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Analyzing and proposing protection schemes and settings At a glance Siemens Power Technologies International (Siemens PTI), the provider of network consulting, software solutions and T&D training within Siemens Energy, analyzes protection systems using state-of-the-art methods to optimize operation and eliminate weak points. With the aid of system calculations based on national and international standards, and system and protection simulations, we devise a protection system that is: Selective, System compliant, and Technically and economically suited for the customer’s requirements. The challenge An electrical power system is intended to operate in a safe manner at all times. However, no matter how well designed, faults will always occur on a power system. Faults are very special events in the life cycle of a public or industrial system, as they can greatly affect or restrict operation. They may also lead to severe damages of installations and equipment, or may cause personal injuries, including death. Therefore, the arrangement of an adequate protection system is an indispensable and integral part of power system design. Our solution Our team comprises highly skilled experts in all aspects of system and machine protection, from converter design and equipment protection to coordination of low, medium, high and extrahigh voltage protection: We can advise and offer you a comprehensive service in the wide area of power system protection. Application Examples From a disturbance to an optimized system When faults occur, they must be cleared as quickly as possible in order to obtain a high level of system availability with minimum failure probability. There are a number of methods available for analyzing the causes and the behavior of the network and the protection system: Analysis of fault records and fault annunciations from protection relays, from substation control and protection systems, and from SCADA systems Dynamic system and protection equipment simulation Weak point analysis and development of countermeasures Verification of the optimized system
30,0 27,5 25,0 22,5 20,0 17,5 15,0 X/Ohm(secondary) 12,5 10,0 7,5 5,0 2,5 0,0 -2,5 -5,0 -7,5 -10,0 -12,5 -15,0 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 R/Ohm(secondary) 10
Figure 1: Lightning stroke to overhead line
Figure 2: Fault analysis -- Zone 1 trip of distance protection on remote-end due to wrong earth-fault compensation factor settings
Siemens PTI − Network Consulting
Figure 5: Short-circuit considerations on OHL After data collection. Siemens PTI offers the following services: Design of protection systems Selection of suitable relays and fuses Relay consistent setting calculation Coordination of all protection equipment. All rights reserved.com Power Distribution Division Printed in Germany Printed on elementary chlorine-free bleached paper. E Figure 6: SIGRADE grading path L1 L1' L3 L2 L2' Circuit 2 L3' Circuit 1 Figure 3: CTDim dynamic simulation With our software program CTDim instrument transformers can be studied and dimensioned. Selective protection coordination and relay consistent setting calculations are then Figure 7: SIGRADE grading diagram Figure 4: Example of distance zone protection settings Published by and copyright © 2009: Siemens AG Energy Sector E D SE PTI Freyeslebenstrasse 1 91058 Erlangen.com/energy/power-technologies Siemens Energy. an analysis of the protection system concepts is carried out. Thereby. considering the customer’s requirements. Subject to change without prior notice. NC3010-EN-200905 . M20 2UR United Kingdom For more information. In parallel. its affiliates.From the primary system to the protection equipment The choice of suitable current and voltage transformers as connection links between the primary and protection systems depends on the steady-state and transient phenomena and the technical requirements of the connected equipment. Siemens PTI offers the following services: Classification according to national and international standards Dimensioning of instrument transformers to suit all common protection equipment Dimensioning of instrument transformers when the specifications of the primary system and protection equipment change.energy@siemens. different switching conditions and supplier and customer requirements. habits and state-of-the-art.siemens. The analysis is based on a comprehensive data collection in close cooperation with the customer. carried out using software aided short circuit and / or system stability calculations. the system structure. Trademarks mentioned in this document are the property of Siemens AG. enabling proper operation of corresponding relays. Based on all these aspects the optimum protection scheme is devised which provides to the customer the technically and economically best solution. instrument transformers are checked and / or newly dimensioned and selected. please contact our Customer Support Center. The information in this document contains general descriptions of the technical options available. or their respective owners. Princess Road Manchester. NY 12301-1058 Siemens Transmission and Distribution Ltd PTI Sir William Siemens House. The required technical options should therefore be specified in the contract. its elements and operational conditions are collected. the system elements. Inc. which may not apply in all cases. Phone: +49 180 524 70 00 Fax: +49 180 524 24 71 (Charges depending on provider) E-mail: support. From the protection equipment to a coordinated system protection Selective system protection must take into account the system structure. T&D Service Solutions Siemens Power Technologies International 400 State Street PO Box 1058 Schenectady. For more details please refer to a separate fast facts sheet from the Siemens PTI Software Solutions portfolio. Germany www. Power Distribution.