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# IENG3004 Control Systems Technology

## Root Locus Introduction

We know that the transient response of a system is governed by the roots of the characteristic equation It is frequently necessary to analyse the variation in transient response due to changes in the values of system parameters Computation and display of individual time responses is cumbersome
Requires a graphical method to describe variation in transient response (Root Locus)

Root Locus traces the movement of the closed loop roots as an OLTF parameter (usually gain) is changed
Roots can be real or complex, so the s-plane has real and complex dimensions

## Poles & Zeros

Zero:
A value of s which reduces the Transfer Function to zero (a root of the numerator)

Pole
A value of s which sends the Transfer Function to infinity (a root of the denominator) The poles of a Transfer Function are the same as the roots of a the characteristic equation

## Poles & Zeros

Example: Determine the poles and zeros of the T.F.: ( s + 2) s ( s + 1)( s 2 + 2s + 2) ZEROS: POLES: s+2=0 s=0 s+1=0 s2 + 2s + 2 = 0 s = -2 s=0 s = -1 s = -1 j

1 ( s + 3)

## From the block diagram, the CLTF reduces to:

C(s) K ( s + 3) = = R(s) 1 + K s + (3 + K ) ( s + 3)
Location of the closed-loop pole is: s = -(3+K)

## Example: First Order System

Root locus has one pole on the real axis:

## Simple example shows that:

For K = 0, closed loop pole is located at -3 As K increases, the pole moves to the left for increasing values of K As K increases, the transient response decays more rapidly and thus steady-state is achieved more rapidly

## Root Locus Construction Steps

by way of an example
r(t) +K
1 s( s + 1)

c(t)

1 s+2

Step 1: Obtain Open Loop Poles & Zeros (a) Root loci start at open-loop poles (b) Root loci end at open-loop zeros or infinity (c) The number of separate loci is equal to the number of open-loop poles (d) Loci are symmetrical about the real axis

## Root Locus Construction Steps

Step 1: Obtain Open Loop Poles & Zeros (cont)

## K OLTF = KGH = s ( s + 1)( s + 2)

Open loop poles at: 0, -1, -2

Step 2: Sketch Root Loci on Real Axis (if existing) Real & Imaginary Axes Poles as x Zeros as o Locus is plotted

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## Root Locus Construction Steps

Step 3: Derive asymptotes of Root Loci The branches of a root locus approach a set of straightline asymptotes at large distances from the origin. (a) The asymptotes emanate from a point on the real axis called the centre of asymptotes, given by:

c =

p z
i i =1 i =1

nm

where n = number of open-loop poles m = number of open-loop zeros pi = location of ith pole zi = locaiton of ith zero

(0 1 2) (0) c = = 1 30

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## Root Locus Construction Steps

Step 3: Derive asymptotes of Root Loci (cont) (b) The angle made by the asymptotes and the real axis is given by:

(1 + 2k ) = nm

k = 0, 1, 2, 3

(1 + 2k ) = = , , 5 3 3 30

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## Root Locus Construction Steps

Step 4: Determine breakaway points, b A breakaway point (b) occurs on the real axis where two or more branches depart from, or arrive at, the real axis. They occur where:

## 1 dK (from characteristic K = =0 GH ( s ) (s ds equation) K s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + K = 0 1+ =0 s ( s + 1)( s + 2) dK dK 2 3s + 6 s + 2 + = 0 if = 0 then: No Root Locus in ds ds

6 36 24 s= = 0.42 or 1.58 6
this area

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## Root Locus Construction Steps

Step 5: Find K for marginal stability and c Finding c will give us the intersection of the root locus with the Imaginary Axis Use Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion to find this

s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + K = 0
s3 s2 s1 s0 1 3 1 2 3 K 3 K 2 K 0

(characteristic equation)

s3 s2 s1 s0

1 3 (6 K ) 3 K

2 K 0

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## Root Locus Construction Steps

Step 5: Find K for marginal stability and c (cont) Form the Auxiliary Equation to find c For the auxiliary equation (s2 row):

3s2 + K = 0
Critical value of K = 6

3s2 + 6 = 0 s = j 2

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## Root Locus Construction Steps

Step 6: If there are no complex poles, plot Root Locus

j
Symmetrical about the Real axis
2

j
60o

-3

X -2

X
-1

-60o

Re

## IENG3004 Control Systems Technology Lecture 6 Root Locus

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Root Locus Second Order Approximation Dominant Poles The transient response of a system may be equated to a sum of exponential terms
Contribution of each term is determined by one of the roots of the characteristic equation Each term does not contribute equally Some roots dominate the response

Example

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## y (t ) = Ae 8t + Be 4t + Ce 1.5t . sin( 4.2t + )

Pole Locations

Transient response

Total response is DOMINATED by decaying sinusoidal roots for this term much closer to Imaginary axis

## IENG3004 Control Systems Technology Lecture 6 Root Locus

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Root Locus Second Order Approximation Since dominating roots are second order the system may be approximated by an equivalent second order system This gives us a system with well documented time responses.
Performance given in normalised form in terms of damping ratio () and natural frequency (n) The higher order system has been reduced to a second order approximation, making it possible to use available performance data to effect a successful design

## Determining and n of an Equivalent Second-Order SecondSystem

Consider normalised form of the second order transfer function: 2

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Xo n = 2 X i s + 2 n s + n 2

s = n jn (1 )
2

## Determining and n of an Equivalent Second-Order SecondSystem

One pole from the complex conjugate pair is located at P, shown in this diagram: j

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P X

d=

0 Re cos

## Determining and n of an Equivalent Second-Order SecondSystem

From the geometry of the diagram:
j P X
n

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OP = ( n ) + n (1 )
2 2 2 2

OP = n + n (1 )
2 2 2 2 2

OP = n

d=

0 Re cos

n cos = = n

In the figure, cos defines the damping line and the distance of point P from the origin is equal to the natural frequency of the system

## IENG3004 Control Systems Technology Lecture 6 Root Locus

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Determining Gain K
From the characteristic equation [ 1 + KGH (s) = 0 ]:

1 K= GH ( s)

1 K = GH ( s )

## Suppose OLTF has the form:

K ( s + z1 )( s + z 2 )( s + z3 ) L G(s) = ( s + p1 )( s + p2 )( s + p3 ) L
Then, from above, assuming unity feedback:

K=

s + p1 s + p2 s + p3 L s + z1 s + z 2 s + z3 L

## IENG3004 Control Systems Technology Lecture 6 Root Locus

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Determining Gain K
If the location of the closed-loop pole is known, then K may be determined graphically: Q is the closed loop pole

If the real and imaginary axes of the root locus diagram have been drawn to the same scale then the lengths of vectors P1Q, P2Q, P3Q, and ZQ can be measured

PQ . P2Q . P3Q . K= 1 ZQ .

## IENG3004 Control Systems Technology Lecture 6 Root Locus

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Example
Sketch the root locus of the system with an open loop transfer function: K

G(s) =

s ( s + 1)( s + 2)

Determine the value of K which would give an equivalent damping ratio of 0.5

cos(0.5) = 60 o

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## Root Locus with Complex Poles

In some circumstances the open-loop system has complex poles:
1 s ( s 2 + 2 n s + n )
2

j
In order to sketch the root locus for the closed loop system, we need to determine the angle of emergence of the locus from the complex poles The angle of emergence can be determined using the angle condition

X
is angle of emergence

Re

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## Root Locus with Complex Poles

Angle Condition Key concept: if a point lies on the root locus, the argument G(s) will be a multiple of 180o.

## Since poles are on denominator, angles will be negative

1 2 3 = 180.( 1 + 2n)

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## Root Locus with Complex Poles

Angle Condition (cont) If there is a zero in the Transfer Function, then the zero will be associated with a POSITIVE angle. e.g.:

## So the angle condition becomes:

180.( 1 + 2n) = Z P1 P 2 P 3
Or:

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## Angle Condition Example 1

From Dunn Root Locus Tutorial (http://www.freestudy.co.uk) Take an OLTF with four poles, two of which are complex, and no zeros Select a point just to the right of the complex pole, close enough that angle 3 = 0 Measure or calculate other angles

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## Angle Condition Example 1

P1 = -10 P3 = -4 + 4j P2 = -1 P4 = -4 4j

## 1 = tan-1 (4/6) = 33.7o 2 = 180 tan-1 (4/3) = 126.9o 4 = 90o Apply:

180.( 1 + 2n) = Z P1 P 2 P 3 P 4
180 = -33.7-126.9-90- 3 3 = -430.6 = -70.6

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## Angle Condition Example 2

Similar OLTF as in Example 1, but introduce 1 zero. P1 = 0 P3 = -4 + 4j Z1 = -1 P2 = -10 P4 = -4 4j

1 = 180 tan-1 (4/4) = 135o 2 = tan-1 (4/6) = 33.7o 4 = 90o = 180 tan-1 (4/3) = 126.9o Apply:

180.( 1 + 2n) = Z P1 P 2 P 3
180 = 126.9-135-22.7-90- 3 3 = -300.8 60

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## Angle Condition Example 3

Consider a 3-pole example: P1 = 0 P2 = -4 + 4j P3 = -4 4j

## 1 = 180 tan-1 (4/4) = 135o 3 = 90o Apply:

180.( 1 + 2n) = Z P1 P 2 P 3
180 = 135-90- 3 3 = -120.8

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## Angle Condition Example 3

Consider the following system:
1 s

1 s 2 + 2s + 5

P1 X

j
P1

P1 = -1 + 2j P3 = 0

P2 = -1 2j

Set Q to be just to the right of P1 2 = 90o 3 = 180 tan-1 (2/1) = 117o 180 = -387- 1 1 = -27
P2 X
P2

P3

P3

Re

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## Angle Condition Example 3

Resulting Root Locus plot:

c =

P Z
i i =0 i =0

nm

(1 1) 0 =2 3 30

(1 + 2k ) = , , 5 3 3 30

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## Effect of Gain on Second Order Approximation

Consider the following generalised third order system:
r(t) +K
Controller

1 s
Hydraulic Actuator

1 s 2 + 2n s + n
2

c(t)

Mass-spring-damper (load)

Load Dynamics

Looking at gain where < 1 (i.e. underdamped) Varying K (0 K ), the closed system root locus looks like: Is the second order approximation valid for K giving pole set A? What about B?

P1 X
Pole set A Pole set B Actuator

P3 Re P2 X

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## Take the function:

K G( s) H ( s) = s( s + a)

a>0

This gives two poles, one at the origin and the other at a. The following slides show the effect of adding additional poles and zeros to the shape of the Root Locus
From Glonaraghi & Kuo, Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition, 2010, pp385-388

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## Effect of adding Poles on Root Locus

Add a pole at -b Add a pole at -c

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## Effect of adding Poles on Root Locus

Add a complex conjugate pair

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Add a zero at -b

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## Effect of adding Zeros on Root Locus

Add a complex zero with b real parts

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## IENG3004 Control Systems Technology Lecture 6 Root Locus

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Tutorial Question
Plot the Root Locus by hand for both of these: 1.

2.

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