace the classical PI controller used

in model reference adaptive speed-estimation schemes

that are based on rotor flux. The first proposed

adaptation scheme is based on sliding-mode control and

the adaptation law is derived using Lyapunov Theory

to ensure estimation stability, as well as fast error

dynamics. The other adaptation mechanism is based on

neural network .This new technique uses an artificial

neural network (NN) as a rotor flux observer to replace

the conventional voltage model. Here a comprehensive

study of the MRAS, Sliding Mode Controller and

Neural Network has been formulated. The learning

algorithm for proposed scheme can be planning to

implemented using a Back Propagation Algorithm

which has been successfully for a wide variety of

applications.

Key words—Neural network, induction motor, model

reference adaptive control, sliding-mode control.

I. INTRODUCTION

SEVERAL strategies have been proposed for rotor speed

estimation in sensorless induction motor drives [1]. Among

these techniques, model reference adaptive systems

(MRASs) schemes are the most common strategies

employed due to their relative simplicity and low

computational effort [1], [2]. Rotor flux, back

electromotive force (EMF), and reactive power techniques

are popular MRAS strategies that have received a lot of

attention. The back EMF scheme may have stability

problems at low stator frequency and show low noise

immunity, but avoids pure integration. The reactive power

method is characterized by its robustness against stator

resistance variation while avoiding pure integration, but

suffers from instability [2], [3]. Therefore, rotor flux

MRAS, first proposed by Schauder is the most popular

MRAS strategy, and a lot of effort has been focused on

improving the performance of this scheme. Generally, the

main problems associated with the low-speed operation of

model-based sensorless drives are related to machine

parameter sensitivity, stator voltage and current

acquisition, inverter nonlinearity, and flux pure-integration

problems [1], [5].

The model reference adaptive system (MRAS)

approach uses two models. The model that does not

involve the quantity to be estimated is considered as the

reference model. The model that has the quantity to be

estimated involved is considered as the adaptive model (or

adjustable model). The output of the adaptive model is

compared with that of the reference model, and the

difference is used to drive a suitable adaption mechanism

whose output is the quantity to be estimated. The adaptive

mechanism should be designed to assure the stability of the

control system. Different approaches have been

developed using MRAS, such as rotor-flux-linkage

estimation based MRAS and back-EMF-based MRAS.

PI controllers are widely used in industrial control

systems applications. They have a simple structure and can

offer a satisfactory performance over a wide range of

operation. Therefore, the majority of adaptation schemes

described in the literature for MRAS speed observers

employ a simple fixed-gain linear PI controller to generate

the estimated rotor speed. However, due to the continuous

variation in the machine parameters and the operating

conditions, in addition to the nonlinearities present in the

inverter, fixed-gain PI controllers may not be able to

provide the required performance. Adaptive control

techniques, such as gain scheduling, where the PI gains

vary with the operating conditions, are often used to

improve the controller performance. Not much attention

has been devoted to study other types of adaptation

mechanisms used to minimize the speed tuning signal to

obtain the estimated speed.

In this paper two novel adaptation schemes are

proposed to replace the classical PI controller used in

model reference adaptive speed-estimation schemes that

are based on rotor flux. The first proposed adaptation

scheme is based on sliding-mode control and the

adaptation law is derived using Lyapunov Theory to ensure

estimation stability, as well as fast error dynamics. The

other adaptation mechanism is based on neural network

.This new technique uses an artificial neural network (NN)

as a rotor flux observer to replace the conventional voltage

model. Both open and closed- loop sensorless operations

for the new schemes are investigated and compared with

the conventional MRAS speed observer. Neural networks

(NNs) have been introduced as universal function

approximators to represent the functions with the weighted

sums of nonlinear terms. Multilayer feedforward NNs have

shown a great capability to model complex nonlinear

dynamic systems. NNs were also combined with MRAS

for online stator and rotor resistance estimation based on

stator current and rotor flux. The estimated speed

represents one of the NN weights updated online using a

back propagation algorithm.

2

II. ROTOR FLUX MRAS SPEED

OBSERVER

The classical rotor flux MRAS speed observer shown in

Figure.1 consists mainly of a reference model, an adaptive

model, and an adaptation scheme that generates the

estimated speed. The reference model, usually expressed

by the voltage model, represents the stator equation. It

generates the reference value of the rotor flux components

in the stationary reference frame from the monitored stator

voltage and current components. The reference rotor flux

components obtained from the reference model are given

by

{ }

sD s D s s sD

m

r

rd

pi L i R v

L

L

p o ¢ ÷ ÷ =

(2.1)

{ }

sQ s Q s s sQ

m

r

rq

pi L i R v

L

L

p o ¢ ÷ ÷ =

(2.2)

The adaptive model, usually represented by the current

model, describes the rotor equation where the rotor flux

components are expressed in terms of stator current

components and the rotor speed. The rotor flux

components obtained from the adaptive model are given by

rq r rd

r

sD

r

m

rd

T

i

T

L

p ¢ e ¢ ¢ ˆ ˆ ˆ

1

ˆ ÷ ÷ =

(2.3)

rd r rq

r

sQ

r

m

rq

T

i

T

L

p ¢ e ¢ ¢ ˆ ˆ ˆ

1

ˆ + ÷ =

(2.4)

Finally, the adaptation scheme generates the value of

the estimated speed to be used in such a way so as to

minimize the error between the reference and estimated

fluxes. In the classical rotor flux MRAS scheme, this is

performed by defining a speed tuning signal

e

c to be

minimized by a PI controller, which generates the

estimated speed that is fed back to the adaptive model. The

expressions for the speed tuning signal and the estimated

speed can be given as

rq rd rd rq

¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ c

e

ˆ ˆ ÷ = (2.5)

( )

e

c e

p

k

k

i

p r

+ = ˆ

(2.6)

Figure.1 Classical rotor flux MRAS speed observer

. III. FLUX OBSERVER AND SPEED ESTIMATION

There are many techniques involved in implementing

different types of field oriented control. Most of the

methods require precise estimation of either the rotor

position or speed. The speed sensors increase the cost and

size of the drive, lower the system reliability, and also

require special attention to measure noise. The estimation

of rotor flux by integration of the open loop machine

voltages arise difficulties at low speed. Finally, although

the indirect field orientation is simple and preferred, its

performance is highly dependent on accurate knowledge of

the machine parameters. Research in induction motor

control has been focused to remedy the above problems.

Much work has been reported in decreasing the sensitivity

of the control system to the parameter variation and

estimating, rather than measuring the rotor flux and speed

from the terminal voltages and currents. This eliminates

the flux or speed sensor, there by achieving sensorless

control. Many speed estimation algorithms and speed

sensorless control schemes have been developed during the

past few years. One of the major problems with the

terminal quantities-based flux observers designed in the

past is their sensitivity to the machine parameters,

specifically, to rotor resistance for the current model

observer and to stator resistance in case of the voltage

model flux observer. To overcome these problems various

control techniques have been tried to improve the rotor

flux estimation.

III. SLIDING MODE CONTROLLER

The sliding mode control is especially appropriate for

the tracking control of motors, robot manipulators whose

mechanical load change over a wide range. SM control

(SMC) is a variable structure control with high frequency

discontinuous control action that switches between several

functions depending on the system states. It can be one of

the most effective and robust control strategies, in addition

to its capability to cope with bounded disturbance as well

as model imprecision that makes it suitable for robust

nonlinear control of induction motor drives. The principle

of SMC is to define a switching control law to drive the

nonlinear state trajectory onto a switching surface and

maintain this trajectory sliding on this surface for all

subsequent time. The control law is defined based on

Lyapunov theory to guarantee the motion of the state

trajectory toward the sliding surface. This is done by

choosing a hitting control gain to maintain the derivative of

Lyapunov function as always a negative definite.

Advantages of sliding mode controllers are that it is

computationally simple compared adaptive controllers with

parameter estimation and also robust to parameter

variations. The disadvantage of sliding mode control is

sudden and large change of control variables during the

process which leads to high stress for the system to be

controlled. It also leads to chattering of the system states.

IV. SLIDING MODE MRAS SPEED

OBSERVER

The classical SM strategy applied for control

applications is modified here to fit with the speed-

3

estimation problem. Hence, a novel SM rotor flux MRAS

(MRAS-SM) is developed to replace the conventional

constant gain PI controller. A new speed-estimation

adaptation law for the SM scheme is derived based on

Lyapunov theory to ensure stability and fast error

dynamics. Defining the speed tuning signal (2.5) and

choosing a sliding surface s as

0 , > + =

}

k dt k s

e e

c c (3.1)

such that the error dynamics at the sliding surface s = 0

will be forced to exponentially decay to zero. When the

system reaches the sliding surface, this gives

(3.2)

and the error dynamics can be described by

e e

c c k ÷ = (3.3)

The SMC law can be found using Lyapunov theory and

defining the Lyapunov function candidate as

2

2

1

s v =

(3.4)

According to Lyapunov theory, if the function v is

negative definite, this will ensure that the state trajectory

will be driven and attracted toward the sliding surface s,

and once reached, it will remain sliding on it until the

origin is reached asymptotically .The time derivative of the

Lyapunov function can be calculated as

( )

e e

c c k s s s v + · = (3.5)

By solving the above equations finally gets

0 ), ( ˆ

2

1

> +

+

= M s sign M

f

k f

r

e

c

e

(3.6)

Equation (3.6) represents the switching law of the SM

controller and could be written in general form as

s eq r

u u + = eˆ (3.7)

where

eq

u is the equivalent control that defines the control

action that keeps the state trajectory on the sliding surface,

s

u is the switching control that depends on the sign of the

switching surface, and M is the hitting control gain that

makes a negative definite. The block diagram of the novel

MRAS observer employing SM adaptation mechanism

(MRAS-SM) is shown in Figure.2

Figure. 2 MRAS-SM speed observer.

V. NEURAL NETWORK MRAS FLUX

OBSERVER

Recently, the re-emerging artificial neural networks

(ANN) techniques have been widely applied in the field of

system identification and control. In addition, they have been

used in some power electronic applications, such as inverter

current regulation, dc motor control, flux estimation, and

observer based control of IM. Evidently, neural network

techniques are showing promise as a competitive method of

signal processing for power electronics applications when

they have the advantages of extremely fast parallel

computation, immunity from input harmonic ripple, and fault

tolerance characteristics due to distributed network

intelligence.

Figure.3 Proposed NN-MRAS speed observer.

Neural network is well known for its learning ability

and approximation to any arbitrarily continuous function.

In this research, an adaptive neural network controller is

developed for IM speed control which constitutes a

dynamic mapping. The learning algorithm applied is the

back propagation which has been trained and replaced the

controller, it can be retained online for plant parameter

variation to make it adaptive. The feed forward neural

network is usually trained by back propagation training

scheme. With the network initially untrained and its

weights selected at random, so an output signal is obtained

for a given input pattern. The actual output is compared

with the desired output and the weights are adjusted by the

0 = + =

e e

c c k s

4

supervised back propagation training algorithm until the

errors become acceptably small. The figure.3 shows the

proposed NN-MRAS speed observer.

VI. SIMULATION RESULTS

A. VECTOR CONTROL OF AN INDUCTION

MOTOR

Speed error is used to calculate the torque reference and

current is used to calculate the flux reference. With the

help of the torque error and flux error reference I

sabc

is

calculated. The reference I

sabc

is compared with the actual

I

sabc

and trigger is given to the inverter. In the simulink

graph torque, rotor speed and the stator current is plotted in

the y axis and the time in the x axis.From this speed is

inversely proportional to torque.

Figure.4 Vector control of an induction motor using PI

controller.

Figure .5 Performance measures of induction motor

Torque,Rotor speed and Stator currents using PI

controller.

B. SLIDING MODE CONTROLLER

SM control (SMC) is one of the most effective and

robust control strategies, in addition to its capability to

cope with bounded disturbance as well as model

imprecision that makes it suitable for robust nonlinear

control of induction motor drives. The principle of SMC is

to define a switching control law to drive the nonlinear

state trajectory onto a switching surface and maintain this

trajectory sliding on this surface for all subsequent time.

By using the equations of sliding surface we can

implement the sliding mode controller.Figure.6 shows the

graph of sliding mode controller having the torque ,rotor

speed and stator current in the y axis and the time in the x

axis. Sliding mode controller shows better speed control

compared to conventional controller.

Figure.6 Performance measure of induction motor using

sliding mode controller.

VII. CONCLUSION

In this paper adaptation schemes are proposed to

replace the PI controller. This paper has presented an

5

entirely new application of an NN to give an improved

MRAS speed observer scheme suitable for speed

sensorless induction motor drives. A multilayer feed

forward NN estimates the rotor flux components from

present and past samples of reference stator voltages and

measured currents. The new scheme making use of the

offline trained NN observer as a reference model in MRAS

scheme. Sliding Mode control of an induction motor using

MATLAB SIMULINK is being modeled. Finally going to

implement the system using Neural Network Flux

Observer.

VIII. REFERENCES

[1] Shady M. Gadoue, Damian Giaouris, and John W.

Finch, ―MRAS Sensorless Vector Control of an Induction

Motor Using New Sliding-Mode and Fuzzy-Logic

Adaptation Mechanisms,‖ IEEE Transactions On Energy

Conversion, VOL. 25, NO. 2, June 2010

[2] Shady M. Gadoue, Damian Giaouris, and John W.

Finch, ―Sensorless Control of Induction Motor Drives at

Very Low and Zero Speeds Using Neural Network Flux

Observers,‖ IEEE Trans.On Industrial Electronics, VOL.

56, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009

[3] Y. A. Kwon and D.W. Jin, ―A novel MRAS based

speed sensorless control of induction motor,‖ in Proc. 25th

Annu. Conf. IEEE Ind. Electron. Soc., 1999, pp. 933–938.

[4] Yemna BENSALEM and Mohamed Naceur

Abdelkrim, ‖ A Sensorless Neural Model Reference

Adaptive Control for Induction Motor Drives,‖ 2009

International Conference on Signals, Circuits and Systems.

[5] S. Maiti, C. Chakraborty, Y. Hori, and M. C. Ta,

―Model reference adaptive controller-based rotor resistance

and speed estimation techniques for vector controlled

induction motor drive utilizing reactive power,‖ IEEE

Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 594–601, Feb.

2008.

[6] J. W. Finch and D. Giaouris, ―Controlled AC electrical

drives,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 1–

11, Feb. 2008.

[7] P. Vas, Sensorless Vector and Direct Torque Control.

New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998.

[8] V. Utkin, ―Sliding mode control design principles and

applications to electric drives,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,

vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 23–36, Feb. 1993.

[9] M. Comanescu and L. Xu, ―Slidingmode MRAS speed

estimators for sensorless vector control of induction

machine,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 1, pp.

146–153, Feb. 2006.

[10] P. Vas, Artificial-Intelligence-Based Electrical

Machines and Drives- Application of Fuzzy, Neural,

Fuzzy-Neural and Genetic Algorithm Based Techniques.

New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1999.

[11] B. Karanayil, M. Rahman, and C. Grantham, ―Stator

and rotor resistance observers for induction motor drive

using fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks,‖ IEEE

Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 771–780, Dec.

2005.

[12] M. S. Zaky, M. M. Khater, S. S. Shokralla, and H. A.

Yasin, ―Widespeed- range estimation with online

parameter identification schemes of sensorless induction

motor drives,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 5,

pp. 1699–1707, May 2009.

APPENDIX

Q s D s

i i ,

Stator current components in the

stator frame.

J Rotor inertia.

m

L Mutual inductance.

r s

L L , Stator and rotor self inductances.

p Differential operator.

r s

R R , Stator and rotor resistances.

r

T Rotor time constant.

sQ sD

v v ,

Stator voltage components in the

stator frame

e

c Speed tuning signal.

o Leakage coefficient.

rq rd

¢ ¢ , Rotor flux linkage vector.

r

e Angular rotor speed.

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UsefulNot usefulMRAS Sensorless Vector Control Of Induction Motor Using New Sliding-
Mode and Neural Network Flux Observer

MRAS Sensorless Vector Control Of Induction Motor Using New Sliding-

Mode and Neural Network Flux Observer

Mode and Neural Network Flux Observer

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