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You are on page 1of 45

We know that the transient response of a system is governed by the roots of the characteristic equation It is frequently necessary to analyse the variation in transient response due to changes in the values of system parameters Computation and display of individual time responses is cumbersome

Requires a graphical method to describe variation in transient response (Root Locus)

Root Locus traces the movement of the closed loop roots as an OLTF parameter (usually gain) is changed

Roots can be real or complex, so the s-plane has real and complex dimensions

Zero:

A value of s which reduces the Transfer Function to zero (a root of the numerator)

Pole

A value of s which sends the Transfer Function to infinity (a root of the denominator) The poles of a Transfer Function are the same as the roots of a the characteristic equation

Example: Determine the poles and zeros of the T.F.: ( s + 2) s ( s + 1)( s 2 + 2s + 2) ZEROS: POLES: s+2=0 s=0 s+1=0 s2 + 2s + 2 = 0 s = -2 s=0 s = -1 s = -1 j

1 ( s + 3)

C(s) K ( s + 3) = = R(s) 1 + K s + (3 + K ) ( s + 3)

Location of the closed-loop pole is: s = -(3+K)

Root locus has one pole on the real axis:

For K = 0, closed loop pole is located at -3 As K increases, the pole moves to the left for increasing values of K As K increases, the transient response decays more rapidly and thus steady-state is achieved more rapidly

by way of an example

r(t) +K

1 s( s + 1)

c(t)

1 s+2

Step 1: Obtain Open Loop Poles & Zeros (a) Root loci start at open-loop poles (b) Root loci end at open-loop zeros or infinity (c) The number of separate loci is equal to the number of open-loop poles (d) Loci are symmetrical about the real axis

Step 1: Obtain Open Loop Poles & Zeros (cont)

Open loop poles at: 0, -1, -2

Step 2: Sketch Root Loci on Real Axis (if existing) Real & Imaginary Axes Poles as x Zeros as o Locus is plotted

10

Step 3: Derive asymptotes of Root Loci The branches of a root locus approach a set of straightline asymptotes at large distances from the origin. (a) The asymptotes emanate from a point on the real axis called the centre of asymptotes, given by:

c =

p z

i i =1 i =1

nm

where n = number of open-loop poles m = number of open-loop zeros pi = location of ith pole zi = locaiton of ith zero

(0 1 2) (0) c = = 1 30

11

Step 3: Derive asymptotes of Root Loci (cont) (b) The angle made by the asymptotes and the real axis is given by:

(1 + 2k ) = nm

k = 0, 1, 2, 3

(1 + 2k ) = = , , 5 3 3 30

12

Step 4: Determine breakaway points, b A breakaway point (b) occurs on the real axis where two or more branches depart from, or arrive at, the real axis. They occur where:

6 36 24 s= = 0.42 or 1.58 6

this area

13

Step 5: Find K for marginal stability and c Finding c will give us the intersection of the root locus with the Imaginary Axis Use Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion to find this

s 3 + 3s 2 + 2 s + K = 0

s3 s2 s1 s0 1 3 1 2 3 K 3 K 2 K 0

(characteristic equation)

s3 s2 s1 s0

1 3 (6 K ) 3 K

2 K 0

14

Step 5: Find K for marginal stability and c (cont) Form the Auxiliary Equation to find c For the auxiliary equation (s2 row):

3s2 + K = 0

Critical value of K = 6

3s2 + 6 = 0 s = j 2

15

Step 6: If there are no complex poles, plot Root Locus

j

Symmetrical about the Real axis

2

j

60o

-3

X -2

X

-1

-60o

Re

16

Root Locus Second Order Approximation Dominant Poles The transient response of a system may be equated to a sum of exponential terms

Contribution of each term is determined by one of the roots of the characteristic equation Each term does not contribute equally Some roots dominate the response

Example

17

Pole Locations

Transient response

Total response is DOMINATED by decaying sinusoidal roots for this term much closer to Imaginary axis

18

Root Locus Second Order Approximation Since dominating roots are second order the system may be approximated by an equivalent second order system This gives us a system with well documented time responses.

Performance given in normalised form in terms of damping ratio () and natural frequency (n) The higher order system has been reduced to a second order approximation, making it possible to use available performance data to effect a successful design

Consider normalised form of the second order transfer function: 2

19

Xo n = 2 X i s + 2 n s + n 2

s = n jn (1 )

2

One pole from the complex conjugate pair is located at P, shown in this diagram: j

20

P X

d=

0 Re cos

From the geometry of the diagram:

j P X

n

21

OP = ( n ) + n (1 )

2 2 2 2

OP = n + n (1 )

2 2 2 2 2

OP = n

d=

0 Re cos

n cos = = n

In the figure, cos defines the damping line and the distance of point P from the origin is equal to the natural frequency of the system

22

Determining Gain K

From the characteristic equation [ 1 + KGH (s) = 0 ]:

1 K= GH ( s)

1 K = GH ( s )

K ( s + z1 )( s + z 2 )( s + z3 ) L G(s) = ( s + p1 )( s + p2 )( s + p3 ) L

Then, from above, assuming unity feedback:

K=

s + p1 s + p2 s + p3 L s + z1 s + z 2 s + z3 L

23

Determining Gain K

If the location of the closed-loop pole is known, then K may be determined graphically: Q is the closed loop pole

If the real and imaginary axes of the root locus diagram have been drawn to the same scale then the lengths of vectors P1Q, P2Q, P3Q, and ZQ can be measured

PQ . P2Q . P3Q . K= 1 ZQ .

24

Example

Sketch the root locus of the system with an open loop transfer function: K

G(s) =

s ( s + 1)( s + 2)

Determine the value of K which would give an equivalent damping ratio of 0.5

cos(0.5) = 60 o

25

In some circumstances the open-loop system has complex poles:

1 s ( s 2 + 2 n s + n )

2

j

In order to sketch the root locus for the closed loop system, we need to determine the angle of emergence of the locus from the complex poles The angle of emergence can be determined using the angle condition

X

is angle of emergence

Re

26

Angle Condition Key concept: if a point lies on the root locus, the argument G(s) will be a multiple of 180o.

1 2 3 = 180.( 1 + 2n)

27

Angle Condition (cont) If there is a zero in the Transfer Function, then the zero will be associated with a POSITIVE angle. e.g.:

180.( 1 + 2n) = Z P1 P 2 P 3

Or:

28

From Dunn Root Locus Tutorial (http://www.freestudy.co.uk) Take an OLTF with four poles, two of which are complex, and no zeros Select a point just to the right of the complex pole, close enough that angle 3 = 0 Measure or calculate other angles

29

P1 = -10 P3 = -4 + 4j P2 = -1 P4 = -4 4j

180.( 1 + 2n) = Z P1 P 2 P 3 P 4

180 = -33.7-126.9-90- 3 3 = -430.6 = -70.6

30

Similar OLTF as in Example 1, but introduce 1 zero. P1 = 0 P3 = -4 + 4j Z1 = -1 P2 = -10 P4 = -4 4j

1 = 180 tan-1 (4/4) = 135o 2 = tan-1 (4/6) = 33.7o 4 = 90o = 180 tan-1 (4/3) = 126.9o Apply:

180.( 1 + 2n) = Z P1 P 2 P 3

180 = 126.9-135-22.7-90- 3 3 = -300.8 60

31

Consider a 3-pole example: P1 = 0 P2 = -4 + 4j P3 = -4 4j

180.( 1 + 2n) = Z P1 P 2 P 3

180 = 135-90- 3 3 = -120.8

32

Consider the following system:

1 s

1 s 2 + 2s + 5

P1 X

j

P1

P1 = -1 + 2j P3 = 0

P2 = -1 2j

Set Q to be just to the right of P1 2 = 90o 3 = 180 tan-1 (2/1) = 117o 180 = -387- 1 1 = -27

P2 X

P2

P3

P3

Re

33

Resulting Root Locus plot:

c =

P Z

i i =0 i =0

nm

(1 1) 0 =2 3 30

(1 + 2k ) = , , 5 3 3 30

34

Consider the following generalised third order system:

r(t) +K

Controller

1 s

Hydraulic Actuator

1 s 2 + 2n s + n

2

c(t)

Mass-spring-damper (load)

Load Dynamics

Looking at gain where < 1 (i.e. underdamped) Varying K (0 K ), the closed system root locus looks like: Is the second order approximation valid for K giving pole set A? What about B?

P1 X

Pole set A Pole set B Actuator

P3 Re P2 X

35

36

K G( s) H ( s) = s( s + a)

a>0

This gives two poles, one at the origin and the other at a. The following slides show the effect of adding additional poles and zeros to the shape of the Root Locus

From Glonaraghi & Kuo, Automatic Control Systems, 9th Edition, 2010, pp385-388

37

Add a pole at -b Add a pole at -c

38

Add a complex conjugate pair

39

Add a zero at -b

40

Add a complex zero with b real parts

41

42

43

Tutorial Question

Plot the Root Locus by hand for both of these: 1.

2.

44

45

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