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(2 marks) Define: i) the oil formation volume factor ii) the solution gas-oil ratio iii) the gas formation volume factor iv) the total formation volume factor

A2. (4 marks) What are the compositional model and black oil descriptions of a reservoir fluid? List the comparisons of the black oil and compositional model in prediction reservoir fluid properties. A3. (4 marks) Solution gas drive reservoirs have two phases of depletion, the first phase above the bubble point followed by the second phase of solution gas drive below the bubble point pressure. Describe briefly the drive mechanisms for both of these phases. A4. (4 marks) The Klinkenberg effect is important in the measurement of the permeability of rocks with low permeabilities. Explain briefly with the aid of sketches how the liquid permeability of a rock is determined using a gas taking into consideration the Klinkenberg effect. A5. (4 marks) A common procedure in gas reservoir engineering is to use a gas production versus P/Z plot to determine gas reserves using production data. Comment on this and the assumption necessary for the application of the approach and therefore the mistakes that can be made in its application. Suggest an alternative approach where such an assumption is not required. A6. (4 marks) The constant terminal pressure solution of the Hurst and van Everdingen unsteady state theory can be used to predict cumulative water influx for a reservoir with a declining reservoir pressure. Explain briefly the procedure. We = 1.119 phi cR2h deltaP Wd tD = 2.309 kt /(miu phi c R2) A7. (4 marks) Describe the limitations of the line source solution in describing fluid flow in a reservoir.

(3 marks) Discuss the use of superposition as a method to extend the applicability of the line source solution SECTION B (6 QUESTIONS) B1. a) Sketch the shape of the fractional flow curve and the progressive saturation profile for the following types of water oil displacement: i) water displacing a viscous oil ii) water displacing a very light oil marks) (5

b) The following relative permeability data has been generated for a reservoir rock using water and three different viscosity oils. Sw krw kro 0.2 0 0.6 0.25 0.002 0.5 0.3 0.02 0.4 0.35 0.04 0.3 0.4 0.07 0.23 Etc. The rock porosity is 0.2 The viscosity of the fluids are as follows: Water 0.4 cp Case 1 oil 0.5 cp Case 2 oil 5 cp Case 3 oil 50 cp i) Calculate the mobility ratio for each of these three displacement tests (3 marks) ii) Calculate and draw the fractional flow curve for Cases 2 only. (Recommendation do not restrict your diagram to a small part of the graph paper.) (5 marks) iii) Water is being injected at a constant rate of 1200 barrels per well per day in a direct line drive, into a reservoir with the rock and fluid properties of Case 2 above. The reservoir characteristics are: Dip angle = 0 deg Reservoir thickness = 40 ft Distance between injection wells = 400 ft Distance between injectors and producers = 2000 ft Connate water saturation = 0.20

Assuming one dimension flow conditions, not segregated or layered, and that injection stars at the same time as oil production.

Determine: 1. the water saturation and fractional flow at breakthrough marks) 2. the time when water breakthrough occurs marks) 3. the cumulative oil production up to breakthrough in pore volumes marks) (2 (3 (3

c) Explain, but do not do the calculations, the procedure you would use for segregated flow conditions (4 marks) Relevant equations: Fw = 1 / (1 + uw*kro/uo*krw) The buckley leveret water drive equation is: vsw = qt dfw / A phi dSw

B2 a) Explain briefly what is meant by i) A normal pressured reservoir ii) an over pressured reservoir Illustrate your answer with a diagram showing the fluid pressure gradients in an oil reservoir with a gas-cap with a supporting aquifer for a normally pressured reservoir, and an over pressured reservoir. (6 marks) b) During the testing of a well in an undersaturated oil reservoir, samples of stock tank oil and produced gas were taken and analysed. The oil had and API gravity of 30 and the produced gas composition is given in the table. The gas was produced with a GOR of 500 SCF/STB The down hole reservoir conditions are a temperature of 160 F and a pressure of 5000 psia From seismic and petrophysical data it is estimated that the reservoir pore volume is 1.4 x 10^8 cu ft. and the average water saturation is 0.18 i) Determine the pressure gradient (psi/ft) within the oil zone. ii) Determine the stock tank oil in place for this reservoir. Produced Gas Composition C1 Methane 0.7 C2 Ethane 0.12 C3 Propane 0.08 C4 n-Butane 0.06 C5 n-Pentane 0.03 C6 n-hexane 0.01 Total 1

API oil 30 deg

1 lb mole of a gas is 379 SCF Density of water at 60F = 62.37 lb/cu ft 1 bbl = 5.615 cu.ft

API = 141.5 / x - 131.5 Where x is the specific gravity relative to water (19 marks)

B3. a) Explain briefly how oil can be isolated by capillary pressure in the large pores of a rock after water flooding. i) What suggestions would you give to recovering such trapped oil? (5 marks) ii) In a waterflood, parts of the reservoir may be unswept, with oil remaining at the original oil saturation. What methods might be considered to recover some of this oil? (5 marks) b) Core samples have been taken from a well penetrating an oil reservoir and capillary pressure curves generated using the air-mercury method. The capillary pressure data for the specific rock types are given on the attached figure A. During the monitoring of the well the lowest 100% water saturation Sw was found at the bottom of the well as indicated in figure B which shows the various zones in the reservoir. i) On figure B indicate the free water level. ii) On figure B construct the water saturation profile for the full height of the reservoir. iii) Estimate the oil in place in the oil column penetrated by the well based on the information given on the basis of STB per areal square foot. Useful data: Air-mercury capillary pressure = 10 x water-oil capillary pressure Specific gravity of water and oil are 1.03 and 0.80 respectively Density of water with specific gravity of 1 = 62.4 lb/ft3 1 bbl = 5.615 cu.ft

Oil formation volume factor of the reservoir oil = 1.15 res bbl/STB

(15 marks)

B4. a) Describe briefly the procedure and the reasons for conducting the constant mass and constant volume depletion PVT tests for evaluating a gas condensate fluid (6 marks) What process might be used for developing a condensate reservoir where retrograde condensation is a serious concern? (3 marks) b) A wet gas reservoir is producing gas and condensate with the compositions given below at a gas-oil ratio of 30,000 SCF/STB. The original reservoir pressure is 8250 psi and the reservoir temperature is 220F. the dew point pressure is 3500 psia. The pore volume of the reservoir is 9.85 x 10^8 cu ft and the average water saturation is 18%. C1 C3 C5 C8 Mole fraction gas 0.885 0.080 0.035 0.000 mole fraction condensate 0.000 0.210 0.615 0.175

i) Calculate the composition of the reservoir fluid ii) Calculate the in place volumes of gas in SCF and the STB of condensate of the reservoir at the original pressure. Useful data:

Bbl = 5.615 cu ft 0 F = 460 R 1 lb.mole = 379.4 SCF R = 10.73 psi cu.ft/lb.mole R (16 marks)

B5 a) A radial oil reservoir of constant thickness has a single vertical well situated at its centre, perforated the full thickness of the reservoir. The pressure everywhere is the initial reservoir pressure. The outer boundary of the reservoir is closed. Describe the development of the pressure profile form the well to the outer boundary as production continues. Assume single phase flow and that the whole oil reservoir can be produced with no technical or economic limitations. (7 marks) b) A well flows at a constant rate of 200 stm3/day. Calculate the bottomhole flowing pressure at 8 hours after the start of production. The well is vertical, perforated along the full thickness of the reservoir. Data: Porostity FVF Net thickness Viscosity Compressibility Permeability 25% 1.30 50 m 2.2x10-3 Pas 0.8x10-9 Pa-1 120 mD

Wellbore radius 0.15 m External radius 650 m Initial pressure 270 bar Well flowrate 200 stm3/day Skin factor 0 P = Pi + q u/ 4 piKh ( ln xxxxx) (18 marks)

B6. A well has been on production in an oil reservoir. For the following data, calculate the bottomhole flowing pressure, Pwf for i) steady state conditions (8 marks) ii) semi steady state conditions (8 marks) iii) describe the main differences in the flow regimes (9 marks) Data FVF 1.42 Net thickness 60m Viscosity 1.3x10-3 Pas K 100mD Radius 0.15m External r 530 m Average reservoir P 270 bar Well flowrate 220 stm3/day Skin factor 0

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