•PM

'

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A.

IN

THE CUSTODY OF.THE BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY.
? SHELF N°

THE

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
O F

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS,
Tranflated into

En g l

i

s

h

5

WITH

NOTES

and

DISSERTATIONS.
B

Y

EDWARD
-

S P
-

E L
IV.

M

A

— VOL.

N,

Efq^

LONDON,
Printed, and fold by the Bookfellers of London and Wejlminjler.

MDCCLVIII.

At./!

33. V 0.^

ins

mJt^mmimmmm»m

THE

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
O F

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
THE NINTH BOOK.

THE
party,

following year, a difpute arifing between the people, and the fenate, concerning the perfons, who

were to be created confuls

(for the latter defired that

both of them fhould be chofen out of the

ariftocratical

were agreeable to them) after many contefts, wherein they difcovered each other's ftrength, they agreed that a conful ihould be chofen out

and the people, out of fuch,

as

of each party. And Caefo Fabius, who had accufed Cafilus of aiming at tyranny, was elected conful for the fecond time

on the part of the

fenate,

and Spurius
fifth

'

Furius on

That of

the people, in the feventy

Olympiad, Calliades being

Annotations
'•

on the Ninth Book.
this year are thus

<!>^^io;.

The
;

calls this conful
it is

a miftake

Vatican manufcript but I believe ^^j^^iof, becaufe the confuls of

ccnfulares,

ferdown in the Fajlt K. Fatius Vibulanus 2.

Sp. Furius Fufus.

Vol. IV.

B

archon

2

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
""

Book IX.

archon at Athens, and

the fame year that Xerxes undertook his expedition againfl: Greece. They had no fooner taken of their dignity,but the embaffadors of the Latines
pojGTefTion

defiring they would fend to them one of the confuls with an army to reftrain the infolence of the

came

to the fenate,

that all Tyrrhenia Aequi The fenate were, alfo, was in motion, and would, foon, declare war againft them : For there had been a general aflembly of that nation, in which, after many intreaties of the Veientes to affifl them
:

informed

in

the war againfl; the

Romans,

a decree pafTed that

all

the Tyrrhenians, who were willing, might ingage in their fervice : And a condderable number of voluntiers were
information, the fenate refolved to raife forces, and that betli the confuls

prepared

to aflift the Veientes.

Upon

this

fhould take the

and
•3

to aflift

one to make war upon the Aequi, the Latines ; and the other, to niarch with ah
field
j

army

into Tyrrhenia.

All this was

oppofed by Spurius

one of the tribunes, who, aflembling the people of the fenate the execution of their every day, demanded of the lands ; and faid he relating to the diviflon
Icilius,

promifes

would
would,
.2'
T)iv

fuffer

none of
civil

their decrees,

whether they concerned
they bounds of the
unlefs

military, or
flrft,

regulations,

to take effed:,

to fix the appoint the decemvirs
irt
it,

Kafl' c» j^fovoD t^oalniffi Hsf|>;f

EAA«<r*.

See the twenty

fourth

For

inftead of IixiAicy in the editions. the fame reafon, he would have

annotation on the fixth book.

Sigonius thinks, very juftthat wemuft read the name of this ly, tribune in the manner I have correfted
Ix/Afof.

3-

us read Icilius for Licinius, v;hich, in the editions, is the name "Livy gives
to this tribune,

'B.

ii.

c.

43,

public

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
them among the
people,
as

3

and divide public lands,

they a lofs, and not knowThe fenate being at had promifed. incr what rcfoliition to take, Appius Claudius fuggefted this
v/hich was to confider by what means expedient to them, the other tribunes might diflent from Icilius, telling them

there

was no other method of putting a ftop to the power of a tribune, who oppofes, and obftruds the decrees of the and his authority legal, fenate, and whofe perfon is facred,
unlefs

fome other tribune, invefted with the fame dignity, and the fame power, withftands him, and oppofes the nega-

And he advifed all fucceeding given by the former. confuls to do this, and to conlider by what means they
tive,

the affedion, and triendfhip of fome of might, always, gain the tribunes ; faying, that the only method of deftroying

the tribunitian power, was to fow diffenfion
tribunes.

among

the

This advice being given by Appius, and approved of by the confuls, and the reft of the men in ppwer, they courted the tribunes fo effedually, as to ingage the other Thefe, at firft, endeafour in the intereft of the fenate
II.
:

voured to perfuade Icilius to delift from prefling the divifion of lands, till the wars they were ingaged in, fhould be ended. But, when he rejedted their felicitations with an
thefe outrageous words oath, and had the affurance to utter in the prefence of the people, that he had rather fee the and the reft of their enemies mafters of the

Tyrrhenians, than difmifs the ufurpers of the public lands ; they -city, of reftraining fo great an thought this a fair opportunity

B

2

infolence

4

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book IX.

infolencc both by their words,

and adions; and even the people {hewing themfelves not well pleafed with his declaand, openly, purfued fiich meafiires, as were agreeable both to the fenate,

ration, they faid they oppofed their negative;

and confuls

being deferted by his collegues, had, no longer, any authority. After which, the army was
:

And

IciHiis,

raifed,

and every thing, that was neceffary for the war, was fupplied, partly by the public, and partly by private perwith
all

fons,

pofTible

alacrity

:

And

the confuls, alter

of the armies, prefently took the field ; Spurius * Furius, marching againft the cities of the Aequi, and Caefo Fabius againft the Tyrrhenians. Every thing fucceeded according to the defire of Spurius,

drawing

lots for

the

command

ingagement ; fo that, in this expedition, he had an opportunity of taking a great booty, both in money, and flaves: For he overrun almoft all the enemy's country, carrying, and driving off every
thing; and gave all the fpoils to the foldiers: And, being efteemed, even before, a lover of the people, he gained their
affection,
ftill

the

enemy not daring

to

come

to an

more,

by

his

conduit in

this

command.

And, when the
*'

feafon

for
''

adion was over, he brought
gonius contends for is, certainly, con' firm.ed by Livy, where he makes tlie Tyrrhenians fay that the Roman conful had been deferted by his army after he had overcome the yiequi, which

^)<^io(

tTTi

Tu? AiK(!iymwo\n(.

Li-

vy makes Fabius march
jiequi,

againft the

and Furius againft the Veientes.

This Sigonius, in his notes upon this paflage of Livy, fays is the reading of an old manui'cript. If the French happened to Fabius, confeiifu exercitus tranflators had read this note, traditam ultra viiloriam vidis Acquis ; they would not have faid that this was a fjgna deferta imperatorem in acie n;

niodern corre(Sicn.

1 he reading
^B,
ii,

Si-

litlum; iriju£'uin cajira ndilum.
'Id. ib.
c.

c.

43.

44.

home

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A SS EN S I S.
army uadiminiHiedj
iinhurtj

5

home
fpoils.
III.

his

and inriched with

Caefo Fabius, the other conful, though he performed the duty of a general with no lefs abihty, was deprived of the praife due to his adions, not by any fault of his own,
but becaufe the plebeians were not well affeded to him from the time he had caufed CaiHus, a confular perfon, to
be condemned, and put to death for affedling tyranny: For they never fhewed any alacrity either in thofe things, in

which foldiers ought
of their general, or

to yield a quick obedience to the orders

a becoming eagernefs was requifite to feize places by force, or where it was neceflary to gain, by ftealth, advantageous pofts, or in any thing eife, from

when

whence the general might

derive honor,

and reputation.

Their uniform condud:, by which they were, continually, infulting their general, was not very uneafy to him, or But the laft extremely hurtful to the commonwealth
:

adion they were guilty
to both great difgrace,
oreneral
:

of,

brought no fmall danger, and

ingagement in which both their camps were placed, and the Romans having performed many gallant actions, and forced the

For the two armies coming to a a Valley between the two hills, on

way, they refufed both to purfue them, notwithftanding the repeated orders of th^ir general, and to ftay till they had taken the enemy's intrenchments ; but,

enemy

to give

leaving a glorious adion unfinifhed, they returned to their own camp. And, when fome of the men attempted to falute

the

5

ROMAN
^

ANTICtUITIES OF
all

EooklX.

the conful,

the reft joined in loud exclamations againfthim, and upbraided him with the lofs of many brave men through his want of ability to command And,

emperor,

:

other reproachful, and pafllonate expreflions, they demanded ofhim to break up the camp, and lead them back to Rome, pretending they were unable, if the enemy
after

many

ingagement Neither would they hearken to the remonftrances of their general, when he endeavoured to perfuade them to change
:

fhould

attack them,

to

maintain

a fecond

or regard his intreaties, when he lamented, and fupplicated; or were terrified with the violence of his threats, when he made ufe of thefe alfo ; but ftill continued
their refolution
;

exafperated notwithftanding

all

thefe

attacks;

and the

whole army poffefled with fuch a fpirit of difobedience, and fuch a contempt for their general, that they got up about
midnight ; and, without orders, ftruck their tents, took their arms, and carried off their wounded. IV. When the general was informed of this, he was forced to give the word of command for all to march ; {o
of their difobedience, and augreat was his apprehenfion
dacioufnefs. as if they

The men

retired with as

great precipitation,

and approached The guards, who were pofted the city about day break. upon the walls, not knowing thefe were their own people,
had faved themfelves by
'

flight,

5.

AvIoK^oHo^a.

This was the

title

of

Imperator, conferred by

the foidiers

Munda

on their general after a vidory, which was very different from the title of the fame name granted by the fenate to

Caefar after his vidory at latter was given to him, and his pofterity, and ufed by his iucJulius
:

^

The

ceffors.

''Dion Caffius, B,

xlili.

p. 266.

ran

Book IX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S S E N SI S,

7

ran to arms, and called to their companions, all the reft of the citizens being full of trouble, and confufion, as if fome
great

misfortune had happened
to let

:

And
:

the guards did not

open the gates
could

them

diftinguifli their

was broad day, and they own army So that, befides the
in, till it

ignominy they incurred

in defcrting their

camp, they,

alfo,

expofed themfelves to great danger, in returning through the enemy's country in the dark, and without obferving any
the Tyrrhenians had been informed of this, and purfued them in their return, nothing could have hinThe motive dered the army from being intirely deftroyed.
order.

And,

if

of this unaccountable

retreat, or flight,

was, as

I

have

faid,

the hatred of the people againft the general, and the envy of his honor, left, by being adorned with a triumph, he

fhould

acquire

Tyrrhenians,

next day, having intelligence of the retreat of the
the
greateft

glory.

The

the

Ro-

mans, ftripped their dead, and carried ofF their wounded with all the warlike ftores they had left in their camp, which were in great quantity, as having been prepared for a
long war; and, like conquerors, laid wafte the adjacent country of the enemy, and, then, returned home with their

army.

V. The fucceeding

confuls, Cncius Manlius,

and Marcus

Fabius, for the fecond time, being ordered by the fenate to march againft the Veientes with the greateft army they

could

appointed a day for levying the forces. Tiberius Pontificius, one of the tribunes, oppoflng this levy, and the order of the calling upon them to put in execution
raife,

fenate

8

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
:

Book IX.

fenate for the divifion of the lands, they applied themfelves

to court

fome of his coUegues, as their predeceflbrs had done And, after that, they before, and divided the tribunes The executed the orders of the fenate with full liberty.
levies

being completed in a few days, the confuls took the field ; each of them having with him two legions raifed in the city itfelf, and a body not lefs numerous, fent by their

from the Latines, and the Hernici, double the number of auxiliaries they had
colonies,

and

fubjedts

:

There came,

alfo,

However, they did not make ufe of all thefe forces; but, giving them great thanks for their zeal, they difmiffed one half of the fuccours they had fent. Befides, they appointed a third army, confifling oi two legions of
ordered.

young men,

incamp before the city, with orders to guard the country, in cafe any other army of the enemy fhould,
to

And they left in the iinexpededly, make its appearance. fuch as were above the military age, who had, yet, city
ftrength fufficicnt to bear arms, as a garrifon to defend the After this, the confuls advanced at citadels, and the walls.

the head of their armies near the city of Veii, and incamped on two hills not far afunder. The enemy's army, confifring of great numbers of good troops, had, alfo, taken the field,

and lay incamped before the

city

:

For the

men of the greateft

power throughout all Tyrrhenia had joined them with their dependents ; by which means, the Tyrrhenian army was, confiderably, more numerous than That of the Romans. When the confuls faw the numbers of the enemy, and the
iuftre

of their arms, they were, greatly, afraid

left their

own

forces,

Book IX.
forces,

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENS IS.
:

9

might not be able to Thofe of the enemy, whofe minds were united
rent with fadlioiij

prevail over

rcafon, they determined to fortify their lono- the war, in expedation of fome opportunity of

For which camps, and to pro-

ading

with advantage, which the affu ranee of the enemy, elated with an inconfiderate contempt of them, might afford. In the mean time, there were continual fkirmiflies, and in-

gagements of the
VI.

light

armed men

in fmall parties,

but no

confiderable, or illuftrious adlion.

Tyrrhenians, being uneafy at this prolongation of the war, upbraided the Romans with cowardife, fince to fight ; and, looking upon the they declined coming out enemy to have quitted the field to them, they grew exceedingly elated. Their contempt of the Roman army, and their fcorn of the confuls were further encreafed by the opinion
that they themfelves were afllfted even they entertained, the lightning, falling upon the general's by the gods For tent of Cneius Manlius, one of the confuls, tore it in pieces,
:

The

overturned the
others,

altar,
it

tarnifhed

fome of the arms, fcorched
:

and fome

quite confiamed

It

killed,

alfo,

the

belonging to him, the fame he ufed in battle, and fome of his domeftics And the augurs faying that the
fineft horfe
:

gods portended the taking of the camp, and the death of the moft confiderable perfons in it, Manlius removed with
his

forces to the other
his

himfelf with

camp about midnight, The Tyrrhenians, collegue.

pofted hearing the

arid

general had decamped, and being informed, by fome of the of the reafons of that motion, grew flill more prifoners,

Vol. IV.

C

elated,

lo
elated,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
their augurs,

OF

Book IX.

from an opinion that the gods made war upon the Romans, and entertained great hopes of overcoming them
:

thought to have examined meteors with greater accuracy, than any other people, from whence the fladies of lightning come, what quarters receive it when
it flits

For

who are

after the ftroke,
is

to

of lightning
tend, advifed

ailigned,

which of the gods each kind and what good, or evil they por-

them

to attack the

enemy, and interpreted the

omen, which had happened to the Romans, in the following manner: Since the flafli of lightning had fallen upon the confuls tent, which was That of the general, and utterly
demoli(l:ied
it,

even to the

altar,

the gods portended to their

army, the demolition of their camp after it was taken by ftorm, and the death of the principal perfons in it If,
:

therefore, faid they, the

enemy had continued
and not removed

where the lightning

fell,

in the place, their eniigns to

the other army, the god, Vv'ho is incenfed againft them, had fatisfied his anger with the taking of One camp, and the
dcftruction of one

But, flnce they have endeavoured to be wifer than the gods, ahd removed to the other camp,. that place, as if tlie god had fignihed that the deferring

army

:

calamities fliould

not upon the men, but upon the places, the divine wrath fhall be extended to all of them, to thofe,
fall

who removed, and to thofe, who received them And fmce, when it was, inevitably, portended by the gods that
:

the other
v/aited for

camp

fliould

their fate,

be taken by ftorm, they had not but had themidves abandoned it to

the

enemy j

the camp, vvliich had received the deferters of
their

BooklX.
their

DIONYSIUS H ALICARNAS SENSIS.

ii

own, fliould be taken by ftorm, inftead of That which they had defer ted. VII. The Tyrrhenians, hearing thefe things from their
augurs, which the
fent a

detachment to

Romans

themfelves of the camp, had abandoned, with a delign to make ufe
poffefs
:

of it, as a place of ftrength to annoy the other For the fituation of it was exceeding flrong, and lay very convenient to
cut off
all

communication betwen

Rome

and the enemy's

other difpofitions alfo, calculated to give them an advantage over the enemy, they led out their army, and advanced into the plain : But the Ro-

camp.

After they had

made

mans remaining quiet, the boldeft of the Tyrrhenians rode up to their camp; then, ffending near it, called them all

women

;

and,

cowardly of all would do one of thefe two things

faying that their leaders refembled the moft animals, they abufed them, and delired they
;

either

come down

into

the plain, if they pretended to the title of valiant men, and decide the contefl: by one battle ; or, if they owned themfelves to

be cowards, deliver up their arms to thofe,
in valor
;

who

were fuperior to them
teniions
to
all

and,

punifhment they deferved, renounce,
that
v/as
it

fuffering the for ever, their preafter

great.

This

they repeated

every day ; draw a line

had no effefi:, they refolved to and, of contravallation round their camp, with a

when

defign to ftarve

them

into a furrender.

The

confuls fuffered

them to go on for a conliderable time; not through any want of courage, or refolution (for they were both men of
fpirit,

and of military accomplifliments) but from a fufpicion C 2 of

12

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
men
ftill

Book IX.

of the unwillingnefs of their their want of alacrity, which

to

do

their duty,
in the

and of

remained

minds of

the plebeians ever fince they had raifed the fedition, on account of the divifion of the public lands: For the ears, and
•eyes

of their generals were

ftill

aftonifhed with the fhameful

unworthy the dignity of the commonwealth, which the foldiers had been guilty of the former year, through
alliens,

they yielded up the the vidlory to the conquered, and fuftained the pretended ignominy of a flight, in order to deprive their general of a
their

refentment to the conful,

when

triumph, the confequence of a vidory. VIII. Deliring, therefore, at once to banifh fedition from
the army, and to ing
all

re-eftablifli a general

harmony ; and, mak-

Angle point the objedt of all their counfcls, and of their care, fince it was not in their power, by punifliing
this

fome of them, to reform the reft, who were numerous, bold, and armed, or to perfuade thofe, who were refolved not to be perfuaded, they concluded that the two following motives

would reclaim the feditious ; that thofe of milder tempers there was a mixture of thefe, alfo, among fo great a (for multitude) would be wrought upon by the fliame of being
abufed by the enemy, arid that fuch, as were not, eafily, induced to tread the paths of honor, by that, which terrifies
all

mankind,
Vv^hile

neceflity.

fered the
our,

enemy

to effeft both thefe, they fufto infult them by their words, and behavi-

And

repeated to be brave, pel thofe

they called their inaction cowardife, that, by inftances of fcorn, and contempt, they might com-

who

were not difpofed to be fo of
their

BooklX.
their

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S S E NS
accord
:

I S,

13

own

For thefe
all

entertained great hopes that
general's tent;

being continued, they the foldiers would flock to the

infults

would demand my ; which happened accordingly
ditches,

and, fired with refentment, and indignation, of the confuls to lead them againft the ene:

For,

when

the

latter

began to barricade the gates of the camp with
the

palifades,

and

refenting the attempt, ran to the tents of the coniuls, firft, in fmall numbers, and, then, in a

Romans,

body ; and, crying out, accufed them of treachery, and faid that, if none would lead them, they themfelves would take
arms, and, without their commanders, fally out againil the This being the general cry, the confuls thought enemy.
this the
lidlors

opportunity they had waited for, and ordered the to call the troops together, when Fabius, advancing^
:

fpoke to them as follows IX. " Soldiers, and officers, your indignation at the in* fults you have received from the enemy, is flow ; and
'

this general eagernefs to attack

'

much
for

too late,

them, by fliewing itfelf becomes unfeafonable. Then was the time

'

'

'

'

you to do this, when you, firft, faw them come down from their intrenchments, and defire to begin the battle. Then would the conteft for fovereignty have been gloBut now it is rious, and worthy of the Roman fpirit
:

'

become

neceflary

;

and, however fuccefsiul, will not be,

*

'

equally, glorious. But, even now, you do well in defiring to repair your flownefs, and recover your forgotten vigor;

'

'

and great thanks are due to you for your eagernefs in the For it is better purfuit of glory, if it flows from virtue
:

" to

14

ROMAN
to begin late to

ANTIQJJITIES OF
one's duty, than never.
I

Book IX.

"

do

wifh you

" had all the fame fentlments of what is advantageous, and " that with the fame ardor But you were all animated " we are afraid left the of the the
:

"
(C
(*

plebeians againft fenate concerning the divifion of lands may be the caufe of great mifchief to the commonwealth : And we fufpedl that this clamor, and indignation concerning your going
difguft

out to the charge, do not fpring from the fame motive in " all of you But, that fome defire to go out of the camp,
*'
:

*'
*'

in order to take revenge on. the

enemy

;

and

others, to

"
*'

run away.

The

reafons, that

have induced us to entertain
-,

thefe fufpicions, are neither divinations, nor conjectures

"
"

but plain fads, not of ancient date, but which happened when a numerous, and brave laft year, as you all know ;

" "
*'

army having taken the
the event of the
firft

field againft this very

enemy, and

battle proving

moft

fuccefsful to us,

Caefo, the conful, and

my brother, who

then commanded,

had

it

in his

power

to take the enemy's

camp, and to

*'

moft glorious vidory ; when fome, envy" ing his glory, becaufe he was not a popular man, nor " purfued fuch meafures, as were agreeable to the poorer

triumph

after a

"
*'
**
*'

ftruck their tents the night after the battle ; and, without orders, fled out of the camp, not confiderinofort,

the danger they were expofed to in a diforderly retreat, without a general, through an enemy's country,
either

" and that in the night, or the ignominy they were " fuftain in as far as in them the
yielding,
;

fure to

lay,

<•*

to the

enemy

and

in fubmitting,

when

fovereignty conquerors, to
((

the

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A SS EN S I S.

15

" the Being afraid, therefore, tribunes, centuconquered. *' rions, and foldiers, of thefe men, who are neither able to *' command, nor wilhng to obey, and who are numerous, " we have avoided a battle and and
bold,
*' *'

armed, dare not, even now, with fuch

hitherto,

affiftance,

hazard a deciiive

ingagement, left they obftru£t, and prejudice thofe, who " are performing their parts with all poflible alacrity. But, " if fome sod fliould reform their inclinations, and induce " them to their divifions, from which the conilay afide " momvealth, at this time, receives great prejudice, or to " defer them till peace fhall be reftored, and redeem their " pafled fliame by their prefent valor, nothing fhall, then, " hinder us from ingaging the enemy witli great hopes of " To obtain which we have but

" the moft confiderable, and the moft to be confided in is " the of the enemy ; who, far exceeding us in the folly " number of their forces, and, by that alone, enabled to
*'

vidlory.

many

advantages,

withftand our valor, and experience, have deprived them" felves of this only benefit by confuming the greateft part " of their army in garrifons. In the next place, when they *' ought to ad: with caution and prudence in every thing, *' knowing what kind of men, far fuperior to them in valor, " they have to deal with, they run boldly, and inconfider*'
*'

up to our intrenchments, and infulting frequently, both by their words, and ac" tions. Confider thefe remember the many things; "
;

" our camp by " us fo

the battle, as if they were invincible, and ately to timidated : This appears by their barricading the
their riding

we

in-

gates of

glorious

6
*

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
glorious battles, in

BooklX.

which you have overcome them, and

'

'

go on with alacrity to this ingagement alfo: And let the fpot, on which he fhall every one of you look upon
be ported, as his houfe, his land, and his country Let him, who faves his next man, think he faves himfelf ; and who forfakes him, conclude that he delivers himfelf
:

'

*

'

*

up
'
'

to the

enemy: But, above

all,

remember
and

this, that,

of thofe
flain
;

who

ftand

their

ground,

fight,

few are

but of thofe

who

give way, and

fly,

very few are

'

faved.".

X. While he was yet difplaying thefe incentives to braand accompanying his words with many tears, calling very, and foldiers, by name every one of the centurions, tribunes,

who, he knew, had performed fome

mer

battles,

and promifing many

gallant a6tion in forgreat rewards to fuch, as

f^iould

themfelves in this ingagement in protheir adlions, as honors, riches, and other adportion to
diftinguifli
all

vantages, they he would lead

cried out to encourage him,

and defired
as

them on to the battle. done fneaking, there came out from
called

As foon

he had

the throng a
to

man,

country but celebrated for condition, work, though his virtue, and military bravery and, on both thefe accounts, honoured with the mofi: confiderable command in
not of

Marcus Flavoleius, a plebeian, and bred

mean

one of the
are

legions,

which command the

fixty centuries

by the law to follow, and obey : Thefe injoined officers are called by the Romans, in their own language,
Primipili.

BooklX.
^

DIONYSIUS H ALIC ARN ASSENSIS.

\j

Primipili.

was
<>

tall,

This man, who, befides his other quaHfications, and a comely peiTon, ftanding where all might fee
Thefe
officers

n^/^cTTfAsf.

were

called

by the

pyiruipili. in a legion

Romans, pimopili, or They were the firft officers
next to the tribunes.
"

of the principes^ and ten of the triarii ; each of' \.\\t{c orders was fubdivided into

two

The

reader has already ieen
as inftituted

that a legion,

centuries, confequently there were The fixty centuries in every legion. poft of honor in a legion, though in

by Romulus, confided of 3000 foot, and joohorfe This num:

the rear, was
in

That of the triarii ; next rank were iht principes ; and the laft

ber was afterwards
iiiftances

augmented
^

•,

and

Livy, may be found in where the fenate ordered what number both of horfe, and foot each legion which number in ffiojld confift of-, Perfeus they extended to the war with 6000 foot, and 300 horfe. ^ I have, in a former note, fpoken of the Hnftati, Principes, and Triarii, who compofed

the hajlati : By this means, it happened that the loweft officer in a legion
or of the

was the centurion of the tenth order, twentieth century of the

hajlati, called inl-atiri, decimus hajlaiiis pofterior ; and the firft officer afte;r the

tribunes was the
triarii^

firft

centurion of the

otherwife
is

called, primipiks:

There
ftinus

a fpeech
^

made by Sp. Ligu-

armed men, in which every legion was drawn up. If I repeat it now, my reafon is, becaufe I have fince found that fome
tlie

three lines of heavy

learned

word

milled by the and from thence conPrincipes,
:

men have been

cluded that thefe conftituted the firft But this is a miftake For they line. were certainly drawn up in the order
the reader they are here me'ntioned. If to turn to the 193'' page of a
pleafes

Livy, where he gives an account of his rifing from a common foldier to the degree of a primipilus ; which account contains a gradation, that will confirm what I have aflerted; bienniimi miles gregarius tertio anno fui virtutis caufd mihi T. ^tintius Flamiin

ninus
vit
cui

hajlatum ajpigna— hicme imptrator dignunijudicavit^

decumum ordinem

affignaret

prinmm hafiatum prioris centuriae a Man. Acilio mihi primus

noble performance, the iJea of a patriot king, he will find this miftake to have crept in there among a thoufand beauties. But, in order to explain

princeps prioris centuriae
a'Ti. Gracchorogatus, in

eft

ajjignatus
ii.

provinciam

quater intra paucos anno s
duxi.

primum pilum

what our author means when he

fays

that the ^ri«/p/// commanded the fixty centuries of every legion, it will be neceflary to diiTeft the conftituent

have mentioned the legionary tribunes, it may be necefiary to There were fpeak of their number
I
:

As

fix

tribunes
firft,

in

were, at

every legion ; thefe created by the generals;
is,

Every legion conparts of a legion. of thirty divifions, called by the fifted Romans, or dines ^ ten of the hafiati., ten
'

afterwards,

that

in

the

Rome

year of

and 392, Q^ L. Genucius being confuls, both for
Servilius Ahala,
f

See the fixteenth annotation on the fecond book.
^

B,

xlii,

C

31.

s

See the twenty

fcventh annotation on the fourth book,

B,

xlii. c.

Vol. IV.

D

34.

him,

i8

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
:

Book IX.

" Are him, fpoke in the following manner you afraid, " confuls, that onr adlions will not agree with our words ?
"
I will

be the

firft

" "

to give you, in

greateft alTurance for the

my own name, the performance of my promife

:.

And,
as

fellow-citizens,
as

" "

many of you

and partakers of the fame fortune, refolve to fupport your words by your

adions, you will not err in following my example." Having faid this, he held up his fvvord, and took the oatii
in ufe

among
all

facred of

Romans, and efteemed by them the moft others, by ingaging his own 'faith, That he
the

would return to Rome victorious, or not at all. After Flavoleius had taken this oath, they all gave him great And, prefently, both the confuls did the fame, applaufe
:

as did, alfo, the inferior officers, the tribunes,

and centurions,

This being done, they all felt for one another, confidence, great alacrity, great friendship and fpirit: And, going from the aflembly, fome bridled
and,
laft

of

all,

the

foldiers.

thefecond time, alawpafled, by which
this

power was transferred from the
'

people to chufe the principal officers of an army, raifed and maintained to
perpetuate their flavcry.
i-

ct qiuim eo generals to the people ; an7io primum placuiffel tribtmos wilitum

T>jv «j'«6i;v ««u7j<

«-i5-iv.

The Latin
this,
this

ai

et antea legiones Juffr agio fieri {nam ficut nunc, qiiosriifitlos 'vacant^ impera-

tranflators
fides.
I

have rendered

have never met with

bona oath

tores ipfi faciebant)fecurid!(',n in ((fx.locis lenuit (T. Manlius.) This power was,

in

upon fome

occafions, refiorcd to the of the people, generals by the confent However, we find '% by thelallpafthat the generals were fage of L,ivy,
poflefled not to be

author; which I am fmce Dionyfiiis fays it was, among the Romans, the moft binding of all oaths. Livy makes Flavoleius fwear by Jupiter, Mars, and

any

Roman
at,

furprifed

'

the other gods-, 5/ /d//W,7cz«;;/>^/;v;;/,

of

it

in his

time:

Which

is

Gradivimque Martem,
invocat deos.

alicfiiue

irdlos

wondered

at, fincc

Auguilus
''

would

certainly

not have fuftered the
'

Livy, B.

vii. c. $•

W-

'Ij-

'

B.

ii.

c.

4^.

their

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS H A L IC A RN A S S EN SI
;

S.

19
;

their horfcs

others fliarpened

their fwords,

and
in

fpears

and others cleaned
time, the whole
after

their defensive

arms

:

And,

a fKort
confuls,

army was ready

for the battle.
facriiices,

The

invoking the gods by vows,

and prayers, to

be their guides in fallying forth, led the army out of the
in a proper difpofition, and order. them quit their intrenchments,

camp
and

The

Tyrrhenians, feeing
it,

marched out with
XI.

their

were furprifed at whole army to meet them.

both armies were come into the plain, and the trumpets had founded a charge, they gave a fhout, and
the horfe charging the horfe, and the foot clofing with the foot, they fought; and great was the The right wing of the Romans, daughter on both fides.

When
:

ingaged

And,

commanded by

Manlius, one of the confuls, repulfed that part of the enemy, that ftood oppofite to them ; and the

But their horfemen, quitting their horfes, fought on foot. left was furrounded by the right wing of the enemy : For
the line of the Tyrrhenians on this fide outflanked That The troops of the Romans, and was confiderably deeper
:

of the

latter,
:

therefore,

were broken

in this part,

and many

wounded

who
*•

This wing was commanded by Quintus Fabius, ^ was, then, legate, and proconful, and had been twice
tranflated
ailt^^cilviyog.,

In Latin Legntus, the I chufe to call this officer a legate rather than a Ueutenant, with le Jay, or a lieutenant^ * gineraU with M.* *, as I before faid:
nfE(rbcu7ijf.

propnteur^ beit

next

officer to the confuls.

caufe Portus has rendered

fo

;

how-

ever, both le Jay, and his guide are miftalcen : For a conful, after the ex-

For,
to
all

if

we

are to give

modern names

piration of his magiftracy, might indeed be a proconful, but never a prO'
/)ra^//?r,

Romans, we mull, by
call

the military eftabiifhments of the the fame rule,

which was a

title

peculiar to

a legion, a regiment.

Le

Jay has

no higher and dignity than to That of praetor confuh 2
thofe,

who had

arrived to

•,

D

20
conful
:

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
He

OF

Book IX.

maintained the fight a long time, and received wounds of all kinds ; till, being ftruck in the breaft with a
the point of which pierced his bowels, he fell through When Marcus Fabius, one of the confuls, lofs of blood.
fpear,

who commanded

in the center,

was informed of

this,

he

took with him the beft of

and, calling to Caefo Fabius, his othef brother, to follow him, he pafled before his GW^n line ; then, advancing a confiderable way, when he had
his foot,

got beyond the enemy's right wing, he turned upon thofe,

who
thofe
ftill

were

made

furrounding his men ; and, charging them, he a vaft flaughter of all he encountered, and put to flight
^

who were
The

at a

diftance

:

breathing, he took
deiire

him up

:

And, finding his However, he died
his

brother,
prefently

after.

of reveno-ino-

death inflamed the two

brothers,

ftiil

now, of

their

more, againft the enemy ; and, regardlefs own life, they rufhed with a few among the

thickeft of them,

and made large heaps of their dead bodies. Here the Tyrrhenian army fuflcred ; and thofe who, before,

had forced the enemy to give ground, were, now, repulfed by the conquered. But, in the left wing, where the Tyrrhenians, oppofed to Manlius, were already fpcnt, and beginning to run away, they put to flight thofe they were ingaged

Q^

Fabius had, we

fee,

b.-en

twice

Si

i!c\jlii?,

etc.

conful.

M.

* * *
ail,

has not tranflated

aili^ay.yc; at

becaufe Sylburgius

and confequently M. * * * have taiien it This obliged the former pafilvely.
to fay in

However, Sylburgius,

has omitted
9-

it.

the next fentence,

i» hoftes

This word be KuxA!i/^£v«f. taken aftivdy in this place, and relates
to

mud

irruens,

and the

latter to explain thcfe

Tyrrhenian*!, who were furrounding the Romans; which is plain from the following fentence, iy.it%7m
th-'

words, by // fond fur les Tyrrheniens \ neither of which are in the Greek text, where, as our author has ufedxuitAs//.e»i«
ai5tively, they are

not wanted.

with :

BooklX.
with
:

DIONYSIUS H AL ICARN A SSEN SIS.
in the

21

For Manlius being wounded

knee with a javelin,

the point of which reached to his ham, thofe about him took him up, and carried him to the camp. The enemy, think-

ing the

Roman

general flain, took heart, and the reft

com-

ing to their ailiftance, they prefTed hard upon the Romans,

who, now, had no commander. This oUiged the twoFabii to quit the left wing, and fly to the relief of the right
:

And

the Tyrrhenians, feeing them advance in a ftrong body, over the purfuit. However, they doubled their files, and gave fought in good order; and, loflng a great number of their

own men,

they killed, alfo, many of the Romans. XII. In the mean time, the Tyrrhenians, who had poffefled themfelves of the camp abandoned by Manlius, as foon

was given by their general, ran with great to the other camp of the Romans, expedition, and alacrity from an opinion that it was not guarded with a fufficient force; neither was their opinion groundlefs: For, befides
as the fignal

the

Triarii,

and fome young men, the

reft

of the number

then in the camp, confifted of merchants, fervants, and arbeing crowded into a fmall place (for the battle was at the gates of the camp) a fharp, and fevere In this inaao-ement infued, and feveral fell on both fides.
tificers
:

And many

adion, Manlius, the conful, coming out with the cavalry to the relief of his men, his horfe fell, and he falling with him, and being unable to rife through the number of his wounds, he died; and many brave young men were ilain by his fide.
After this misfortune, the
"•
Tfi^-fiwv.

camp was

foon taken

:

And

the

See the twenty ftventh annotation on the fourth book.

Tvr-

22

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book IX.

Tyrrhenian prophecies were fulfilled: If, therefore, they had made a proper ufe of their prefent, good fortune, and fecured
the camp, they had remained mafters of the enemy's bagBut, inflead gage, and forced them to a fhameful retreat
:

of

that,

left,

by amufing themfelves with plundering what was and taking refrefhment, as moft of them did after the
they fuffered a fine booty to efcape out of their For, as foon as the other conful heard the camp was

adlion,

hands

:

furprifed,

he haftened thither with a body of chofen men, both horfe, and foot. The Tyrrhenians, being informed of
lined the intrenchments quite round the camp ; a fharp battle was fought, while thefe endeavoured to

his arrival,

and

recover their own,

and the others were

afraid of being all

put to the fword, if the camp was taken. The a6lion lafting a confiderable time, and the Tyrrhenians having many ftood upon an eminence, and had to advantages (for they

do with men fpent with fighting the whole day ) Titus " Sicinus, the legate, and proconful, after communicatinohis defign

to the conful,
all

and that
aflault

the

men

ordered a retreat to be founded, fhould afiemble in one body, and

that fide of the

camp, which was the weakefl.

of thofe parts next the gave over the attack gates that did not deceive from a reafonable confideration, him;

He

which was,
"

that,

if

the

Tyrrhenians
ful,
I

had a profpect of
him
to

"• Sixivcc The Vatican manufcript has SixiAiof, and Lapus and Gelcnius As our author calls him Zixiviof.

fuppcfe

perfon,

who was "

conful

be the fame with C.

Aqiiilius in the year 267.

uilts^oilnyovy

which

I tranflate

proconk. 64.

" See the eighth book,

fafety,

BooklX.
fafety,

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A R N AS S EN SI S.

23

they would abandon the camp ; whereas, if they themfelves invefted on all {ides, defpaired of it, by feeing

and no way
brave.

left

to efcape,

neceflity

would make them

The

attack, therefore,

being directed againft one

the place only, the enemy, no longer reiifted ; but, opening faved themfelves by retiring to their own camp. gates, XIIT. The conful, after he had difpelled this mifchief,

returned to the afliftance of thofe,

who were

in the plain.

This

battle

is

faid to
till

have been the mofl: conliderable the

Romans
numbers

then, been ingaged in, with regard to the of the combatants, the time it lafted, and the fudden

had,

turns of fortune

:

For

their

army

confifted of about twenty

thoufand foot, all inhabitants of Rome, the flower, and choice of their youth ; of twelve hundred horfe appointed to the four legions ; and of the fame number from their
colonies,

and
till

allies.

The
:

battle

began a

little
it

before noon,

and

lafted

fun

fet

and the fortune of

continued long

in fufpenfe

;

and, by inclining fometimes to this fide,

and

fometimes to that, difpenfed vidories, and defeats to both : One of the confuls was flain, with a legate, who had himfelf

been twice conful, and a greater number of other officers, tribunes, and centurions, than had, ever before, been killed
in

one adion.

the viftory, for nians decamped the

However, the Romans feemed to have had no other reafon, than becaufe the Tyrrhe-

former plundered

abandoned; and,
their

The next day, the following night. the camp, which the Tyrrhenians had having buried their dead, returned to
in

own; Where,

an afTembly of the

foldicrs,

they
diftri--

24

ROMAN
honors due

ANTIQUITIES OF

BooklX.

diflributed to thofe,
battle, the

who had

diftinguiflied themfelv^es in the to their valor. Firft, to Caefo Fabius,

the conful's brother,
exploits
;

next, to

who had performed great, and wonderful Sicinus, who had given occadon to the

recovery of their camp ; and, in the third place, to Marcus Flavoleius, the primipilus, on account both of the oath he had

fhewninthe midft of dangers. After this was done, they ffcaid a few days in the camp ; and, no enemy appearing to give them battle, they returned home. At Rome,
event, in

taken, and the bravery he had

being defirous to honour the furviving conful with a triumph, in confideration of the moft glorious
all

greateft battle they ever fought, had terminated, he himfelf refufed this honor, alledo-ing that it

which the

was neither pious, nor lawful for him to triumph, and wear a crown of laurel after the death of his brother, and the lofs
of
his collegue.

Having, therefore,
;

difcharged the foldiers

up the enfigns, he and, though two months yet relaid

mained to complete
as incapable

his

year,

he abdicated the

confuliliip,
:

of performing the fundlions of that magiftracy For he was ftill exceeding ill of a large wound, and obliged
to keep his bed.

XIV. Upon

this,

the fenate chofe

the eledion of magiftrates, and having afTemblcd the people in the plain, Caefo Fabius was created
conful for the third time, the fame

interreges to prefide at the fecond interrex

who had

been the

firft

man honoured
to the perfon,

for his bravery in the laft action,

and brother

who had

him, Titus Virginius.

abdicated that magiftracy ; and, with Thefe, having drawn lots for the

com-

BooklX".

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
of the armies, took the
field
:

25

Fabius marching the territories of the againft the Aequi, who, then, annoyed The former, Latines ; and Virginius againft the Veientes.
they heard that the army was preparing to invade them, prefently evacuated the enemy's country, and returned to their own cities ; after which, they fuffered their
territories to

command

when

be pillaged

:

So

that, the conful, as foon as

he

entered them, poffeffed himfelf of large fums of money, many flaves, and a great booty. But the Veientes ftaid, at firft, within their walls, till, finding a proper opportunity,

upon the enemy, as they were difperfed about the country, and employed in plundering: And, attacking them with a numerous army in good order, they, not only, took
they
fell

booty, but, alfo, killed, or put to flight all who durft oppofe them And, if Titus Sicinus, who was then

away

their

:

legate,

had not come up
in

to their relief with a

body of

footj

good order, and put a flop to the progrefs of the enemy, nothing could have hindered the army from But he giving them a check, the being, totally, deftroyed
and horfe
:

reft

of the troops, which had been difperfed, prefently got

together ; and, being now all in a body, they poflefled themfelves of an eminence when it was late in the evening, The Veientes, and continued there the following night.
elated with this
fuccefs,

ftood to their arms at the foot of

the eminence, and fent for the forces in the city, imagininor they had fhut up the Romans in a place, where they could and that they fhould, foon, force them get no provifions ;
to
deliver

up

their

arms.

Their numbers being

now
con-

Vol. IV.

E

26

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book IX.

formed two armies, and ported coniiderably encreafed, they them oppofite to the fides of the eminence, that feemed the weakeft ; and, againft the ftronger parts, they placed many
fmaller detachments

men.

The

So that, every place was full of armed other conful, being informed by the letters ot
:

his collegue, that the army, which was reduced to the laft extremity,

was fhut up on the hill, and in danger of being

and they were not relieved, decamped, marched againft the Veientes with all expedition ; and, if he had come but one day later, his arrival would have been
taken by famine
if

and he had found the army there, utterly, deftroyed For thofe, who were upon the hill, being oppreffed with the want of neceflaries, were come down, refolving to die
ineffectual,
:

in the moft

And, having ingaged the the greatefl part of them enemy, they were, then, fighting ; with hunger, thirft, want of fldfep, and every being oppreiled
glorious
:

manner

other

evil.

After a

fliort

time,

when

which was very numerous, was feen
battle, they

army of Fabius, coming up in order of
the

brought confidence to their own people, and terror to the enemy ; who, not thinking themfelves able to encounter a brave and frefh army, retired, and abandoned After the two armies of the Romans were their camps. formed a large camp in an advantageous place, joined, they of the Veientes; and, having continued there near the
city
feveral days,

and plundered the

beft

home. As foon as they returned the forces of the Romans were difbanded,
with fuch of their own youth,
as

part of their country, the Veientes heard that

they marched

were prepared for expedition,

and

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

27

and already aflembled, and That of their neighbours, which was then prefent, and made an incurfion into the plains, that lay contiguous to their own territories ; and thefe being
full

For and men, they plundered them the hufbandmen had come down from the places of ftrength, in order to get feed for their cattle, and till their lands,
of corn,
cattle,
:

depending upon the protection of their own army, which then lay encamped between them, and the enemy And, after this army was retired, they had made no hafte to re:

not expelling the Veientes, after fuch repeated defeats, would be fo foon in a condition to make an attempt, in their turn, againft the enemy. This
turn with their herds,
as

into the Roman territories was irruption of the Veientes indeed fliort, with refped: to the time it lafted ; but of the
in regard to the large tra6l of land greateft confequence,

they overrun

;

which gave the Romans an unufual concern

mixed with fliame, the enemy advancing as far as the river Tiber, and mount Janiculum, which is not even twenty And there v/ere no forces, then, on ftadia from Rome For the Veientes came foot to ftop their further progrefs
: :

Roman army could be got upon them before the
and divided into companies.

together,

XV. Upon
on againft
to keep an

this,

the confuls aflembled the fenate

;

and,'

after confldering in

what manner the war fhould be carried the Veientes, it was the opinion of the majority

army conftantly
:

afl'embled

upon the

frontiers,

which fhould guard the entrance into the Roman territories, and always continue in arms But the expence of maintaining

E

2

thefe

28
thefe

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book IX,

them

guards, which would be very coniiderable, made uneafy, the pubHc treafury being exhaufted by the

continual expeditions they had been ingaged in, and their And private fortunes wafted in furnifliing contributions
:

their uneafinefs

the manner,

encreafed by the confederation of in which the guards, propofed to be fent,
ftill
;

was

fhould be raifed

there being

little

probability that any

expofe themfelves in the defence of all, and, without being fucceeded by others, undertake a continual fatigue. While the fenate were anxiparticular perfons would, voluntarily,

ous on both

thefe accounts,

the

two

Fabii aftembled

all

thofe of their family ; and, having confulted with them, they promifed the fenate that they themfelves would, voluntarily,

danger in defence of all the citizens; and, with their clients and friends, and at their own excontinue in arms as long as the war lafted. All
this

undertake

pence,

admired their generous

zeal,

victory in this lingle adlion ; and offering ting their praife,
their fuccefs,

and placed their hopes of and the whole city celebrafacrifices

they took their

up vows, and arms, and went

for

out.

They

were commanded by Marcus Fabius, who had been conful the preceding year, and overcame the Tyrrhenians in the
lafl

adlion:

Their number confifted of about four thou-

fand,

the greateft part of whom were their clients, and friends ; and, of the Fabian family, three hundred and

fix perfons.

They were foon after followed by the Roman army under the command of Caefo Fabius, one of the
confuls.

BooklX.
confuls.

DIONYSIUS HALIC AR N A S S EN S I 9.
When
'-

29

Cremera, which they came near the river is not far from the city of the Veientes, they built a fortrefs upon a ftecp and craggy hill, of ftrength fufiicit-nt to be
defended by fo numerous a garrifon, furrounded it double ditch, and fortihed it with many towers
fortrefs

witii a
:

The

was called Cremera from the

river.

As many hands

were employed in this work, and the conful himfelf aflifled them, it was finiflied fooner than could have been expeded. After that, the conful marched out of the fortrefs with his of the army, and went to the oppofite fide of the
Veientes, that
lies

country next to the other part of Tyrrhenia, where the Veientes kept their herds, not expedling that a
v/ould ever penetrate into that country ; and, having poffeffed himfelf of a great booty, he caufed it to be him tranfported to the new ereded fortrefs ; which
great pleafure for both thefe reafons ; taken a fwift revenge on the ;

Roman army

the

booty gave firft, that he had

enemy

and the other, that he

fhould fupply the garrifon with every thing they wanted, in great abundance For he neither brought any part of the fpoils
:

to the treafury, nor divided any to the Ibldiers,

who

ferved

under him; but granted all the cattle, the beafts of burden, the yokes of oxen, the iron, and the other inftruments of hufbandry, to the guards of the

Roman territories.
called
"

After he had
the army.
-,

performed thefe things, he returned
KPiut^x. This river rifes out of the lake Baccanenfis, now called Baccano^ and falls into the Tiber on the
'-•

home with

la Farcm, or la Valca near the fouth fide of which ftood the fortrefs

about five

Roman

miles from

Tufcan or weft

fide.

This
"

river

is

now

Rome.
ii.

CIuver,Ital. Antiq. B.

p. 536.

The

30

ROMAN

ANTIQ,UITIES OF
:

Book IX.

The

Veientes found themfelves in great ftreights after this fortrefs was erecled to awe their country Since, from this

time, they could neither till their land with fecurity, nor For the Fabii receive any provijGions imported from abroad
:

had divided
left as

their

army

into four bodies

And, enemy's country whether the Veientes attacked them, openly, with a coniiderable force, which often happened, or endeavoured to
they,
:

a guard to the fortrefs ; continually, harraffed the

one of which they and, with the other three,
;

ambufh, the Fabii had the advantage in both; and, after killing many of them, retired in fafety toSo that, the enemy durft, no longer, encounter the fortrefs

draw them

into an

:

during the greateft part of the time, and only ventured out by
ftealth.

them; but continued fhut up within

their

walls

And thus ended that winter. XVI. The following year, Lucius Aemilius, and
being confuls, the

Caius

Servilius

Romans were informed

that the

and the Aequi had entered into an agreement to attack them at the fame time ; and that it would not be long before an irruption into their territories. This information they made
Volfci,

was true

For each of thefe people marched fooner than could have been expected into that part of the Roman territories, that contiguous to their own, and laid it wafte ; as thinking
:

lay
it

that the Romans would be able to fupport impofTible themfelves under the Tyrrhenian war, and to repulfe them. At the fame time, they received intelligence from others that
all

Tyrrhenia was upon the point of declaring war
Veientes

againfl:

them, and preparing to fend joint fuccours to the
:

BooklX.
Veientes
:

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A S SEN SI S.
For
thefe,

^i

finding themfclvcs unable to deftroy

the fortrefs by their own ftrength, hadiled to them,' putting them in mind of the relation, and frienddiip, that wasr

between them; and enumerating the many wars they had maintained with united forces. In confideration of all thefe
the war they defired they would ailift them in a^'^ainft the Romans, they being, by their fituation, as a barrier to all Tyrrhenia, and an obftacle to the torrent of the
thino-s,

war, which, in
their

its

courfe from

Rome, would overwhelm

Tyrrhenians, prevailed upon by thefe reafons, promifed to fend them as great a number of
auxiliaries, as
this,

whole country.

The

The fenate, being informed of they defired. And thefe refolved to lend three armies into the field
:

being foon levied, Lucius Aemilius was fent againft the who had lately abdicated the Tyrrhenians ; Caefo Fabius,
confulfhip, went with him, having obtained leave of the his brother fenate to join his relations at Cremera,

whom

had conduced to the fortrefs, of the fame dangers with them

as a garrifon,
;

and

to partake

the dignity of proconful, he fet Caius Servilius, the other conful, marched againft theVolfci: And Servius Furius, the proconful, againft the Aequi. They

and, being honoured with out with his dependents :

had each two
tines,

Roman

legions,

and the fame number of Laallies.

war, to which Servius the proconful was appointed, fucceeded according to his wifh, and was loon over For, in one battle, he totally
:

Hernici, and their other

The

defeated the Aequi, and that without any trouble, having terrified them at the firft onfet ; and they taking refuge in
their

32

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book IX.

their ftrong places,

he employed the reft of his time in But ScrviUus, one of the conlaying vvafte their country. with precipitation, and rafhfuls, having ingaged theVolfci in his expedation, the nefs, found himfelf much deceived

enemy making

many
and

a very ftout refiftance : So that, after loiing brave men, he was forced to refrain from fighting ;

refolved to continue in his
fkirmifhes,

camp, and

to

prolong the

war by

and ingagements of the

light

armed men.

Lucius Aemilius,

who had

been fent againft Tyrrhenia,

before their city, together finding the Veientes incamped with a great number of auxiliaries of the fame nation, he
refolved to fight without delay
after
;

he had formed

his

camp,

and, flaying but one day he led out his army to the

ingagement, and was received by the Veientes with great The battle continuing doubtful, Aemilius put refolution himfelf at the head of the horfe, and charged the rio;ht wino:

of the enemy

other wing ; allow it, and, where

and, having difordered them, he went to the fighting on horfeback, where the ground would
;

it

would

not,

on foot

:

Both the enemy's

wings being, now, broken, the center, no longer, ftood their but was forced by the Roman foot ; and, after that, ground, they all fled to their camp. Aemilius followed them clofe with his army in good order, and killed many of them.
by a fucceflion of frefli troops, and ftaid there all that day, and the following The day after, the enemy being fpent with labor, night. with wounds, and want of fleep, he made himfelf mafler of
it

When

he came to the camp, he attacked

their

camp

:

For the Tyrrhenians, when they faw the

Romans

BooklX.

DIONVSIUS H ALIC ARN ASSENS IS.
the palifades, left their camp, and fled, others to the neighbouring hills. That

33

Romans mount

fome

to the city, and conful ftaid in the enemy's

camp

:

And

day the the day after, he re-

warded thofe, who had

diftinguiflied themfelves in the adions, with magnificent prefents, and gave to the.foldiers all the beafts of burden, and flaves the enemy had left in the

camp,

together with the tents, in which of riches. By which means, the Roman
felves

there was a great quantity

army found them-

than from any former battle : For the Tyrrhenians were, even then, a luxurious and expen live people, both at home, and in the field, and carried
in greater opulence,

with them, befi.des neceflary things, implements ofplealure, and luxury of all kinds, curioufly wrought, and inriched.
days, the Veientes, now broken with their misfortunes, fent the moil ancient of their citizens, with the enfigns of fuppliants, to the conful to treat

XVII. The following

of a peace

:

Thefe,

lamenting, and

intreating, and,

with

urging every motive, that could move compaflion, prevailed on him to let them fend embafTadors to Rome, in order to treat with the fenate concerning peace ; and, in the mean time, and untill the embafTadors returned

many

tears,

with the

And,
the

injury to their country. to obtain thefe concefTions, they promifed to fupply

fenate' s anfwer, to

do no

Roman army
for fix, as

pay
after

two months, and with their the conqueror had commanded. The conful,
for

with corn

he had received the contributions agreed on, and divided them among his men, confented to the truce. The
fenate,

having heard the embafTadors, and received the Vol. IV. F

letters

of

34

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book IX.

of the conful, in which he earneftly defired, and recommended to them to put an end to the war with the Tyrrhenians as foon as pofllble, came to a refohition to grant them peace, as the enemy had defired ; and that Lucius

AemiHus, the
in fuch a

conful,
as

fhould

fettle

the terms of that peace
fit.

manner,

he fhould think

The

conful, having

received this anfwer, concluded a peace with the Veientes, with greater lenity to the conquered, than advantage to the

conquerors
their

For he neither took from them any part of country, nor impofed any further contributions on
:

them, nor compelled them to give hoftages, as a fecurity for This proceeding exthe performance of their agreement.
pofed him to great cenfure, and was the occafion of his not receiving from the fenate the reward due to his fuccefs
:

For,

when he requefted the triumph, they oppofed it, and to him the arrogance he had been objected guilty of in
laft

making the

treaty,
:

which he had concluded without
left

their concurrence

But,

he fhould think

this

oppofition

proceeded from anger, or contumely, they ordered him to

march with

his

army

againft the Volfci to the aftiftance of

his collegue, giving him, by that he fucceeded in that war (for he

means, an opportunity, if was a very brave man) of

extinguifhing their refentment for his former errors.

But

Aemilius, exafperatcd at this difgrace, inveighed, violently, againft the fsnate in the aftembly of the people, accufing them of being difpleafed that the war againft the Tyrrhenians

was ended

;

and

this,

he

faid,

proceeded from their contempt
left,

of the poor, and from an infidious defign againft them,

when

Book IX.

DIONYSIUS

II

AL IC A RN A S S EN S IS,
they
flioiild

35
the

when

freed

from foreign wars,

demand

the diviiion of the performance of their promifes concerning lands, with which they had been amufed by them for fo

After he had gratified his ungovernable refentment by laying himfelf out in thefe, and the like rethe patricians, he, not only, difbanded the proaches againft army he himfelf had commanded, but fent for the forces,

many

years.

that lay

Aequi under the command of Furius, the proconful, and difmiHed them likeincamped
wife
:

in the territories of the

By which, he adminiftred

a

frefli

occaiion to the

tribunes to accufe the fenate in the aflemblies of the people, and to fow diflenfion between the poor, and the rich.

XVIII. Thefe confuls were fucceeded by Caius Horatius, and Titus Menenius, in the feventy fixth Olympiad, at which Scamander of Mitylene won the prize of the ftadium,

Phaedon being archon at Athens. Thefe were, at firft, hindered from performing the fundions of their magiftracy the people being exafperated, and not by a popular tumult, affair to be tranfa6led, till there was a fuffering any public
diftribution

the public lands. But, afterwards, thefe commotions, and difturbances gave way to neceflity, and
:

made of

the people came in, voluntarily, to be inrolled eleven nations of the Tyrrhenians, Vv'hich had

For the
not been

comprifed in the peace, holding a general affembly, accufed the Veientes for having put an end to the war with the Romans without the general confent of the nation, and defired they

would do one of

thefe

two
2

things, either cancel

the agreement they had

made with

the

F

Romans, or make war

36

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
againft the Tyrrhenians in

OF

Book IX.

war

conjundion with the former.

On

the other fide,

the Veientes transferred the accufation

they might one of the aflembly fugUpon this expedient to them, which was, to gefted complain of the ereding thefortrefs of Cremera to annoy them, and that

neceflity they had been under to make peace, defired the affembly to confider by what means

upon the
break
it

and

with decency.

this,

the

not withdrawn the garrifon from thence Then, to perfuade them to evacuate the place ; and, if they
:

Romans had

refufed, to beiiege

it,

and make that enterprife the beginning
fettled,

of the war. Thefe points being

they left the aflembly ; and, not long after, the Veientes fent embafTadors to the Fabii to demand the fortrefs ; and all Tyrrhenia was in

being informed of thefe things by the Fabii, refolved that both the confuls fhould take the ueld ;
arms.

The Romans,

was coming upon them from Tyrrhenia; and the other to profecute That, which was, already, begun with the Volfci. Horatius, therefore,
one to
in the war, that

command

marched

number
:

againft the Volfci with two legions, and a fufficient of their allies : And Menenius was preparing to

inarch againft the Tyrrhenians with the fame number of forces But, while he was making his preparations, and
loftng time, the fortrefs of Cremera was taken, and the There are two accounts family of the Fabii deftroyed.

concerning the misfortune, that
lefs

befell

probable

;

the other,
both, as
I

coming

thefe perfons one, nearer to the truth : I
:

fhall

dvethcm

have received them.

XIX.

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS H AL ICARNA SSENSIS.

37

XIX. Some
mary
of the
fortrcfs,

fay that, at the time appointed for a cufloficrifice peculiar to the Fabian family, they went out

attended with a few clients, to perform this facrihce; and advanced without ordering the roads to be

marching in a regular manner under their eniigns, but negligently, and unguarded, as in time of peace, and as
viiited, or

they were going through the territories of their allies : And that the Tyrrhenians, being previoufly informed of their delign to go out of the fortrels, placed one part of their army in ambufli upon the road, and followed them,
if

foon
Fabii

after,

with the other in good order

-,

and,

when the

near the ambufli, the Tyrrhenians, who were placed there, difcovered themfelves, and attacked them, fome in front, and others in flank ; and, not after, the

came

long

reft

of the Tyrrhenian army

pafling

them on
ftones,

all fides,

fhower of
all

; and, incomupon they overwhelmed them with a arrows, darts, and javelins, and put them

fell

their rear

to death.
it

This account appears to

me

the leaft probable

:

cannot either be fuppofed that fo many perfons adually would have ventured to return from the upon duty, camp to the city on account ofa facrifice without leave from the fenate,

For

when this facriflce might have been performed even by
of the fame family,

others

advanced in years ; or, if they were allatCremera, and no part of the Fabian family left at home, was it probable that all, who garrifoned the
fortrefs,

who were more

fhould abandon

turned to

them had reRome, they would have been enow to perform
it ;

fince, if three, or

four of

the facriiice for the

whole

family

:

For thefe

reafons,

there-

38

ROMAN
to

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book IX.

therefore,
dible.

me

this

account does not feem to be cre-

XX. The other,
nearer to the truth,

of the Fabii, relating to the deftruftion
fortrefs,

and the taking of the
is

which, in

my

opinion,

comes

this

:

As they went

to pillage the country, and advanced ftill fuccefs encouraged them, the Tyrrhenians aflembled

out, frequently, further as their

a

numerous army, and incamped in the neighbourhood, unthe enemy Then, fending out of their ftrong perceived by flocks of fheep, herds of oxen, and fluds of mares, places,
:

they allured them with thefe : Upon which, the garrifon, coming out, fcizedthe herdfmen, and drove away the cattle. The Tyrrhenians doing this
in appearance to pafture,
often,
after

and drawing the enemy ftill further from their camp, they had cxtinguifhed in them all regard to their

fecurity

by inticing them with a conftant booty, they, in the ambufcades in proper places, and others night, placed poffefted themfelves

of the eminences, that commanded the And, the next day, fending fome armed men, as plains. if defigned for a guard to the herdfmen, they drove out a
great Fabii

number of herds from
had

their fortrefles.

As foon

as the

intelligence that, if they paffed over the neio-h-

bouring hills, which they might foon do, they would find the plain covered with cattle of all forts, and no fufficient to defend them, they went out of the fortrefs, guard leaving therein a competent garrifon And, marching with ij^eed, and alacrity, they foon came to the place, and
;

themfelves before the guards of the cattle in

prefented good order :

Thefe

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS H A L IC A R N A SS EN SI S.
ftaid to

39

Thefe never

be attacked, but fled immediately.

And

the Fabii thinking themfelves now fecure, made the and Cvirried off the cattle. In the mean herdfmen
prifoners,

time, the Tyrrhenians, riflng

up from their ambufcades, and fell upon them on all fldes. appeared in many places, The greateft part of the Romans, being difperfed, and unable to
tlioie
aflift

who
J

But one another, were killed upon the fpot were in a body, endeavoured to gain fome fecure
:

and, haftening to the hills, fell into another ambufHere a cade, that lay concealed in the woods, and vallies. was fought, and great was the flaughter on both fharp battle fides However, the Romans beat thefe alfo; and,
place
:

having with dead bodies, ran up to the top of a hill filled the valley not eafy to be taken ; where they palTed the night in want

of every thing.

XXI. The day

after, thofe,

who had

been

left

to guard

the fortrefs, being informed of the misfortune of their comthat the greateft part of the army had been depanions, in their purfuit of plunder, and that the braveft of ftroyed them were befieged, and fhut up .on a defert mountain, and, if not prefently relieved, would foon be taken throup^h the

went out in all hafte, leaving proviiions, very of their men to guard the fortrefs. Thefe the Tyrrhenians, want of
fallying

kw

out from their ftrong places, intercepted before they could join their companions ; and, furrounding them, they,

at laft,

put them

all

to death,

after
after,

they had performed
thofe alfo,

many

brave adlions.

Not long
hill,

who had
hunger?

poffelTed

themfelves of the

being opprefled both with

40

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
thirft,

OF
enemy
:

BooklX.

hunger, and

refolved to charge the

And

a

few ingaging with many, they continued fighting from morning to night, and made fo great a {laughter of the enemy, that the heaps of dead bodies, difperfed in many
were a hindrance to them in fighting. By this time, the Tyrrhenians had loft above a third part of their army ;
places,

and, fearing to lofe the reft, gave the fignal for a fhort ceffation of arms ; and, fending heralds to the Romans, offered

them
lay

their lives,

and a

free pafiage to

Rome,

if

they would
:

down

their arms,

and evacuate the

fortrefs

But they

refufing thefe conditions, and chufing a glorious death, the Tyrrhenians renewed the fight by turns, and no longer ciofed with them, but aflailed them with a (hower of javelins, and
ftones at a diftance,

which

fell

upon them

as thick as hail

:

The Romans, forming deep files, rufhed upon the enemy, who did not ftand their ground, while the others fupported
themfelves under the
tliofe,

who

they had received from ftood round them. When feveral of their fvvords
ufelefs,

many wounds

fome being blunted, and others broken, the borders of their fliields hacked in pieces, and they themfelves for the moft part bloodlefs, and overwhelmed with
were become
mifiive weapons, and their limbs relaxed through a multitude of wounds, the Tyrrhenians defpifed them, and came to clofe

them like wild beafts, grafped their fpears, and broke them ; and, of their fwords, wrenched them out laying hold on the edge
fight.

And

the

Romans, running

turiouily at

of their hands

;

then,

them

to the ground,

twining round their bodies, threw and fell with them, thus continuing
the

BooklX.
the
figlit

DIONYSIUS ITALIC ARNASSENS IS.

41

with greater rage, than flrength: So that, the enemy, aftonifhed at their perfeverance, and terrified at the

no longer, fury they had borowed from defpair, ventured, to fight with them hand to hand; but, retiring again, they all at once threw at them, flicks, ftones, and every thing
elfe

they could meet Vv'ith ; and, at laft, overwhelmed them After they had with the multitude of mifiive weapons.

put them to death, they ran to the fortrefs, carrying with them the heads of the moft confiderable perfons, and not

doubting but they fhould
their firft appearance
;

the garrifon prifbners at however, this attempt did not fuc-

make

ceed according to their expedlation: For the men, who had been left there, emulating the glorious death of their
friends,

and

relations,

came out of the

fortrefs,

few
all

in

number ; and,

put to death,

after fighting a confiderable time, in the fame manner as the others :

though very were

And,

when

man
in

the Tyrrhenians took the place, they did not find a in it. This account appears to me much more credible
:

than the former

However, both of them are

to be

found

of good authority. XXII. But there is a circumftance added by fome to this '^ neither true, nor relation, which, though probable, but
hiftories

Roman

formed by the vulgar from fome report,
13-

I

have not thought

by
is

a note in

Ovii «AuOs? ov,is1i^tixvov. I find M. * * *, that ° Perifonius
different

of a

opinion from our
:

au'.hor in this refpect

As

I

neither

him; andHiall only add, that it is a very dangerous thing for modern writers, with fewer materials, and lefs parts, to contradid ancient authors of
to

have, nor can get
in the country,

a fight of, Perifonius I muft refer the reader

acknowledged authority,
Hift. c. 5.

Animad.

Vol. IV.

G

proper

42

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
:

OF
For
it is

Book IX.
faid

proper to pafs by without examination

by

fome

that,

after the three

hundred and

fix

Fabii were

flain,

there was only one young fon left of the whole family : Which is a thing, not only, improbable, but, even, impofiible
;

fince

of Rome

not poflible that all the Fabii, who went out to the fortrefs, fhould have been all childlefs, and unit is

married

For there was an old law among the Romans, that obliged all of a proper age, both to marry, and to bring up And the Fabii would not have been the all their children
: :

only perfons to violate a law, which had been obferved by their anceftors to their time. But, if any one would allow

even That, yet he could never grant this alfo, that none of them had any brothers, who were then children. Thefe
things

refemble fables, and theatrical fidions. Befides, would not as many of their fathers as v/ere ftill of an age

to beget children, after fo great a defolation of their family, both wilHngly,and unwillingly, have begotten other children,
to the end that neither the

of their anceftors might be abandoned, nor fo great a reputation of the family extinguifhcd ? '^But, if none even of their fathers were left,
flicriiices

and the whole family was included in thofe three hundred and fix perfons, yet is it impolTible that none of thefe fhould
have
Hthe
this,

left either
yJi

infants behind
3ira7;fsj

them, wives with child, or
it is

El

//.(v

oioa.

ayluv

Tiriv

that
fli

tXeiTTo^'ia-

furprifed that none of trandators fivv the abfurdity of
I
;

am

)uld

have

impoiTible none of the Fabii left either infant children,

reafoning not corrupted, which I much hifp;dl. Our author firft fuppofes that none of and tlicn fays t'.icir fathers were kfc,

th:it is,

if

the text

is

Thefe

wives with child, brothers, or fathers: lift words, therefore, I have omitted in the tranflation. Le Jay has left them out in both places,

brothers

Book IX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
young
to bear arms.

43

brotlicrs too

When,

therefore, I confider

this
it

circumilance in the light 1 have mentioned, I do not think true: But this I tliink true; that, of the three brothers,

Caefo, Marcus, and Quintus, who had been confuls fevTn a fon, who was then an years fucceffively, Marcus alone left
infant
;

and nothing hinders
faid to

this

who

is

have been

left

fon from being the fame, of the Fabian family : And,
to be a

becaufe this fon, v/hen he

came

man, was the only

famous, and illuftrious perfon of thofe who furvived, the generality of mankind entertained this opinion that he was the only one left of the Fabian family ; not, that no other

was

left,

but none like the Fabii

relation to that family by virtue, enough of thefe things.

and they judged of their not birth. But I have faid
;

XXIII. After the Tyrrhenians had put thefe men to death, and made themfelv'es mafters of the fortrefs of Cremera, they marched againfl the other army of the Romans:
For Menenius, one of the confuls, lay incamped not
in an infecure poil:
far off

and

their clients

And, when the family of the Fabii, were cut off, he was only thirty ftadia from
:

the place,

where that misfortune happened

Which gave

many

people reafon to believe that, though acquainted with the diftrefs of the Fabii, he had taken no care of them, from
the envy he bore to their virtue, and
reafon,

when he

For glory. was, afterwards, brought to his trial
lofs

which

tribunes, this

was the chief caufe of his

by the condemnation For
:

the

Roman

people greatly lamented the
fevere

of fo

many

brave

men; and were

and inexorable

to all,

whom they
fuipecled

G

2

44
the day,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book IX.

their calamity. They look upon fufpeded to have occafioned

on which that defeat happened, as black and inand will begin no good work on that day, aufpicious;

When the efteeming the misfortune of it as ominous. advanced near the Romans, and obferved the Tyrrhenians Htuation of their camp, which lay under the fide of a hill,
the inexperience of their general, and willingly they defpifed laid hold on the advantage prefented to them by Fortune They, prefently, marched up the oppofite fide of the hill
:

with

their horfe,

and gained the fummit without oppofition.

Then, having poffefied themfelves of the eminence, that commanded the camp of the Romans, they ftood to their arms, Cqcured the afcent of the reft of their army, and formed their own
with high palifades, and a deep ditch. If, therefore, Menenius, after he was fenfible of the advantage he had given the enemy, had corre6ted his error,
fortified

camp, which they

army to a more fecure poft, he had adled to be thought to have erred, wifely ; but, being afhamed and continuing obftinate to all, who advifed him to alter his meafures, he drew upon himfelf a misfortune, that defervedly covered him with ignominy For, as the enemy were, conand removed
his
:

ftantly,

fending out detachments from thofe places, that commanded the camp of the Romans, they had great adthe convoys, which the merchants vantages in furprifing

were bringing thither, and in attacking their men, as they went out foi' forage, or v/ater And, at laft, the conful had it not in his power to chufe cither the time, or place of combat J which feems to be a great argument of the
:

in-

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S SENS I S.

45

incapacity of a general : Whereas, the Tyrrhenians had the command of both. And, even then, Menenius would not

army to remove from thence ; but, leading out his men, he drew them up with a defign to fight, in contempt The Tyrrheof all who fuggefted advantageous counfels.
fuffer the

nians, looking
pinefs,

upon the folly of this general as a came down from their camp, being double
enemy.

great hapin

number

they ingaged, there was a great (laughter of the Romans, who were unable to keep their For the Tyrrhenians forced them out of the line, ranks
to the
:

When

not only, the advantage of the ground, but, That of being puflied forward with violence by thofe,
as having,

alfo.

who

ftood behind

them

;

for their

army was drawn up with a

The moft confiderable, therefore, of the cengreat depth. turions being flain, the reft of the Roman army gave way,
camp The others purfued them, took their made themfelves mafters both of their wounded, enfigns, and and dead Then, fhutting them up in their camp, they
and
fled to the
: :

befiegedthem there ; and, continuing the attack of it all the reft of the day, and even the following night, they poflefled
themfelves of the camp, which the Romans had abandoned, and took many prifoners, and a great quantity ot effeds ;

For thofe who fled, had not been able to carry ofl" any thing, but were glad to fave themfelves, many not keeping
even their arms.
they heard at Rome that their army was the camp taken (for the firPc, who had faved dedroyed, and themfelves in the general defeat, arrived there while it was
yet

XXIV. When

46

ROMAN
:

ANTIQ_UITIES OF

Eock IX

as may well be imayet night) they were greatly alarmed, And, expeding the enemy every moment at their gined took arms; and fome lined the walls; others gates, they before the gates, and others took pofleffion pofted themfelves The inhabitants ran in diforder of the eminences in the city
:

through every ftreet, and a confufed cry was heard The tops of the houfes were covered with the people of every family,
:

prepared

to

defend themfelv^es,

The

fires

they

made were

fo clofe

and annoy the enemy to one another, it being
:

in the night, and dark, and fuch a number of torches were lighted in the rooms, and on the tops of the houfes, that, at

a diftance, it feemed one continued blaze, and had the apAnd, if the Tyrrhenians, at pearance of a town on fire.
that time, had defpifed the booty they found in the camp, and followed the Romans clofe when they fled, the whole

army, which had been fent againfl: them, v\'ould have been cut off But, inftead of that, they fell to plunder the
:

camp
their

of every thing, which had been
refl:

left

there,

and took

great

By which, they deprived themfelves of the glory of a adion. The next day, they marched towards Rome ;

and,

when they were about
of a
hill
:

fixteen ftadia
called

from

it,

they pof-

Janiculum, from whence the city may be feen And, fending detachments from thence, they harrafled the territories of the Romans without
controll,

feffed themfelves

holding them in great contempt, till the other conful Horatius appeared with the army, which had been
againfl;

employed

the Volfci.
;

Then

the

Romans thought
city,

themfelves fecure

and, arming the youth that was. in the

BooklX.
city,

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A SS EN S I S.
:

47

And, having, in the firft battle, they took the field which was foiio-ht at the diflance of eisht lladia from the

city

near the temple of Hope, overcome the enemy, and beaten them out of the field ; and, after that, fought them again near the gate called Collina, the Tyrrhenian army

being more numerous than the former, and behaved themfelves with great bravery, they recovered from their fear. And thus ended this fammer. .
following year, the confuls, Spurius Servilius, and Aulus Virginius, both men of experience in war, entered
'^ the month of upon their magiftracy in June, about the fummer folftice: To whom the Tyrrhenian war, however

XXV. The

confiderable and difficult, appeared advantageous
's* Ylect

in corn-

TiAia wi;vcf

.

Taf ^SPivdf y.xKi^x r^a-jra,; 2e^So this fentence ftands in all

the editions, andmanufcripts; but this cannot, pofTibly, be the true reading, becaufe all the world knows that the

conceit imaginable. He has, nrffc, rendered it, vers les jours ks plus chaux de Vefie an mois d'Aoufi ; and then fupports this tranflation by the following
is fo curious, that I afraid of disfiguring fome beauty in ir, it I give it in any words but his

reafoning, which

fummer
firft

Iblftice

falls

on the twenty

am

Sextilis,

of June, and not in the month Auguft. Sylburgius, in his note upon this palhige, which both the French tranflators have rendered in their language, without mentioning his name, thinks we ought to read
writing for our author rather than correfting an error in
this is

own ;

pent encore favor ifer I'interpretaticn que je donne a cepaffage^ eft l^edverbe fjiix.Ai<;oi, joint a
(['d

Ct'

I'adjeifif^i^Diu^^ qui ne pent figmfier autre cbofe que tres-

,

chaux,

ce qui

convient farfaitement
les

au.

fj-y^oi:

But

pendant lequel grandes chaknrs je font fentlr.
fyftcme que je
le

mois d'Aoiift,

plus
le

Dans

his tranfcribers.

I

would, therefore,

violent alteration in the and read i^vi^, inftead of (teI-,?./!?, text, and the difnculty is-folved. Le
lets

make

faut entendre terms Grec t^o^ij, non pas de la conicy il

pr ends

a

verjion

Septentrion,

annuelk du foleil, du Midy an et du Septcnirion aa Midy,

Jay

has explained, or endeavoured to explain,
this

mais la converfion jciirnaliere de I'Orient a COccidcnty et de I'Occident a I'Orienl.

pailage by

the

pretticft

par ifon

48

ROMAN

ANTIQ^UITIES OF

BooklX.

parifon of the civil diforders: For the land having been iinfown the former winter, by reafon of the camp, which

the

enemy had formed upon

the neighbouring

hill,

and the
the

continual excurfions they had

made from thence ; and

merchants, no longer, importing any proviiions from abroad, a great fcarcity of corn was felt at Rome, which was then
not only, of the conftant inhabitants, but, alfo, of fuch, For the number as had retired thither from the country
full,
:

of the citizens,

who were men grown, amounted

to abo\'c

one hundred and ten thoufand, as appeared by the laR cenfus ; and the women, children, domeftics, the foreign merchants and artificers, did not amount to lefs than treble
the the

number of the

Romans

not being lawful for any of either to follow the bufinefs of a merchant, or
citizens
;

it

to exercife the trade of an

artificer.

To

this

multitude

it

was not
at this

were exafperated misfortune, and gathering together in the forum,
eafy to adminifter comfort, as they

clamouring againft the magistrates, running in a body to the houfes of the rich, and endeavouring to feize the provifions, In the that were laid up there, without paying for them.
the tribunes aflembled the people; and, by accufing the patricians of contriving always fome mifchief acrainft the poor, and calling them the authors of all the

mean

time,

which had ever happened according to the courfe of fortune, whofe attacks human prudence can neither forefee,
evils,

nor guard againft, they infpired them with infolence, and The confuls, opprefted with thefe evils, fent refentment.

with large fums of proper perfons

money

to the neighbouring
parts

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASS EN S I S.
ordered
all

49

corn ; and, having parts to purchafe had laid up more than was fufficient for the
fiftance of their families, to

thofe,

who

moderate fub-

a reafonable price on

it.

produce their corn, they fixed By thefe, and many other the like

diforders of the poor, and expedients, they put a flop to the had leifure to return to the preparations for the war. XXVI, In the mean time, the provifions they expefted

from abroad being delayed, and thofe of every fort in the and there being no other means of averting city confumed, thefe evils, but to chufe one of thefe two things, either to
hazard an ingagement with all their forces, in order to drive the enemy out of their country ; or, by fhutting themfelves

up within

their walls, to perifh

they chofe the leaft

both by famine, and fedition ; of thefe evils, and refolved to meet

That, which arofe from the enemy. Marching, therefore, the city with their forces, they pafled the river about out of

midnight on

rafts

j

and, before

near the enemy.

The
their

was broad day, incamped day after, they came out of their
it

army in order of battle ; Virginias commanding the right wing, and Scrvilius the left. The Tyrrhenians, feeing them prepared for the ingagement, from an expeftation that, if this battle greatly rejoiced,
ibcceeded to their
empire, as they
wifli,

camp, and drew up

knew

they fhould fubvert the Roman that all the beft of their forces were

to ingage upon this occafion, and entertained hopes (in which there was great prefumption) of defeating them with eafe, fince they had overcome the troops of Menenius, when
thefe fought

upon a difadvantageous ground.

The

armies,
there-

Vol. IV.

H

50

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
many

Book IX.

therefore, ingaging, a fharp and long battle infued, and the of the Romans, and Tyrrhenians, after having killed

many more of their own men, retreated leifu rely to their camp. Upon this, Virginius, who commanded the right wing, would not fuffer his men to purfue the enemy ; but
loft

contented

himfelf with
Servilius,

the

advantag;e

he had rained

:

However,

who commanded
fide,

fued thofe on his

the other wing, and followed them a great

pur-

way

:

When
about
;

he came to the
and,

rifing

ground, the Tyrrhenians faced
the camp, they turned refiftance,

being affifted by thofe in

charged the Romans: Thefe, after a fliort their backs ; and, being purfued down the hill, and difWhen Virginius was perling themfelves, many were flain.

informed of the condition of the
all his forces in

left

order of battle

;

wing, he advanced with and, wheeling to the left,
:

marched along the lide of the hill Then, being in the rear of thofe, who were purfuing the Romans, he left a part of his forces there, to prevent any relief from the camp, and
himfelf attacked the
time,

enemy with

the

reft.

In the

mean

the troops under Servilius, encouraged by the arrival of their companions, faced about, and, ftanding their ground,
ingaged.

Tyrrhenians, being thus furrounded by both, and unable either to advance, by reafon of thofe who at-

The

tacked them in front, or to retire to their camp, by reafon of thofe who charged them in the rear, fought with greater
bravery than fuccefs, and were almoft all cut in pieces. As the the Romans had obtained, was a melanclioly vidlory, which
the battle not altogether fortunate, vidory, and the event of the

Book IX,
the confuls
paffed

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENS IS.
In the

5!

incamped before the dead bodies, and there

the following night.

mean

time,

the

Tyr-

rhenians,

who were

coming abandon the to

fuccours

in poffeflion of the hill Janiculum, no to them from their own country, refolved
fortrefs
;

and, decamping in the night, marched to the city of the Veientes, v/hich was the neareft Tyrrhenian city. The Romans having poflefled themfelves

of their camp, took all the baggage, which the others could nbt carry away with them in their flight, and, alfo, many

had been leftin the tents, For thefe and others lay fcattered all over the road underwent the fatigue of this march from a deflre of returning to their country, and fupported it beyond their
:

of their wounded, fome of

whom

ftrength in following their companions; afterwards, when their limbs failed them, they dropped down half dead :

Thefe, the Roman horfe, advancing a good way upon the And no enemy appearing after this, the road, took up. rafed the fortrefs, and entered the city with the fpoils,

army

carrying in the action

with them the bodies of thofe, who had been flain a flght that drew tears from all the citizens, ;

on account both of the number, and valor of the dead. So that, the people did not think proper either to rejoice, as for a vidory, or to mourn, as for a great, and irreparable

The fenate ordered the cuftomary facrifices to calamity. be ofFered to the gods, but refufed the honor of a triumph few days after, the city was fupplied with to the confuls. a plenty of all forts of provifions ; fome of which were fent

A

by the embafTadors employed

for that

H

purpofe by the public,

2

and

52

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book IX.

and

others imported in great quantity by thofe, who ufed So that, all the citizens enjoyed the to carry on this trade. fame abundance as before.

foreign wars being now ended, the civil diffenfion was renewed by the tribunes, who were, at this

XXVII. The

Howtime, railing frefh difturbances among the people. ever, the patricians, by oppoling every ftep they took, deexcept That, which related to the trial of Menenius, the late conful, which, notwithftandit was not in their power to preing all their; endeavours, '^ So that, he was brought to his trial by vent Quintus
feated
all

their meafures,

:

Confidius, and Titus Genucius,

and, to give an account of his condu6l, as being called upon o-eneral in the preceding war, the event of which had been
;

two of the

tribunes

neither

fortunate,

nor

honourable

;

and,

particularly,

occafioned the deftrudlion of the charged with having Fabii, and the lofs of Cremera, he was condemned by the
in their tribes, people ; who paffed judgement upon a great majority of which voted againft him, though he was the fon of Agrippa Menenius, who brought home

him

the people after their fecelTion, and reconciled them with whom the fenate, after his death, honoured the
patricians,

with a moft magnificent funeral at the expence of the and for whom the Roman matrons mourned a public,
i6'

KcviriJix.

rLivy

calls this tribune

Quintilian

flimily,

Kt>.v7(?i«f,

which

Q^ Confidius. This reading Sigoniu.s in his note upon this paflageof Livy,
fupports

with

this

reafon,

that

the
rB.
ii.

were patricians, and, conlcquently, incapable of being chofen tribunes of the people.
in

Hands

the

Greek

text,

c.

jz.

\\hoIc

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

53.

and gold. However, year, laying afide their purple, but only impofed a they did not condemn him* to death, was to be formed of it fine on him, which, if a

whole

judgement

that prevails at this time, would appear ridiculous; but, to the men of that age, who worked with their own hands, and aimed at no more than the neliving,

by the manner of

of life, particularly to Menenius, who had inherited poverty from his father, it was a large, and heavy fine, as '^ two thoufand ajfes ; the as was a brafs it amounted to
ceflaries

So that, the whole fine amounted coin weighing a pound '^ And this appeared fixteen talents of brafs in weight. to invidious to the men of thofe days ; who, in order to redrefs it,
:

changing them to payments in fheep, and oxen, and limited, even, the number of thefe in all future fines to be impofed upon private men by the
abolifhed
all

pecuniary

fines,

magifirates.
patricians

From

this

condemnation of Menenius, the

people,
'7-

took a frefh occafion of refentraent againft the and would neither fuffer the divifion of the lands to
The Roman
a
brafs coin
has, accorduig to his cuftom, trandated without acknowledging his Cafaubon fhews» obligation to him. from Hefychius and Suidas, that the talent, confidered as a weight, weighed

as,

A/^i^iwD oiiTffai^im. at this time, was

M.

***

^ weighing a pound. And Livy, like our author, in fpeaking of the fine impofed on Menenius, fays it amounted to two thoufand afTes, or pounds of brnfs duo millia aeris damnato Arbuthnot makes }>!ul£iam edixerioit. the as to amount to no more tlian three farthings and one tenth of our money; confequently, two thoufand alies will make no more than 6/. 95. 2i. '8- Ta^«v7wv Iw.xiSiKx. Cafaubon lias a note upon this pallage, which
•,

125 pounds: So that, if 2000 be di^ vided by 125, the quotient will be 16. However, it muft be confidered that
only of This pound, Arbuthnot fays, weighed no more than ten ounces, eighteen penny weight, and thirteen grains, five fevenths,Ti-oy
confifl:ed

the

Roman pound

12 Avoirdupois ounces.

weight.
ii.

•.B.

c.

5a.

proceed^

54
proceed,

ROMAN ANTiaUITIES OF
nor

BooklX.
their

make any

other

conceflion

in

favor.

was not long before the people themfelves repented of their having condemned him, when they were informed of his death For, from that time, he neither came into comit
:

And

And, when he had pany, nor was feen in any public place. it in his power, by paying his fine, not to be excluded from
of his friends were willing any public employments (tor many to pay it) he would not accept their offer, but changed his fine into a capital punifhment ; and, ftaying at home, and admitting no one, died through dejed:ion, and abftinence.

Thefe were the

tranfadlions of this year.

XXVIII. Pubiius

Valerius Poplicola, and Caius Nautius

being confuls, Spurius Servilius, another patrician, who had been conful the former year, was tried for his life, not long The perfons, who after the expiration of his magiftracy.
cited

him

Caedicius,
called

the people, were Lucius and Titus Statins, two of the tribunes, who
to
his trial before

to give an account, not of any crime, but of fortune ; becaufe, in the battle againft the Tyrrhenians, he had pufhed on to the enemy's camp vt^ith greater refoall iution, than prudence ; and, being purfued at once

upon him

by

who were in the camp, he had loft the The patricians looked upon this trial,
of all others:

flower of the youth. as the moft grievous

frequent meetings, in which they their refentment ; and faid exprefled they had every thinoto fear, if generals, who adled with refolution, and declined

They had

Fortune had oppofed their defigns, of cowardice, and backwardnefs by thofe, who had

no danger, were

to be accufed, becaufe

BooklX.
liad

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A

S S

E

NS

I

S.

s^

not been prefent at the battle : That, if their generals were retrained from inventing new ftrategems, their hberty of ading would be taken away, and their power fubvcrted :

And
great

that trials of this kind would, infallibly, produce thefe

mifchiets.

the fame time, they exhorted the people, with earneftnefs, not to condemn the man; telling them,

At

do great prejudice to the commonwealth, if they would When they puniflied their generals for being unfortunate.
the day appointed for the trial was come, Lucius Caedicius, one of the tribunes, appeared, and accufed Servilius of having, through his folly, and inexperience in the duty of a general, led his forces to manifeft deftrudion, and lofi: the beft, and choiceft troops belonging to the commonwealth ; and, if his collegue had not, prefently, been informed of the

misfortune, and, by coming up with his forces in all hafle, the enemy, and faved the other ftopped the progrefs of

army,

nothing could have hindered them from being

all

cut in pieces, and the commonwealth from lofing half the number of her citizens Having faid this, he produced as
:

witneffes all the centurions,

who had
flight,

efcaped

;

and fome of

the foldiers,
arifing

who,

in order to obliterate their

own ignominy,
:

were willing to attribute the unfortunate event of the adlion to their general Then, from that
defeat,

and

having raifed great compaffion for the calamity of thofe,

who

had loft their lives upon that occaflon, exaggerated the defeat, which the commonwealth had received, and, with great of the patricians, ir^fifted upon every contempt thing dky order to envy, was fure to which, by expofing their whole
dif-

56

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
all,

OF

Book IX.

difcoiirage
lie

who

lliould pretend to intercede for the

man,

gave him an opportunity of making his defence. XXIX. This being granted, Servilius faid : " If you have
called

"
*'

me

to a

trial, citizens,

and

delire

an account of
I

my

condudl in the

" make my defence
**

"
*'
*'

ready to But, if to a punifliment already dctermined, and no advantage is to accrue to me in convincingyou that I am guilty of no crime, take my perfon,
:

command

of the army,

am

and
it is

treat

it

in the

manner you have long

refolved

:

Since

better for

me

to die without a trial, than after I have

*'

made my
For
fhall
I

defence, and not perfuadcd you of my innocence: fhall then feem to fufFer, defervedly, whatever you
:

"
*'

have determined againft me And you yourfelvcs will be more excufable in not fuffering me to make my defence, and indulging your paflion, while it is yet uncertain

"
*'

whether

I

have oftended you in any thing.

Your

difpofition,

judge whether you have called me to a " or a trial." Having faid that, he flopped. puniOiment, This being followed by a general filence, and, prefently, the out to him to take courage, and fay greateft part calling
quiet,
I
fliall

" "

in

which

therefore, will difcover itfelf by the manner, you hear me ; as This is either tumultuous, or

what he thought
*'

fit,

he refumed

his difcourfe,

and

faid

:

you are to be my judges, and not " my enemies, I make no doubt but I fhall, eaiily, convince " you that I am guilty of no crime. I fliall begin my dif" couife from thofe fa6ls, which you are all acquainted with. " I was created conful with Virginius, a mofl: ^vo^thy man.
Since, then, citizens,

"at

Book IX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENS IS.
time

^7
the

"

at the

" the hill, that " country, and entertained hopes of fubverting your empire " in a fliort time. There was, -at that jundure, a great

when the Tyrrhenians, having fortified commands your city, were mafters of all

"
**

famine, and a fedition in the city, and a general irrefoluIn fo turtion concerning the meafures to be purfued.
bulent, and fo formidable a
crifis,

"
*'

I

together with

my

in two ingagements, and collegue overcame the enemy " obliged them to abandon the fort, and leave the country.

foon put an end to, by fupplying the markets " with a plenty of provifions, and delivered to my fucceflbrs *' the country free from hoftile arms, and the city recovered
".

The famine

I

" from "
*'

all

the political diftempers, with v/hich the

dema-

,*'

What offence, therefore, have I gogues had infeded it. been guilty of, unlefs to overcome your enemies is to offend you? l^ fome of the foldiers happened to lole
in
is

" their lives, after they had fought with fuccefs, " has Servilius offended the people ? For no god
''

what

to generals

for the lives

of

**

Neither do

we

receive the

all, who are command of

furety to going ingage :

armies

upon fuch

" terms, and conditions, as to overcome all our enemies, and " lofe none of our own men: For what man, as fuch, would " dare to take upon himfelf all the events both of conduct, " and fortune ? So far from it, that we always purchafe " great flicceffes with great dangers. XXX. " I am not the firft to whom this misfortune has

"

happened in

battle;

but almoft

all,

who have

ventured

/' to

encounter armies fuperior in number to their own, I "have Vol. IV.

58

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
:

OF

Book IX.

" have been For fome, after they had purexpofed to it " fued the enemy, have themfelves been put to flight ; and,
*'

after they had killed many of their adverfaries, have loft ftill " more of their own men. Ifhall not add that feveral, even, " after an intire defeat, have returned home with ignominy,
*'

**

and great lofs None of whom were puniihed becaufe For the calamity itfelf is a fufthey were unfortunate
:
:

*'

ficient

punifhment

;

and

to receive

no

praife,

if

there was

"

nothing elfe in it, is a great, and grievous chaftifement " to a Flowever, I am fo far from pretending, general. " what all reafonable men will allow to be that I ought jufi:,

not to give an account of fortune, that, though no other " perfon ever ventured to undergo fuch a trial, I alone do
*' (C

not decline

it,

but confent that

my

fortune

may

be in-

*'

quired into, as well as my condudl ; and fhall only premife this : I obferve that a judgement is always formed " of human adions, whether fuccefsful, or otherwife, not
t
'

from the particular meafures that have been purfued, which are many and various, but from the event And,
:

when
*'

"
(C

profperous, though even the intermediate operations, which are many, may not be applauded, yet I find theadtions themfelves not the lefs praifed, emulated
this
is

by

all, and looked upon

as the effecSls

of good fortune

:

But,

if
*' *'

preceded it, greatefl: fuccefs, thofe anions are afcribed not to the good, but to the ill fortune

the event

is

unfuccefsful,

though every thing

tliat

was carried on with the

*'

of their authors.

Make ufe

"

by that, judge of

my

and, fortune alfo with regard to the war:
;

of this

maxim yourfelves

"

ii

:\ndj

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS,
find

59

" And, if you " fortune bad ; "
*'
*'

me

the enemy, call vanquiflied by

my

but, if v^idlorious, call it

good. Concerninp-

add many things ; but, as I am not ignorant that every argument, which can be offered upon that fubjeft, is difagreeable, I fhall fay no
fortune, therefore, I could

" more.
*'

But, fince they cenfure my condu6l alfo, not daring indeed to accufe me of treachery, or cowardice, for " which other generals are often tried ; and charge me with

XXXI. "

" "

inexperience in the duty of a general, and imprudence, for

having expofed myfelf toan unneceffary danger in purfuing " the enemy to their camp ; I wilt anfwer this charge alfo,

" which
*'

I

could do very readily,

by faying that

it is

an

" cenfure paft adions " to
*'

exceeding eafy thing, and in the power of every man to but difficult, and of which few are ;

what they are ; but *' thefe we difcover by our fenfes, and our fufferings, and " thofe v/e form conjeftures of by divination,^ and opinions, " in which there is And that it is the eafieft great deceit " thing in the world for people to play the general in dif" courfe, when they are at a diftance from the danger; " which is the cafe of my accufers. But I wave all this; *' and defire, in the name of the gods, that you will tell me " whether you look upon me as the firft, or the only man, " who ever attempted to force intrenchments, and led his " men againft an eminence ? Or have not many other of " I 2
as

" fame manner

capable, attempt great things with danger : And that future events do not appear what they will be, in the
paft events appear

:

your

6o
*'

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
;

Book IX.

your generals done the fame fome of whom have fuc" ceeded in thefe attempts, and others not? Why, there-

" "

me, if you look upon thefe adtions to prove the incapacity, and imprudence of How many other enterprifes, more daring "ao^eneral?
fore,

do you not

try

them

as well as

" than

this,

have

"jundlure,

which

generals thought fit to attempt at a leaftofall admits of fafe counfels, and

" deliberation ? Some have fnatched the enfigns from their " own men, and thrown them among the enemy, in order *' to force the backward, and cowardly to do their duty, " when knew that who did not recover their
they
thofe,
*'

enfigns, were fure to fuffer an ignominious death by the " orders of their Others, after they had m.ade an generals. " down the irruption into the enemy's country, have broken " to the end that thofe, bridges over which they had pafTed,

" who had any thoughts of
*'

faving themftlves by flight,
refolution

might be infpired with boldnefs, and
defpair

from

their

"

of effeding it. And otherSj by burning their tents, " and baggage, have impofed a neceiiity on their men of

" themfelves with every thing they wanted out fupplying " of the I omit many inflances of enemy's country. " the like nature, and all the other adions, and
*' *'

defigns of generals,
hiftory,

which we

daring have learned both from

and our own knowledge; for which, when they " did not fucceed, none Unlefs yet was ever puniflied
:

"
*'

to any of you can objcd

me
I

" to manifeft
But,
if I

deftruclion,

expofed others kept myfelF out of danger :
that,
I

when

charged with the

reft,

came

off

laft,

and fhared " the

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

6i

" the fame fortune with others, what crime am I guilty of? " And let this fuffice concerning myfelf. " the fenate, and the XXXII.

Now,
it

concerning

patri-

"

ciansj I think

" the general " made to the diviiion of the lands, oppolition that has been " aifedts me alfo, and this hatred my accufer was fo far from " of his accufation concealing, that he made it no fmall part " Let me fpeak to you upon this fubjed with againft me. *' freedom: For it is confident neither with my temper to " nor with your advantage to hear me, in any other fpeak, " manner. You ad contrary both to juftice, and piety, " in not acknowledging the many great benefits plebeians, *' you have received from the fenate, and in refenting their " refufal of fome of your defires, which, if granted, would " the public, when this refufal does bring great prejudice to " not to you, but from their reproceed from their, envy <' crard to the advantage of the commonwealth. Whereas, " the bed to have paid a thing you could have done was " deference to their refolutions, as from the befl of
flowing

to you, {ince necefiary to fay a few words hatred you bear to them all, by reafon of the

"

motives, and calculated for the general good, and to have " defifled from But, if you were unable your earneftnefs " to conficonquer your unprofitable defires by prudent " derations, you ought to have aimed at obtaining the fame " and not by violence For voluntary things by perfuafion, " not only, more agreeable to thofe who grant prefents are, " to than fuch as are extorted, but, alfo, more
:

:

them,

lafting

" thofe who receive them: V/hich

is

a thins,

I

call the

" gods

62

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
;

Book IX.

gods to witnefs, you do not confider

but are agitated by like the fea by various winds your demagogues, perpetually
to rage, and will fucceeding one another, and provoked not fuffer the commonwealth to enjoy even the leaft quiet,

and

tranquillity.

{ince,

when we
in peace,
all

This has made us prefer war to peace ; are in war, we hurt our enemies ; but,
friends.

when

look upon

plebeians, if you the refolutions of the fenate to be advan-

our

However,

as they really are, why do tageous to the commonwealth, you not look upon this refolution alfo in the fame light ? But, if you are of opinion that the fenate do not take the
leaft confederation

incumbent on them, but govern the commonwealth diHionourably, and unfkil do you not remove them all at once, take fully, why
is

of any thing that

the government upon yourfelves, confult, and make war in fupport of your own fovereignty, rather than pare them,
deftroy them by degrees, and take off the moft confiderSince it is better for all of able men by your fentences ?
us in general to be attacked by open war, than for every in particular to be circumvented one calumnies.

by

However, you faid, but the demagogues who inflame you, and who are both unwilling to obey, and unable to command. And
imprudence, and inexperience have often exerted all their power to overfet this fhip ; but the fenate, who have
their

are not the caufe of thefe difordcrs, as I

been reviled by them in the
errors,

fevereft terms, corredled their

and kept the commonwealth upright.

Whether
" have

thefe things are agreeable to you, or

difpleafing, they

BooklX.
*' *'

DIONYSlUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
me
:

63

have been uttered, and hazarded by
truth

with the greateft

And

I

had rather

" of fpeech, that may
*'

hfe by ufing a freedom be advantageous to the commonlofe

my

it, by flattering you." he had fpoken in this manner, he neither XXXIII. After lamented, nor bewailed his misfortune, nor, by intreaties,

wealth, than fave

and calling himfelf

peared dejefted ; an infirm mind, gave way to thofe, fpeak, or bear vi^itnefs in his favor.
prefented themfelves, and

of any one indecently, apbut, without fhevving the leaft mark of
at the feet

who were
Upon

willing to

which,
;

many
par-

made

his

innocence appear

been his collegue in the conticularly Virginius, was looked upon to have been the caufe of the fulfhip, and
vi(5lory
:

who had

He, not only, fliewed him

to be

innocent, but

of men, and the ableft of generals, and, as fuch, defcrving to be applauded, and honoured by all. And he faid that, if they thought the war was happily concluded, they ought to thank them both ;
reprefented
as the braveft

him both

but, if unhappily, to punifh
fels,

them both;
both with

fince their

coun-

their adions,

and

their

fortune had

been the fame.
fpeech,

The

people were moved with the charader of the

this

and

fpoke it, which was To this was eftabliflied by virtuous adions of every kind added a fympathizing look, which raifed the greateft com:

man who

miferation, fuch a look, as appears in the faces of thofe very who either adually fuHer^ or are going to fuffer, perfons, So that, even the relations of the men, who great miferies had loft their lives in tlie adion, and feemed irreconcileable
:

to

64

ROMAN

ANT^IQ^UITIES OF

BooklX.
laid

to the author of their misfortune,

were foftened, and
:

adde

their refentmcnt,

which they foon made appear

For

the votes of the people being taken, not a fingle tribe condemned him. This, therefore, was the event of the danger,
to

which

Servilius

had been expofed.

an army of the Romans marched the Tyrrhenians under the command of Publiiis againft For the forces of the Veientes Valerius, one of the confuls
:

XXXIV. Not long after,

were again afiembled, and the Sabines had joined them ; who, though unwilling, till then, to aflifl them in a war, the objedt of which they looked upon as impoHible for them

when they heard both of the flight of Menenius, and of the ereding the fort upon the hill clofe to the city, not only, the forces of the Romans they concluded that, were overcome, but that their Ipirit, alfo, was humbled ; and, efpoufing the caufe of the Tyrrhenians, fent them a oreat number of auxiliary troops. The Veientes, confiding
to attain,

both in their own forces, and in Thofe of the Sabines, which had lately joined them, defired, while they were
expecting

march from a

fuccours from the reft of the Tyrrhenians, diredly to Rome with the greatcfl; part of their
that none

to

army,

that perfuafion take the city either by force, or famine. they fhould However, Valerius prevented their defign, while they were execution of it, and waiting for the arrival of delaying the thofe allies, who had not yet joined them, by putting himfelf
at the

would oppofe them, but

head of the bravefh

Roman
city,

and marching out of the

youth, and of their allies, not openly, but in fuch a

manner

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARNASSENS IS.
as to conceal his
:

6^

manner

march from the enemy
late in the

as

much

evening, and pafdiftance from the city, he infing the Tiber at a fmall Then, marching in order of battle about midas poffible

For,

coming out

camped:
nio-ht,

day : one another, one of the Tyrrhenians, and the other of the The firfl: camp he attempted was That of the SaSabines
:

he attacked one of the enemy's camps before it was For there were two camps at no great diftance from

bines, in

which moft of the men being afleep, and no fufficient guard appointed (the place, where they lay, being the country
and they entertaining a great contempt of the enemy, of whom they had received no account) he took Some of the Sabines were flain in their beds ; it by ftorm.
allies,

of their

they were getting up, and taking their arms ; and others, after they were armed, but, while they were and fighting without order: The greateft part
others,
jufl:

as

difperfed,

of them, endeavouring to efcape to the other camp, were by the Roman horfe, and cut in pieces.
intercepted

of the Sabines being thus taken, Valerius marched to the other, where the Veientes lay, the

XXXV. The camp

Here it was not poffible for place not being very ftrong. them to approach the camp without being feen: For it was, now, broad day, and the Sabines v^^ho efcaped, had
both with their own calamity, acquainted the Tyrrhenians and the defign of the Romans to attack them : So that, it
was, now,

become

neceflary to

in charging the enemy.

depend upon their courage Here the Tyrrhenians fighting
poffible bravery,

before their

camp with

all

Vol. IV.

K

a fharp adion infued

66

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book IX.

infued with great flaughter on both fides, the vidory being doubtful, and for a long while inclining fometimes to one
fide,

and fometimes to the other

:

But, at

laft,

the

Tyr-

rhenians were broken
their

camp.

The

by the Roman horfe, conful followed And,
:

and

retired to

when he came

near their intrenchments, which had been ill fortified, and the place, as I fiid, not very fecure, he aflaulted them in many parts at once, and continued the afiault all the reft

of that day, without refting even the following night. Tyrrhenians, fpent with continual toil, left their
next day, as foon as
their city,
it

The
the
in

camp

was

light

;

fome taking refuge

and others difperfing themfelves

in the neigh-

The conful, having made himfelf mafter bouring woods. of this camp alfo, refted his army all that day The day after, he diftributed the fpoils he had taken in both the
:

campsj which were in great quantity, among thofe who had fought for them j and honoured fuch, as had diftinguifiied
themfelves in the

two adions, with the cuftomary crowns. The man, who was looked upon to have fought with the
flight,

greateft

and put the troops of the Veientes to was Servilius, the conful of the former year, who
bravery,
at that time,

had been acquitted by the people, and was,
legate to Valerius,

and,

in confideration of the
this occafion,

fuperior

valor

he fhewed upon

was the

firft,

who

received thofe rewards, which among the moft efteemed. After that, the conful,

Romans

are the

having ordered the enemy's dead to be ftripped, and his own to be buried, marched out with his army j and, incamping near the city

of

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN AS SENSIS,

67

of the Veientes, he challenged them to come to an ingagement ; but none venturing out to fight, and he looking

upon

it

as a

work of

difficulty

exceeding ftrong, laid vvafte and then invaded That of the Sabines.
laid vvafte their territories,

by affault a town a great part of their country,
to take

And, having,
being,

alfo,

which had been untouched for

many

days, the carriages of his

army

now, heavily

loaded with booty, he returned home. The people met him a good way from the city crowned with flowers ; andj

perfuming the road, as he pafl!ed, with frankincenfe, received the army with bowls of Hydromel: And the fenate decreed
to

the honor of a The other conful, Caius triumph. Nautius, to whom the defence of the Latines,and the Hernici,

him

their allies,

had been

allotted,

had delayed taking the

field

;

not from any irrefolution, or apprehenfion of danger, but becaufe he was waiting the event of the war with the Veientes,

which was then undecided

;

to the intent that, if any

misfortune fhould befall the army employed againfl: them, the commonwealth might have another in readinefs to
the country, irruption into in cafe they fhould, like thofe who had before marched to Rome, attempt to fortify any places in order to annoy the

hinder them from

making an

city.

In the

mean

time, the war, brought

upon the Latines

by the Aequi, and the Volfci, was alfo happily concluded ; and news was brought that the enemy, being defeated, had
quitted the country of their allies, who, need of any affiftance for the prefent.
after their affairs in

no

longer, ftood in

However, Nautius,

Tyrrhenia had taken a happy turn,

K

2

marched

68

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
his

OF

Book IX.'

marched out with
try of the Volfci,

Having invaded the counand overrun a great part of it, which

army

:

he they had abandoned,

made

himfelf mafter of a few

flaves,

and

cattle

;

then ripe,

and, having fet fire to their corn, which was and done other confiderable damage to their

to oppofe him, he country, as none appeared brought back Such were the tranfadtions, that his

army.

happened

during the confulfliip of thefe perfons.

XXXVI.
Furius, after

Aulus Manlius, and Lucius the fenate had ordered that one of them fhould
Their
fucceflbrs,

march

againft the Veientes,

drew
this

lots,

according to cuftom,

who

expedition : And the lot falling to Manlius, he prefently took the field, and incamped near the enemy. The Veientes, being fhut up within their

fhould

command

in

defended themfelves for fome time; and, fending embaffadors both to the other cities of Tyrrhenia, and to
walls,

the Sabines,

who

had,

lately, affifted
:

them,

defired

they

would immediately fend them fuccours But, finding themfelves refufed by all, and having confumed their provifions,
the moft ancient, and the mofl dignified among them, comcame out of the city; and, prefenting thempelled by famine, the enfigns of fuppliants, of him to put an end to the war. begged Upon this, Manlius ordered them to furnifh the army with their pay
felves

before the

conful with

for a year,

and with provifions

for

two months ; and,

after

they had complied with this, to fend embafiadors to Rome, in order to treat of peace with the fenate; and they, having accepted thefe conditions, and prefently brought the pay for the

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HAL ICARNASSENSIS.

69

the army, together with the money allowed by the conful to be paid by them inftead of the com, they went to Rome r

And, being introduced into the fenate, they aflced forgivenefs for what had palTed, and to be freed from the war for the
future
:

And,

after

many arguments

on.

both

fides,

it

was

carried to put an end to the war by a treaty ; and a truce was granted to them for forty years. Upon which, the

embafladors returned, having made great acknowledgements to the commonwealth for the peace they had obtained
=

And

Manlius coming to Rome requefted the '^ Ovation for having put an end to the war, which was granted to him.
alfo,

There was,

a cenfus in this confulfhip

;

and the

num-

ber of the citizens, who regiftered their own names, their fortunes, and the names of their fons, who were arrived to-

manhood, amounted
thirty three thoufand.

to a

little

more than one hundred
"
by

and.

XXXVII. Thefe
lulus,

confuls were fucceeded

Lucius

Aemilius Mamercus for the third time, and Vofpifcus Julius

upon their magiftracy in the feventy feventh Olympiad, at which Datis of Argos won. the prize
of the ftadium, Chares being archon at Athens. The adminiftration of thefe confuls was exceeding uneafy and tumultuous It was indeed attended with peace abroad (for
:

who

entered

all their

enemies were quiet) but, through

civil

diflenfions,

both they themfelves were expofed to dangers, and the
'9- Tov See the thirty sTE^ov 9-f j«we:v. ninth annotation on the fifth book.

confuls ftand thus in
lares,

x\\t

Faftl confu3,

Lucius AemiUus Mamercus

*°'

Afvjcief A(/X(A(Of M«;Lt£^Mf TO Tf (I0V,

VopifcUS JuHuS luluS.

x«« Ou«;ri(rx9jIs(A«af.

The names of thefe

common-

/

o

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
their

Book IX.
:

commonwealth was almoft ruined by

means

For, as

foon as the people had a refpite from military expeditions, the divifion of the public lands. they, prefently, purfued The perfon, who inflamed this pallion in the poor, was one

affembling
fort,

of the tribunes, a bold man, and not uneloquent, whofe name was Cneius Genucius This man was, conftantly, minds of the poorer the captivating the
:

people,

and endeavouring to oblige the confuls to carry into
it,

execution the orders of the fenate, concerning the divifion

of lands. Thefe refufed to do

alledging that this

commif-

fion was given by the fenate not to them, but to Caffius, and Vir^inius, who were then confuls, and to whom even thofe

of the they added that the refolutions fenate were notlaws defigned to continue in force for ever, but
orders were direded
;

temporary
year.

inftitutions, the efficacy

of which lafted only one

making ufe of thefe evaflons, Genucius found himfelf unable to employ compulflon againfl thofe,
confuls

The

who

were invefted with a fuperior authority, and took a For he exhibited a public charge againft bold refolution Manlius, and Furius, the confuls of the former year, and
;

fummoned them

to appear before the people,

and make

their defence, declaring, openly, the crime cufed of, which was, that they had

they were acwronged the people in

not appointing the decemvirs dired:ed by the fenate to He gave very plauflble reafons for his not divide the lands. having accufed any of the other confuls, when there had

been twelve confulfhips fince the fenate had pafled this order, and for his charging thefe men only with the breach of

^romife

:

BooklX.
promife
:

DIONYSIUS H ALICA RN ASS EN SI S.
He

71

ended with faying that the only way to comwas to let them pel the prefent confuls to divide the lands, fee fome others puniflied by the people, which would put

them
ment.

in

mind

that they, alfo,

might expedt the fame
this,

treat-

XXXVIII.

After he had faid

he exhorted

all

the

plebeians to be prefent at the trial ; and, having fworn by the holy rites that he would afTuredly perfift in his refolution,

and accufe thefe perfons with

he appointed a day for the trial. The patricians feeing this, were under great fear, and anxiety concerning the meafures they were to take both to procure thefe men to be acquitted, and
all

poflible vigor,

put a ftop to the boldnefs of
refolution they

this

demagogue

:

And

the

to was, to oppofe the people with force, if they attempted to pafs any vote to the prejudice of the confular power, and, even, to have recourfe to arms, if that

came

fhould be neceflary. However, they v\^ere under no necefof ufmg any violent means, the danger being lity difpelled in a fudden, and unexpected manner : For, the day before " the trial, Genucius was found dead in his bed, without
*'•

2t),M«ov cvSiv «j^«v »?£

o-fpiixj/jjf,

etc.

lamque ferrent

mdo domandam

trihunici-

Livy

fays, not only,

that the fenators

caufed Genucius to be put to death, but, alfo, that they were fo far from repenting of the murder, that thofe

This victory of the fenate was truly what Livy calls, in the
fotejlatem.

am

next fentence, pejfimi exempli viSJoria.

Here we

among them who had no
braggedof
'

fliare in

it,

their

having committed

it;

mcpatres fatis moderate ferre laelitiam. adeoque tieminem noxae poenitebat, ut
etiam infontes fecijje videri vellent, pa'B.
ii.

fee a great contradiflion in the condud: of the fenate. Fifteen years before, they had, with a noble firmnefs, refufed to concur with the

people he was
c.;4.

in recalling Coriolanus, when at their gates with a viftorious

the

72

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

BooklX.

the leaft appearance of his having been ftabbed, ftrangled, to death by any other infidious means. poifoned, or put As foon as this accident was known, and the body brought

upon as a kind of obftacle to the trial, which was prefently difprovidential For none of the other tribunes had the boldnefs to miffed revive the fedition ; on the contrary, they looked upon
into the forum,
:

the event was looked

Genucius to have been guilty of a great madnefs. If, thereoveracted their part, fore, the confuls had not, after this,

and awakened the fedition, which heaven had laid afleep, drawn upon themfelves no further danger they would have But, by giving themfelves up to pride, and a contempt of
:

the plebeians, and by deiiring to {Lew the whole extent of their power, they were the occafion of great mifchiefs : For, having appointed a day to make levies, and endea-

voured to compel the difobedient to give in their names by various punifhments, and by caufing them to be whipped with rods, they drov^e the greateft part of the plebeians to which broke out upon the following occaGon.
defpair,

XXXIX.
called
in the
late

A

certain plebeian,

celebrated for his valor,

Publius Volero,
wars, was,

who had commanded
lifted

a
as

mon

foldier;

now, which he refufing
honourable

by them
to

century a comto,

fubmit

and

declining

a

lefs

employment, when he had
tlie

been guilty of no mifbehaviour in
army of
and here they demeancft of all aitions, fcend the alTanfination of an adverfary: They
Volfci
-,

former campaigns,

to the

terror of a vidcorious enemy-, but not virtue enough to refift the fuggeftions

of a party

fpirit.

had

refolution

enough

to

refill

the

the

Book IX.
the
coiiiiils,

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN ASSENS IS.
him, and tear
his

73

offended at the Hberty he took, ordered the

lidtors to ftrip

man

called

upon the

tribunes,

body with rods. The young and, if he was guilty oi^ any
But the confuls,

crime, delired to be tried by the people.
regardlefs

of what he

faid,

repeated their orders to the lidors
he, impatient of and, ftriking the firft

to take

him away, and whip him ; when

the infult, revenged his li6lor, who came near

own wrongs
him

;

in the face

with

his

fift,

as

he

was young and ftrong, he knocked him down, and treated the next in the fame manner And, when the confuls, in a
:

rage,

commanded all thelidors at once to feizehim, the pleand, beians, who were prefent, thought it a heinous thing
;

gathering together in a body, and inflaming one another's refentment with their cries, they refcued the young man,

and repulfed the Hdlors with blows At laft, they ran to the confuls ; and, if thefe had not left the forum, and fled, they This had, that inftant, done fome irreparable mifchief.
:

affair divided the

whole

city,

and thofe

tribunes,

who,

till

then,

had been

quiet,

grew wild with

rage,

and inveighed

Thus the conteft concerning the diviagainft the confuls. flon of lands was changed into another conteft of greater
confequence, that concerned the very form of their government For the patricians, who looked upon this attempt as
:

the fubverflon of the confular power, refented it no lefs than the confuls, and inflfted that the man, who had dared to
lay hands on the lidors, fhould be thrown down the Tarthe other flde, the plebeians affembling, peian rock.

On

clamoured againft the Vol. IV.

patricians,

and exhorted one another

L

not

74

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
liberty,

OF

Book IX.

juftice

but to carry the matter before the fenate,to accufe the confuls, and endeavour to obtain fome them for their ufage of a free man, and a againft
not to betray their

he had implored the affiftance of the tribunes, and delired to be tried by the people if he had been guilty of any crime, they had deprived of both thefe
citizen,

whom,

after

rights,

treated

him

like

a Have, and

ordered

him

to be

whipped. While, therefore, the two parties thus oppofed one another, and neither were difpofed to yield, all the remaining part of this confulfliip was confumed without being adorned either with miHtary adlions worthy to be celebrated,
or with political worthy to be related. XL. The time for the eledion of magiftrates being come, Lucius Pinarius, and Publius Furius were created confuls.

In the beginning of this year, there happened many proand omens, which filled the city with a kind of digies, and fear of the gods; and all the augurs, fuperflition,

and the

interpreters of holy things declared that thefe
rites

were

the figns of divine anger, fome

formed with fandity, and

purity. to be diftemper, fuppofed peftilential, attacked the

not having been perAnd, not long after, a

women,

fuch as were with child, and more of them died particularly than had ever been known before For, as they mifcarricd,
:

and brought forth dead children, they died together with their And neither fupplications at the ftatues, and altars infants
:

of the gods, nor expiatory facrifices, performed on behalf of the public, and of private families, gave the women
relief.

While the commonwealth was

any under (o fuffering

ftranse

Book IX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

ys

information was given to the pontifs by ftrange a calamity, a ilave, that one of the Veftal virgins, who have the care of
the perpetual
fire,

had by name Urbinia,

loft

her virginity,
:

And and, though impure, performed the public facrifices the pontifs, having removed her from the miniftry, brought
her to a
trial
;

and, after

flie

was convided, they ordered

her to be whipped with rods, to be carried through the city, and buried alive. One of the two men, who had been the
the other the accomplices in her crime, killed himfelf; and ordered him to be whipped in the forum pontifs feized,
like a ilave,

After thefe punifhand then put to death. ments, the diftemper, which had attacked the women, and
caufed fo great a mortality among them, prefently ceafed. But the fedition raifed by the plebeians againft the I. which had long continued in the city, was re-

XL

patricians,
:

was Publius Volero, one of the tribunes, the fame who, the year before, had and Julius, when they difobeycd the confuls AemiHus,

newed

The

perfon

who renewed

it

would have
centurion
:

lifted

him

for a

common

foldier

inftead of a

The

reafons,

that induced the poorer fort

to

chufe him tribune of the people, were chiefly thefe (for he was both ignobly born, and brought up in great obfcurity,

and want) becaufe he Vv'as looked upon as the firft private man, who, by his difobedience, had humbled the confular power, which was till then invefted with the royal dignity ; and
particularly

by reafon of the promifes he
This man, therefore,

had n:ad,
as

when he
patricians

ftood candidate for that magiftracy, to deprive the

of their power.

foon as

L

2

he

76

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
at liberty to

Book IX.

he was

perform the fundions of his office, the divine anger having ceafed, affembled the people, and prothe election of the tribunes, by pofed a law concerning which that election was to be transferred from the allemblies
of the curiae, called by the Romans, Comitia Curiata^ to the The difiference of which is this afTemblies of the tribes
:

:

affemblies In order to render the refolutions, taken in the of the curiae, valid, it was neceflliry that the fenate fhould

""

make
the

the

previous

order,

in their curiae, fliould

and that the people, voting confirm it, and that, after both thefe,
fliould not

heavenly figns,

and aufpices

oppofe

it

:

Whereas, in the affemblies of the tribes, neither the previous order of the fenate was neceffary, nor the ratification of the
the refolutions there holy rites, and aufpices, but only that taken fhould be finally determined by the members of the

one day. Now, two of the other four tribunes So that, by inVolero in propofing this law joined with he carried it againH: the others, who difp-aging thefe two,
tribes in
:

fered

inferior in number. opinion, and were On the other fide, the confuls, the fenate, and the patricians, the law to a man, And, coming to the forum in

from him

in

oppofed

:

a body, on the day appointed by the tribunes for enabling the confuls, the this, law, they made harangues of all forts, mofl: ancient fenators, and every one, who dcfired it, enuthe abfurdities contained in the law. The tribunes

merating

anfwered, and the confuls replied
='^-

;

and the debate having
122''

Ttxf

yiiv

cpj«75-»«x«j

4.i)^>i£poj(«f,

etc.

See the

annotation on the

fecond book.

lafted

Book IX.

DIONYSIUS HALICA RN A S S E NS
and night coming on, the

I

S.

77

lafted a long while,

ailenibly

was

difmiiTed.

having, again, appointed the third market day for the confideration of the law, and greater numbers than before flocking to the forum on that day, the Volero feeing this, refolved fame thipg happened again. not to fuffer either the confuls to find fault with the law, or the patricians to be prefent, when the people were to give their votes : For the patricians, with thofe of their fadion,

The tribunes

and of their body, together with

their

own clients, who were

not a few, took up a great part of the forum ; and, both by animating thofe who blamed the law, and interrupting thofe who juftified it, and by many other adions, they
created diforders, and fliewed they were refolved to force the people to vote as they defired.

XLII. But another calamity, fent from heaven, put a For a peflilenhis defigns, that were tyrannical flop to
:

tial

diftemper attacked the city, which was, indeed, felt in other parts of Italy, but no where fo feverely as at Rome. No human afliftance could relieve the flck ; but,

whether remedies were adminiftred to them with the grcatcft No fupplicare, or none at all applied, they died equally
:

cations to the gods, nor facriiices ; no private, nor public to which mankind, under fuch calamities, are comexpiations, The diftem.per at laft to have recourfe, then availed. pelled made no diftindion of age, or fex, of flrong or weak con-

or between the negled, or application of the medicinal art, or ot any thing elfe, from whence relief
ftitutions,

might be expeded ; but

feized both

women and men,

old

and

yS

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
it

OF

Book IX.

and young. However, it lafted not long, which preferred the city from utter defolation ; but, like a torrent, or a
conflagration,

overwhelmed mankind

at

once
as

;

fuddenly
calamity

came, and fuddenly departed.

As foon

the

ceafed, Volero, whofe magiflracy was near expiring, fince it was not in his power to get the law enadled during the

remainder of

it,

and the eled:ion of magiftrates drew near,
:

endeavoured to get himfelf rechofen for the following year, by making many large promifes to the people And he was again chofen tribune, together with two of his collegues.
in order to defeat the confequences of this eledion, contrived to advance to the confulfliip a man of a fevere temper, and an enemy to the people, and one who
patricians,

The

was not

like
;

to
this

leffen,

in

any

refpedl, the

power of the

ariftocracy

was Appius Claudius, the fon of Appius,

gave the greateft obfl:ru6lion to the return of tlie he ftrongly oppofed the people ; and, though defign of the and, even, refufed to be prefent at the election,
patricians,

who

the fenate, neverthelefs,

came

to a previous refolution to raife
abfent,

him

to that

dignity though

and appointed him

conful.

XLIII. His elcilion being carried with great eafe (for the fort left the place as foon as they heard his name) poorer
Titus Quintius Capitolinus, and Appius Claudius Sabinus entered upon their magiftracy; men of different tempers, and different principles For Appius was of opinion that
:

the idle and the poor ought to be kept employed in foreian to the end that, while wars they enjoyed a plenty of thofc
-J

daily

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A SS EN S

I S.

79

daily neceflaries,

of which they were in the greateft want, and with which they fupplied themfelves out of the

enemy's country by their own adivity ; and while they were performing adlions, that tended to the advantage of the commonwealth, they would, leaft of all, be ill difpofed

and uneafy

to the fenators,
;

who had
in a

the adminiftration of

the public affairs

and he fhewed that every pretence of
juftifiable

making war would be

commonwealth,
all
:

that
alfo,

claimed the fovereignty, and was envied by
they would form
a

He,

reafonable judgement of the defired future by the paft ; adding that all the commotions, which had already been raifed in the city, had happened

during
reft

the refpites from war.
fatisfied if the

Quintius, on the contrary, thought
to ingage in necef-

they ought not to be the aggreflbrs in any war, but
people, when called and thofe that were fary dangers,
others,

upon

obeyed

their

fummons

;

brought upon them by and he fhewed them that, if

they attempted to force the difobedient, they would drive the plebeians to defpair, as their predecefTors had done ; by which they would expofe themfelves to one of tliefe two
evils

extinguish the fedition with blood, and to a fhameful adulation of the {laughter, or to fubmit people. that Quintius had the command durinor it Now, happened
;

either to

that

month

;

fo that,

without

his confent.

do nothing In the mean time, Volero, and the
the other conful could

other two tribunes, impatient of any longer delay, propofed which they had not been able to get enabled again the law, the year before, with this addition, that the aediles fhould,
alfo,

So
alfo,
elfe,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

BooklX:

be chofen in the fame comitia, and that every thing that was -to be done, and enabled by the people, fliould

be determined in the fame manner, by the members of the tribes ; which was, indeed, openly to deftroy the power of
the fenate, and to eftablifh That of the people. XLIV. When the confuls were informed of

this,

they

grew anxious, and confidered by what means the commotion, and fedition might fpeedily, and fafely, be removed. to arms every man, who defired Appius advifed to fummon
the conftitution might be preferved ; and, if any refufed to But Quintius take arms, to look upon them as enemies.

was of opinion they ought to apply perfuafion to the plebeians, and convince them that, through ignorance of their And he interefl;, they were led into pernicious refolutions
:

faid that

it

was the

greateft of follies to

aim

at

obtaining
advice of

from

their fellow-citizens

againft

their will thofe things,

which they might

receive by their confent.

The

Quintius being approved of by the reft of the fenators, the confuls went to the forum, and deftred the tribunes would
give

them

leave to be heard,

and appoint a time

for

it

:

And, having obtained both with difficulty, when the day they had delired them to fix was come, the foruni being filled with a great concourfe of people of all forts, which the magiftrates on both fides had prepared, and invited to

come

to their affiftance,

in order to

(hew the
was,

ill

the confuls prefented thcmfclves, Then conftquences of the law.

Quintius,

who

in all rcfpeds, a

man

of moderation,

and mafter of that eloquence, which was the moft adapted to
gain

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS H AL ICARNASSENSIS.

Si

gain the affedions of the people, iirfl: defired leave to fpeak ; and then made a fpeech Tuited to the occadon, and ao-recable to
all
:

So

that,

thofe,

who

fpoke in favor of the law,

were under great difficulties, having nothing to offer, that was more juft, or more reafonable. And, if his collegue could
people,

have prevailed upon himfelf not to meddle in confcious of the injuftice, and

this affair,

the

illegahty of their
:

pretenfions,
that,
his

would have

rejedted the

law

But, inftead of

fpeech was fo full of haughtinefs, and fo offenfive to the ears of the poorer fort, that they grew outrageous, and implacable, and broke out into greater animofity than For he did not talk to them as if they had been free ever men, and his fellow-citizens, who had the power either to
:

or rejedl the law; but, domineering over them as if they had been a vile populace, foreigners, or men, whofe was precarious, he uttered fliarp, and infufferable liberty
enadt,

them with the abolition of their debts, reproaches, upbraiding and their revolt from the confuls, when, fnatching up the facred enfigns, they left the camp, and ran away of their own
put them in mind of the oaths they had entered into, when they took arms in defence of that country to which they owed their birth, and againft which they turned thofe very arms For v/hich reafon, he faid, it was not to be wonaccord
: :

He

they had been guilty of perjury to the gods, deferted their generals, difpeopled the city as far as in them

dered

at,

if,

after

lay,

public faith, the fubverfion of the laws, and the deftrudion of the conftitution,

and grounded

their return

on the

diffolution of

they ufed no moderation, nor could behave themVoL. IV. felves

M

82

ROMAN
good

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book IX.

citizens; but were, always, aiming at fome, thing advantageous to themfelves, and unwarrantable by
felves like

fometimes, defiring the power of creating magiftrates out of their own body, and making thefe unaccountthe laws
;

able for their adlions, and

to

trial

fometimes, bringing fuch of the patricians as they thought fit, under the
;

all

facred

moft fliameful accufations, and transferring the legal jurifdidlion, which the commonwealth had, before, made ufe of
in caufes that relate to death, or banifliment, from the moft

uncorrupt tribunal, to the

vilefl:

populace

;

and, fometimes,

bringing in tyrannical, and wicked laws againft
they,

men

of birth,

who were mechanics, and had no

habitation, without

the power even of voting previoufly leaving to the fenate concerning thofe laws, but depriving them of this honor

which they had, always, enjoyed undifputed under both kings, and tyrants. After he had uttered thefe things, and many others of the like nature, and abftained from no
alfo,

fharp reproach, or injurious appellation, he concluded with this declaration, which gave greater offence to the people that the commonwealth would never ceafe than all the reft,
to

be divided upon every thing, but, always, fome

new

diftemper would fucceed the old, as long as the tribunitian power lafted ; and faid, great care ought to be taken that
the

commencements of every

political,

and public

affair

be

from good feeds, is produced good and pious andjuft (for wholefome fruit, and from bad, evil and pernicious.)

XLV.
**

"
If,

therefore, fays he, this magiftracy

found

its

way

into the

commonwealth by concord

;

was calculated

"

for

BooklX.
for the

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A R N A SSEN SI S.

83

good of all, and received the fmdion both of the the religious rites, it would have produced aufpiccs, and

among

us

many

great advantages, beneficence,

harmony,

wholefome laws,
violence,

hopes of bleffings from heaven, and a thoufand other benefits But, fince it was introduced by
:

a contempt of law, fedition, the apprehenfion

of a

civil

how

war, and by every thing mankind moft abhors, can it be expeded that this inftitution fhould ever

be good, or filutary, when fuchwere its commencements ? So that, it is in vain for us to feek for a cure, and for
thofe remedies,
evils that are,

which human reafon fuggefts againft the

continually, fpringing out of it, fo long as the pernicious root remains : For we fliall have no end, no deliverance from the divine wrath, while this envious
fury, this cancer, rankling in our conflitution, taints

and

But this fubjedl fliall be deftroys every virtuous effort. treated at a more proper feafon. Now, fince it is
duty to

my

compofe the prefent difturbances,
:

I

fay this to

Neither this, nor any other you without difBmulation law fliall be enabled in my confulfliip without the previous
order of the lenate; and
I will

not only in words, but, if it to adions, I will not yield to her adverfaries even in thefe And, if you did not know, before, the extent of
:

contend for the ariftocracy, fhall be neceflary to proceed

the confular power,
fulfliip."

you

fhall

learn

it

under

my

con-

XLVI. ThusAppIus

fpoke:

When

the moft ancient, and

the moft refpedlable perfon

among

M

the tribunes, by name,
2

Caius

84 Caius
'^

ROMAN
Laedlorius, a

ANTIQUITIES OF
man

BooklX.

and of

political abilities,

of acknowledged valor in war, rofe up to anfwer him And,
:

the earlieft tranfadions, he fpoke long in beginning from favor of the people: That the poor, whom Appius had

loaded with injurious appellations, had not only, under their kings, campaigns,

made many fevere when the neceflity

of ferving might be imputed to them, but, alfo, after their while they were acquiring liberty, and foveexpulfion,
reio-nty

for their country,

for

which they had received no

return from the patricians, nor fhared in any of the public
like captives, had been deprived by them advantages ; but, even of their liberty; to recover which they had been to leave their country, from the defire of another,

compelled in which,

as

they
:

Vv^ere

free

men, they might

live

without

obtained their return neither by to the fenate, nor compelling them by a! offering violence war to confent to it, but, by yielding to them, when thefe

being infulted

And had

defired,

and intreated them to
left

they had

the pledges behind them. He, then, mentioned the oaths,
receive,

again,

and appealed

to the agreement, which had been entered to return ; in which there was, firft, a into, to induce them then, a power granted to the poor to ;

general amnefty create magiftrates both to protect then>, and oppofe thofe, who defired to opprefs them. After he had expatiated the laws, which the he thefe

upon

things,

produced
;

had, not long
13'
Ac(t>C.u^io{.

before, ratified
is

people both That concerning the
;

This tribune

called A£>i'wj(of in the editions
»E. Ii.c.s6.

and Laetorius

by "Livy. '

the

Book IX.

DrONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

85

granted

the tranflation of the jurifdiAion, by which the fenate to the people the power of trying any of the
fit ;

had

patri-

and That concerning their fufof thofe fuffrages was tranffrages, by which the authority ferrcd from the aiTemblies of the centuries to Thofe of the
cians they {hould think
'*

tribes.

he had gone through the defence of the '* he turned to Appius, and faid After this, dare people,
:

XL VII. When

''

you abufe thefe, by whofe means the commonwealth, " from being fmall, is become coniiderable, and, from beinoriata, that they were declining apace, and only made ufe of upon particular occafions ; nay, they, at lall, were

If any paffage in our author xy^iixv. ever called for the afTiftance of the

commentators, it is this and yet not one of chem has fo much as taken notice of the difficulty, fo far from ap•,

fo

far

in

difrepute, that,

were called for the fake of the aufpices,
thirty curiae.
liftors

when they
the thirty

reprefented

plying any remedy

to

it.

In the

firft

hiftoriansare not allowed cither place, to draw confcquences themfelves, or to introduce others drawing confe-

This being raoft certainly the cafe, I would read (puAel.v inflead of becaufe this was >c«^<i%7(i' ; really the fad, and a flid which our author had
before, not only, mentioned, but inlarged upon, in relating the affair of
"

juftice,

which have never quences from fads, been mentioned in their hiftories. Thi5 rule Dionyfius could not have been ignorant of; and, to do him he has, always, obferved it.

Coriolanus ; when the fenate confented to the two laws here mentioned
trying and, by the laft. That of trying them in the comitia tributa^ inftead of the cenlurioja. As thefe
patricians
;

But here, if we follow the editions, and manufcripts, he fays that the fenate had confented to a law, by which
the power, before exercifed by the affemblies of the centuries, was tranfThis ferred to Thofe of the curiae.

by Laeftorius: By the firft of which, the people had a power of the

he had never mentioned before nor, indeed, any other author; beFor, caufe fuch a law never exifted after the eftabliihment of the ccmitia
lav/
;
:

two laws were obtained at the fame time, and are mentioned together by Laedorius and, as the other was
;

never before taken notice of by Dionyfius, or by any other author, I have

made no

difficulty to follow this cor-

trihuta^ the citriata were fo far from of the centufucceeding to the power
'

rection in the traullation.

Cicero againftRull.

c.

11.

i:

B.

vii. c.

59,
((

obfcurre.

86

ROMAN
obfcure,

ANTIQJJITIES OF
And
call others feditious,
all

Book IX.

"
*'

illuftrioiis ?

and

re-

as if proach them with a kind of banifhment, " did not ftill remember what their paffed in
<'

prefent

own

time,

" "
*'

" " did the fame You have dared, thing, aded otherwife. " into alfo, to revile the tribunitian power, as introduced " the commonwealth for its deftrudion, and perfuaded " thefe to this ficred, this abrogate this relief of the poor, " irrevocable both ot relief, fecured by the great fandion " to the people, and gods, and men, thou greateft enemy
*'

that your anceftors, having raifed a fedition againft the and left their own country, took refuge here, magiftrates, as fuppliants ? Unlefs, indeed, you will fay that your a defire of family, in leaving their country through aded nobly ; but that the Romans, when they liberty,

mofl tyrannical of

all

men

!

Neither have you been able
:

" to difcover even this, that, in advancing thefe things, you " traduce both the fenate, and For your own magiftracy
" the fenate, having raifed a " whofe pride, and infults they
*'

againft the kings, refolv^ed, no longer, to bear,
fedition

"

eftablifhed the confulfhip, and, before they had expelled the kings, invefted others with the regal power : So that,

"
''

every thing you have faid againft the tribunitian power, as introduced for the deftrudion of the commonwealth,

" becaufe it fprung from fedition, you have faid againft " the For this fprung from no other caufe, confulfhip alfo " than from the fedition of the patricians againft the ** kings. But, to what purpofe do I fay thefe things to you, " as to a citizen indued with and
:

humanity,

moderation,

"

whom

Book IX.
*'

DIONYSIUS H A L IC A RN A S SEN S
all

I S.

87

whom

here prefent

know

to have inlierited

from your

" anceftors and enmity to the people, perverfenefs, feverity, " and to have received from nature a favagenefs incapable " of adions to do I not rather tamed ?
being
;

Why

prefer

*'

words

fall

upon you, and

let

you

fee

how

great the

" unknown to you, is of that people, whom you ftrength, " were not aOiamed to call vagabond and vile, and how
*'
*'

"

the power of this magiftracy, which the law obliges alide all I too fhali lay you to reverence, and fubmit to ?
o-reat

diflimulation,

and begin."

XLVIII. Having faid this, and taken the oath, which was among them the greateft, that he would either get the or lofe his life, the people being all filent, and law
paffed,

he was going agony of expectation concerning what But he, to do, he ordered Appius to depart the affembly
in an
:

inftead of obeying, placed the lidors about him together with the body of men, which he had brought from home
for that purpofe,

and

when
this,

Laedorius, commanding bunes ordered the conful to be carried to prifon.
the
;

to leave the forum ; obftinately refufed filence, faid, that the tri-

Upon

officer,

perfon

and the

command, advanced to feize his foremoft liclor repulfed him with blows.
by
his

people raifing a great outcry, and fliewing ment, Laedorius himfelf came forward, and exhorted
all to affift

The

their refent-

them

Appius, fupported by a numerous, and After that, ftrong body of young men, flood his ground. indecent words, and clamors pafled between them, and they one another; till, at laft, the conteft ended in puilied

him.

blows,

88

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book IX.

But Quintius, the blows, and they beg<an to throw ftones. other conful, repreffcd their fury, and prev^ented the mifchief
from proceeding further
',

he,

together with the moft an-

and conjuring them all to defift, and throwing himfelf between the contending parties. The was well nigh fpcnt: So that, they feparated day, alfo,
cient fenators, intreating,
acrainft

their will.
;

The

accufed one another

following days, the magiftrates the conful charging the tribunes with
his authority,

an endeavour to invalidate
ful to

by ordering a con-

be carried to prifon; and the tribunes complained that the conful had ftruck thofe, whofe perfons were rendered facred by the law, Laeclorius having on his face the marks of the ftrokes ftill to be feen And the whole city,
:

of rage and fury, was rent with fadion. From this time, the people, together with the tribunes, kept guard in the capitol both day, and night without intermiflion.
being
full

fenate then affembled, and entered into a long, and difficult confideration of the means to put a flop to the fedi-

The

tion

;

and, not only,
alfo,

diflenfion,

the greatnefs of the danger, but the of the confuls prefented itfelf to their

For Quintius advifed to yield to the people in every thing, that was reafonable ; but Appius thought death
thoughts
:

more

eligible

than fubmiflion.

being no end of thefe contefts, Quintius took the tribunes, and Appius apart, and begged, and conjured them to prefer the confideration of the public to their
private animofities : And, obferving that thofe relented, but that his coUegue perfifted in his former arrogance, he per-

XLIX. There

fuaded

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS H A L IC A R N AS S EN SI S.
reft

89

fuaded Laedorius, and the
their private,

of the tribunes to refer both

the fenate.
fenate
;

and public complaints to the determination of After he had obtained this, he affembled the

to the tribunes, giving great commendations beo^cred of his coUegue not to oppofe the public fafety; then called thofe, who ufed to deliver their opinions.

and,

upon

Publius Valerius Poplicola, who was firft called, advifed that the mutual accufations of the tribunes, and the conful, relating to

fince

it

to their

what they had fuffered, or done in the tumult, had not flowed from an infidious delign, or a view own ambition, but from a conteft concerning public
called in queftion

meafures, might be difmiffed by a general vote, and that

no one be

on that account

:

fmce Appius, the conful, cerning the law itfelf, before the people without the fufter any law to be laid of the fenate, that the fenate, firft, take it into previous order confideration ; and that the tribunes, together with the

And, conwould not

confuls, take care to preferve union, and good order among come to give their votes in relation the citizens, when

they

to

it.

This advice being approved oi by

all,

Quintius

imme-

diately put

the queftion to the fenate concerning the law j

and, after

anfwers

many objeftions made to it by Appius, and many made to them by the tribunes, it was carried by a

The previous the people. great majority to lay it before refolution of the fenate being pafl^d, the private contefts of
the magiftrates cealed. and the people, joyfuily, accepting this conceflion of the fenate, ratified the law by their votes.

From

that time to this, the tribunes of the people,

and the
aediles

Vol. IV.

N

go
aediles are
rites,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
the

OF

Book IX.

chofen without aufpices, or any other religious This was the end of in the aflemblies of the tribes.

the tumult, which difturbed
time.

commonwealth

at that

proper to raiie to fend out both the confuls againft the Aequi, forces, and and the Volfci: For it was faid that numerous armies of
L.
after,

Not long

the

Romans thought

both thefe nations had taken the field, and were, then, laying The armies being foon wafte the territories of their allies
:

the confuls having ready, and

drawn

lots for

the

command

of them, Quintius marched againft the Aequi, and Appius The fuccefs of each of the confuls was ao-ainft the Volfci.
fuch as might be expeded : For the army commanded by Quintius, pleafed with the mildncfs, and moderation of their
to obey all his orders, and prefented general, were ready themfelves to moft of the dangers of their own accord, from

a defire of acquiring glory, and honor for their commander Thus, he overrun great part of the country of the
:

the enemy not daring to come to Aequi, and plundered it, an ingagement By which means, he poffefted himfelf of a
:

and rich fpoils And the army, after a (hort ftay great booty, in the enemy's country, returned to the city without any lofs, general adorned with the luftre of his brinsino- home their CD
:

too

adions. But the
negledled

army under Appius, from their hatred to him,
things eftabliflied by the

many

Roman

difcipline

:

For, during the whole campaign, they fhewed an aiTe6led cowardice, and a contempt of their general ; and, when they

were toingnge the army of the Volfci, and

their

commanders
had

Book IX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS,
in order

91

they refufed to fight; and, even, the centurions, and the ftandard bearers, thefe, their ftandards, and the others leaving their

had drawn them up

of

battle,

throwing away
fled to

ranks,

the

camp

:

And,

if

the enemy, wondering

at their unexpected flight,

flopped their purfuit, This they did through the envy they been cut in pieces. bore to their general, left, by the luftre of his fuccefs, he
a and the other glorious triumph, might have obtained And the next day, when the honors due to a conqueror.

and fearing an ambufh, had not the greateft part of the Romans had

conful
flight,

upbraided them with their inglorious fometimes exhorted them to efface that ignominious

fometimes

aftion by a noble effort ; and, at others, threatened to put the laws in execution againft them, if they refufed to face

the dangers of the

field,

they broke out into difobedience,

clamoured againft him, and deflred he would lead them out of the enemy's country, fpent as they were with the

wounds they had
up the found wounded: So
forces

received

:

For moft of them had bound
if

.

parts
that,

of their bodies, as

they had been

Appius was obliged
:

to

withdraw

his

from the enemy's country
in their retreat,

And

the Volfci, purfuing

them

killed a great

number of them.

As

foon as they were in their own territories, the conful afl^mbled the troops ; and, after many reproaches, faid he was refolved to infli6t on them the punifhment ordained againft
thofe
gates,

who

leave their ranks
officers

and the other

And, notwithftanding the leintreated him to ufe moderation,
:

^nd not

to accumulate calamities

upon

the

N2

commonwealth,
he

92

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book IX.

he paid no regard to any of them, but ordered the punifhment to be inflicted. After which, the centurions, whofe
centuries
loft their

had run away, and the ftandard bearers, who had ftandards, were fome of them beheaded with an
:

and others beaten with flicks till they died The common foldiers were decimated ; every tenth man, upon whom This is the the lot fell, being put to death for the reft
ax,
:

punifliment in ufe
their ranks,

among
up

the

Romans

for thofe

who

leave

or deliver

their ftandards.

After

this,

the

eledlion of magiftrates
all,

drawing near, the conful, detefted by brought home the remains of the army afflided, and
"^

difgraced.

LI.

Lucius Valerius for the fecond time, and Tiberius

Aemilius being appointed confuls, the tribunes, after a fhort time, refumed the affair of the divifton of the lands ; and,

coming to the confuls, defired, and earneftly intreated them
,

to

perform the promifes made by the fenate to the people in the confulQiip of Spurius Caflius, and Proculus Virginius. Both
the confuls favoured their requeft ; Tiberius Aemilius from an old, and not an unreafonable refentment he entertained
againft the fenate for having refufed the triumph to his father, when he demanded it ; and Valerius defired to apply a re-

the difplcafure, which the people had conceived againft him for having, when quaeftor, caufed Spurius Cailius to be put to death as aiming at tyranny, a man, who had

medy

to

fliewn himfelf, not only, the greateft general, but the ableft politician of his time, and firft propofed the law
»5' AijKiii OuixAs^is;.

concerning

See the

firft

annotation on the feventh book.

the

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS H A L IC A RN AS S EN SIS.
;

93

and, for that reafon chiefly was hated by the patricians, as one who fought to gain the affedions The confuls, therefore, having promifed of the people.
to propofe the divition of lands in the fenate, and to aflift them in procuring tlie law to be enabled, the tribunes

the diviiion of lands

them

gave credit to their promifes ; and, going to the fenate, fpoke with great moderation And the former, deliring to avoid the
:

appearance of contention, gave them no oppofition, but deLucius fired the oldefl: fenators to deliver their opinions
:

Aemilius,

the father of one of the confuls, was the

£rfl:

perfon called upon,

who
and

faid that,

"

in his opinion,

it

was

" both "

jufl in

itfelf,

for the

intereft

of the

common-

wealth, that the poffeilions of the public fliould be di-

" vided among all, and not among a few ; and he advifed " to in what they defired, to the end that gratify the people " this conceflion might be efteemed a favor For they had " to them other even necef^
:

" "

things through many granted not choice: And, that the poffeflbrs of the public fity, lands ought to be thankful for the time they had enjoyed

" them unobferved ; and, when ordered to refign thofe " lands, not defire to continue in the pofieffion of them. " He added that, befides the. of the force of
point
right,

" which and according to every one muft acknowledge, " which the of the public ought to be common polTefTions " to all, and Thofe of private perfons the property of fuch " as had acquired them according to law, the matter in
*' *'

queftion was, now, made who, feventeen years before,

even neceflary by the fenate, had ordered the lands to

"be

94
** ** **

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
:

OF

BooklX.

be divided

And

tie

fliewed that the order, tlien

made

to the commonwealth, fince by them, was advantageous the view of it was that neither the lands jfhould lie un-

" cultivated, nor the poor, by living at Rome in idlenefs, " which was now the cafe, envy the advantages of others ;
*'

and that young

men might

be brought up for the fervice

*'

of the commonwealth in the habitations, and poffeilions ** of their fathers, and derive fome fpirit from a good edu" cation ; fince fuch, as have no poffeHions of their own,
*'

" and live
ting

miferably on the v/ages they receive for cultivaThofe of others, either do not defire to beget children
if

"
"
*'
*'
•*'

at all, or,

they do, produce a bad and unhappy off-

as fpring, fuch,

may

be expected from low marriages, and

a beggarly education. My opinion, therefore, is, fays he, that theconfuls carry into execution the refolutions, which

were,

" delayed " the

then, paffed by the fenate, and have, fince, by reafon of the intervening tumults, and

been

appoint

perfons,

who

are to divide the lands."

LII. Aemilius having fpoken thus, Appius Claudius, the conful of the former year, being the fecond perfon called " that neither the upon, gave a contrary opinion, and faid,

" "

fenate ever defigned to divide the pofleflions of the public their dcfigns had, fince, been carried into long (otherwife

*'

execution) but only deferred
confideration,

it

to another feafon,
defire

and to

" another " the
(C
'

of putting a fiop to fedition, then, raging, which had been raifed by the

from a
at

conful,
fuffered

who was aiming

tyranny,
:

and,

afterwards,

condign punifiiment

Neither did the confuls,

" who

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN ASSEN SIS.

95

" who were created immediately after this refolution of the " the great fenate, carry the lame into execution, forefeeing
the poor were " once accuftomed to fhare the the public : poffelFions of *' Neither did the confuls of the next fifteen years, though
*'

mifchiefs to

which

this

would give birth,

if

"

many

dangers were brought upon
to the interefl:

them by

" do any thing contrary
*'

the people^ of the public, becaufe

even thefe were not authorized by the refolution of the " fenate to appoint the perfons, who were to divide the
lands,

*'
*'

but the

firft

confuls

:

So

that,

it

neither

you, Valerius, and AemiHus, defcended as

becomes you* are from

"

worthy anceftors ; neither is it fafe for you to propofe the " divilion of lands in this the fenate did not place, fince
direct Let this you to carry it into execution. " evince that you, who have been made confuls
fuffice to

''

fo

many

"
years

after that refolution

was pafTed by the

fenate, are

" not bound by it. Now, concerning thofe, who have either " to themfelves the or
forcibly,
fecretly, appropriated

public

any man knows " that another to which he cannot fupport his enjoys lands,
lands, a

"

few words

will be fufficient

:

If

"
'
'

title

by law,

let

are not, and profecute " For they have been enadled long now, to be enadled " But' Unce, and no length of time has abrogated them. " fmce Aemilius has, alfo, fpoken to the utility of this mea'' fure, and afferted that the divilion of lands will tend to,
:

him give information of it to the him according to the laws, which

confuls,

"

the good of

all,

I will
it
:

" without

refuting

part to pais For he feems to nie to coniider only
tliis
''

not fuffer even

die

ub

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book IX.

the prefent, without any regard to the future ; becaufe the portion of the pubHc lands to be granted to the idle,

and the poor, which feems to him, now, of fmall imone day, produce many great evils Since, portance, will,
:

the cuftom, that accompanies it, and will fubllft, muft For the gratififor ever prove pernicious and dreadful
:

cation of wicked defires does not eradicate,

but inflame

them,

and render them

ftill

more wicked.
I

Let their

adlions convince

you of what
?

fay

:

For, to

what pur-

pofe

fliould

you pay any regard

either to

my

words, or to

Thofe of Aemilius
LIII.
*'

You all know how many enemies we have overcome, how large an extent of country we have ravaged, and how great a quantity of fpoils we have taken in the towns we have conquered, the lofs of which has reduced
the

enemy from

a ftate of opulence, to great want

;

and

who, now, complain of poverty, were deprived of none of thefe fpoils, nor had lefs than their fliare in the
that thofe
diftribution of them.

And, does

it

appear that they have

improved

their former condition
?

in greater fplendor

I

by thefe acquifitions, or live have wifhed, indeed, and prayed to

the gods that it might prove fo, to the end they might become lefs troublefome to the city they inhabit : But,
inftead of that,
their

you

fee,
:

extreme poverty what they now afk, and more, their fortunes would not everi be improved by it For the poverty of thefe men does not
:

and hear them complaining of So that, if you were to grant them

flow from their condition, but from their behaviour;
*'

whom

BookJX.
*'

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A SS EN S I S.
this fmall

97

"

portion of land will be fo far from conof kings, and tyrants tenting, that even all the prefents

whom

" cannot them. And, if we grant them this alfo, fatisfy " we fhall aft like thofe their prefcripphyficians, who, in
For the diftemof their patients " not be cured by this peredpart of the commonwealth will " conceflion, but even the found part will be infefted.
*'

tions, confult the tafte

:

Upon
(C

the whole,

fenators,

it

is

incumbent upon you

to

employ great
with

care,

preferve,
(C

all

and confideration that you may the manners of the poffible vigor,

" " " " "
*'

: people from the corruption, that is ftealing upon them " For the "you fee to what a height the difobedience of

be gopeople is arrived, and that they will, no longer, verned by the confuls ; and were fo far from repenting of what they did here, that they fhewed the fame difobedience even in the army, throwing
leaving their ranks,

down

their arms,

abandoning

their ftandards to

the

enemy, and running away
they ingaged, as
if

in a fhameful

manner before

of the glory of the " without robbing their country, at the fame time, victory, *' of the trophies, which adorn that victory Thefe, now, are *' erected by the Volfci againft the Romans, their temthey could rob
:

"

me

ples
cc (C C(

are adorned with our fpoils,
ever,

now, more than
generals to fave
it

which,

their cities triumph, before, ufed to fupplicate our

and

them from

flavery,

and fubverfion.

Is

then

juft,

fucceffes,

becoming in you to thank them for fuch and to reward them with public grants by a
is it

divifion of thofe lands, which, as far as in

them

lay,

the

Vol. IV.


,

O

*'

enemy

98

ROMAN
enemy

ANTICI.UITIES OF
why
fliould

BooklX.
accufe thefe,

"
*'

are mafters of? But,

we

who, through the want of education, and of birth, pay " httle regard to worthy actions, when we fee that all even " of our own number are not adluated with an ancient fpirit " So far from is called
:

it,

that,

"
"
*'

by fome, gravity
fortitude,

haughti-

nefs; juflice,
fimplicity.

folly;

madnefs, and modefty,
things that were,

On

the other fide, thofe

"
^'

formerly, the obje(5ls of deteftation, are, now, extolled, and looked upon by the corrupted as wonderful qualihcations, fuch as cowardife, buffoonry,

"
"
(C
((

malignity, crafty wifdom, rafhnefs in undertaking every thing that is bad, and eaiinefs in abandoning every thing that is®good;

which have firft feized, and then fubverted many Thefe things, fenators, whether agreeable, ftrong cities.
vices,

or difpleafing to you, have been delivered with

all

truth,

" and freedom; and, to thofc among you, who fhall ap*' of you fhall approve of them) prove of them (if any they " will both a prefent advantage, and a future prove fecurity ; " but, to me, who, to promote the good of the public, brincr " hatred upon myfelf, the caufe of great dangers private " For reafon enables me to forefee what will happen, and I
:

*'

"

conlider the calamities of others, as the examples of own misfortunes."

my
the

LIV. After Appius had ipoken
reft

thus,

and almoft

all

of the fenators had delivered the fame opinion, the fenate
tribunes, refenting their difappointment, after that, coniidered what means

was difmifled. The

departed; and, might take revenge on the

by

they

man

:

They

refolved, therefore,
after

BooklX.
after a

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S SE NS

I S.
:

99

his life And long confultation, to try Appius for to that refolution, accufed him in an having, purfuant defircd all to be prefent on aflembly of the people, they

the day they fliould appoint, in order to give their votes The accufations they defigned to bring concerning him.

him were thefe: That he had given pernicious againft counfels againft the people ; introduced a fedition into the laid hands on a tribune, contrary to the facred laws ;. ;
city

and,

having the
lofs,

command

of the army, returned

home

with
thefe

and great infamy.

The

tribunes, having declared

and appointed a certain on which they faid they would go through with the day, trial, they fummoned him to appear on that day, and make
accufations in the aflembly,
his defence.

prepared

All the patricians, refenting this proceeding, themfelves with the greateft zeal to fave the

man
he
his

;

but,

when

they advifed Appius

to

fubmit to his

Situation,
faid,

and appear in a manner fuitable to his condition, he would do nothing ungenerous, or unworthy of
a(3:ions
;

former

and that he had rather die a thoufand
:

deaths,

when
favor,

than throw himfelf at the feet of any man And, his friends were prepared to intreat the in his people

be doubly afliamed to fee others do That for him, which he thought unbecoming to do even for himfelf. After he had faid this,
it,

he oppofed

faying that

he

fliould

and many other things
changed
his drefs,

of the like nature, and neither altered the fiercenefs of his looks, nor
fpirit,

abated any thing of his

upon

his trial,

every one intent and anxioufly expeding the event of it, and 2 that

when he faw

O

loo
that, a

ROMAN
kw

ANTIQJJITIES OF
before
it

Book IX.

on, he days only were left, However, his friends pretended that put himfelf to death. When his body was brought to the he died of ficknefs.

was to come

forum,

his fon

went

to the tribunes,

and

confuls,

and defired

they would aflemble the people in the manner ufual upon fuch occafions, and give him leave to make an oration upon the death of his father, according to the pra6lice of the
'

of worthy men But the tribunes, while the confuls were calling the aflembly, oppofed it, and ordered the youth to take away the dead body. However, the people would not fuffer it, nor bear to fee the body caft out withignominy ; but gave leave to the youth to perform the This was the end of Appius. cuftomary honors to his father. LV. The confuls, having raifed the armies, led them out

Romans

at the funerals

:

Lucius Valerius marching againft the Aequi, and Tiberius Aemilius againft the Sabines For thefe had made an irruption into the country of the Romans, during the fedition and, having plundered a great part of it, were
of the city
;
:
',

returned
ingao-ed;

home with

a confiderable booty.

The Aequi

often

being wounded, was ftronglyfituated, and, from to their camp,which they fled that time, never came out to fight. Valerius endeavoured to

and, great numbers of their

men

camp, but was hindered by the gods from effecling it For, after he had approached the camp, and begun the attack, the heavens were covered with darknefs, and there
force their
:

accompanied with lightning, and terrible thunder ; and, as foon as the army was difperfed, the ftorm ceafed, and over that place the fky was clear.
fell

a prodigious rain,

TJie

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

loi

conful, looking upon this as an omen, and the aiio-urS) at the fame time, diffuading him from befieging the

The

camp,

contempt and expecting no enemy, he was attacked by of the Sabines, and a pitched battle was the army fought, which began about noon, and lafted till fun fet ; and when, it was dark, the two armies retired to their camps, without

country ; and, the booty he met with, he reWhile Tiberius Aemilius was turned home with his army. of over-running the enemy's country with great
it,

he was deterred from
having given to his

and
all

laid wafte their

men

them

at firft,

either conquering, or being

conquered

:

The

following days,

the senerals buried each their

own

dead, and fortified their

camps with ditches ; and both of them took the fame refolution, which was to defend their own camps; and not to
ingage in another adtion.

At

laft,

they ftruck their tents,

and withdrew their forces. LVI. The year following, which was the feventy eighth Olympiad, at which Parmenides of Pofidonia won the prize
of thefladium,Theagenides being annual archon at Athens, Aulus Virginius Nomentanus, and Titus Numicius Prifcus

were chofen

confuls.

They had no

fooner entered

upon

than news was brought tliat the Vollci were advancing with a numerous army. And, not long after, one of the fortreffes of the Romans was furprifed,
their magiftracy,

and

fet

on fire
it

:

This

fortrefs

was near Rome, and the fmoke

informed the citizens of the misfortune.
confuls,

Upon

this,

the

being yet night, fent fome horfe to difcover the motions ot the enemy ; and, having placed guards upon the
walls.

loz
walls,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book IX.

who

report in the city were ailembled, they

and pofled themfelves before the gates with thofe were beft prepared for expedition, they waited for the of the horfe. As foon as it was day, and all the forces

marched

againft the

enemy

:

Thefe,
it,

after they

had plundered the

fortrefs,

and

fet fire to

retired in hafte.

The

confuls extinguifhed the fire; and,

the fortrefs, returned to Rome. few leaving a garrifon in of them took the field with their own forces, days after, both

A

and thofe of their allies, Virginius marching againft the Aequi, and Numicius againft the Volfci The war fucceeded according to the defire of both: For the Aequi, when Virginius was laying wafte their country, durft not
:

venture an ingagement ; but, having placed an ambufh of chofen men in the woods with orders to fall the

upon

enemy when difperfed, the Romans foon difcovering
adlion infued, in

they were difappointed of their hopes,
their

defign

;

when

a ftiarp
:

which the Aequi

loft

many of their men

from that time, they declined even to try the fortune Neither did Numicius find of another ingagement. any "^ to oppofe him, while he was to army marching Antium,
So
that,

which was,

at that time,
all

of the Volfci ; but
In the

one of the moft confiderable cities the people of that nation were forced
their

to defend themfelves

from the walls of

refpedive

cities.

mean

and

'^

time, great part of their country was laid wafte, a fmall fea-port town was taken, in which there was
as Sigonius fays it is in theold editions, ' Ccrio. this is the

26- Aw^alai/ arciA<k. See the fifty feventh annotation on the fourth book. ^T mAix""^ T<f fTiG^-Aarliof. " Livy

calls this fmall fea-port

town

Cena, or,

prefent Nettuno^ ftood on the eaft of Antium, upon the little river Loracina.
jt
iii.

U

«B.ii, C.63.

"Cluver.Iul. Antiq. B.

p.

987.

a dock

CooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENS IS.
fliips,

103

a dock for their
life
;

and a market

for all the neceflaries

of

and thither they ufed to carry the many prizes
their piracies
:

they,

madjp by

The

conful gave leave to the

army

to plunder the place of the flaves, effedls, cattle, and merchandife: But all the free men, who had efcaped military execution, were dire(5led to be fold publicly : There were,

taken twenty two long (hips belonging to the Antiates, the rigging, and furniture of other : together with fliips
aifo,

by order of the conful, deftroyed the dock, and demolifhed the walls So that, even after their departure, the to the foundations
fet
fire
:

After that,

the

Romans

to the houfes

fortrefs

was no longer of any ufe to the Antiates.
:

Thefe

were the exploits of the two confuls, while they adled They, afterwards, joined their forces, and made feparately an incuriion into the territories of the Sabines ; and, having And laid them wafte, returned home with their forces.
thus the year ended.

Titus Quintius Capitolinus, and Quintus Servilius Prifcus having entered upon the confulthe national forces of the Romans were in arms, and fhip,
after,

LVII. The year

thofe of their allies prefented themfelves of their own accord, before they had notice fent them of the intended" expedition.

And
gods,

the confuls, after they had offered up their vows to the and performed the luflration of the army, went out

The Sabines, againft whom Servilius the enemy. marched, neither came to an ingagcment, nor took the
ao-ainft

field

but, continuing in their ftrong places, fuffcred their lands to be laid wafle, their houfes to be burned, and their
;

llaves

IC4
flaves to

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
defert
:

OF

Book IX.

So that, the Romans retired out of their country with great eafe, loaded with fpoils, and exulting in This was the event of the expedition contheir fuccefs. dueled by
Quintius
Servilius.

The

forces,

which marched under

the Aequi, and the Volfci (for thofe, who were to fight for the common caufe, were gathered together in one place from both the nations, and had incamped beagainfl:

fore the city 'of the Antiates) advancing with greater expedition than ufual, appeared before them, and laid down their

baggage not far from the enemy's camp, in a low place, where they firft had been feen by, and feen, the enemy, to avoid the appearance of fearing the number of their forces,
to their own. When both armies were greatly fuperior ready for the battle, they advanced to the plain ; and, till noon, neither of them ingaging, fought yielding to, or

the other, and both continuing to relieve that part which fulTered with frefh But the troops and the Volfci, being more numerous than the

gaining ground upon,

:

Aequi,

Romans, found the
by that
n^eans,

greateft benefit

from

this relief;

and,

had the advantage over the enemy, whole
lie

number was not equal

many of his men

to their courage. Quintius, feeing dead, and that the greateft part of thofe

who

furvived were

wounded, was upon the point of oider-

to be founded ; but, fearing left the enemy ing a retreat fhould look upon this retreat as a flight, he refolvcd to make

with him the beft of his horfc, flew apufti: And, taking to the right, which fuflt^red moft ; where he upbraided the officers themfelves with want of courage, put them in mind
of

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A RN A S SE N SIS.

105

of their former exploits ; fhewed them to what fliame, and danger they would be expofed to, if they offered to ;
fly

.nnd, at laft, afferted a thing that

was not

true,

which con-

tributed

more than

all

he had

faid, to inl'pire his
:

own men
to flight,

with confidence, and the enemy with fear
that their other

He

told them,

wing had,

already, put the

enemy

camp. Having faid this, he charged the Volfci ; and, leaping from his horfe, he, with the chofen horfe he had brought with him, fought hand to
thofe whofe fpirits fl-agged till then, were animated, and, as it they were become other men, all rufhed

and were advanced to

their

hand.

Upon

this,

upon the enemy.

And

the Volfci (for thefe flood oppolite

to them) after a long reflftance, gave way. Quintius, having to flight, mounted his horfe ; and, riding to the put thefe other wing, fliewed to the foot pofl:ed there that part of the

enemy which was overcome, and exhorted them not

to
t

behave themfelves with lefs bravery than the others. LVIII. After this, none of the enemy ftood their ground
but
all fled

;

together to their camp.

However, the Romans

did not purfue them far; but, being themfelves fpent with no longer, in the fame condition, they toil, and their arms,

And, after a few days were paffed, for which a truce in order to bury their dead, and they had made recover their wounded, they fupplied themfelves with every thing that was wanting, and fought another battle before
returned.
their

For the Volfci, and the Aequi, having received a reinforcement from the neighbouring fortrefl^s, their
:

own camp
grew

general

full

of confidence, becaufe his forces werCj

Vol. IV.

P

now,

io6

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
five times
;

Book IX.

now, even

more numerous than Thofe of the

enemy

and, obferving the

camp of

the

Romans not

to be

he thought this the beft opportunity to ftrongly fituated, attack them. Having formed this defign, he led his army
to their

camp about midnight;

and, furrounding

it

with

his

men, took care they fhould not fteal away. Quintius, being informed of the number of the enemy, was glad they had refolved upon the attack of his camp ; and ftayed till it
was day, and
crouded
;

the markets are, ufually, then, obferving that the enemy were, already,
till

the hour,

when

fpent both with want of fleep, and fkirmifhing, and advanced neither in their centuries, nor ranks, but promifcuoufly,

and

fcattered here
fallied

and

there, he

camp, and

out with his
followed.
at the

opened the gates of the chofen horfe ; and the foot,

doubling their
their boldnefs,

files,

The

Volfci, aftonifhed at

and

fhort refiftancc,

madnefs of their onfet, after a were repulfed, and retired from the camp

of the Romans.

There flood not

far

from

it

a

hill

of a

mo-

derate height : Thither they haftened, with a defign both to reft themfelves, and, after that, to form again ; but they had no leifure given them either to form, or to recover themfelves
:

For the enemy followed them

at their heels, clofing

their files as

much
their

as

pofilble,

to the

end

that, while they

were forcing

way up
Here

not be borne down.
lafted great part
fides.

the rifing ground, they might followed a fharp action, which

of the day, and

many

fell

dead on both

though fuperior in number, and defended by the advantage of the ground, received no benefit from
Volfci,
either
;

The

Book IX.
either;

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
but, being forced by the ardor,
;

107

and bravery of the
:

Romans, they abandoned the hill and, in flying to their For camp, the greateft part of them were cut in pieces the Romans gave them no refpite in the purfuit ; but foU lowed them clofe, and never gave over the chafe till they had taken their camp by ftorm ; and, having made all the

men

prifoners,

who were

left

in the

camp, and taken a

great many horfes, there that night:

arms, and baggage, they incamped And the following day, the conful,

having prepared every thing that was neceffary for a fiege, marched with his army to the city of the Antiates, which

was not above

thirty ftadia

diftant

from the camp.

It

happened that fome auxiliary forces, fent by the Aequi to the Antiates, were then in the city, and had the guard
of the walls
dreading the boldnefs of the Romans, endeavoured to efcape out of the place ; but, being pre;

who

vented by the Antiates,
refolved to deliver

who had

notice of their

defign, they
as

up
:

the city to the

Romans,

foon as

The Antiates, being informed of this, they came before it to the neceiTity they were under ; and, yielded concerting meafures with the Aequi, furrendered the city to Quintius
upon
thefe conditions
;

that the

Aequi Oiould have

leave to

depart, and that the Antiates fhould receive a garrifon, and The conful, havinoobey the commands of the Romans. made himfelf mafter of the city thefe terms, and

upon

received provilions, and every thing elfe he wanted for his army, placed a garrifon there, and returned to Rome with
his forces.

In coniideration of his fucccfs, the fenate, came

P

2

out

io8

ROMAN
;

ANTIQ^llTIES OF

Book IX.

and, having receiv^ed him with great marks of favor, honoured him with a triumph.

out to meet him

LIX. The following

year,

the

confuls were Tiberius

Aemilius for the fecond time, and Quintus Fabius, the fon of one of the three brothers, who commanded the forces
fent to the defence of

Cremera, and were put to the fword

there, together with their clients.

As

the tribunes,

fup-

ported by Aemilius, one of the confuls, were, again, ftirring up the people on account of the divifion of lands, the fenatc,

with a view both to court, and relieve the poorer fort, pafled an order to divide among them fome part of the country of
the Antiates, which they had conquered the year before, And the triumvirs, appointed to divide and now poflefled.

were Titus Quintius Capitolinus, to whom the Antiates had furrendered themfelves, and with him Lucius
thefe lands,

But the generality of the Furius, and Aulus Virginius. people, and the poor, who looked upon themfelves as driven
out of their country,

and few giving in their colony was not complete, to permit fuch of the Latines, The triumvirs, and Hernici, as were willing, to join it. who were fent to Antium, divided the land among their own

were difpleafed with this divillon ; names, the fenate refolved, fince the

certain part of it to the Antiates. In the people, leaving a mean time, both the confuls took the field, Aemilius

the Sabines, and Fabius againft the Aequi. Aemilius, having flaid a conliderable time in the enemy's

marching

againfl:

So that, after country, found no army there to defend it he had ravaged it with impunity, the eledion of magiftratcs
:

drawing

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A R N ASSEN SI S.
returned

109

drawing near, he

home with

his

army.

The

Aequi fent embaffadors to Fabiiis to treat of a reconciUation, and friendlliip, before they were compelled to either by the
defeat of their army, or the lofs of their towns
:

The

conful,
his

having exaded from them two months provifions for

army, two vefts for every nian, and fix months pay, and whatever elfe he thought neceflliry, concluded a truce with them,
obtain a peace from the fenate ; who, hearing what had paffed, gave to Fabius to make peace with the Aequi upon fuch terms, full
till

they could go to

Rome, and

power

as

he himfelf fliould think

fit.

After that, the two nations

entered into a league, by the interpofition of the conful, upon thefe conditions : That the Aequi fhould, for the future, be
to the Romans without being difpofi^fled either of fubje£t their cities, or their territories ; and that they fhould not be

obliged to fend any thing to the Romans but troops, when ordered, to be maintained at their own expence. Fabius,

having

made

this

treaty, returned

together with his the following year.

army, and, nominated the magiftrates for collegue,

home with

his

Spurius Poftumius Albinus, and Quintus Servilius Prifcus for the In their confuKhip, the Aequi came to a fecond time.
confuls,

LX. The

named by them, were

'^

refolution to violate the treaty lately
-^'

made with

the

Romans,

Ssro^io? nofs^jMiof AA€iKif.

'^

Livy

this

conful
;

rails thefe confuls Q^ Servilius, and Sp. Poftumius, without any addition. I'he Fafii confulares of Peravius call
yB.

Regillenfis

Sp. Poftumius Albanus and others Sp. Poftumius

Albus

Regillenfis.

iii.

c.

2.

upon

no
pofTeffed

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
The

OF

BooklX.

upon the following occafion:

Antiates,

who were

of houfes, and lands, continued ftill in the country, the lands appropriated to themfelve?J cultivating, not only, but, alfo, Thofe allotted by the triumvirs to the colony,

under an ingagement to pay to thefe a certain proportion But thofe, who had neither, left the city ; of the produce
:

and, the Aequi willingly receiving them, they fet out from thence, and committed robberies upon the territories of the
After that, fuch of the Aequi, as were bold and thefe robbers: And, when the Latines lamented poor, joined their condition in the fenate, and defired them either to fend
Latines.

an army to their relief, or to fuifer them to revenge themfelves on the aggrefTors, the fenate, upon hearing their comdid not think fit either to fend an army, or to fuffcr plaint,
the Latines to take arms; but, appointing three embaffadors, of whom Quintus Fabius, who had concluded the
that nation, treaty with

was the

chief, they ordered

them

to inquire of the principal perfons of that people, whether they had fent out thefe bands of robbers, by a general confent, into the territories

of their

allies,

and into Thofe of the
incurfions

Romans

(for

there had been

fome

made upon
:

by the fugitive Antiates) or whether the public had no hand in any thing which had happened And, if they faid the adions complained of had been committed by without the confent of the to deperfons,
thefe, alfo,

private

people,

mand
factors

reftitution of the things ftolen,

and that the male-

might be delivered up to them.

Upon

the arrival of

the embafifadors, the Aequi,

having heard their propofils,
gave

BooklX.
crave

DIONYSIUS H AL ICARN ASSE N SIS.
evafive anfvvers
;

m

them

faying, indeed, that the robberies

had not been committed with the approbation complained of of the public; but refufing to deHver up the guilty perfons, who, being driven out of their city, and becoming wanderers,

had implored
;

their protection.

Fabius,

refenting

their violation of the this, protefted againft treaty they

had

made with him
tain

and,

feeing the

defired time to confider of his

Aequi diflembled, and propofals, and fought to dehofpitality,

him under the pretence of

he took that

in order to pry into their afopportunity of ftaying there, fairs; and, vifiting every part of their city, under the color of feeing their public places, and their temples, and parti-

the fhops of their armourers, where he found fome arms already made, and others making, he difcovered their
cularly

defign

:

And, returning

to

Rome, informed

the fenate both

And the fenate, without of what he had heard, and feen. came to a refolution to fend the feciales hefitating any longer, with orders to declare war againft the Aequi, unlefs they
fent

away the

fugitive Antiates,

and ingaged to do juftice

gave haughty anfwers to the no fecret of their difpofition to accept feciales, and made But the Romans were not at liberty to fend an the war. them that year ; either by reafon of a divine
to the injured.

The Aequi

army

againft

prohibition,

or

on account of the diftempers, with which

the people were afthded during great part of it : However,, a fmallarmy, fent to defend their allies, under the command

of Quintus Servilius, one of the confuls, incamped on the At Rome, his collcgue, Spurius frontiers of the Latines. Poftu-

©

Ii2

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
''

Book IX.

Dius Fidius, upon confccrated the temple of the '" Quiiinal hill, on the day called the nones of June; which had, indeed, been built by Tarquin, the laft
Poftiimius,

temple not confecrated in his reign with the ceremoking, but the Romans. By order, therefore, of the nies in ufe
fenate, the

among name of Poftumius

was,

upon

this occafion, in-

fcribed

on the temple. Nothing elfe worth

relating

happened

during their confulfliip. LXI. In the feventy ninth Olympiad, at which Xenoof Corinth won the prize of the ftadium, Archedemides

phon

Titus Quintius. Capitolinus, and being archon at Athens, Quintus Fabius Vibulanus entered upon the confulfhip ;
the third time by the Quintius being appointed conful for Both thefe the fenate for the fecond. people, and Fabius
fent into the field at the head of

numerous armies well

Quintius provided the Roman frontiers,
:

was appointed to defend that part of that lay contiguous to Thofe of the

of the Aequi: enemy; and Fabius, to harrafs the country Thefe Fabius found waiting for him on their own confines After each of them had formed their with a great army.

camps

in the

moft advantageous

pofts,

they advanced to

the plain, and the Aequi provoking the Romans to an inthe onfet, they continued fighting gagement, and beginning of the day with refolution, and confhancy : every great part man placing his hopes of victory in himfelf alone But, the
:

«9-

Ta
Ett*

Ui^iv Aiof. See the ninety
tb EvvixAiis

firft

the

Mons^irimlis, now called, Alonle

annotation on the fecond book.
3°' ^o(pii.

Cavallo.

This was

fwords

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS H A L IC ARN AS S EN SIS.

113

fwords of the greateft part becoming ufclcfs by their rethe generals ordered a retreat to be founded, peated ftrokes, After this adlion, no and both returned to their camps.
pitched

and

battle was fought, but continual fldrmifhes happened, armed men, as they were goingagements of the light

and efcorting convoys. ing out for water,
occafions,
it

advantage. other roads that were unarmy of the Aequi, marching by an irruption into that part of the Roman guarded, made at the greateft diftance from the fronterritories, which
lay

feldom happened that either During thefe tranfadlions, a detachment of the

And, upon theie of them had the

reafon defencelefs ; from whence they tiers, and was for that took many captives, and effeds ; and returned home without debeing difcovered by the parties fent out by Quintius to

fend the country.

The fame

and expofed the confuls to

thing happened continually, After this, great obloquy.

Fabius, being informed by his fcouts, and by the prifoout of their camp with nersj that the Aequi were gone the beft of their forces, he himfelf marched in the night, at

the head of a chofen body both of horfe, and foot, leaving the camp. thofe, who were the mofl: advanced in age, to guard

Aequi, having plundered the country into which they had made an incurfion, were returning to their camp with a oreat booty ; but they had not proceeded far, before Fabius himfelf before them; and, having taken away

The

prefented

their booty, defeated thofe

brave reliftance

:

The

ftood their ground, after a reft difperfed themfelves ; and, being

who

and fled acquainted with the roads, efcaped the purfuers, to Vol. IV. CL

JI4

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
The

OF

Book IX.

to their camp.

misfortune,
ftirred

Aeqiil, ftruck with this iinexpeded decamped in the night; and, after that, never

out of their city ; but fuffered their corn, which was then fit to cut, to be carried off by the enemy in their fight ;
their herds of cattle to be driven

away

;

their effects to

be

feized

country houfes to be fet on fire, and many After this action, Fabius, the time to be taken. prifoners
;

their

being come for the returned home with

confuls to refign their power to others, his army : As did alfo Quintius.

LXII.

When

they

came

to

Rome,

they declared Aulus

Poftumius Albus,and^' SpuriusFurius confuls. Thefe had, no fooner, entered upon their magiftracy, than meflengers fent in
hafte arrived from their allies the Latines,
into the fenate, informed

who being introduced

them

that the Antiates were not to

be depended upon, fince the Aequi were, continually, fendinor deputies to them fecretly, and great numbers of Volfci under the color of buying and were introduced there by thofe, who had, provifions, before, left the city of the Antiates through want, when their
reforted to their
city openly,

lands were divided
ferted to the Aequi.
this corruption

among

the

Romans,

as

I laid,

and deeven to

They,
colony
;

alfo,

informed the fenate that
itfelf

of the inhabitants had fpread

many

of their

own

and

that,

unlefs their deligns

were prevented by the impofition of a fuflicient garrifon, an the Romans. unexpe<flcd war would arifefrom thence againft
!'•

Sc-oo.cv

ip^^iov.

I

believe

the

vy,

praenomen of rhis conful was millak-n ' by the tranfLribers, becaule both Li•

and the Fnj^i Spurius Fiirius.

ccnfuLires call hi:n

B.

,

Li. c.

4.

Not

Book IX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS,
after

115

meffengers, others came from the a numerous army of the Aequi liernici, with advice that

Not lon^

thefe

were come out of

their confines,

and

lay

incamped

in their

that the Volfci ; country, where they plundered every thing had joined the Aequi upon this occafion ; and that the
o-reateft part
this,

of their army confifted of the former. Upon the fenate came to a refolution to fend another garriibn

to quell thofe

who were

raifing

difturbances

among

the

Antiates,

and to fecure the

city {for

fome of them were

come

to

Rome

had no good
confuls,

to juftify themfelves, and it was vifible they that Spurius Furius, one of the defign) and

fhould march with an

army
field.

againft

And
ino-

both armies foon took the
that the

The

the Aequi. Aequi, hear-

Romans were upon

their

from the

When

that day

of the Hernici, in in fight of one another, they incamped they came The day after, the enemy diftance at no
territories

march, decamped order to meet them.

great

:

advanced to the camp of the Romans in order to found their intentions ; but thefe not coming out to fight, the
others fkirmifhed
able exploit,

and, without performing any confiderreturned in triumph. The next day, the Roman
;

conful

decamped
his

(for

the place was not very fecure) and
poft,

formed

camp

in a

more advantageous
it Vv^ith

where he funk
of a greater

a deeper ditch, and ftrengthened
height.

palifades

feeing this, were greatly encouraged ; and flill more, after they had received a reinforcement both from the Volfci, and the Aequi : So that, without further

The enemy,

led their forces to the delay, they

camp of q^2

the

Romans.
Lxiii.

n6
LXIII.

ROMAN
The

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book IX.

command was
nations, fent

conful, con{idering that the army under his not fufficientlyftrong to encounter both thefe
his horfe to

fome of

Rome

with

letters,

by

which he defired
After thefe
(it

that a reinforcement might, fpeedily, be fent to him, his army being in danger of a total defeat.

were received by his collegue Poftumius being about midnight when the horfe arrived) he allemletters

bled the fenate by difpatching feveral meffengers to the houfes of the fenators ; and, before it was broad day light, they

came

to a refolution,

that Titus Quintius,

who had

been

thrice conful, fhould inftantly

againft the enemy, in of proconful, at the head of the braveft youth both quality foot, and horfe ; and that Aulus Poftumius, the other conful,

march

of the troops, that could not fo fooa be brought together, and go to the ailiftance of the Roman army with all expedition. It was now day light, and Quinfhould affemble the
reft

tius

had affembled about fivethoufand voluntiers, with whom The Aequi had a he, prefently, marched out of the city. For which reafon, they refolved to attack, fufpicion of this
:

the

camp of

the

Romans,

before the fuccours fhould

arriv^e,

in expectation of forcing it by their numbers; and, with this view, they divided their army into two bodies, and all

of them came out of their camp. The attack was maintained with great vigor during the whole day ; and the

enemy, mounted the intrenchments in many places, boldly though expofed to a continual fhower of javelins, arrows, and ftones thrown by flings, could not be repulfed. Here,

who

the conful,

and the legate encouraging one another, both
opened

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A RN ASSEN SI S.

117

opened the gates at the fame time; and, Tallying out upon the enemy with the braveft of their men, attacked them on
of the camp, and put to flight thofe, who were mounting the intrenchments. The enemy now giving way, the conful, after a fliort purfuit of thofe who fled before

both

iides

him, returned
carried

:

But

his brother

and

legate, Publius Furius,

on by his courage and ardor, followed the enemy to their camp, charging them as they fled, with great flaughter. He had with him two cohorts, not exceeding a thouland
men. As foon
faw
this,

as the

enemy,

who were about
their

five

thoufand,
:

they

ruflied

upon him from

camp

Some

attacked his
fell

men in

front, while their horfe,

upon

their rear.
ofl"

The
from

wheeling about, of Publius being thus furtroops
their

rounded, and cut
it

own army, when

they had

in their
(for

arms

by delivering up their the enemy invited them to this, and were exbravefl:

power to

fave their lives

tremely defirous to take a thoui^nd of the the Romans prifoners, in order to obtain,

among

through their

means, an honourable peace) they defpifed the terms offered them ; and, exhorting one another to do nothing unworthy
of their country, they many of the enemy.
all

died fighting, after they had killed

being flain, the Aequi, elated with their fuccefs, advanced to the camp of the Romans, bearing aloft the

LXIV. Thefe

head of Publius, and Thofe of the other confiderable perfons,
fixed to their fpears, in expectation that fo dreadful a fpeftacle would terrify them, and compel them to deliver up their

arms.

The Romans

were, indeed,

moved wiih compaflion
at

ii8

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
and lamented

BooklX.

at the calamity of the flain,

their misfortune;

but they were infpired with a double ardor for the fight, and with a noble pailion cither to conquer, or to die like them
rather .than furrender.
their lay before

That night therefore, while the enemy

camp, the Romans continued awake, and employed themfelves in refloring thofe parts of it, that were impaired, and in contriving many and various things to repulfe

The

the enemy, if they attempted to renew the attack. next day, the aflault was repeated, and the palifades were

pulled by the

up in many places The Aequi were often repulfed Romans, when thefe fallied out upon them in a body ;
:

and,

when the Romans advanced with too much boldnefs,

they

were often forced back by the others. This lafted the whole day : Here, the Roman conful was wounded in the thigli by a javelin, that pierced his fhield, and many other perfons
of
diftindtion,
this time,

By

who fought by his fide, were alfo wounded. the Romans ^ere fpent with toil, when Quin-

unexpectedly, appeared about the clofe of the evening, at the head of the reinforcement of choice voluntiers. At the fight of thefe, the enemy retired, and raifed the ineftius,

fedual fiege

and the Romans, fallying out upon them in their retreat, put the hindmoft to the fword However, as the greateft part of the former were weakened by their wounds, they did not purfue them far, but foon returned : And, after this, both remained a coniiderable time in their
;
:

camps, adling upon the detenfive.
After that, another body of the Aequi, and Volfci, a proper opportunity to plunder the tliinking this country of
the

LXV.

BooklX.
the

DIONYSIUS HAL ICARNASSENSIS.

rig

Romans, while their bell: troops were in the field marched out in the night ; and, entering that part of their territories that was moft remote, and where the huihandmen feemed to be under no apprehenfion, they pofleffed themfelves

of

many

captives,

and a great booty.

But the event

of

this
:

return

expedition proved unfortunate to For the other conful, Poftumius,

them

in

their

being informed

the enemy, while he was marching to the relief of the Romans, then befieged in their

of

this enterprife ot

camp,

appeared

before

them unexpeftedly.
baggage,

Thefe were neither
having, at booty in a ftrong defend it, the reft
but,

aftonifhed, nor terrified at his approach ; their leifure, fecured their and
place,

guard to marched in good order to encounter the Romans; and, ingaging, performed many memorable adtions ; a kw mainleft

and

a

fufiicient

taining the fight againft great

numbers

(for

many came

to

the afliftance of the
lightly

Romans from
:

armed, againft men, fecured with armour However, they

the country) and thofe whole bodies were, intirely,
killed

many of

the

and, though intercepted in an enemy's country, were very near ereding a trophy themfelves againft thofe, who had come to attack them But the conful, and the

Romans;

:

chofen men, charging, with their horfes unbridled, that part of the enemy that was firmeft, and fought with the greateft refolution, they broke
all

Roman

horfe that was with him,

them, and killed great numbers Thofe in the front beingflain, the reft gave way, and fied: And the men appointed
:

to guard the baggage,

abandoned

it,

and ran

to the neigh-

bouring

120

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book IX.

In the action, few of them were ilain ; bouring mountains. but very many in the rout, as they were both unacquainted

with the country, and purfued by the Roman horfe. LXVI. While thefe things were tranfadting, the other
conful, Spurius, being informed that his collegue was comthe enemy fliould go ing to his afliftance, and fearing left

out to meet him, and intercept

his

march, refolved

to divert

them from

this

defign by attacking their
as

camp

:

But the

enemy prevented him by decamping,

foon as they were

informed of the misfortune of their forces by thofe, who had fled from the defeat; and, the night after the action,
they retired to their
city,

without performing every thing

loft their they had propofed ; iince, befides thofe, who had lives in the adions, and in plundering, they loft many more in their retreat For, fuch of them, as were opprefl'ed with
:

toil,

and weakened with the
their limbs failing

lofs

of blood, marched ilowly ;

them, they dropped down, particuthe fountains, and rivers, to quench their thirft : larly at Thefe the Roman horfe overtaking, put to death Neither
:

and

did the

home with complete fuccefs from this campaign: For they loft many brave men in the feveral adlions, and a legate, who had diftinthemfelves
return
guiftied

Romans

himfelf above

all

the reft in that battle

:

with them a vidlory inferior to none. they brought were the tranfadions of this confulftiip.

However, Thefe

LXVII. The next
Servilius Prifcus
flidled

were

year, Lucius Aebutius, and Publius confuls ; when the Romans, being af-

with a peftilential diftemper more feverely than ever,

performed

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENS IS.
memorable
firft

i2r

performed nothing This diftemper affairs.

either in military, or civil attacked the ftuds of mares,

and herds of oxen, and then feized the flocks of goats, and fheep, and deftroyed almoft all the quadrupeds After that, it
:

and hufbandmen ; and, having fpread It itfelf through the whole country, it infeded the city. was no eafy matter to difcover the number of fervants,
fell

upon the

fliepherds

workmen, and
For, at
lirft,

the poorer fort, who were carried off by it : the dead bodies were in carts by conveyed

away

of the perfons of leaft heaps ; confequence into the river But of the fenate, the fourth were thrown
and, at laft, thofe
:

to have died of it; part was computed among whom were both the confuls, and the greateft part of the tribunes.

This diftemper began about the calends of September, and continued all that year; feizing' and deflroying, without When diftindion, perfons of both fexes, and all ages.
the neighbouring people were informed of the calamity, with which the Romans were afflidled, the Aequi, and the
Volfci thought this a proper jundlure to fubvert their emand, with this view, they entered into an alliance, ;
pire

which they confirmed by their oaths And, having prepared every thing that was neceflary for a fiege, they drew out
:

their forces

with

all

expedition.

And,

in order to
allies,

deprive

the

Romans of

the affiftance of their

vaded the

territories

of the Latines,

they firft inand of the Hernici.

Lucius Aebutius, one of the confuls, happened to die on the
very day the deputies from thefe nations, then invaded, came to the fenate to beg afliffance. However, Publius Servilius,

Vol. IV.

R

who

122

ROMAN
:

ANTIQJJITIES OF

BooklX.

who was
beino-

then dying, and could juft breathe, ordered the And the greateft part of the fenators fenate to aflemble

the deputies zens, that the fenate gave

brought half dead in litters, after confultation, direfted who were then prefent, to acquaint their citi-

them

leave to repulfe the

enemy

by

their

own

courage,

till

the conful was recovered, and the

forces defigned for their relief

were

raifed.

After this an-

fwer, the Latines removed every thing they could out of the country, into their cities ; and, placing guards upon But the the walls, fuffered all the reft to be deftroyed.

Hernici, refenting the ruin, and defolation of their country, ran to arms, and came out of their cities. They ingaged

with great bravery

and, having loft many of their own men, and put ftill more of the enemy to the fword, they were forced to take refuge within their walls, and did not,
j

after that,

venture another ingagement: LXVIII. When the Aequi, and Volfci had laid wafte

their country, they

marched without

reiiftance into
this

the Tufculani.

And, having plundered
it,

That of alfo, none

they arrived at the territories of the Sabines. They pafled through their territories with the fame Their approach alarmed the eafe, and advanced to Rome.
offering to defend
city fufficiently
:

However, they could not make themfelves mafters of it For the Romans, though in a weak condition, and having loft both the confuls (for Servilius was lately dead) armed themfelves with greater vigor tlian ftrength,
:

and lined the walls, the circuit of which was, of the fame extent with That of Athens Some
:

at that time,

parts of thefe
walls.

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A S S EN S
on
hills,

1 S.

123

and being fortified by nature itfelf with fteep rocks, required but few men to defend them; and others were defended by the Tiber, the breadth of
walls, {landing

which

is

about four hundred

feet,

and the depth capable of

and the ftream of it is as rapid as That carrying large fliips ; of any other river, and forms great eddies : There is no it on foot, unlefs it is over a bridge ; and there was, pafling at that time, only one, which was built with timber, and
taken to pieces in time of war:
is

The

weakeftpart of the city

from the gate called Efquilina, to That named Collina, which interval is rendered ftrong by art: For there is a ditch funk before it above one hundred feet in breadth,
depth; on the on the inlide with edge of this ditch ftands a wall, fupported fo high and broad a rampart, that it can neither be fhaken thrown down by undermining the by battering rams, nor This rampart is about feven ftadia in length, foundations

where

it

is

the narroweft,

and

thirty

in

:

and
the

fifty

feet in breadth.

drawn up

in
;

Here the Romans were, then, and from hence they repulfed great numbers,

of that age being unacquainted with the ftrudure either of towers to fill up ditches, called ^' or of the machines, particularly XsT^ccmi

enemy

the

men

XuT^i^sg, Thrmfes,
:^w5-§i^E?.

32-

XiXuvai

The

ufe
"

of

their

this

x'^^'i

(fof ^here

were feveral

kinds of them) is defcribed by Polyof the bius, where he gives an account
fiecre

name) and, alfo, to alTault the walls, which they equalled in height, The ftrufirure of them is defcribed by ' ^ Caefar fays that TreVitruvius.

carried

on by Philip againft the
inten-

bonius,
tejkidines

who commanded
made
(for fo

the fiege of

The the Echinaeenfes. city of tion of them was to fill up the ditches
(from whence,
»B.
I

Marfeilles,

ufe of one of tliefc

imagine, they had
571.
''B. X. c. 20.

the
>=

Romans)
De

they were called by that was fixty teet in
ii.

ix. p.

Bell, civili, B.

c. 2.

.

R2

con-

124

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
^'

Book IX.
:

contrived for the taking of towns, called

EAsrroTis/;

The

dcfpairing of* fuccefs in their attempt to take the city, retired from the walls ; and, having laid wafte all the country tliey marched through, returned home with

enemy,

therefore,

their forces.

LXIX. The Romans
ele6lion of magiftrates
;

created

interreges to prefide at the
is

which

a thing they ufually do in

a time of anarchy, and advanced Lucius Lucretius, and Titus Veturius Geminus to the confulfhip. In their
^'^

magiftracy the diftemper ceafed, and

all civil

contefts, both

were deferred, notwithftanding the enpublic and private, deavours of Sextus Titus, one of the tribunes, to refume the propofal of the agrarian law, which the people would not hear of, but deiircd it might be deferred to a more favourable juncture. There was, at the fame time, a great cagernefs in men of all degrees to take revenge on thofe, who had alarmed the city during the time of the :
plao-ue
height, in order to equal the wall antecedebal tejliido pedum lx. aequandi
•,

the effeft of this

enormous machine

loci

caujd fa£la.
EAfTToAwr.

33-

The
It

Hekpolis was

a

vafl

wooden tower
ftories.

many

confifting of a great is fuppofed to have

by caufing a great quantity of water to be poured upon the ground at the foot of the wall by which means, the earth being foaked widi the water, the wheels of the Helepolis funk into the
•,

been invented by Demetrius Poliorcetcs, at the fiege of Rhodes, or, more

ground ; fo that, it could never be brought near the walls,
3+-

by his military architeft, ^ Vitruvius Epimachus, an Athenian. fays that it was 125 feet in height, and 40 fquare at the bottom, accordprobably,

Ti1o» Outlxijiov Tf^ivof.
"^

The

Fafti

confulares call this conful

T. Vctufius

and to doubt which
;

Geminus

Livy himfelf feems
is

ing to Perrault, not 60,
the editions.
the

as

it

rtands in

T. Veturium
fitit.

Gewimm,

the right name ; five ilk Vetujius

However, Diognetus, Rhodian engineer, difappointed
^

B..X. c. 22.

'B.

iii,

c.

8,

And

BooklX.

DIONYSIUS IIALICARN A S SENS
fopn relblved upon

I

S.

225

And

the fenate having

the war, and

the people confirmed their refolution, they prefently beoan to raife forces, every man of the miUtary age, even

who were by law exempt, defiring to fhare in this The army being divided into three bodies, one of expedition. them was left to defend the city, which was commanded by
thofe,

Quintus Fabius, a confular perfon ; and the other two marched out againft the Aeqiii, and the Volfci. The fame
thino-

had,

alfo,

been done by the enemy

:

For the beft forces

of both thofe nations were, already, in the field under two and defigned to begin with the territories of the generals,
Hernici, in which they were, then, incamped, and to proceed in their march through all Thofe, that were fubjed; to the

Romans
towns,

:

And

the forces of

lefs

ufe were left to guard their

left

any fudden attempt might be made upon them

by the enemy. The Roman confuls, confidering thefe difit moft advifeable firft to attack their pofitions, thought
towns, concluding that the confederate army would be diffolved, as foon as each of the two nations of which, it was

compofed, fhould hear that their
to the greateft danger, advifeable to fave their

own towns were

expofed
it

and that they would think

more

own

fortunes, than ta deftroy

Thole

of the enemy. Lucretius, therefore, invaded the country of The former the Aequi, and Veturius That of the Volfci.
fuffered every thing without their walls to be ruined, to defend their city, and their fortrelles.

and

prepared

LXX.

But the Volfci, led on by

their boldnefs
as

and

pride,

and defpifing the

Roman

army,

unable

to cope with

the

126
tlie

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book IX.

great numbers, of which their own confifted, came out in order to fight in defence of their country, and ^Mncamped : But the fame thing, that near to Veturius ufually hapto a new raifed army compofed of a mixed multitude

pens

of

citizens,

cafion,

and hufbandmen, brought together for that ocof which many are both unarmed, and unacquainted

with danger, happened to the Volfci, who durft not fo much as encounter the enemy; but the greatefi: part of them, aftonifbed at the firft onfet of the Romans, and unable
to bear either their fhouts, or the noife of their arms, fled
in

being overtaken in the narrow roads, were put to death, and many more loft their liv^es, while they were crouding at the gates, The Volfci, thereto avoid the horfe that purfucd them.

all

hafte to their city :

So

that,

many of them,

reproached themfelves with their and were unwilling to hazard another ingagement folly, But the generals, who commanded the forces of the latter,
fore, after this misfortune,
:

and Thofe of the Aequi in the field, hearing their own cities were attacked, refolved to perform fome brave adlion on their part alfo ; to decamp from the country of the Hernici

and the Latines, and,
in all hafte to

in the height

of their refentment,
alfo,

to

march

Rome,

fince

they,

perfuaded

3$' U?i.v;(Ti6vrisOvili>^k!y.ct!i?^ulo-!riS(V(rciv.

Le Jay has enjoyed a long truce, which I fhall only interrupt for a moment in order to give the reader an opporturity of admiring
his tranQation

Forgotten thit Velurius was the name of one of the confiils, takes Veturium for a town, and renders it thus, fe

of

this

pafrage,orratherof

of

it.

The

latter lays, prope
•,

Portus's tranflation Velurium
le

Had he camperent prcche Felurium. caft his eye on the Greek text, and underftood it, the article tx would
have faved him from
this ridicule.

caftra

pofuermt

and

Jay, having

them-

Book IX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

127

themfelves that they fhould fucceed in one of thefe two great either take Rome, which was then unguarded, or deligns,

draw the enemy out of

their territories,

fince the confuls

muft, neceffarily, haften to the relief of their own country, when attacked. In confequence of this plan, they made a forced march, to the end that, coming to the city unexpe6ledly, they

might

that inflant begin the aflault.
as far as the

LXXI. But having advanced

city

of Tuf-

culum, and being there informed that the whole circuit of Rome was lined with armed men, and that four cohorts, of fix hundred men each, were pofted before the gates, they abandoned their defign of marching to Rome ; and, incamping,
the

wafte the lands, that lay near the city, which, in their former irruption, they had left untouched. But
laid

appearing, and incampthis a proper opporing not far from them, they thought to give him battle before the other army of the Rotunity
conful,

Lucius

Lucretius,

mans, which was commanded by Veturius, fhould come to the affiftance of Lucretius ; and, placing their baggage

upon
it,

a certain eminence, and leaving the reft advanced to the plain.

two cohorts

to defend

After which, they ingaged the Romans, and fought bravely for a long time ; But fome of them being informed that an army was come out of the fortrefles, that were in their rear, and marching

eminence, they thought the other conful was advancing with the forces under his command ; and, fearing to be incompafled by both, they, no longer, flood their

down from an

ground, but

fled.

In

this

adion, both their generals

fell,

after

128

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
had given great proofs of
other brave
their valor,

BooklX.

after tliey

and with

them many

who man

Thofe, the battle, difperfed themfelves, and every efcaped from After this defeat, Lucreretired to his own country.

men %hting by

their fide.

tius laid wafte the

country of the Aequi with great fecurity, and Veturius That of the Volfci ; till the time appointed Then both of for the eledion of magiftrates drew near
:

them, decamping, returned to Rome with their armies, and triumphed in honor of their vi6lories Lucretius enterin a chariot drawn by four horfes, and Veturius the
:

ing

city
'^
:

on

foot

For thefe two triumphs are granted to generals
from
his

Au9 yxp ssToi B'^iotfj.Qot. See the annotation on the fifth thirty ninth * * * obferves that f M. book. Livy, in fpeaking of the ovation granted by
3<5'

another decree,

fenate ordered C. Claudius to

by which the perform
^

ovation on horfeback,

C. Clau-

dius equo fine militibus inveheretur, that
all

the fenate to Veturius, fays, altcri conmilitibiu urban fuH datum, ut ovmsfine From thefe words, he conimet. cludes that all, to whom the ovation

generals proceeded on horfeback in that ceremony. This nobody will fay,

was granted, performed

this procef:

I do not fion without their foldiers the fad ; but I deny the confedeny

our author, and, indeed, from all others, who have written upon this fubjefV, that the ovation was, generally, performed on
becaufe
foot.

we know from

'

quence. becaufe

I

do not deny the faft, I fay, know from ^ IVIaflTurius, I

But, though the generals, upon

1

have

faid

that

in the Icfler quoted by Gellius, that, called the ovation, the genetriumph, ral went on foot, and was not followed by his foldiers, but by the whole But ftill I fay that it cannot fenate.

occafions, were not attended by their foldiers, yet there are fome reafons allcdged by

thofe

Livy why C. Claudius wasnot atiended by his foldiers, which give reafon to fufped: that this pradlice was not fo
univerfal
I

as

it

is

fuppofed.

When

be concluded from without cree, by which the ovation to Veturius, that foldiers was granted

this particular de-

no

generals,

upon

thefe

occafions,

fpeak of the ovation decreed to C. Claudius, the reader will recolledt that it was in confideration of the important fervice he had done his country in

were ever attended by their foldiers, concluded it can be any more than
f

leaving his

own

province, and

joining his collegue
xxviii. c. g.
'

M,

Livius

:

The

B.iii. c. 10.
fifth

B

B. V.

c. 6.

•>

Livy, B.

See the forty feventh ch.ipter

of the

book.

by

Book IX.

D lONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
and
is

129

.bv the fenate, as I have faidj

are equal in other honors,

but

differ in this, that

one

performed in a chariot, and

the other, on foot.
confcquence of this ftep who was feat, and death of Afdrubal, at the head of a forcome into Italy midable army to aflift his brother Had thejundlion of thefe Annibal.
highly notwithprobable that the Romans, and conftancy, ilanding their courage, would have been ruined. In confideration of this fcrvice, the fenate decreed
the
greater triumph
to

was the de-

out of his province ; ^quoniam exercitus Livianus dedti^us Romam venijfet, Neronis de provincid deduct non potuijfet ; ut M. Livium quadrigis urbem ineuntem
fnilitcs fequerentur
:

C. Claudius

equofme

two armies been effeded,

it

is

m'llitibus

invehcretur.
in

Here

the reafon

affigned

the

decree

why Claudius

was not to be attended by
becaufe his

his men, is, army could not be drawn
•,

M.

Livius,

becaule the aflion had been performed

which reafon, I his province apt to think, would not have been aflio;ned, if it had been the conftanc
out of

am

and under hisaufpices, called it ; and to C. Claudius the lefler and that the former (hould be attended with his folin his province, as

the

Romans

pradtice for a general never to be followed by his foldiers in an ovation.

-,

But
in fo

this queftion has
'

been, already,

decided by

our author, where he fays
in

diers,

and the

latter

not

:

For which,

thefe reafons are alledged in the decree of the fenate ; becaufe- the army of

that the general, the manner called the triumphs ovation, enters the city on foot, fol-

many words,

who

Livius was already at Rome, but the not be drawn army of Claudius could
«

lowed by the army,
B. v. c. 47.

(Atlix,

tijs

s-g«7(«y

Livy,B.

xxviii. c. 9.

'

The end

of the Ninth book.

Vol. IV.

THE

THE

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
O F

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
THE TENTH BOOK.

THE
injured

year after this confulfliip, the eightieth
'

Olym-

piad was folemnized, at which Torymbas, a TheffaHan, won the prize of the ftadium, Phraficles

being archon at Athens, and Publius Volumnius, and Servius
confuls at Rome. Sulpicius Camerinus into the field, either to take revenge

Thefe led no

forces

on

thofe,

who had

own
the

both the Romans, and their allies, or to defend their country ; but employed themfelves in providing againft
that

within the walls, and in preventing the mifchief flowing from a combination of the people
evils,

might
:

arifc

againft the fenate

For they were again in motion, being

Annotations
^'

on the Tenth Book.
*j((n)tAHi^)jf,

AfX<"''<'f

archonis called, by

Afl>]Vf<o-< '

This 4>^fl;(n)tA«af. Diodorus Siculus,
»B. xi,

and, in the fiicce/Tion of the Athenian archons, Phaciclides.
77.

c.

told

BookX.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN AS SENSIS.

131

told by the tribunes that the beft of all inftitutions for free * men was an equal diftribution of juftice ; and they dedred

both private and public, might be adminiftred according to laws: For there was, as yet, no fuch
that
all affairs,

thing

among the Romans

diftribution of juftice, to writing ; but, formerly,
juftice

an equality of laws, or an equal neither were all their laws committed
as

their kings ufed to

adminifter
:

to the fuitors,

and

their deciftons

were laws

After

to be governed by kings, among the other they ceafed fundions of royalty, That of adminiftring juftice alfo was

transferred
contefts,
2-

to

the annual confuls, and
^

of what nature foever.
See the ninth annotation
-,

The

they decided all rules of thefe decifions

l<fr,yo^ix.

tors,

on the fourth book
I

think, where, have proved that nrnj/oji* does nor, always, llgnify an equal liberty offpeech. However, the Latin tranflators have
that fenfe here; and, after given their example, both the French tranflators have faid, une egale liberte de
it

I

he fays, the intention was that as they fliould propofe fuch laws, fliould be beneficial both to the patricians,

and plebeians, and
'^

eftablifli e-

qual liberty;

qui utrifque utilia ferrent, quaeque aequandae Itbertatis ejfent.

Again, he makes the firft decemvirs, after they had finifhed ten of the tables,
tell

parler of the

;

a privilege,
:

which the wives

Romans might,

have claimed be the fenfe of the word in this place ; becaufe our author will prefently tell us that there was no fuch thing among
the
Krr,yo^ia.

very naturally, This cannot pofllbly

as the wit

the people that they haJ, as far of ten men could provide,

cftablifhed laws equal to

men of
decern

all

conditions

;

'^fe,

quantum

homi-

iiMn ingeniis provideri potuerit, omnibus

Romans And Romans were

hitherto, as
will

iiravoixtx,

or

any one fay that the
?

not, as yet, intitled to

freedom of fpeech

Truly the many

This fummis infimifque jura aequajfe. is what our author calls j(7ovi:|1>k«. But, as impartial laws would have been of no avail to the Roman people without an impartial execution of them, This
alfo

bold harangues of the tribunes, which our author has given us at length,
fufficiently prove the contrary. Livy, in fpeaking of this very tranfaftion,

they, with great
this
is

reafon, infifted
calls isnyo^ia..
is

on; and
3'

what he

T^mii

T« zsoKXa. This period

certainly corrupted

in all the editions,

never fays a word of freedom offpeech; but, in the original propofal made by
the tribunes for creating thefe legifla''B.iii. c. 31.

and manufcripts. The fenfe I have to it was given fuggefted to me by the
next fentence.
'^B.
iii.

c.

34.

S 2

were.

132

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book X.

were, for the greateft part, kept by the minifters of the
confuls,

virtue

:

who were advanced to that magiftracy for their And fome very few of them were recorded in the
pontifs,

books of the

which had the

force of laws,

and with

patricians their relidence in the city
either merchants, or

which the

alone were acquainted, by reafon of while the people, who were ;

hufbandmcn, and came to town only on the market days, between which many days intervened, v/ere, as yet, unacquainted with them. This inftitution was, firft,
attempted to be introduced by Caius Terentius the year before, while he was tribune ; but he was forced to abanbecaufe the people were, then, in the field ; and the confuls, induftrioufly, detained the armies in the enemy's

don

it,

country
II.

the expiration of their magiftracy. Aulus Virginius, and the other tribunes of this year
till

refumed

this inftitution,

and refolved

to carry

it

throuo-h

:

On

the other fide,

the confuls, the fenate, and

all

the

reft:

of the

power' tried every art to defeat their defign and to avert the neceftity of making laws the rules of their
in

men

government.

The

fenate

met

frequently, the people were

continually aifembled, and attempts of all kinds were made From all which, by the magiftrates againft one another. it was manifeft to every one that fome great, and irreparable would flow from this animofity. Thefe human mifchief
reafonings were confirmed by divine omens, fome of which had never been recorded in the public archives, nor the

memory of them been

preferved by any other means : Lights the heavens, and flames ft:iooting along continuing in the

fame

BookX.

DIONYSIUS HAL ICARNASSENSIS.

13J

fame
of
it

place,

had

roarings of the earth, and continual tremblings happened, fpedlres of various £hapes at various times
air,

minds of men, and every thing of that nature was found to have the following prodigy, happened formerly, more or lefs But
the gliding through
aftonilliing the
:

and voices

which they were unacquainted with, and had never heard of, ftruck them with the greateft terror: There fell from
heaven a violent fhower, bringing down with it, inftead of of flefh, fome lefs, fome greater ; moft of fnow, pieces
"^

thefe the birds, flying to

them

in flocks,

feized with their

they were falling through mid air ; and thofe that fell to the ground in the city itfelf, and in the pieces, fields, lay there a conflderable time without changing their
beaks,
as

color, as
fmellino'

happens to
ill.

fl:ale

meat,

or even corrupting, or

The Roman
this

foothfayers were unable to guefs
;

at the
it

but in the Sibylline books was found that a foreign enemy v/ould enter the city ;

meaning of

prodigy

that the citizens

would and being made flaves,
4-

fight to preferve themfeh^es

from

that a civil diflfenfion

would be the

'Ea^Kcav BpxvfiMiPoi.

If any of

my

readers have a tafte for prodigies, they \v:ll find this tale recorded by" Livy

of filver, which Xiphilinus, the epitomator of Dion Caffius, fays fell on the forum of Auguftus in the
a fhower

much more in prodiauthor. But, if thefe oies than our are not lufficient to prove authorities the fad, let it be remembered that it
alfo,

who

deals

"=

rained

ites,

flefli likewife upon the when they were in the

liVael-

This Ihower Dion he did not indeed fee, but is fure fays it fell, becaufe he had fome of it, with which he filvered over fome pieces of brafs, and the color of the filver rereign of Severus
:

defert.

of fhowers of blood, and milk, and of many other things But the moll beneficial fiiower I have met with

Wehear

but,

mained upon them for three days on the fourth, it quite difappeared.
this,
it

•,

:

By

fcems that the
after all;

fiivcr rain
I

was not
"^

filver

which

am

(next to Jupiter's

golden fhower) was
^

very forry for.
Pial. Ixxviii f. 27.

B,

iii.

c.

10.

fore-

134

ROMAN ANTIOyiTIES OF

Book X.

forerunner of this war with a foreign enemy ; which fedition from the city in its birth; and that, if they were to banifh the gods by facrifices, and prayers to avert thefe they invoked misfortunes, they would gain the vidory over their enemies.

After thefe things were pubHfhed to the people, the perfons, who had the care of religious rites, firft, facrificed viftims to
thofe gods,

who

remove, and avert

evils:

After which, the

fenators aflembled,

and the tribunes being alfo prefent, they confidered of the means both to fecure, and preferve the commonwealth. III. They all agreed to put an end to their mutual aniand to adl with unanimity, according to the diBut they were under no fmall difredlion of the oracles. the means, that were to be employed to ficulty concerning
effed this
firft
;

mofities,

and which of the contending

parties,

by taking

the ftep in yielding to the other, fhould put an end to the fedition : For the confuls, and the leadingr men of the
fenate accufed the tribunes of being the authors of this difturbance, by attempting to introduce new laws, and to

fubvert the conftitution.

the other fide, the tribunes faid they aimed at nothing, that was either unjuft or difadvantageous to the commonwealth, in defiring to introduce a good fyftem of laws, and an equal diftribution of juftice;

On

and that the
tion

confuls,

and the

patricians

by fomenting

their lawlefs

promoted the fediappetites, and thirfl: of power,

and by imitating the behaviour of tyrants. Thefe, and the like reproaches were urged by each of them for many days, and the time was fpent in vain ; during which, no bufinefs
cither

BookX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
or private was difpatched.

135

tribunes, that nothing they could fay finding proved efFedual, ceafed to harangue, and inveigh againft the fenate ; and, aflem-

either public,

The

bling the peoplcj promifed them to bring in a law relating to what they defired. This being approved of by the people, they, without further delay, read the law they had ^ prepared ; the heads of which were as follows That ten
:

be chofen by the people in a legal affembly, the moft diftinguifhed both by their age, and prudence, and who have the greatefl: regard for honor, and a good reputation That thefe draw up laws concerning all matters both
perfons
:

public and private, and lay them before the people : And that the laws, fo to be drawn up by them, be affixed in the

forum, as rules both to the magiftrates, who fhall, frora henceforth, be annually chofen, and to private men of their

mutual and

rights.

After the tribunes had propofed this law,
all

they gave leave to
it
;

willing, to fpeak againft appointed the third market day for that purpofe.

who were

And many,

not the

leaft confiderable

of the fenate, both old

and young, oppofed the law in elaborate, and fet fpeeches. This lafted many days After which, the tribunes, being uneafy at the lofs of time, would not fuffer the oppofers df
:

the law to harangue, any longer, againft it ; but, appointing a day for paffing it, defired all the plebeians to attend,
5-

AvS^ui

SiKot.

There

is

a note of

in which Sylburgius upon this paflage, ^ is quoted for faying that only Livy

the laws. But, that learned man forgot that the propofal Livy fpeaks of was made the year before, in the confulfhip

five

men were

to be chofen to compile
f

of Lucretius, and Veturius.
c.

B.

iii.

9.

afluring

136
afiiiring

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

EookX.

them they fhould not be tired, any more, with long
votes in their tribes, concerning give their After thefe affurances, the tribunes dii'miiled the

difcourfes, but

the law.
affembly.

IV.

Upon

this,

the confuls,

and the

patricians

who had

moft power, going to the tribunes, treated them with more
faying they would not fuffer them to the previous approbation of the fenate : propofe laws without For that laws were contracts entered into by the whole
feverity

than before

;

body of the commonwealth, and not by a part of it They told them, alfo, that the moft afflidling, and the moft fhame:

muft be the confequence both to governments, and private families, whenever the worft part preful deftruiflion

fcribes

laws to the

beft.

" What power,

faid they,

have

"

'*

either to introduce, or abrogate laws ? Did you, tribunes, you not receive this magiftracy from tlie lenate, upon " certain conditions ? Did you not delire that the tribunes

might be created to aflift the poorer fort, when injured, " and oppreffed and to take cognizance of nothing elfe ?

"

" But, if you were, before, invefted with any power, which " you had extorted from us contrary to juftice, while the
<* *'
**

fenate acquiefced in every thing

your have you not loft even this power now, advantage; the comitia ? For neither a decree of by the alteration of

you propofed

for

own

"
*<

the fenate appoints you, any longer, to the magiftracy; nor do the curiae give their votes ;

concerning

you

" neither do you

"

up to the gods, before your cledion, the facrifices appointed by the laws; nor is there any
offer

"

thing

BookX.

DIONYSIUS HALIG ARN ASS ENS I S.

137

one, holy rites, when you renounce all laws ?" Thefe things both the old, and young patricians, going about the town with thofe
requires facrifices,
*'
:

" thing elfe performed, that has an appearance of religion " to the gods, or of legaHty to men, when you are eleded " What then is there you can, now, pretend to (hare in, that " of which the law is and
:

of their fadtion, urged to the tribunes The more moderate of the plebeians they foothed with courteous language ; and
the refradory and turbulent they terrified with threats of the dangers, to which they would expofe themfelves through

want of modefty ; and fome, who were exceeding poor and and regardlefs of every thing relating to the public abje6l,
in comparifon of their own intereft, they drove out of the forum with blows, as if they had been flaves. ,0

^

V. But the perfon, who was attended with the greateft number of followers, and who had the greateft power of all the young men at that time, was Caefo Quintius, the fon of Lucius Quintius, called Cincinnatus, a man of illuftrious
birth,

Q^O.

oliU/nLUU.

and of a fortune

inferior to none, beautiful in

his

of his age, diftinguifhed above all men perfon beyond any for his bravery, and qualified by nature for eloquence ; to which he gave a loofe, upon this occafion, in inveighing
the plebeians, without refraining either from fuch as freemen cannot hear with patience, or from language, For thefe reafons, adlions as outrageous as his language
againfl
:

«

the patricians held him in great efteem ; and, encouraging him to continue this dangerous behaviour, promifed to fupport

him.

On

the other fide, the plebeians hated

him above
all

Vol. IV.

T

138
all

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
This

Book X.

men.

man

the tribunes determined to remove out

of the way, in order to terrify the reft of the youth, and compel them to reform their manners. Having taken this
refolution,

and prepared
it,

their charge

with

many

witnefTes

to fupport

of a capital crime committed they accufed him After that, they fummoned him by him againft the public. to appear before the people : and the day they had appointed for the trial being come, they affembled them, and laid
themfelves out in long accufations againft him ; enumerathe had been guilty of towards ing all the ads of violence

the

plebeians,

felves

of which they brought the fufferers themLeave being given him to fpeak, to give teftimony.

the youth himfelf, when called upon, refufed to make his defence ; but offered to anfwer the complaints of fuch he was accufed of having injured, before private perfons, as

the confuls according to the laws. His father, obierving the to be exafperated at the haughtinefs of the plebeians youth, endeavoured to excufe him by fhewing that the greateft
part

of the accufations was
his

falfe,

and contrived

infidioufly

againft

fon

;

that

thofe

inftances,

which he could

not deny, were fmall and trifling, and not deferving the refentment of the public ; and that, even, thefe had not proceeded from defign, or infolence; but from a youthful
am.bition,

through which he had done many inconfiderate

thefe contefts, and, poflibly alfo, fuffered things during many, as neither his age, nor his prudence were yet arrived

to their maturity

:

And

he

defiired

the plebeians, not only,

to entertain no refentment for the offence,

which

his

words

had

BookX.

139 but even gratefully to remember the had given, many iervices he had done to all of them in the wars, while he

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENS IS.

was employed

in acquiring liberty for private
;

men

;

fove-

and, for himfelf, if ever he fhould be guilty of any offence, the favor, and protedion of the He, then, enumerated all the campaigns, and the
his country reignty for

people.

adions, in which he had received from his generals rewards

of

valor,
;

and crowns

;

how many

citizens
firft

he had faved in

battle

and how often he was the

the walls of the enemies towns.

He

man, who mounted ended with implorins

their compafTion, and with intreating them that, in confideration of his own mildnefs to all of them, and of his

courfe of

which they knew to be of imputation, they would grant him
life,

free

from every kind
favor,

this fingle

to

fave his fon.

people were exceedingly pleafed with this fpeech, and ready to grant the life of the youth to his father But VirfTinius, well knowing that, if he was not punifhed, the

VI.

The

:

infolence of the audacious youth
rofe
*'

would become

intolerable,

up, and

faid:

"

We
:

acknowledge

in you, Quintius,

an affedlion for the people j for " which we honour you But the offenfive behaviour of *' this youth, and his haughtinefs to us all admits not of any (( or pardon Who, being educated in your
every virtue,
as well as

deprecation,
principles,

:

((

which we

all

know

to be fo popular,

and mo-

*'
(C

"

defpifed your inflitutions, and grew fond of a and a barbarian infolence ; and intyrannical arrogance, troduced an example of wicked adlions into our commonderate,

T

2

,

" wealth.

140
*'

ROMAN
If,

ANTIQJJITIES OF
you were,
:

BookX.

wealth.

therefore,

before,

unacquainted

" with
"
juftice
*'

his character,

now you know

to efpoufe

our refentment

him, you ought in But, it you were privy to,

and abetted, theabufes, with which he infulted the miferies " of the citizens, you, alfo, were a wicked man, and
*'

"
*'

indigent did not deferve the virtuous charadler you had acquired But that he had degenerated from your you did not know
:

This teftimony I can give you. But, when I " with your fon in injuring us at that acquit you of joining *' time, I blame you for not joining with us, now, in revirtue
:

" However, that you may be the fenting thofe injuries. " more convinced how have nurfed up, great a mifchief you " unknown to the commonwealth, how yourfelf, againft " cruel and and not free from the murder of his
tyrannical,
*'

*'

fellow-citizens, hear his great exploit ; and, then, place in the other fcale thofe rewards of valor he received in the

"
"
*'

wars.

And,

citizens, as

many of you
which
your
it is

as

were, juft now,

affe6led with the compaffion,

this

man endeavoured
fpare fuch

to excite, confider whether
citizen."
this,

intereft to

" a

he defired Marcus Volfcius, one of his collegues, to rife up, and fay what he knew concernAll being filent, and full of expedation, ino- the youth. " I could have after a fhort
VII. Having faid
Volfcius,

"
*'
*'

wifhed, paufe, faid; citizens, to have received a private fatisfad:ion, fuch as the law affords, from this man for the moft cruel outfuffered rages I have
:

But, having been prevented from

"

obtaining this by poverty,

weaknefs, and by

"

my

rank

among

BookX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
the vulgar,
I fhall

141

opportunity of a vvitnefs, fince I cannot to take upon myfelf the part That of an accufer. Hear, then, my fufferings, how I had a brother, whofe cruel, how irreparable they are.

among

lay hold

on

this

name was
I

Lucius,

whom

I

loved above

all

men

:

He

and

fupped with a friend ; and, night coming on, we rofe from fupper, and departed. After we had paffed through

came up to us, revelling with other inAt iirfl, they laughed at us, and abufed us, folent youths as young men, when drunk and infolent are apt to abufe We being difpleafed at thofe, who are mean and poor this behaviour, my brother fpoke to them with freedom.
the forum, Caefo
; :

Caefo, thinking himfelf injured in having any thing faid to him he did not like, ran to him ; and, by ftriking,
kicking, and every other adl of cruelty and abufe, put him to death. In the mean time, I cried out, and did
all

I

could

to defend

him

;

when

Caefo,

leaving

my

brother who lay dead, ftruck me next, and ceafed not, till he faw me ftretched upon the ground without motion, without fpeech, and, as he thought, without life Upon
:

he had performed a great Some perfons, coming by after he v/as gone, exploit. took us up covered with blood, and carried us home, my
this,

he went away exulting,

as if

brother Lucius being dead as fliewing fmall hopes of life.

I faid,

and

I

half dead, and

the confulfliip while the diftemper raged in the city, with which we It was not, therefore, pofllble both had been attacked.

Thefe things happened in of Publius Servilius, and Lucius Aebutius,

for

142
*'

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
me to obtain juftice againft him,

BookX.

for

at that time, fince

both

" the
**

confuls were dead. After Lucius Lucretius, and Titus

Veturius had entered on their magiftracy, I deiigned to have brought him to juftice, but was prevented by the
:

11

After they returned war, both confuls being in the field " from the campaign, I often cited him to appear before
*^

"
"
*'

thofe magiftrates (as many of the citizens often received blows from him. Thefe are
plebeians, truth."

know) and

as

my

fufferings,

which

I

have

related to

you with the greateft
prefent, cried

VIII. After he had faid

this, all

who were

and many were proceeding to violence; but they were not only, by the confuls, but, alfo, by the prevented, of the tribunes, who were unwilling that a
out
;

greateft part

fhould be introduced into the commonpernicious cuftom wealth The moft difpaflionate even of the people were not
:

who were upon their trial unwilling to deprive thofe, when the event was of the greateft confequence, from making
lefs

their defence.

occafion, therefore, a regard to juftice reftrained the violence of the bolder fort, and the trial was

Upon this

no fmall conteft, and doubt arofe concerning his put off; but whether he fhould be detained in prifon in the mean perfon,
time, or whether bail fhould be taken for his
think Stephens had no reafon to find fauk with this word,
^'

^

appearance,
^

Aipi|ewf.

I

bail* for his appearance.

Livy,

in

fpeaking of this
ity^/?/ rfK;«,

affair

of Caefo, calls
to the

and to room.

fubftitute
Acp<^if

cra^ajairsw? in its as sJuHus fignifies,

which amounts
vincula
conjici

fime
(iri-

thing;
bimi)
tiant.
''B.
iii.

in

z'etaiit

PoUux
what we
<fj<v«t

explains the word, zinx^iia-ix, callow fl/>/'rar^«f^; and ffj/uijlosj
i)i<Pi^tui, is

filli

reum, pecioiiamque,
proniilti,

nifififta-

/«r, populo

placere promin-

T>)f

give plainly, 6 B.v. Segm. 155.

to

c.

13

as

BookX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A SSENSI S.
:

143

as his father defired

When
giv^en

that, if fecurity

was

the fenate affembling ordered of a fum of for the

payment

money
free
till

in cafe

of his non appearance, his perfon fliould be the trial. The next day, the tribunes affembled

a the people, and the youth not appearing, they procured vote to be palled for his condemnation, and compelled his
fiireties,

tliey

pay the money agreed on in cafe did not furrender him. Caefo, therefore, being thus
ten, to
falfe

who were

circumvented by the intrigues of the tribunes, and the

tcflimony of Volfcius, as it afterwards appeared, chofe Tyrrhenia for the place of his banifnment. His father, having,
fold

the greateft part of his eftate, and repaid the fureties the money they had been bound in, left nothing for himfelf

but one fmallfarm lying on the other fide of the river Tiber, on which there was an humble cottage ; where, cultivating this farm with the help of a few flaves, he led a laborious,

and calamitous
neither
vals,

came

and, through melancholy, and poverty, to Rome, vifited his friends, affifted at the feftilife
;

nor allowed himfelf any other entertainment. However,

the tribunes were greatly : difappointed in their expectations For the animofity of the young men was fo far from being

reformed, and extinguifhed by the calamity of Caefo, that

it

grew much more outrageous and exceffive; and they oppofed the law, which the tribunes had fo much at heart, both by their words, and adions So that, the whole time of their
:

magiftracy being taken up with thefe contefts, they were not able to effedl any thing. However, the people continued them in the tribunefhip for the following year.

IX.

144

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book X.

IX. Publius Valerius Poplicola, and Caius Claudius Sabinus herfelf expofed to a greater danger being confuls, Rome faw than {he had ever yet experienced, by a foreign war, which
the civil diffenfion brought upon the city ; as both the and the prodigies had foretold the year Sibylline oracles, I Ihall now relate, not before. only, the caufe of this war,
but, alio, the adions performed by the confuls during the courfe of it. The tribunes, who had been invefted by the

people with this magiftracy for the fecond time, in expectation of their procuring the law to be pafled, feeing one

of the confuls, Caius Claudius, poiTefTed with an heredithe plebeians, and prepared to defeat tary hatred againft by every method, and the mod: powerful of the youth adling with undifguifed rage, whom it was imto fubdue by force; and, above all, that the poflible greateft
their defigns

part

of the people, courted by the patricians, yielded to their

application,

and preferved, no longer, the fame zeal
;

for the

they refolved to take bolder meafures, by which they expected to terrify the people, and repel the Firft, therefore, they caufed reattempts of the conful.

law in queftion

ports of

all forts

to be fpread about the city;

after that,

they fate in council, publicly, from morning till night, without admitting any perfon, beiides Thofe of their own
their counsels, and deliberations. college, to they faw a proper opportunity to carry their defigns into execution,

When

they

writ

feigned

letters,

and contrived to have

thefe delivered to

in the

forum

:

them by an unknown perfon, as they fate After they had read thele letters, they beat
their

BookX.

DIONYSIUS H A L IC A RN A S S E N SIS.
;
:

145

their foreheads

and, having compofcd their looks for grief,

rofe

that

they filence, plebeians " the greateft of all dangers, citizens ; and, if fome benevo" Icnce of the gods had not taken care of thofe, who were
:

up The people flocking about them, and concluding fome dreadful mifchief was contained in thofe letters, " The commanded and faid are in

expofed toundeferved fufferings, we fhould all have fallen " under dreadful calamities. We defire you will have a " little patience, till we give an account to the fenate of the " information we have received, and with joint confent take
fuch meafures, as are necellary in the prefent jundiire." Having fiid this, they went to the confuls. While the fenate
^'

"

was affembling, many and various difcourfes palled in the forum ; fome publifliing to the people aflembled in circles,
with
defi*gn,

fuch reports, as had been fuggefled to them by
;

the tribunes

and

others, thofe things they

moft dreaded,
magiftrates.

as the fubjed: of the information fent to thole

One

Aequi and the Volfci, having received Caefo Quintius, lately condemned by the people, had chofen him general of both the nations with unlimited authority,
faid, that the

and that he had raifed a great number of forces, and was Another, that, in concert preparing to march to Rome with the whole body of the patricians, he was to be brought
:

end that the magiftracy, v/hich was the guardian of the plebeians, might both now, and for ever after, be aboliflied And another faid, that all the patricians had not entered into thefe defigns, but only
foreign troops,

home by

to the

:

the

young men among them Vol. IV.

:

Some had

the confidence to
affirm

U

146

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book X.

affirm that Caefo was hid even in the city, and would, foon, himfelf of the mofl: advantageous pofts. The whole city
poffefs

and the tribunes, going in, with the information they had received acquainted them Aulus Virginius, in the name of the reft, fpoke as follows: X. " While none of the dangers we have been informed " of appeared cettain, but were only vague reports, and " there was to confirm them, we were
;
:

fufpedling, confuls alTembled the fenate

of thefe calamities, and being alarmed with the expectation and guarding againft, one another, the all men

nothing

unwilling,

"

"
*'

fenators, to acquaint

you with thefe rumors, from a fufpi-

cion of the great commotions they would give birth to, fuch as, ufually, flow from dreadful relations ; and, alfo,

" from an apprehenfion of appearing
*'
;

you to have adled with greater precipitancy, than prudence However, we
to
:

" did not but have inquired, with neglect thefe reports " all the truth of them. But, flnce the poffible care, into " divine providence, by which this commonwealth is, ever, " its to die
preferved, has, through
*'

goodnefs, brought light hidden defigns, and wicked attempts of thofe who are ** enemies to the gods ; and that we have letters to produce, " which we, juft now, received from foreigners, who fliew

"
'

their

good

will to us,
;

and whofe names you

fhall, after-

wards, hear

and flnce our domeftic

intelligence concurs,

and agrees with That we have received from abroad ; " and thefe can be no affairs, now ripe for execution,
*' *'

longer delayed, or deferred ; acquaint you with them, as

we have thought
it
is

proper to
before
*'

reafonable,

we

publifh

BookX.
''

publifli
*' *'

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS. 147 them to the people. Know then, that there is a
no obfcure men,

confpiracy formed againft the people by among whom, it is faid, there is a fmali
the ancient

number even of

members of this

*'

"
((

defign, as we are informed, to take the advantage of a dark night, and fall upon us while we are afleep, when we can neither fee

are knights, not ot this time to acquaint you with.

but the greatefl part whofe names it is not houfe, yet
fenate;

They

any thing that

is
;

defend ourfelves

doing, nor get together in a body to and, rufhing into our houfes, to cut the

" "
''

throats, not only^ of us tribunes,
alfo,

who had

ever

but of all thole plebeians them in defence of their oppofed

or fhould oppofe them, for the future: And, after liberty, " they have taken us off, they promife themfelves they " fhall be able to effed the reft with great fecurity, and
*'

prevail

upon you

to abolifli,

by a general vote, the con-

you have made with the people. But, finding they *' fhould ft and in need of a body of foreign troops, privately " raifed, to carry on their deftgns, and That even not an
tra6ts

"

"
*'

inconfiderable one, they have pitched
tius,

upon Caefo Quin-

one of our

fugitives, as their general,

whom, though

*'

convicted of the murder of his fellow citizens, and of
raifing a fedition,

*'

fome of your number fkreened from

i '

" and fent him away with impunity ; and, punifliment, " now, promife to reftore him to his country, and offer him and honors, and other rewards to ingage him magiftracies, " in their fervice And he, on his fide, undertakes to
:

bring

''

to their affiftance as

many

forces of the Aequi, 2

and

Volfci,

U

"as

148
*'

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book X.

have occasion for; and he himfelf will, foon, " of the moft daring, whom he will appear at the head " introduce into the a few at a time, and in city privately,
as theyfhall
*'

fmall bodies

:

The

reft

of the forces, as foon as we,
if

who
fall

"

are the leaders of the people, are put to death,

vi^ill

upon the poorer
liberty.
*

any of them fhall Thefe are the dreadful, and wicked
fort,

afiert their

rcfolutions,

fenators,
effect,

which they have taken

in

private,

and delign to

without either fearing the anger of the gods, or " regarding the indignation of men.
*

XI. " Expofed to fo great a danger,

fathers,

we make

*' *'

to you ; conjuring you by the gods, and gefupplication nius's to whom we facriiice in common, and defiring you

"

great wars we have maintained in conjundlion with you, not to fuffer us to fall a facriiice to the cruel, and wicked attempts of our enemies; but to
to call to

mind

the

many

to efpoufe our indignation, and, jointly with us, to bring to condign punifhment thofe, who have formed thefe defigns; all, if poilible ; but, if that cannot be, at
affift

us

;

*'

leafi

" we " moft
**

the authors of this execrable confpiracy. And, defire, fathers, that you will pafs an order, as
juft,

firfl:,

it

is

appointing us tribunes to inquire into the fads contained in this information: For, belides tliejuftice of

" this demand, it muft alio necellarily happen that thofe, " whofe lives are expofed to danger, will make the moft " exa6l the caufe of it. It there are any inquiries into among " who are incapable of ading with candor even in you,
*'

any one inftance,

but oppofe every

man who

Ipeaks in " lavor

BookX.
'

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A R N A S S EN SI S.

149

'

of the people, I would, willingly, a{k them what there is in our demands, that difpleafes them, and what
favor

'

'

'

Would they advile us to advice they defign to give us. make no inquiry at all, but to negledl fo great, and fo wicked a confpiracy, while it is carrying on againft the
people
?

'

Who would affirm
are in their fenfes,

that thofe,

who

advance thefe

'

things,
'

are tainted with the

fame

lay rather that they corruption, and accomplices in

and not

'

'

'

fearing left they themfelves may be difcovered, they throw a damp upon the inquiry into the truth of it ? To whom there is no reafon you

the confpiracy

;

and

that,

'

'

fhould pay any regard, ^if pofTibly they fhall pretend that the cognizance of this information fhould be committed not

'

'

'

What then fhould to us, but to the fenatc, and confuls. hinder the leaders of the people alfo from faying the fame of the plebeians, confpiring againft theconthing, if
fuls

'

any and the fenate,

lliould attempt the deftrudion of the

'

'

'

protedion of the people is committed, ought to take cognizance of the adlions of the ? What will be the confequence of this ?
latter, that thofe, to

whom the

'

plebeians that no inquiry will, ever, be

Why^

'

adion.

But

this
is

is

a thing

made into any fecret tranfwe fhould not defire (for fuch
you
to counte-

'

a pretenlion
7-

fufpicious)

neither ought

El

sroif T)jf

Sioiyvuo-iag T«v7>;f.

The

Vatican manufcript has n'T>)fJjaij/vw£wc, which can have no place here, any It is more than « jmd in the editions
plain that the tribune here anticipates an objeftion, which he forefaw would

rendering thofe, who, he knew, would make that objedlion, fufpcifted of bc-

ing accomplices in the confpiracy. Ic is fubmitted to the learned reader, whether the fmall alteration I have made in the Greek text does not fupport this reafoning.

be made to his propofal ; and endeavours to take off the force of it by

" nance

ISO

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

EookX.

" nance thofe, who infift upon the fame thing againft us; " but to look upon them as the common enemies of the " ftate. However, fathers, nothing is fo neceffary in the *' For the danger is fwift, as difpatch prefent juncSlure,
:

*'

and a delay
in the
:

in providing for our fecurity

is

unfeafonable

"

midft of thofe dangers, that delay not their ap" So that, laying afide your contefts, and long proach " take forthwith fuch a refolution, as may appear
fpeeches, the moft conducive to the public good." XII. This harangue of the tribune greatly aftonifhed,
fenate.

"

and embarraffed the

They

conlidered,

and, con-

quence

obferved that it was of dangerous confeferring together, both to grant, and to refufethe tribunes the commiffion of inquiring by themfelves into an affair of a public

concern, and great importance. However, Caius Claudius, one of the confuls, fufpeding their intention, rofe up, and

fpoke
*' **

as follows

"

:

I

am

not afraid, Virginius,

left

the

fenate fhould look
fpiracy,

upon me as an accomplice in the conwhich, you fay, is formed againft yourfelves, and

" the people; or that, fearing for myfelf, or for any be*' longing to me, as partakers of this guilt, I rife up to op*' For the whole courfe of my life acquits me of pofe you " all What, therefore, I efteem to fufpiclons of this kind. " be advantageous both to the fenate, and people, I fhali " beft intentions, and without lay before you with the any
:

"

^'

*'

to be very much, or rather abfolutely, miftaken, if he imagines that any of us will fay cither that an affair of fo great confcquence, and
fort

of fear.

Virginius feems to

me

neceffity

BookX.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARNASSENSIS,

151

" "

neceflity
giftrates

ought not to be inquired into, or that the maof the people ought not to be joined in, nor
inquiry.

" this prefent at, " affe6tion to the
"therefore, any

No man

is

fo void

of

fenfe,

or
Jf,

fuch things. people, as to advance one fhould afk me what motive ingages

me

" to rife up in order " ao-ree to, and allow

to oppofe thofe meafures, which I to be iuft, and with what intention I

"
fpeak,

I fhall

explain myfelf to you in the moft folemn

" manner. " "
*'

I

am

of opinion,
to

fathers,

that prudent

men

ought, diligently, " foundations of every
thefe

examine the beginnings, and firfb affair For, of what nature foever
:

"
"

be the conclusions, that are drawn from them. Hear, then, what the foundation of this affair is, and what the view of the tribunes in

may

be, fuch

muft

alfo

carry any " of the defigns they undertook laft year into execu" tion, by reafon of your repeated oppoHtion, and an

promoting

it.

They have not been

able to

" to efpoufe their quarrel withunwillingnefs in the people " their ufual zeal. Senfible of thefe difficulties, they con" fidered by what means both you might be compelled to to them contrary to your inclinations, and the people yield " to affift them in But, every thing they fliould defire *' nor juft means to effedl both thefe finding no lawful,
*•'
:

y

''

defigns,

after

examining various
at laft,

"

thlnof every

way, they,

and turning the pitched upon this fcheme
projects,
:

" Let "

us, faid they, accufe

fome confiderable men of a conand
to

fpiracy

to

fubvert the power of the people,
;

put

"

their protedors to death

and, after

we have

caufed thefereports

152
** **

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book X.

"
*'

reports to be f{:)rcad about the city for a long time, and the plebeians (hall give credit to them (for they will give credit to them through fear) let us contrive to have letters

delivered to us in

**

unknown

perfon

;

prefence of many people, by an after that, let us go to the fenate, let

the

"
**

us be angry, and lament, and delire a commiflion to inthis information : If the quire into the circumftances of
patricians
refufe our

'*
*'

demand, we

will lay hold

on

this

opportunity to accufe them before the people ; and, by " this means, the whole body of the plebeians, being inraged " the patricians, will be ready to fupport us in every againft

"
(C

thing wedelire: If they grant it, we will banifh the moft refolute of them, and thofe who have moft oppofed us,

both old and young, as perfons we have difcovered to be " concerned in this Thefe, through the fear confpiracy. *' of a condemnation, will either agree to give us no further " or be obliged to leave the city; oppofition, by this

" "

means,

we

fhall, in

a great meafure, get rid of our ad-

verfiries.

XIII. " Thefe were their defigns, fathers

;

and, during the

" time you faw them fitting together, and confulting, this deceit was weaving againft the moft virtuous of your members, and this net was framing againft the nobleft " "
*' *'

To prove thefe things, very few words of the knights. will be neceflary. Tell me, Virginius, and the reft of you,
thefe dreadful mifchiefs are levelled, who againft are the ftrangers from you received thefe letters ? came they acquainted with Where do they live?

whom

whom

How

"

you

?

BookX.
*'

DIONYSIUS HALIC AR N A SS EN S

I S.

153

Or, by what meansj do they know what is in agi" tation here? Why do you defer naming thefe men, and *' promife to do it afterwards ; rather, why have you not,

you

?

*'

"

already, named thefe letters to

" that we may begin by inquiring " thefe ai-e as I
things
true, or,

them? But, who is the man, who brought you ? Why do you not produce this man,
firft

of him, whether

Then, your domeftic informations, which, you fay, agree " with Thofe contained in the foreign letters, of what na" ture are they, and by whom given? Why do you con" ceal thefe proofs, and not bring them to light ? But I " conceive it is an impoflible thing to find a proof of what " neither ever nor ever Thefe are difdid,
will,

"

fufped, your

own

fidtions

?

happen.

*'
*'

coveries, fathers, not

of a confpiracy againft them, but of

a device, and a wicked defign againft us, which thefe " men both employ, and conceal : For the things themfelves *' But you are the caufe of this, by the confpeak aloud.
*'

cefTions

"

you,

firft,

made

to them,

and by arming the

extravagance of their magiftracy with a great power, " when you allowed Caefo Quintius to be tried, laft year,
*'

upon
*'

a falfe accufation,

and fuffered

fo great a defender
:

of

For which *' reafon, they keep, no longer, any meafures with you ; nor * " take off the men of birth one by one, but now cover
the ariftocracy to be forced
S"
it Is

away by them

n£oi£aAAov7£f. I am very forry to fay that none of the tranfiators have given th;. fenf 01 this word, which is

plain that our author purfiies the
of,

metaphor he before made ufe
he
faid,
Tt:7o

when
is

to SdCIvov

cnhin&a: This

here taken

figuratively,

have
the

becii, '/ery

and might rendered by uroperly,
irretientes:

further

confirmed by the addition of
jir£gi€«AAev7£f.

e^xK« to

I-.'Uf;

tranflators,

For

Vol. IV.

X

"the

154
*'

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book X.

" " "
*'

the wholebody of worthy men with their net,and drag them out of the city. And, to fill up the meafure of your calamities,

fuffer even any one of you to contradict they will not

them; but, by expofmg him
as

to fufpicions,

and accufatlons,

( '

an accomplice in fecret defigns, they try to terrify him, call him prefently an enemy to the people, and cite him
to appear before in this place.

" "
<
'

them
this

to give an account of
fubjcftfhall

what he

fiid

But

be fpoken to at a more

*<

feafonable jundure. I fhall, therefore, now contradl what I advife I have to fay, and ceafe to extend myfelf you
to guard againft thefe

"

men,

as difturbers

of the

" wealth, and laying the foundations of great " what I to you, I fliall not conceal from the fay people, " but fhall a juft freedom, and acfpeak there, alfo, with quaint them that no mifchief hangs over their heads, un:

commonevils And

*'
('

wicked, and deceitful patrons, who, under the appearance of friend fliip, are committing adlions
lefs it is

from

their

full
all

of enmity." This difcourfe of the conful was received
prefent
:

by

with great acclamations, and applaufe And, the tribunes even to reply, they difmifled without allowing After which, Virginius, calling the people the affembly.
together,
confuls
:

inveighed both againft the fenate, and the And Claudius defended them ; repeating the fame

things he had faid in the fenate.

The more moderate
fear to be vain
;

among

the people looked
fort,

upon the

while

the weaker

giving credit to reports, thought it well who always want a change, grounded: But the wicked, without troubling themfelves to examine into the truth, or

falfhood

Book X.
fallliood

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

155

of them, fought for an occafion of fedition, and

tumult.

XIV. While the

city

was

in this diforder, a certain Sabine

Appius

of no obfcure birth, and powerful by his riches, called, Herdonius, attempted to fubvert the empire of the
himfelf tyrant, or to transfer the fovereignty and power to the Sabine nation, or elfe to gain a great name. Having imparted his defign
either to

Romans, with a view

make

to a great number of his friends, and communicated to them his plan for executing it, and they alfo approving thereof,

he aflembled

and the moft daring of his fervants ; and, in a fhort time, got together a body of about four thoufand men ; then, fupplying them with arms, provifions,
his clients,

and every thing elfe that was neceffary for a war, he imbarked them in boats ; and, failing down the river Tiber, landed at that part of Rome, where the capitol ftands, which
is

fcarce a ftadium

from the

river.

It

was then midnight,

and quiet reigned in all parts of the city ; affifted by which, he difimbarked his men in all hafte ; and, pafiing through the gates that were open (for there is a certain facred gate
of the capitol, called Cm^mentalis^ which, by the direction of fome oracle, is always open) he afcended the hill with his
forces,

and

pofTeffed himfelf of the fortrefs

:

From

thence,

he pufhed on to the citadel, which is contiguous to the and took that alfo. His intention was, after he had capitol,
feized thefe very advantageous pofts, to receive the exiles; to invite the flaves to liberty ; to promife the an abolition

poor of debts, and to fhare the fpoils with thofe citizens,

X

2

who,

156

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

BookX.

who, being themfelves in a low condition, envied, and hated eminence of every kind, and were eager for a change. The deceived him, by hope, that both animated, and
fuggefting that he fhould be difappointed in none of his exwas founded on the civil diflenfion ; by reafon pedations,
to

him

of which, he imagined that neither friend (hip, nor correfpondence could, any longer, intervene between the
people,

none of thofe things fliould But, fucceed, he then refolved to call in the Sabines with all their forces, and alfo the Volfci, and all the reft of the neighbouring people, who defired to be delivered from the inviif

and the patricians.

dious domination of the

Romans.
all his

XV. However,
appointed
:

hopes were difNeither the flaves came over to him, nor the
it
;

happened that

people, nor thofe in debt prefer their private advantage to the public and the foreign nations, from whom he ; good expeded
fuccours,

exiles returned

neither did the lower fort of

had not time

to prepare

themfelves for the war

which had created a great terror, and tumult among the Romans, was terminated For, asfoon as the fortrefles were taken byHerdonius
:

fince, within three or four days, this affair,

there being immediately an outcry, and flight of all the inhabitants living near thofe places, who were not prefently to the fword, the reft of the citizens, not knowincy put

what misfortune had happened, took their arms, and oox. fome running to the eminences of the city, others together;
to the open places within it, which are very numerous, and others to the neighbouring fields ; thofe, who were difablcd

by

BookX.
by age,

DIONYSIUS H ALICARNAS SENS IS.

157

and wcaknefs, got upon the tops of the houfes
:

to defend themfelves together with the women, defigning from thence againft the enemy, who had entered the city

For they imagined thefe had fpread themfelves through every of it. But, when it was day, and it came to be known

part that the fortrefles of the city were taken, and who the perfon the confuls, going was, who had the pofleffion of them,
into the forum, called the citizens to arms
fide,
:

On

the other

the tribunes, affembling the people at the fame time, that was for the advanfaid, they did not oppofe any thing, but thought it juft that, as the tage of the commonwealth ; fo great an adion, they ought to people were going upon of it upon certain terms, and conditions: ingage in the danger " the patricians will promife you, If, therefore, faid they,

" and
'^'

call the

as this

foon gods to witnefs to that promife, that, as war fhall be at an end, they will allow you to create

" " "
*'

let^iflators,

and to enjoy an

^

equal adminiftration of juftice

for

the

future,
if

we

will afTift

country: But,
reafonable,
lives for

*'
*'

we run hazards, and expofe our them, when we are to reap no advantage from
why
this,

they fhould

in delivering our will condefcend to nothing that is

them

and the people their approbation of what they faid, and would exprefling " Claudius not even hear any one, who diffuaded it, faid, " that he w^anted no fuch auxiliaries, who would not
the event ?" While they were faying
9-

Ev

iffYiyo^ici.

See the fecond anno-

people,
i:icm

tation on this book. By this time, the tranflators difcovered that isv,yo^i»., one

could not be tranilated, /nvoffpeech, and have, at laft, abanfeiife

doned that

of the word,

of the points contended for by the

" volun-

IS8

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

BookX.

"

but for a recompence, and That not a mo^^ derate one, fuccour their country ; and that the patricians^ " by arming themfelves, and their clients,- and fuch of the
voluntarily,
'^

"
'*

people, as were wilHng to aflift them in this war, would compofe a force fufficient to befiege the fortrelles ; that, if even thefe were thought unequal to the tafk, he would
call in

"

the Latines, and the Hernici

;

and,

if it fliould

" be

he would even promife liberty to the flaves, ** and implore the afliftance of all forts of people rather " than of thofe, who, at fuch a jundlure, fhewed their reneceflary,

fentment for pafl difappointments." But Valerius, the other conful, oppofed this ; being of opinion that they ought
already exafperated, the patricians ; and he advifed abfolutely implacable againft to yield to the prefent emergency ; and, when they treated with a foreign enemy, to oppofe juftice to their demands;

*'

not to render the plebeians,

who were

but to Thofe of their fellow
humanity.

citizens,

moderation,

and

The

majority of the

advice was the

moft

fenate judging that his advantageous, he went to the af-

fembly of the people ; and, having made a becoming fpeech to them, he ended with promiiing on oath that, if the would aflifl in this war with alacrity, and the compeople

monwealth fhould be

reftored to

its

former tranquillity, he

would

give the tribunes leave to propofe to the people the confideration of the law, which they were defirous of in-

troducing concerning the equality of laws; utmoft endeavours that the refolutions of the

and ufe
But

his

people might
it

be carried into execution during

his

confulfhip.

was

decreed

BookX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S S ENS

I S.

159

decreed that he fhould perform nothing he had promifed, his death being near at hand.
the aflembly was difmiffed, they all flocked to the appointed places that afternoon, giving in their names

XVI. After

The reft of to the generals, and taking the military oath. that day, and all the following night were employed in thefe The day after, the centurions were placed by the things.
confuls in their pofts, and had the command of the holy enligns; the people of the country, alfo, coming in to them
in great
fuls
fell

Every thing being foon ready, the condivided the forces, and drew lots for the command. It
:

numbers

to the

fhare of Claudius to poft himfelf without

the

walls, as a

guard to prevent any foreign forces from coming For there was a general to the relief of the enemy in the city
:

fufpicion of a great

commotion, and a dread

that all their

upon them, at once, with joint forces: And to Valerius Heaven decreed the attack of the fortreflcs. Commanders were appointed to defend the other ftrong
fall

enemies would

places alfo, that lay within the city ; and others were ported in the ftreets leading to the capitol, to prevent the flaves, and the poor, they were moft afraid of, from

whom

going

In this juncture, the Romans received over to the enemy. no fuccours from any of their allies, but the Tufculani, who,
the fame night they heard of

prepared themfelves to march under the condud; of Lucius Mamilius, a
this invaiion,

man

of

activity,

who,

at that time,

had the chief command

alone {hared in the danger with Valerius, and aflifted him in recovering the fortrefies, in
in the city:

And

thefe

whicli.

i6o

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
:

OF

Book X.

which they fliewed the greateft zeal, and alacrity. Thefe For fome, fitting fortreffes were attacked on all iides vefTels of bitumen, and burning pitch to their flings, threw

And them, from the neighbouring houfes, upon the hill others, bringing fafcines of brufh wood, raifed high piles of them againft the fteep part of the rock, and fet them on fire,
:

leaving

it

to a favourable

wind

to carry the flames

among

the enemy.
files,

But the

bravefl:

exceeded the enemy, were of any fervice to them, by reafon of the fl:raitnefs ot the road by which they afcended, and the great quantity of
their
greatly,

went up the roads numbers, in which they,

of the Romans, doubling their made by art ; and here, neither

broken pieces of the rock, that were thrown down upon them fi-om above, where a fmall body of men might be upon an
a much greater ; neither was their equality with conftancy in dangers, which they had acquired by many wars, of

any

advantage to them, while they
fteeff

were forcing

their

way up

a

rock

:

refolution,

For they had no opportunity of fliewing their and perfeverance in fighting hand to hand ; but

were obliged to ingage with miflive weapons ; and the effedl of thefe, when thrown from below to a high place, is flow, and, as may be fuppofed, weak, even when they hit the

mark ;

but,

when thrown from

above, their efleft

is

quick

and ftrong, the weight of the weapons cooperating with the force they are thrown with. However, the men, who attacked the fortrefl!es, were not difcouraged ; but

fupportcd themfclves under thefe neceflary dangers, and ceafcd not to At laft, the befieged having fpent labour day, and night.
all

BookX.
all their

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN AS S EN SIS.
miilive weapons,

i6i

the

Romans took
loft

the

their ftrength failing them, fortrefics the third In this

and

day.

adion, they
conful,

many
all;

brave men, and

among them

the

who was,

univerfally,

braved of them

acknowledged to have been the and vvho, though he had received

many wounds,

did not, even in that condition, withdraw
till

a large ftone, falling upon him with vdolence as he was mounting the walls, deprived him both of the vidory , and of his life. The fortrefles being taken,

himfelf from danger,

Herdonius

(for

he was remarkable for

his

ftrength,

and

made an incredible heap of dead perfonal bravery) having bodies round him, died overwhelmed with darts. Of thofe,

who
alive

with him had feized the
;

fortrefles,

fome few were taken

but the greateft part either flew themfelves, or leaped
the precipices.

down

war, raifed by thefe robbers, being thus ended, the tribunes renewed the civil diflenflon, deflrincr to
receive

XVII.

^he

from the furviving conful the performance of the

promifes

made by

Valerius,

who

loft his life in
:

the adlion,

But Claudius, of the law concerning the promulgation for a while, prolonged the time ; fometimes, by performing the luftration of the city ; at others, by offering facrifices
of thankfgiving to the gods ; and, at others, by entertaining the people with games, and fhews. After all his pretences

were exhaufted, at laft he told them that another conful muft be chofen in the room of the deceafed For he faid,
:

that the adls performed

nor firm

;

by him alone would be neither legal whereas Thofe performed by both, would be

Vol. IV.

Y

valid

i62
valid

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
and
lafting.

OF

Book X.

After he had put them off with this a day for the election of his coliegue. pretence, he appointed In the mean time, the leading men of the fenate, confulting

privately" together,

agreed upon the perfon to be raifed to

And, when the day appointed for the eledlion was come, and the cryer had called the firft clafs, the eighteen
that dignity
:

centuries of horfe, together with the eighty centuries of foot,

conGfting of the richeft citizens, entering the appointed chofe Lucius Quintius Cincinnatus conful, whofe fon place,

Caefo Quintius the tribunes had brought to a trial for his And, no other life, and compelled him to leave the city clafs being called to vote (for the centuries, which had voted,
:

exceeded the number of thofe, that were

left,

by three

centuries) the people departed, looking upon it as a heavy misfortune that a man who hated them, was going to be

inverted with

the confular

power.

However,, the fenate

fent proper perfons to delire the conful to

come

to

Rome,

and take

It of the magiftracy. happened that poiTcfTion " Quintius was, at that very time, ploughing a piece of land
'0T^ia-f

ya^

yjf.oiv

J^oyjit zrXeiyc, ctc.
4'^''

See the
"•

33''

annotat. on the
T.v«.
'

book.

^ Cliiver fhews that thefe Prata ^tintia were in the campo Vatkano^ called

Livy takes an opA^^fav of defcribing the ruftic emportunity
ployment, and the
cinnatus,
little

now, 7 Prfl/;', oppofite which place, he fays,

to the
is

«rtx)tf//i7,

now

called,

farm of Cindictator

when he was made

two years

after.

He

thefe four acres,

there alfo fays, of which that farm

concluded from this extreme poverty of Cincinnatus, that it was the general pradice in the early
It is

La Ripetta.

confifted, were afterwards called Praia and that they lay on the other
i^/««/;Vz;

ages of the commonwealth to take the didators, and confuls from the plough;

fide

of the Tiber, oppofite to a place, where, in his time, were the mvalia.
'B.iii.

and that their magiftrates were no richer than Cincinnatus. But this I look upon as a miflake ; becaufe the
Antiq. B.
iii.

c

26.

Ttal

p. 866.

for

Book X.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
fallow, without a veft, his

163

for fowing, himfelf following the

up the

oxen that were breakinowaift girded, and a cap
into

upon

his

head

:

Seeing a great

number of men come

the field, he ftopped his plough, and could not, for a long
time, conceive

who

they were, and what they wanted with
to him,

Upon to Rome,

and deliring him to drefs himfelf in a more becoming manner, he went into his cottage ; and, putting on his clothes, came out to them which, the perfons, who were fent to condud: him

him

:

When, one of them coming

:

all

faluted him, not

by

his

name, but

as conful

;

and, clothing him with the robe bordered with purple, and him the axes, and the other enfigns of his placing before defired him to follow them to the He, city. magiftracy,
mean education they muft have received under fo much poverty, could never have qualified them to dilcharge their magiftracies with fo great ability, as we know they did difcharge them. Even Cincinnatus
pofl^eflTed

fevere, but true reflexion, it is become a iafliion among the French writers to alTert that the view of in

Dionyfius

writing his hiftory was to flatter gufl;us, and the Romans of his

Auage
:

himfelf had been

Nay one of them

has had even the

of other eftates, which our author fays he was obliged to fell in order to pay the feveral forfeitures, that accrued to the public upon the When I fay this, I his fon. flight of that the richeft of thefe do°not deny
old

pertnefs to affirm, in fo many words, that his defign was not fo much to write a true hiftory, as to flatter the

Romans, and
difficult

to fliew with
'

what ad-

drefs he himfelf could handle the
:

mod

Romans were

far

below what we
I

call rich,

any more than

would deny

fubjecls Denys cCHalicarna]Je avoit bien mains pur but de donner hijioire veritable, que de flatter les

um

that the mofl; virtuous of them were far above what we call virtuous. Our

Romains,
dreffe
les
il

et

de montrer
lui

avec quelle anianier
is

/(avoit

author deferves great commendations for the freedom, with which he cenfutes the degeneracy of the Romans
in his time,

refpeds,

all faying they afted, in to the maxims of contrary

not the only plus dtfliciles. in our author, that conpafrage flatly tradids his afl^ertion. Ifhe had never read thefe paflTages, his cenfure is ridiculous ; and, ifhe had read them,
it is

mcme This

les

fujets

their aaccftors.

Notwithftanding

this

fomething worfe.
i, c.

'Beaufort, fur I'incert. etc. Part,

2.

Y

2

making

i64

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
my

BookX.
;

making " I fee
*'

a fhort paufe, and fliedding tears, faid only this

land will be unfovvn this year, and we iliall be After in danger of not having wherewithall to fublift."

that,

he embraced

his wife, and, charging her to take care

The only reafon, of his family concerns, went to Rome. that induced me to relate all thefe particulars, was to let all
the world fee what kind of men the
at that

Roman

magiftrates

were

that they worked with their own hands, and were temperate ; that they were not uneafy under innocent

time

;

poverty
this

;

and were
it

they refufed

from aiming at regal power, that For the Romans of even when offered
fo far
:

age will appear not to bear the leaft refemblance to them ; but to purfue every thing that is contrary to their maxims, except a very few, by whom the dignity of the

commonwealth

isftill

fupported, and a refemblance to thofe

men

preferved.

But of this enough.

XVIII. Quintius, having entered upon the confuliliip,, of the tribunes, and firft put an end to the new inftitutions
to their earneftnefs for the law, by declaring that, if they did not ceafe to difturb the peace of the commonwealth, he

would give notice of an expedition againft the Volfci, and lead all the Romans, out of the city: And, when the tribunes faid they would hinder him from raifing an army, he affembled the people, and told them that they had all taken
the military oath, by which they had ingaged themfelves to follow the confuls in any wars, to which they fhould be
called
elfe
;

and neither

to leave their enfigns, nor

do any thing
his

and that, contrary to the military law}

upon

being

invefted

BookX.

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A R N AS SEN SI S.

165

inverted with the confular power, he had found them all bound by thefe oaths. Having faidthis, and fworn to puniQi

the rigor of the law, he ordered the " And, fays he, enfigns to be brought out of the temples: " that you may give over all thoughts of being flattered by the difobedient with
all

"

" draw the army from the enemy's country, before the " whole time of it fhall be Expe6t, therefore, to expired. " neand the winter in the
pafs
field,

your demagogues during

my

confulfhip,

I

will not vi^ith-

prepare every thing

"
thefe threats,

ceilary againft

Having terrified them with when he faw they were become more obferthat time."

and begged to be difcharged from this expedition, he faid, he would grant them a refpite from war upon thefe conditions, that they fhould raife no more commotions ;
vant,

but allow him to govern, during the remaining part of hisfhould think fit ; and fuifer the law to magiftracy, as he
take
its

courfe in

all

the contefts they fhould have with one

another.

XIX. The tumult being
all

long of the

appeafed, he gave judgement in caufes, where the fuitors defired it; a thing which had been delayed; and he himfelf decided the greateft part
fuits

with equality and

in the tribunal,

whole day and fhewing himfelf eafy of accefs, mild
the juftice, fitting

and humane to
tions:

all,

who

applied to

him

for his

determina-

By which means, he

raifed the

reputation of the

to that degree, that neither thofe, who, through other low circumftance, were poverty, ignoble birth, or any
ariftocracy

opprefied

by

their fuperiors,

wanted the

ailiftance

of the
;

tribunes

i66
tribunes
i

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
nor thofe,

OF

Book X.

defired to enjoy an equal adminiftration ofjuftice, were, any longer, fond of nev/ laws;
all

who

were contented, and pleafed with the equity, with which juftice was then adminiftered. Quintius was apbut
for thefe adlions plauded by the people
;

and,

alfo,

for re-

fufing

the

confulfliip,
it

when,

after the

expiration of his

mao-iftracy,

not

fliewino'

was offered to him a fecond time ; and for even the leaffc fondnefs for fo great an honor
:

For the fenate ufed many

intreaties

with him to continue

in the confulfhip, becaufe the tribunes had prevailed with to continue them in their magiftracy for the third the

people year ; the former looking upon

him

as a

proper perfon to

and oppofe thefe,

make them drop

their

new

laws, either

fear ; and obferving that the people were through refped, or not averfe to be governed by a good man: But Quintius anfwered, that he neither approved of this unwillingnefs in

the tribunes to part with their power ; neither would he After which, he afhimfelf fall under the like cenfure.

having made a fpeech full of invedtives againft thofe, who did not relign their magiftracies ; and taken a folemn oath not to accept the confulfhip

fembled the people

;

and,

he had refigned his former magiftracy, he fixed again, before for the eledion of magiftrates ; and having appointed a

day

the confuls, he returned to his cottage,
laborious
life.

and refumed

his

Fabius Vibulanus for the third time, and Lucius Cornelius having entered upon the confulfhip, and in exhibiting the cuflomary games, a chofen being employed

XX. Quintus

body

BookX.

DIONYSIUS H AL ICARNASSENSIS.

167

body of the Aequi, amounting to about fix thoufand men, armed for expedition, came out of their confines in the
was yet dark, and advanced to Tufculum, a of the Latines, and diftant from Rome not lefs than one city hundred ftadia; and finding, as in a time of peace, the
night, while
it

gates open, and the walls unguarded, they took the town at the firft onfet, to gratify their refentment againfl the

Tufculani for

aflifting

the

Romans, upon

all

occafions,

with alacrity ; and particularly, becaufe they alone had joined them with their forces, when the capitol was befieged.

The Aequi

put

many

to death in taking the city

;

but the

inhabitants, except thofe,

who through
:

age, or ficknefs,

were

unable to efcape, fled out at the gates, before the enemy could make themfelves mafters of it However, they made
of their wives, children, and domeftics ; and carried off their effedls. As foon as the news of this misfortune was
ilav^es

by thofe who had efcaped out of the city, the confuls thought it incumbent on them to affift the and to reflore their city to them : fugitives immediately,
brought to

Rome

But the tribunes oppofed them, and would not fuffer any forces to be raifed, till the people had given their votes concerning the
their

new

laws.

indignation at fufpended, other deputies arrived from the Latin nation, who informed them that the city of the Antiates had openly

While the fenate were expreffing this oppofition, and the levies were

revolted, the Volfci,

who were

the ancient inhabitants of it,

and the

colony, to whom a fhare of their lands had been granted, being united in this confpiracy : There arrived,

Roman

alfoj.

i68
alfo,

ROMAN
at the

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book X.

fame time, mefTengers from the Hernici, acquainting them that a numerous army of the Volici, and the Aequi had marched out of their confines, and were,
the country of the Hernici. Thefe advices coming already, in all together, the fenate refolved to ufe no further delay, but to march againft thefe enemies with all their forces, and that

both the confuls fhould take the

Romans, or their allies, them like enemies. As

and, if any of the fhould decline the fcrvice, to treat
field
;

the tribunes, alfo, fubmitted to this

refolution, the confuls, having inlifted all who were of the fent for the forces of their allies, prefently military age, and marched out ; leaving a third part of the national forces to

o-uard the city.

Aequi,
part

who

Fabius marched, in all hafte, againit the were in pofiefiion of Tufculum; the greateft

of whom had quitted the city, after they had plundered a few ftaid to defend the citadel, which*, being exit, and not ftaud in need of a numerous garrifon. ceeding ftrong, did
It
is

faid

citadel,
i="

by fome that the men, who were left to guard the " marching from Rome (for all the feeing the army
The Latin
tranflators

E|(i*(r«v.

have rendered this Roma egredientem ; and le Jay, I'ennenii vit forlir les Romains; the other French tranflator has I avoided this abfurdity. prudently
call it

One hundred ftadia make twelve Roman miles, and a half. This, I fay,
is

fervation.

too great a diltance for fuch an obThe thing, that milled the

an abfurdity to fuppofe that the the citadel at Tufculum garrifon of could fee with their naked eyes (and
it
is

Latin tranflators (for le Jay, I dare fay, was not mifled by any thing in the Greek text) feems to be the tenfe, and confequently the force, of the
participle f|i»o-«v, which they ought to have rendered not egredientem, but
It is plain they egrejum (exercitum.) have taken it in the prefent tenfe; but I look upon it to be the fecond aorifl: ;

certain they

the

Roman army marching
Our
that

had no telefcopes) out of

Rome.
told us

author has, juft now,
:

Tufculum was not lefs than an hundred ftadia from Rome

inter-

BookX.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A SS EN S I S.
may
:

169

interjacent country

nence) they quitted it that, being unable to defend themfelves, any longer, againft Fabius, they furrendered the place by compofition, having that their lives fhould be fpared, and fubmitted to
ftipulated
pafs

be ealily difcovered from this emiof their own accord And, by others,

under the yoke. XXI. After Fabius had reftored the city to the Tufculani, he decamped that evening, and marched, with all poffible the enemy, upon information that the comfpeed, againft
:

bined army of the Volfci, and Aequi lay near '^ Algidum And, having continued his march all night with great expedition,

he appeared before them early the next morning, as they lay incamped in a plain, without either a ditch, or palifades
to defend them, they being in their own territories, and defpihis men to do their fing the enemy : Then, exhorting duty, at the head of the horfe, and was thefirft man he

puthimfelf broke into the enemy's camp ; and the foot, fhouting, Some of the enemy were flain, while they were followed.

who

afleep,

and others juft
;

as

by flight. taken with great eafe, Fabius gave his men being the prifoners, leave to appropriate to themfelves the booty , and

to defend themfelves

they got up, and were endeavouring but the greateft part efcaped

The camp
and,

like all participles

of the fecond

aorifl:, derived from the fecond aorift of the indicative mood ; which fecond

of the lowed rank, but fometimes neceffary ; and one of thofe things, that may be too much defpifed.

aorift of this verb

is s|/ov.

The

reader

will excufe this piece of grammatical criticifm, which he has not been often troubled with : I own it is a criticifm

Cluver AhyiSov. now called fays public inn, L'Ofieria, ftands upon the fpot, where the town of Algidum formerly flood.
'3-

"'

Hs^i that a

zd-oAjv

"

Ital.

Antiq. B.

ii.

p.

778.

Vol. IV.

Z

except

lyo

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book X.

fhort ftay, except fuch as were Tufculani ; and, after a '^ marched to Ecetra, which was, at that time, the moft

coniiderable city of the Volfci, and the moft ftrongly fituated And, having incamped near the city for many days,
:

in hopes the

enemy would come out
:

to fight,

when none
full

•appeared,

he

laid wafte their territories,

which were

of

men, and
nefs

cattle

For the

Volfci, furprifed with the fudden-

of the irruption, had not time to remove their effeds This booty, alfo, Fabius gave to his out of the country.
foldiers try,
;

and, after

he returned

many days fpent in home with his army.
his

defolating the coun-

Cornelius, the other

conful,

was upon

march

againft thofe

Romans, and Volfci,
:

who were at Antium, when
to receive

he found an army, that was ready

him

before he entered their confines
;
:

And,
flight,

in-

gaging,

he killed many
city

and, having put the

reft to

he

incamped near the

But the inhabitants not daring to venture another ingagement, he firft laid wafte the country,
their

and then furrounded
palifades.

city

with a ditch

fortified

with

Upon

this,

the

enemy were compelled

to

come

out,

again, with

all their forces,

a numerous and diforderly

multitude; then, ingaging in battle, and fighting with lefs bravery than before, they were fhut up within their
walls a fecond time,
after a

fhameful and unmanly

flight.

But the conful, giving them no reft, planted fcaling ladders againft the walls, and forced open the gates with battering rams: The befieged making a laborious and painful refiftance, he without much difficulty took the town by ftorm.
'4-

Evi

Tijv Ep^^r^flivwv

zrtMi.

See the

fifty fixth

annotation on the foitrth book.

Such

Book X.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
their effeds as conlifted in gold, filver,

171
brafs,

Such of

and

he ordered to be carried to the treafury; and that the quaeftors fhould fell the flaves, and the reft of the fpoils ;
giving to the foldiers the apparel, and provilions, and every Then, chufing out the moft conthing elfe of that nature fiderable men both of the Roman colony, and of the ancient
:

inhabitants of Antium,

and

thofe,

who had been

the authors

of the revolt, and were many, he ordered them to be whipvvith rods for a long time, and then beheaded. After ped

he had done thefe things, he army.

alfo

returned

home with

his

The

fenate

to the city, and

thefe confuls, as they were coming decreed a triumph to both : And the

met

Aequi

fending embafladors to treat of a peace, they concluded a treaty with them upon thefe conditions ; that the Aequi
fliould continue
in

poffeflion of the cities,

and

territories

they were pofTefled of at the time of the treaty, and become of the Romans, without paying any tribute ; but fubjefts under the obligation of furnifhing as great a number of
forces, as they fhould at

of the

allies.

And

any time be required, thus ended this year.

like the reft

XXII. The year following, Caius Nautius for the fecond time, and Lucius Minucius entered upon the confulfhip, and were, for fome time, employed in a conteft at home,
concerning the
civil

who were now
:

with Virginius, and his collegues, in pofteflion of the fame magiftracy for the
rights

fourth year But, a war being brought upon the commonwealth by the neighbouring nations, and the Romans fearing
to

be deprived of the fovereignty,

the confuls willingly
laid

Z

2

172
laid

ROMAN

ANTIOJ-HTIES OF

BookX.

hold on the opportunity prefented to them by Fortune; divided both their own and, having raifed an army, they into three bodies ; leaving forces, and Thofe of their allies,

one of them to guard the city, which was commanded by themfelves at the Quintus Fabius Vibulanus ; and, putting
head of the other two, they marched out immediately; Nautius and Minucius againft the Aequi going againft the Sabines, For both thefe nations had revolted from the Romans at
:

Sabines indeed openly, and advanced as far as Fidenae, which was in the polTefTion of the Ro-

the fame time

:

The

mans, and is diftant from Rome forty ftadia But the Aequi, though obferving in appearance the terms of the alliance into with the Romans, yet adled in they had lately entered
:

reality

For they made war upon the Latines their allies, pretending they had entered into no alliance with them: Their army was commanded by Gracchus Cloelius, an adive man, who had been inverted by them
like

enemies

:

with the chief magiftracy, which he

raifed' to little lefs

than

a fovereignty ; and, marching as far as the city of Tufculum, which the Aequi had taken, and plundered the year before,

and been driven out of it by the Romans, he leized a great number of men, and all the cattle he found in the country, and'
to cut. And, when the deftroyed the corn, which was then fit embaifadors, fent by the Roman fenate, came to him to know

what provocation had induced the Aequi to make war upon the allies of the Romans, after they had, fo lately, entered and that no into a treaty of peace confirmed by their oaths caufe of complaint had fince arifen between the two nations ;
;

and.

BookX.
and,

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
exhort

17J

alfo, to

and

to

withdraw

torelcafe the prifoners he had taken, his forces ; and to juftify himfelf for the

him

injuries,

and damages he had occalioned to the Tufculani ; would even give audience it was a long time before Gracchus to the embaffadors, pretending he was not at leifure; and,
:

when he thought fit to have them introduced, and they laid before him the orders they had received from the fenate
wonder, Romans, fays he, why you, who, from your " and tyranny, look upon all men pailion for domination, *' as your enemies, even thofe, from whom you never re1

"

ceived any injury, fhould not fuffer the Aequi to take who are their enemies, when revenge on the Tufculani,

" no

of the treaty we made with you extends to them. that you have been injured, of If, therefore, you can fay hurt by us in any thing, that relates to your own concerns,.
article
:

" we will do you juftice according to the treaty But, if " fatisfadlion on the behalf of the you are come to demand " addrefs not this difcourfe to me, but to that
Tufculani,

" beech

tree j"

XXIII. The

pointing to one that flood near. Romans, thus infulted by the man, did not

immediately give way to their refentment, and march out with their forces ; but fent even a fecond embafly to him,

and

alfo the

holy men, or

feciales,

to witnefs that, if they were genius's to wage a pious they fliould be obliged
.

calling the gods, and unable to obtain juftice,

war

:

After which,

When Gracchus the conful to take the field. they ordered heard the Romans were advancing, he decamped, and retired to a greater diftance, the

enemy following him

clofe

Hi&

BookX. ANTIQUITIES OF ,74 His defign was to draw them to fuch places, as fliould give him a fuperiority over them ; which happened accordingly with hills, For, advantage of a valley furrounded
:

ROMAN

taking as foon as the Romans, in purfuing him, had ingaged themfelves in it, he faced about, and incamped in the road, that
led out of the valley
:

By

this

means, the

Romans were

re-

duced

to pitch

upon fuch a place
it

for their

prefent

occafion offered, not fuch a one as

camp, as the they would have

chofen ; where

was not eafy either

for the horfe to get forage,

the place being furrounded with hills, both naked, and of difficult accefs ; or for themfelves to bring in proviftons out of the enemies country, after Thofe they had brought
or to change their ground, while the enemy lay before them, and defended the pafles : to force their way out, they ingaged, Refolving, therefore,
;

from home were confumed

and were repulfed; and many of their men being wounded, to return to the fame camp. Cloelius, they were compelled
elated with this fuccefs,

furrounded the place with a ditch fortified with palifades, and had great hopes of reducing

them, by famine, to deliver up
this misfortune

their arms.

The news

ot

who own army

being brought to Rome, Quintus Fabius, had been left governor of the city, chofe out of his
a

body of the

braveft
:

to the relief of the conful

men, and fent them Thefe were commanded by
and
beft

Titus Quintius, the quaeftor, a perfon of confular dignity.

And, writing

to Nautius, the other conful,

who commanded
him of him to come
prefcntly

the army in the country of the Sabines, he informed

what had happened

to Minucius,

and defircd

BookX.
prefently
cTLiard

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S SENS I S.
to

175

Rome.

Upon

this,

Nautius committed the

of the

camp

horfc, rode in all
nio-ht,

to the legates, and he himfelf, with a few hafte to the city : Arriving there at midFabiiis,

he confulted with

and the

reft

of the moft
:

And all ancient citizens what meafures they were to take a being of opinion that the prefcntjundiure required dictator,
he named Lucius Cincinnatus to that magiftracy ; and, having difpatched thefe things, he himfelf returned to the

camp.
Fabius, the governor of the city, fent proper It perfons to Quintius to inveft him with the magiftracy. happened that Quintius was, then alfo, employed in fome

XXIV.

work of hulbandry;

when, feeing a great number of were coming to him ; people advancing, he fufpeded they and, putting on a more becoming apparel, went to meet When he came near them, they brought to him them. horfes decked with magnificent trappings ; placed before

him
to

twenty axes with the rods, and prefented him the purple robe, and the other enfigns, with
the

four and

which

royal dignity had been formerly adornedv Quintius, finding that he was appointed dixftator, was fo far

from

rejoicing

in this honor, that

faying,

"

" This year's crop will,

he was even grieved
be
loft
all

at it,

alfo,

tiplicity

of my bufinefs, and we fhall

through the mulendure great want."'

After that, he went to
citizens
their

Rome; and
;

by fpeaking to them in with hopes of fuccefs fpirits
city,

encouraged the a manner capable of raifing
fi_rft

then, aftembling

all

the

youth both of the

and the country, and fending

for the

forces

176
forces

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
of their
allies,
:

OF
''

Book X,

Tarquitius mafter of the horfe, a man negleded by reafon of his poAll his forces being now but brave in the field
verty,

he appointed Lucius

drawn

too-ether,

he

fet

out

;

and, in his march, joined Titus
;

and, taking with him his forces alfo, he advanced towards the enemy. After he had viewed the nature of the places, in which the camps

Quintius the quaeftor,

who expeded him

lay,

he pofted a part of

his

army upon the eminences,

to

from receiving either fuccours, or proprevent the Aeqiii vifions ; and he himfelf marched forward with the reft in
order

of

battle.

Cloelius

unmoved with
fmall,

fear

(for

the

number of

his

forces

was not

and he himfelf was
his onfet
;

looked upon as a brave warriour) received
fevere battle infued
;

and a

by reafon of

their

and the Romans, continual wars, enduring the toil, and the which
lafting long,

horfe, always, relieving the foot, whereever they fuffered, Gracchus was beaten, and fliut up in his camp : After that,

Quintius, having furrounded

it

with high palifades,

fortified

with many towers, and heard that Gracchus was in diftrefs for want of provifions, he, not only, made continual attacks

upon the camp of the Aequi himfeU, but ordered Minucius So that, the to march out with his forces on the other fide
:

Aequi, wanting provifions, defpairing of fuccours, and befieged on many fides, were compelled to fend deputies to
'5-

T<K{xu7(ov.

All the editions, and

fays

upon

this

palTage ofLivy) by the

manufcripts read Ta^Kuvuv: But this " is certainly a mi flake ; becaufe Livy
calls
lis
;

Capitoline tables.

him L. Tarquilium patriciae genwhich is confirmed (as Sigonius
'

Neither would Livy have thought it neceflary to have fiiid that he was of a patrician family, if his name had been Tarquinius.
z~.

B.

iii.

c.

Quintius

BookX.

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A RN AS S EN SIS.
'^

ijj
;

Quintius with the marks of Quintius
faid,

fuppliants to treat of a peace

that he

would make peace with the

Aeqiii,

and grant them an impunity for their perfons, provided they '^ laid down their arms, and all pafled under the yoke one after another ; but, as to Gracchus their general, and thofe,

who, together with him, had been the authors of this revolt, he would treat them as enemies ; and ordered them to bring
thefe

men

to

him

in chains.

The Aequi

fubmitting to

this,

thing he infifted upon was, that, as they had inflaved the inhabitants of Tufculum, a city in alliance with the
the
laft

without having received any injury from the Tufculani, they fhould yield up to him the city of '^ Corbio to be treated in the fame manner. The deputies
it,

Romans, and plundered

of the Aequi, having received thele anfwers, departed ; and, not long after, returned bringing with them Gracchus, and his alTociates in chains ; and they themfelves, laying down their arms, came out of their own camp, and, purfuant to the orders of the general, marched through That of the Romans under the yoke ; and delivered up Corbio acthat the inhabitants of cording to the treaty, defiring only free condition might have leave to retire out of the city, in

they releafed the Tufculati captives. XXV. Quintius, having taken pofleflion of Corbio, orthat were moft ornamental, to be carried dered thofe

exchange

for

whom

fpoils,

be diftributed by to centuries, both to the troops he brought with him, and
to

Rome, and permitted

all

the

reft

to

»«•

UiJti^ixf.

See the feventeenth an-

notation on the fixth book. »7- Ttto ^^yov. See the twentieth an-

notation on the third book, 'S- noA,v See the fecond Ko^e<wvi»;

annotation on the fixth book.

Vol. IV.

Aa

Thofe,

178

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book X.

Thole, which had been fent before with Quintius the quae^ As for the forces, which had been lliut up in their ftor.

camp with Minucius
'^

the conful, he faid that he had, al-

ready,

triand, returning to Rome, umphed with greater fplendor than any other general ; having within the fpace of fixteen days in the whole, from That

their perfons to refign his

beftowed a great prefent upon them in deUvering from death After that, he obHged Minucius
:

"

magiftracy

;

on which he received the magiftracy, faved a camp of
fellow-citizens ; defeated a flourifhing

his
;

army of the enemy

of their cities, and left a garrifon in it ; and plundered one then led in triumph the general of their army with other men of diftindion in chains. But no part of his condudl deferved
fo

much

to be admired as this, that, after he had received

months, he did not retain it fo long; but, having aflembled the people, and given them an account of his adminiftration, he abdicated And, when the
fo great a

power

for fix

:

fenate defired
as

him

to accept as

much of the conquered

land,

fpoils,
^9*

he pleafed, together with flaves, and money out of the and that he would relieve his poverty with innocent
MiyuT^yiv
£(?>;

SiSuMvai

So^iuv.

more beautiful Nothing than the words, which °Livy makes the dictator fay to the army of IVIinufure can be

not fcem to have fufpeded of September in the Pompihan year, then in ufe among

he does
that

the ides

the

cius

Carebis, inquii, praedae parte^ miles, ex eo hojie^ cut prope praedaefuijii. -°' Koilyiyayi ^^muTr^o'uJov aV«v7a)v
:

^ytfjiovuv

&§i»p6<)v.

The

Capitoline

confifted only of could not coincide exadlly 354 days, with the ides of September in the Julian year, which confifts of 365 and i 11 minutes. Concern-

Romans, which

days,

tables place this triumph ot Quintius on the ides of September. .This M.

ing which,
tation

fee the thirty fourth

anno-

* *

on the eighth book.

took notice of before

me

:

But
•B.
iii.

c.

19,

riches,

Book X.
riches,

DIONYSIUS MALICARNASSENSIS.
:

179

which he had gained from the enemy by the mod And his honourable means, his own toils, he refufed it
friends,

and

relations offering

him, at the fame time, con-

and placing their greateft happinefs in a man, he thanked them for their affedion, aflifting fuch but accepted none of their prefents ; returned to his the laborious life he led there to little farm, and preferred
fiderable prefents,

That of

a fovereign

;

glorying

more
with

in his

others in their riches.

Not long

after,

poverty, than Nautius alfo, the

other conful, returned to

Rome

his

overcome theSabines

in a pitched battle,

army, after he had and overrun a great
firft

their country. part of XXVI. After thefe confuls, the eighty
at

Olympiad which Polymnaftus of Cyrene won the was celebrated, Callias being archon at Athens, and prize of the ftadium,
Caius Horatius,

and Quintus Minucius confuls at Rome.

During

their confulfhip, the Sabines

made another

irruption

part in great numbers, brought an account that

into the territories of the Romans, and laid wafte a great of them ; and the country people, flying from thence
all

the country

between

Cruftumerium, and Fidenae, was in pofleilion The Aequi alfo, who had been lately conof the enemy. in arms ; and the moft refolute of them, quered were again marchino- to the city of Corbio in the night, which they
"'

had delivered up to the Romans the year
the garrifon there afleep, put
2''

before, and, finding

them
book
:

to the fword, except a

K^«fOjU£f(«j

y-xi $i/>)i/i}?.

See the

And
2

the fifty third chapter of

fixty fixth annotation

o« the fecond

the fecond book.

Aa

few.

i8o
fcwj

ROMAN
who happened

ANTIC^UITIES OF
to be abfent
:

Book X.

reft of the Aequi " marched in a confiderable body to Ortona, a city of the Latin nation, and took it by ftorm ; and thofe mifchiefs to inflidl upon the Romans, they, through they were unable refentment, inflided on their alHes: For they put to death
all

The

who were men grown,

except thofe

who made

their

the city was taking, and inflaved their wives, efcape while and children with the old men; then, gathering together, in hafte, all the effeds they could carry off, they returned
before the Latines could affemble
all their

forces to relieve

the

city.

Rome

of thefe tranfadions being brought to at the fame time, both by the Latines, and thofe of

The news
who had

efcaped, the fenate refolved to fend out an army, and that both theconfuls fhould take the field: But Virginius, and his collegues, who were continued in the fame

the garrifon

oppofed this, as they had alfo done in the former years, and hindered theconfuls from making

power

for the fifth year,

levies

by

defiring that the civil conteft might firft be appeafed, allowing the people to take into confideration the law
;

they were bringing in to eftabliih an equal adminiftration of this occafion, they laid themfelves out in juftice. And, upon
invidious accufations againft the fenate, and were long, and countenanced by the people. But a great deal of time

being

fpent,
pafs

while neither the confuls would fubmitto

let

the fenate

the previous vote, and the law to be laid before the people ; nor the tribunes allow the levies to be made, and the army
to take the field
:

And many

fpeeches being

made by

both,

and

invedlives
»e-

thrown out againft one another witliout
on the eighth book.

o^luvx. See the fixtietb annotation

effed,

BookX.

DIONYSIUS HALICA RN ASS EN SI S.

i8i

effed, both in the aflemblies of the people, and in the fenate, another inftitution was introduced by the tribunes againft

the fenate, which, by impofing peafe the prefent commotion,

upon them, did indeed apbut proved the fource of

many
this

other great advantages to the people. I fhall, now, give an account of the manner, in which the people added

Thofe they had, before, acquired. XXVII. While the territories both of the Romans, and of their allies were laid wafte and plundered, and the enemy

power

to

marching through them, as through a defert, from a confidence that no army would come out againft them, by
reafon of the fedition then raging in the city, the confuls affembled the fenate with a defign to confult them upon the

whole of

their affairs for the

lafl:

time.

Many

having been made, the perfon, who was firft opinion, was Lucius Quintius, who had been didlator the
a man, who was not only the greateft general, year before, but alfo the ableft ftatefman of his time: He delivered

fpeeches afked his

fuch an opinion,
tribunes,

as

was moft

likely to perfuade

both the

and the
the

reft

proper
in

feafon

of the citizens, to defer to a more confideration of the law, which did,

be entered upon at that jundlure ; and, with all alacrity, to undertake the war, that preiTed upon them, and was almoft at their gates j and not to fuffer the fovereignty, which they had acquired with fo

no

to refpedl, require

much

labor,

to be wrefted

pudllanimous

condud ;

from them by a fhameful, and but, if the people would not yield
take

to thefe remonftrances, he, then, advifed the patricians to

i82

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

BookX.
citi-

take arms, together with their cUents, and fuch of the

this zens, as were willing to fight for their country upon moft glorious occafion, and to march againft the enemy with

refolution,

Rome,
would

the city of imploring the gods, who protect to be their guides Which, he fiiid, would be attend:

ed with one of thefe two honourable, and
either obtain a

juft events, they

more

illuftrious victory

than they, or

their anceftors

had ever obtained, or

die in fighting bravely

for fo noble a prize : decline fharing in fo
prefent,

He added,
worthy an

that he himfelf
enterprife,

would not

but would be

robuft

;

and fight with a fpirit equal to That of the moft and that all the aged men, who had any regard

either for liberty, or glory,

would follow

his

example.

XXVIII. The reft of the
and no one contradicting
of the people
:

fenators approving of this advice, it, the confuls called an

aflembly
flocking

And

all

the inhabitants of

Rome

thither in expedlation of hearing fomething new, Caius Horatius, one of the confuls, prefented himfelf, and endea-

voured to perfuade the people to ingage in this war, alfo, with chearfulnefs But this being oppofed by the tribunes,
:

and the people hearkening to them, the conful again rofe up, and faid: ** Virginius, you have performed a noble, and a ** wonderful exploit, in dividing the people from the fenate ;

"
*'

*'

" with them ; but are refolved to take arms eafily part " with all thofe, who defire the prefervation of their country, " and .

depends upon you, we have loft all the advantages we have either inherited from our anceftors, or acquired by our own labor: However, we fhall not
and, as far as
it

BookX. " and to

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN ASSHNSIS.
go on to
this

183

ingagement

in

full

confidence of

"
*' *'

and, if any god looks down upon battles fought in a glorious, and juft caufe ; and, if Fortune, which has
fuccefs;

been long raifing this city, has not yet abandoned it, we " fliall overcome our enemies But, if any genius fliould ob" ftru6l, and oppofe the prefervation of the commonwealth,
:

"
*'

not peri£h, however, through any want of piety, and zeal in us ; but we will chufe the moft glorious of
it

fhall

*'
*'

all

deaths,

to die for our country.

In the

mean

time,

O

" do you ftay " or, rather,
(C

generous,

and worthy patrons of the commonwealth, at home with the women, fince you have abanbetrayed us, you, I fay,
if

doned, live with honor,
unlefs,

who

can never
fafety
;

we

conquer, or,

if not,

with

perhaps,

you

flatter

yourfelves with

this frivolous

" are all deftroyed, the hope, that, when the patricians " enemy will fpare you in conflderation of this fervice, and " fuffer you to enjoy your country, your liberty, your fove" and all the other advantages you, now, poflefs ; reignty, " which enemy, when you entertained the beft fentiments " in favor of the commonwealth, you deprived of a great " their territories, rafed many of their cities, and part of " inflaved their inhabitants ; and againft whom you eredted " many noble trophies of your vidlories, and monuments of " your enmity, which no time will, ever, be able to abolifli. " But, why do I find fault with the people for all this, who " never erred willingly, and not rather with you, Virginius, " and your collegues, who are the authors of thefe glorious " meafures ? We, therefore, whom neceflity forbids to " enter-

i84

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
:

Book X.

low thoughts, have taken our refolution, and in defence of our "nothing (hall hinder us from fighting " As for you, who have abandoned, and betrayed country " the commonwealth, the will purfue you with no
entertain

"

gods

"

flight

"
«'

you efcape the punifhment of revenge ; men, That of the gods you will not avoid. Think not this to terrify you ; but be aflured that thofe patriI
and,
if

"

fay

guard the city, fhould the *^ as beenemy prove vidlorious, will take fuch refolutions, " come them. Have there not been inftances of Barbarians,
cians, will be left here to

who

who, when they were upon the point of being taken *' to become mafters by the enemy, rather than fuffer them " of their wives, children, and cities, refolved to burn the
*'

" latter, and put the former to death " Romans, to whom the command of
** **
'* **

;

and
others

fliall

not the

was derived

from

their anceflors,

entertain the

fame fentiments with

be fo degenerate, regard to themfelves ? They will never but will, firft, filed the blood of you, who are their greateft When enemies, and, afterwards. That of their friends.

"
**

you refled on
in

thefe things, hold your allemblies,

and bring

new

laws."

and many things to the fame purpofe, he prefented before them the moft ancient
faid this,

XXIX.

After' he

had

patricians

in tears.

At

this

fight,

many

of the plebeians could
:

not even themfelves refrain from weeping And great compaflion being raifed both by the age, and dignity of thofe

" Are perfons, the conful, after a fhort paufe, faid : you " not and ready to fink into the earth, afliamed, citizens,
" when

BookX.
**^

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A SS EN S
fee thefe old

I S.

185

when you
of you

*'
((

who

are

men going to take arms in defence young? And can you bear to abandon
!

thefe leaders,

whom

Unfortunate
country,
((

men

you have, always, called fathers? unworthy to be deemed citizens of this
thofe,

fathers

which was planted by on their fhoulders, and to

who
!

bore their

whom

When a fafe pailage through arms, and through fire Virglnius found the people were affedledwith this difcourfe,
he was afraid
to join in this
*'

"

the gods granted "

left,

contrary to his delire, they might confent
;

war

and advancing,
fathers;

faid

:

We

neither abandefire to

"

don, nor betray you,
defert you, as

neither

do we

we

have, hitherto, never declined ingaging

" in any war; but refolve both to live with you, and fuffer " with you whatever Heaven fhall decree: But, fince we " we defire concurred with at all
have,

" "
*'

you

times, cheerfully to grant us a moderate favor, that, as

you,

we

fhare in the

fame, dangers with you,
rights,

we may,
to

alfo,

fhare in the

by inftituting laws, the guardians of liberty,
all
:

fame which

" may, ever after, be common " averfe to this, and refufe to
"
*'
*'

However,

if

you are

looking upon it fhare with you in the diftribution people to have an equal of juftice, we fhall, no longer, contend with you; but,
citizens,

grant this favor to your fellowas a capital crime to fuffer the

we fhall defire another favor of you, which " if we obtain, we may poffibly ftand, no longer, in need of *' new laws However, we are afraid we fliall not obtain
inftead of that,
:

"

*'

even

*'

prove no prejudice to the fenate, but fome honor, and indulgence to the people."
this,

which

will

Vol. IV.

Bb

XXX.-

i86

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
In anfvver to
this,

Book X.

XXX.
tribunes

would

the conful faid, that, if the leave this inftitution to the determination of

the fenate, they would deny them nothing that was reafonable J and ordered them to explain what they defired When faid he Virginius, after a fhort conference with Jiis
:

collegues,

would propofe it in the fenate; which being aflembled by the confulsj he went in; and, after enumerating all the rights of the
people, over them,

he defired that the magiftracy, appointed to prefide might be doubled ; and that, inftead of five

Moft of the femight be chofen Qvery year. nators were of opinion that this would bring no fort of prejudice to the commonwealth, and advifed to grant it
tribunes, ten

without oppofition
Quintius, who,
at

:

This opinion was propofed by Lucius that time, had the greateft authority in

the fenate.

pofed

it

;

Caius Claudius was the only perfon, who ophe was the fon of Appius Claudius, who had, ever,

objedled

to the

new

inftitutions of the

plebeians,

when any

of them were not agreeable to law; and, having inherited the principles of his father, he hindered, when he himfelf

was conful, the inquiry, concerning the knights who were accufed of being ingaged in the confpiracy, from being comThis man made a mitted to the tribunes
:

long ipecch,

telling

them

that

the people,

if

their

magiftracy was

doubled, inftead of being
the future tribunes u

more

reafonable,
infolent

and obfervant,
:

would become more extravagant, and
ill

For, fays he,

not receive their magiftracy upon certain terms, fo as to adhere to the eftabliilied cuftoms ; but will, again, propofe the law concerning the di\'ifion of
lands,

Book X.
lands,
all

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
alfo

187
;

and

That

relating to an
will

"^

equality of laws

and

both by their words and adions, to encreafe the power of the people, and abolifli the prerogatives of the fenate. This fpeech had a

of them,

fucceflively,

endeavour,

great

effed upon the majority of that affembly. Quintius brought them over again, by fliewing

After

this,
it

them

that

was

for the intereft of the fenate that there

fhould be

many

tribunes, becaufe there would be lefs union amoag many, than among a few ; and that the only relief the commonwealth could exped, which Appius Claudius, the father of

Caius,

firft

difcovered,

was That

ariling

from the diflenfion
the

believe he did in order to avoid

A T I S zir^o9>iff(v Aoj/ov, v.xi toi vtho ivfi I S O T I M A S. So this fentence ftands
I

in all

the editions, and manufcripts
I

:

However, cannot help being of opinion that, inftead of iffo7i^<«f, we ought
to read
/o-oy«jwi«f
:

taken notice of, though he fays nothing of it in his notes. However, this caution has been of ufe to le Jay, and preferved him
abfurdity
I

have

My
as

reafon

is,

be-

caufe
vTTS^

<j:vSk
T>!?

governs

well the hoyov

ifl-o'^iui*?,

as
it is

That

arf^i

rijf

icAt)?!*;^'*?'

Now

from falling into that abfurdity. For want of fuch an afTiftance, the other French tranflator has rendered this unfortunate word o!,vi^t? very fully, faying;
le

certain that die

qu'ils

remettroient

d'abord fur

that we muft read plain therefore, inftead of uVeg t>)? vVsg Ti]j KTcvofxia,^^ which the tranfcribers might ta-iUfAttt;,
it

law concerning an equality of honors between the patricians, and plebeians, had not yet been propofed, nor was after: I think propofed till feveral years

tapis le partage des terres, et I'egalite

honneurs 'entre le peuple, et les patriciens; for this miftake he is obwho liged to his old friend
des
Sylburgius, has faid, fed rurfus verba failures de
agris

dividundis,

et

communicandis
correftion
is

honoribus.
ftabliflied

But

I the other. eafily infert for of the tranflators that none

am

my

e-

fur-

prifed

taken notice of the inaccuracy,

have which

our author muft have been guilty of, if he had made Claudius fay that the
tribunes would again propofe a law, which had never yet been propofed.

by the words, which our author Vv'ill make ufe of in the thirty fifth chapter of this book (and which are the fame with Thofe now before us) joining I 2 O N O M I A to kAjj^x^kx ;
for he there fays,
sr^oOijo-rtu

j^a^

AT01S

Portus,

I

obferve, has not tranllated
confejlim-,

we^i

Tijf

I2 0N0MIA2.

avhi iterum, but

which

I

Bb

2

of

1

88

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book X-

of the tribunes, and their want of unanimity. This opinion and the fenate decreed that the people be allowed prevailed; to chufe ten tribunes annually, provided that no
perfon,

who was
,

then a tribune, fliould be of that number.
his collegues received this decree

Virfenate,

ginius, and laid

and
it

from the

before the people, who, having confirmed it, for the chofe ten tribunes follovv'ing year. After the fedition

was

confuls raifed appe^afed, the
:

two armies, and drew

lots

In confequence of which, Minucius was for the command to march againft the Sabines, and Horatius ao-ainft

appointed

the Aequi
pedition.

:

And both of them took the field with all exThe Sabines garrifoned their cities, and fuffered
:

the country to be carried off every thing in by the enemy. But the Aequi fent an army to oppofe the Romans How-

proving inferior to them in a battle, in which they fought with great bravery, they were forced to retire to their
ever,
cities after

the

lofs

of a fmali town, in defence of which

they had fought the battle. Horatius, having put the enemy to flight, and laid wafte a great part of their country, rafed the walls of Corbio, demolifhed the houfes to their founand returned home with his dations, army.
following year, Marcus Valerius, and Spurius Virginius being confuls, no army of the Romans went out of their confines, but the civil contefls were renewed by the tribunes againft the confuls ; in the event of which, the

XXXI. The

former pofTefled themfelves of fome part of the confular power: For, before this, the power of the tribunes was confined to the affemblies of the people; but they had no
authority

BookX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

189

or to deliv^er their authority either to afiemble the fenate, a power belonging to opinions there, ""^the former being The tribunes of this year were the firfl:, who the conTuls.

attempted to affemble the fenate, Icilius, who was at the head of their college, an a6live man, and, for a Roman,
not uncloquent, introducing this attempt For this perfoii was, at that time, bringing in a new law, by which he defired that a place, called the Aventine hill, might be divided
:

among

the plebeians to build houfes there

:

This

is

a hill

moderately high, not lefs than twelve ftadia in circuit, and ftands within the city; it was not, then, all inhabited; but The tribune, belonged to the public, and was full of trees.
in order to get this

law pafied, went to the confuls, and to

the fenate, defiring they would pafs the previous vote in favor of this law, and lay it before the people : But the
confuls deferring
officer to
-4'

it,

and protrading the time, he

fent

an

them, with orders that they fhould follow him ta
privilege of the confuls: To this. therefore, and to this alone, txIo tj But that cannot yi^a^ muft refer
:

So

this

AA^'^JVTWl)U7r«7io^TOTTOT0 5/5^a!«•. paflage ftands in all the edi-

tions, and manufcripts ; and, according to this fenfe, all the tranflators

poflibly be, as the

But I would afk have rendered it. whether t»7o to yi^ca relates to both,
that is, to the or only to the laft of affembling the fenate, and power
-,

becaufe the

words nowftand; right of delivering an

to

That of delivering

there, or only to the
T»7a TO yi^xi is
laft,
it is

Uift ?

their opinions If to both,
if to

improper; and
faift,

the
all

opinion in the fenate immediately I know of no precedes thefe words. of curing this impropriety, but way to fuppofe, what I do not think improbable, that our author v/rit exanj inftead of T!s7a to yi^a? ; and then ixeiva
will

not true in

becaufe

very properly relate to the
:

firft,

the fenators

had

a right to

deliver

and to that alone
o<

their opinions in the fenate, when called upon, as well as the confuls.

This is confirmed by the next fentence, where it is iaid,
ii role
Sy,ua^;^oi z;r^uloi

ffvyKxAetv iiri-

The firft, power of afthe fenate, was, no doubt, a fembling
I

mean

the

/SaAovIo

tijv /B^Atfv.

th(

i9o

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
officer,
Icilius,

BookX.

the college of the tribunes, and affemble the fenate. And, when one of the lidiors, by the orders of the confuls, drove

away the

and

his collegues, refenting this,

feized the lidtor,

and

carried

him away with

a defign to

throw him down the Tarpeian rock.
they looked upon this as a great
violence,

The

infult,

confuls, though were unable to ufe

carrying away ; For no but implored the affiftance of the other tribunes of putting a ftop to, or of obflruding, perfon has a power the adlions of that college, but another tribune. And all of
:

or to refcue the man,

who was

them had,

at

firft,

come

to thefe refolutions, that

no fmgle

tribune fhould either introduce any

new law

projected by

himfelf, unlefs they all concurred in it, or oppofe their determinations ; but that every one of them fliould be bound

by the

refolutions of the majority

:

And,

in order to give a

fandlion to thefe refolutions, they had, as foon as they entered the magiftracy, confirmed them by facrifices, and

upon

mutual oaths

perfuaded that the moft effeftual means to render the power of the tribunefhip indiffoluble,
;

being

was
this

faying

Adhering, therefore, to confederacy, they ordered the licflor to be carried away, this was the unanimous refolution of their college
it.
:

to banifh difTenfion

from

Hov/ever, they did not perfift in their refentment, but releafed the man at the interceffion of the mofl: ancient fenators

being apprchenfive not only of the odium, with which fuch a proceeding would be attended, if they fhould be the firft to punifli with death a man for obeying
j

the orders of the magiftrates, but alfo

left,

by

this violence,

the

BookX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A SSEN S I S.

191

the patricians fhould he compelled to take defperate refolutions.

After this adlion the fenate was afTembled, and the confuls laid themfelves out in many invedlives againft
anfvvered by Icilius, who, to excufe their refentment. againft the li6lor, alledged the facred
:

XXXII.

the tribunes

They were
it

laws, by

which

was enabled, " that

it

fhallnot be lawful

" "

either for a magiftrate, or a private tion to a tribune;" and,

to give any oppofihis concerning attempt to aflemble

man,

the fenate, he fhewed
this

them there was nothing abfurd in it ; he proved by many, and various arguments, which he

had before prepared. After he had anfwered thefe accufations, he came to the law, which he propofed to introduce, the " That all the tenor of which was as follows ground, which " has been, juftly, acquired by any private perfons, fhall " continue in the of the
:

" part of it, as may have been ufurped by force or fraud by " any perfons, and built upon, fhall be given to the people; " thofe perfons being repaid the expences of fuch buildings " the eftimation of to be
by

pofTeffion

owners; but that fuch

"

"
*'

pofe; and that all be divided public,

umpires appointed for that purthe reft of the ground, belonging to the

among

the people, they paying

no
<s.

then fhewed them, that this law would be advantageous to the commonwealth in many refpeds, but particularly in this, that it would put an end to the difturbances raifed by the poor concernino- the
public lands,

confideration for the fame."

He

For he

faid

of which the patricians were in pofle/lion would be contented with their fhare in this they
;

.

part

192

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
who had

OF

Booli X.

have none in the lands part of the city, fince they could reafon of the number, and. power lying in the country, by

When he had ended his ufurped them. difcourfc, Caius Claudius was the only perfon who oppofed ' the law, while many fpoke in favor of it : So that, it was
of thofe,
decreed that the place fliould be given to the people. After this, the pontifs being prefent, together with the augurs, and

and having offered up their cuftomary vows, and prayers, the confuls held an ailembly of the people by centuries/ in which the law was enabled ; and is infcribed
facrificers,

two

on

a

column of
hill,

brafs

j

which column they
it
;

carried to the

Aventine

and placed

in the temple of Diana.

The

law being paffed, the plebeians affembled
lots for

and, drawing

the ground, began to build, every man regulating the area of his houfe according to his abilities ; and, fometimes, two, three, or more joined together to build one

houfe; and, drawing

lots,

fomehad

the lower, and others the
in build-

upper

ftories.

This year, therefore, was employed

ing habitations.
following year, in which Titus Romilius, and Caius Veturius vvere confuls, and Lucius Icilius, and
his

XXXIII. The

coUegues tribunes for the fecond time, was not of the fame tenor, but various, and fraught with great events For
:

the

civil contefts,

fprung up, which, without being able to hurt the commonwealth in any
degree, did her great fervice, by banilLing thefe contefts For this was become a fucceftive, and a
:

renewed by thefe

which feemed to be extinguifhed, were tribunes ; and fome foreign wars

cuftomary thing
for

Book X.
for the

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS,
to agree in war,

193

peace ; which beheld the appearance all the chief raagiftrates obferving, of any foreign war with joy ; and, when their enemies were
dilligree in

Romans

and

quiet, they themfelves

wars, well

knowing

contrived complaints, and pretences for that wars rendered the commonwealth
:

low and weak Adluated, great and flourifhing; and feditions, therefore, with this principle, the confuls of that year refolved to take the field with an army, from an apprehenfion
that idle
raife

and poor men might, in a time of peace, begin to fome difturbances: In this they judged right, that the
:

people ought to be kept employed in foreign wars ; but not For the city being diin the fteps they took to effe6l it ftempered, they ought to have made the levies with moderation;
but, inftead of that, they compelled the difobedient violence to give in their names, without allowing any

by

excufe,

or fhewing the leaft indulgence, to any man; but executed the punifliments ordained by law with feverity both
their

on

perfons,

and

fortunes.

While they were employing

this

rigor,

the

tribunes

took the occafion to inflame the

particularly,

their harangues ; and, aflembling them, people, again, with confuls on many accounts, but, they exclaimed againft the ordered feveral of the citizens to be for

having

carried to prifon,

who had

implored the prote6lion of the

tribunes
fervice
;

;

and

as if

they would difcharge them from the the fole power of the laws had been vefted in
faid,

them.

When

this

had no

carrying on with ftill ftrucl them by force ;

but they faw the levies greater feverity, they refolved to oband the confuls refifting with all the
efFedl,

Vol. IV.

C

c

power

194

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
their magiftracy,
:

OF

Book X.

power of
ad;s

feme

irritating

words paffed, and

of violence
;

patricians

confuls were fupported by the young and the tribunes by the poor, and idle multitude.

The

That day,
the

therefore, the confuls
:

were by

much

fuperior to

the following days, greater numbers flocking to the city out of the country, the tribunes thought themfelves fufficiently ftrong ; and, affembling the people
tribunes

But,

their ojfficers, who continually, they produced condition with the blows they had received,

were

in a

bad

and

faid they
aflift

would
them.

reflgn their magiflracy,

if

the people did not

XXXIV. The plebeians
fummoned
to their

fharing in their refentraent, they the confuls to appear before the people, and give
their

an account of

adions

:

But thefe paying no regard
to the fenate

fummons, they addreffed themfelves

(who happened to be then debating this matter) and dellred to be treated in the moft ignothey would not fuffer them
minious manner, or the people to be deprived of their
fiftance
:

af-

They enumerated
confuls,

from the

the injuries they had received and their fad:ion, who had infulted not
all

only their authority, but their perfons ; and delired the confuls might do one of thefe two things; either that, if

they denied tliey had. committed any infult on the perfons of the tribunes, contrary to the tenor of the laws, they might go to the' afl'embly of the people, and confirm tiicir
denial

they durft not take fuch an oath, that they mi|jht appear before the people, and give ^n account of their condudl: And they would take the votes of

upon oath

;

or,

it

the

Book X.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

195

the tribes concerning them. On the other fide, the confuls defended themfelves by faying that the tribunes had given occafion to the abufe by their infolence, and by daring to
infult their perfons, contrary to
officers,

law

;

firft,

in

ordering their
to
prifon, in is vefted ;

and the

aediles to carry magiftrates

whom

the whole power of the

and, after that, in attacking with the moft daring of the plebeians They fhewed how there is between the confuls, in whom the great a difference
:

commonwealth them outrageoufly themfelves,

and the tribunes, who were inftituted royal power reiides, for the relief of the oppreffed, and v/ho were fo tar from to give the people their votes againft the having the power confuls, that they could not do it even againft the meaneft of
the patricians without the confent of the fenate ; and they threatened to arm the patricians, if the tribunes gave the
lafting day, people fenate came to no refolution, being unwilling to leflen the either the power of the confuls, or That of the tribunes,

their votes.

Thefe contefts

the whole

both which they faw would be attended with great dangers. XXXV. When the tribunes found they could obtain no

from the fenate, they went, again, to the affembly of the people, and confidered what meafures they were to take: Some, particularly the moft turbulent, advifed that the plerelief

beians fhould take arms,

and, again,

retire

to

the

holy

mountain, where they had formerly incamped; and, from thence, make war upon the patricians, ftnce thefe had violated the convention

openly fubverting

they had made with the people, by the tribunitian power: But the greater

Cc

2

part

196

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book X.

part were of opinion that they ought not to leave the city, nor to attribute the outrages committed by fome particular

the tribunes, to the whole body of perfons againfi: patricians, obtain the relief granted by the laws ; provided they could

which ordain
tribunes,

that

thofe,

who

infult the

perfons of the
:

be put to death with impunity However, the more moderate did not approve either of leaving the or of putting any perfon to death without a trial, and city,

may

leaft

of

all

the confuls,

who were the

chief magiftrates

;

but
af-

advifed to transfer their refentment to thole,

who had

Hfted them, and to inflid on their abettors the puniiliment ordained by the laws. If, therefore, the tribunes had, that
to attempt any thing againft day, been led by their paflion the confuls, or the fenate, nothing could have hindered

from being deftroyed by her own hands So ready were all to run to arms, and ingage in a civil war. But, by themfelves time for better deferring matters, and giving

Rome

:

confideration,
felves,

they not only grew more moderate themThe but appeafed the refentment ot the people.

the tiiird market day for the following days, they appointed and for laying a fine upon the confuls, afiembly of the people,

and, after that,

difmiiled the afiembly.

When
alfo,

the time

drew

near, they defifl:ed

from

this

attempt

that they granted

this favor to the interceffion

alledging of perfons of

After that, they afiembled the greatefi: age, and dignity. the people, and told them they pardoned the infult?, which they themfelves had received, at the defire of many

worthy men,

whom

they ought not to refufe

:

But, as to the
injuries.

BookX.
injuries,

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A R N AS SEN SI S.

197

which the people had fuffered, they would punifli the authors of them, and prevent the like for the future: For they would again propofe, not only, the Agrarian law, the enadiing
of which had been poftponed for thirty years, but, alio, That concerning an equality of laws, which their predecefibrs

had propofed, but not put to

their votes.

thefe promifes, and confirmed them by their oaths, they appointed a day, on which the people were to aflemble, and give their votes concerning thefe laws.

XXXVI. Having made

The day
;

Agrarian law
fubje6l, they

being come, they, firft, propofed the and, after they had dwelt long upon this

gave leave to all the plebeians, who defired it, to fpeak in favor of the law Many prefented themfelves ;
:

and, after enumerating the exploits they had performed in the wars, they exprefled their indignation that they, who

had taken fo much land from their enemies, fhould have received no part of it themfelves, while they faw that fuch, as were powerful by their riches, and their friends, had ufurped
the lands that belonged to the public, and enjoyed them by the moft violent means; and they defired that the people have their fliare not only in the dangers, that wqtq unpleafiires,

might

dertaken for the good of the public, but alfo in the

and

that refulted profits,

from thofe dangers.

Thefe were

well heard by the people; but the perfon, who confirmed them the moft in their refolution to pafs the law, was Siccius,

furnamed Dentatus, who, by the account he gave them of the many great adions he had performed, made them reThis man had a folve not even to hear a word againft it
:

wonder-

198

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
;

Book X.

wonderful appearance
fifty

of his age being eight years old, fufficiently wife, and, for a foldier, not
v/as in the ftrengtli
:

uneloquent Prefenting himfelf, theretore, to the alTembly, "thus he fpoke "If, citizens, I fliould enter into a detail
:

*'

of

all

my

adlions,

the day

would not

fuffice

me

:

For

*'
*'

which
and

reafon, I

fliall

only mention the moft confiderable,
I

in the feweft

words

am able.

This

is

the fortieth

" year that I ferve my country in the wars, and the thirtieth " that I have always had fome military command, fometimes
' of a cohort, and fometimes of a whole legion, from the "^ <* Sicinus, to whom confulfhip of Caius Aquilius, and Titus " the fenate committed the condud: of the war ao-ainft the
*'

Volfci
liKiva.

:

I

was then in

my
the

twenty fixth year, and poftcd
to

25-

So we muft read

make

58, which,

we

find,

was

his

name of

this conful,

and not Siccius,

iliewn in the thirty ninth It is annotation on the eighth book. that the name of Siccius Denpofiible
tatus, fo often
adtion,.

as I have

Notwithftanding ail the pains, which M. * * * has taken to fupport this reading of Lapus, he has not perfuaded me to recede from

age

at this time.

may
I

mentioned in this tranihave mifled the tranicri-

That of the
a

editions

;

becaufe
built

his

whole reafoning feems to be

on

bers.
(

find

* * * has appropriated ) that the manufcript, from which La-

by a note

in

Hudfon

which

M.

pus tranOated, had

fuppofcs that Siccius includes in the time he ferved as an officer, both the year we
are

wrong foundation

:

He

t^ioiko^ov k»i Siuli^ov,

inftcad ot r^iaKc^ov, which is the reading of all the editions, and of all the othernianufcripts. Whether we follow
this

the 299"^, and alio in, the preceding year But this cannot be, becaufe, hitherto, the armies had
is
:

now

that

not taken the

field this

year

;

and the

reading, or not,
neither

we muft

read

year before the

Romans had no war:

iKKCtldKOC-Ciilyii,

which
'other

inftcad of Sw7«K«IHXScr«sI)If , M. * * *, nor any of the
;

commentators have obferved

becaufe, with regard to the age of Siccius, the two lad years he did not ferve as an officer muft be added to the

Thcfe two years muft, therefore, be deduded from the time of his havinoferved as an officer, and thtn it will be found that, from the confulfhip of C. Aquilius, and T. Sicinus, that is, from the year of Rome 267 inclufivelie had ferved iq the officer juft thirty years.

30 years he did ferve as fuch, which 32 years require 26, not 2/7,

ly,

army

as

an

" under

DIONYSIUS BookX. " under the centurions
:

Hx-^LICARNASSENSIS.

199

A

fevere battle

" forces being put to flight, the commander of the cohort " killed, and the enfigns taken by the enemy, I alone ex" pofed myfelf in defence of all, and recovered the enfigns " of the cohort ; repulfed the enemy, and evidently pre-

infuing,

and our

" vented the centurions from being covered with eternal " ignominy, which would have rendered the reft of their
*'

than death, as they themfelves acknow" And ledged by crowning me with a golden crown
lives

more

bitter

:

*'

Sicinus, the conful, gave me the fame teftimony by ap" pointing me commander of the cohort. In another battle, " it happened that the '^camp mafter of our legion was " thrown to the ground, and the eagle taken by the enemy,
*'

when
-^'

I

fought, in the fame manner,
This word

in defence of the
But, not to
I

Tov

•^^oDiTTiSu^x/'^.

lieutenant de notre legion.

well deferves to be explained, and the more becaufe all the tranflators have

miflpend any more time in fhewing the
reader what this officer was not,
fhall

miftaken the lenfe of

it.

Portus calls

inform him what he was

:

The

5-f«?o-

this ofRcer, praefe£ius legionis, and five lines after, p-rimipilus ; Sylburgius fays,

tribunus qui legioni
:

et cajlris

praeerat,

7[iS»^x^^ was called by the Romans, as the name implies, praefeBus cajlrorum, and fo the Latin tranflators ought

lion to his follower, M. * * *, to fay, le colonel de notre legion, qui comnmndoit
aujfi This, befides the of giving to this officer impropriety the command of the whole army,

by which he confounds the two commands However, he has given occa-

There was one of thefe officers in every legion His bufmefs was to mark out the ground
to have rendered
it.
''

:

in the
all

camp

for his

own

legion

;

and

toute Varrnee

:

of

them marked out That

for the

incampment of the whole army. They alfo direfted where, and in what mannerthe intrenchments were to be made for the fecurity of the camp. In a march, they had the care of the baggage, and of the engines; and many other things of lefs importance were under their infpection.
Tacit. Annal. B. xiv,
c.

v/hich belonged to the confuh alone, is fuch a jumble of ancient, and mo-

dern terms, that
if

I

am much

miftaken
for
his

his

readers

are the wifer

tranflation.

Le Jay
r

has fallen into the

fame iaconfiltency,

and

calls
c.

him,

le

Veil. Pat. B.

ii,

129, and 120.

37.
'*

whole

200

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
legion
;

Book X.

" whole " mafter
*'
*'

recovered the eagle, and faved the camp ; who, in acknowledgement for the alliftance I then gave him, ofFered me his command in the legion, and the eagle ; but I refufed both, being unwilling to

*'

of the honors deprive the man, whofe life I had faved, *' he enjoyed, and of the fatisfadlion refulting from them. " The conful was and gave me pleafed with my behaviour,
*'

the poft of

"

camp

mafter in the

firft

legion,

the former

having been killed in that adion. XXXVII. " Thefe, citizens, are the brave adlions, that " have and raifed me to commands. diftinguifhed me,

" After
*' *'

I

had gained an

illuftrious

name,

I

hazarded

my

life

" former adlions " and
*'

every other ingagement, being afhamed to extinguifh the honors, and favors I had received for my
in

and, from that time, I have always ferved, undergone the toils of war, without fearing, or even confidering, any danger : By all which, I have received
;

"
*'

rewards,
fuls
:

fpoils,

crowns, and other honors from the con-

*'
*'

In a word, during the forty years I have continually ferved, I fought about an hundred and twenty battles, and received forty five wounds, all before, and not
:

" one behind

happened to receive twelve in one " the Sabine, was in poflcffion of the day, when Herdonius, C( The rewards of valor beftowed fortrefs, and the capitol.

Of

thefe I

((

upon
I

me

are thefe

;

fourteen

*^

civic
I

crowns, with which
in battle
j

have been crowned by thofe
2Tf(p«v»f zroAiliAns.

had faved

one

37-

See the eighteenth annotation on the eighth book.

"
obfidional,

BookX.
*'

DIONYSIUS ITALIC ARN ASS ENS
for having firft

I S.

201

'^obfidional, for having raifed a fiege;

and three ''mural
walls,

of them; and eight others I have been " honoured with by the generals for my behaviour in feveral
pofleffion

" crowns, " taken

mounted the enemies

and

" battles Add to thefe, eighty three golden collars, one " hundred and of gold, eighteen ^^ pike lixty bracelets ftaves, " and nine of which are the five rich 3'
:

twenty

gorgets,

^s-

Ev«i sB-oXiofKviliicov.

So

I

read this

they taught "me to juftify the ufe

I

after

corona obfidionalis^ the moft honourable of all others, was made of grafs growing in the place
''

Lapus. The

befieged,

who
=9-

and given by the' foldiers, had been fhut up in the fiege, to

have made of them. The ' mural crown was of gold, though 'Suetonius feems to infinuate the contrary ; but " Polybius affirms it exprefsly
:

the general,

who

raifed

if.

£7r(

TO

-xttyj^q

avaSxa-i

XPT20TN
called

ii^ufi

T^«? T«;^iK!??. was given by the general to the man,

The

corona muralis

St(pa.vov.

3°-

Ao^oilx.

Thefe were

ha^ae

who

mounted befieged, if it was taken
firft

the walls of a
:

town For which
battle-

purae, becaufe without iron.

"'Virgil
:

gives one of thefe to Silvius
Il/e

reafon,

it
'

was adorned with

Pinnis adornata ; a lure proof thefe arc not of Gothic inftitution; that but borrowed by the Goths, like ma-

ments,

(vicL's)

purd juvenis qui
occafion,

nititur hajla.

Upon which

Servius fays,

the Roman, ny other ornaments, from or rather the Greek, architefture: For,
in all the old

from Varro, that this reward was given to thofe, who had then Jirjl overcome in battle, hoc fuit praemium apud ma~
jores ejus, qui tunc proelio: If fo, no

fome

traces,

Gothic buildings, we fee though horribly difguifed,

of a true

tafte.

When

I

fay that battle-

but
th;it

primum vicijj'et in man could receive one of them and here we find
;

ments are not Gothic ornaments, it is that fome gentlemen in my poffible do me the neighbourhood, if they honor to read this, may think that I have an eye to the ufe I myfelf have made of them But I can aflfure thefe will begentlemen, and I know they
:

Siccius

had obtained eighteen.

lieve

me, that the defcriptions
before,

I

had,

Jong crown, taught
*

met with of the mural

me
c.

to ufe

them, before
Gell. B. v. c. 6
» B. vi. p. 483.

But that grammarian is not always to be depended on for his quotations any more than for his remarks. 3'' ^xKoipoc. I have been obliged to tranflate thefe, gorgets, for want of another word, though I believe thefe bear fome refemblance to the ornaments here in queftion. Harnois, which is the word made ufe of by the French
'Gell. B.v.
'''

iPlin. Nat. Hift. B. xxii. Life of Auguftus,
25.

c. 4.

c. 6.

'Id. ib.

Aeneid. B.

vi.

Vol. IV.

Dd

f, 760,

" rewards

202

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book X.

" rewards of fo many fingle combats, in which I voluntarily *' ingaged, and overcame thofe, who challenged any of our *' men. However, fo it is, citizens, that this Siccius, who " has ferved fo many years in defence of you; fought fo " many battles ; been honoured with fo many teftimonies " of his valor who never ; feared, nor declined any danger; " but has been in pitched battles, and aflaults of towns, " the and the with

among

foot,

among

horfe;

all,

with a

*'

" and who " made of

few, and alone; whofe body is covered with wounds, has contributed to the conqueft his country has

a large extent of fertil land, which you have " taken from the Tyrrhenians, the Sabines, the Aequi, the " Volfci, and the Pometini, after you had overcome them

" and
of

ftill

polTefs;

has not received even the leaft portion

*'

this

" fhared
*'

moft

land, nor any one of you, plebeians, who have in the fame toils ; but the moft violent, and the fhamelefs men of this city poffefs the moft fruitful
-believe they

tranflators, fignifies indeed the accoutrements of a liorfeman but, in that
•,

becaufe it it is too extenfive, Howincludes a complete armour ever, I fancy they were, like me, reduced to make ufe of the beft term
fenfe,
:

were fomethinCT like o-orgets leather, and inriched with large gold fluds, which huno-

made of

down

their breafls

:

It

is,

however^

their
I

language could fupply them with, cannot pretend to defcribe the par-

certain they were worne by thofe noblemen; fince we find in Livy that the fenate were fo much offended at
''

ticular

ornaments expreffed by the
;

the eleftion of Flavius to the office of curule aedile, that moft of the noble-

word
fo

^^^/^r^^, becaufe authors differ

men

laid

much concerning them

afide their gold rino-s,

and

but

this I

their phakrae-,

tantmn Flavitcomitia
ut
plerique vcbi<7

that they were not only given as the rewards of luperior valor, but alfo worne by the Roman

know,

indignitatis habuerunt,

to fuldiers,

Uim

cimmlos aureosy

phaleras depo^

nerent,

noblemen,

as

marks of diilindion

;

I

:'

B.ix.

c,

^6.

"
part

BookX.
*'

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
it,

203

" having either received a grant of it from you, or " other able to flievv or without
it,

part of

and have enjoyed
being

it tliefe

many

years without piirchafed
it.

any

juft title to

"
*'

If,

"
"

indeed, they had taken an equal fhare with us in the toils, by which we acquired this land, and, upon that

greater part of it (though, even then, it would not have been either juft, or agreeable to a well ordered commonwealth, that a few fhould appro-

account,

claimed

a

priate

to themfelves

" would " men
:

then, at leaft,

what belongs be fome color

however, there for the avarice of thefe
all)

to

unable to fliew they have performed " any great, or brave aftion to intitle them to poflefs our
But, when,
*' *'

" of thefe lands; who can bear it? XXXVIII. " But, in the name of Jupiter,
"

properties by violence, they adl in this fhamelefs manner, and, though even convided of it, ftill retain the poiTeflion

if I

have mif-

"
" "

of thefe folemn men reprefented any thing, let any one fland forth, and fhew us what illuftrious, what noble
adllons he relies on, to claim a greater fhare in them, than

fought more battles; *' more wounds; or does he exceed me in crowns, " or in any other ornaments of gorgets, Ipoils, victory, by " which our enemies have been weakened, and our country
myfelf: received
ferved

Has he

more

years

;

and powerful ? Rather let him " fliew the tenth part of what I have made appear to you " But the generality of them could not even produce the " leaft what I have laid before you and fome there part of *' are, whofe labors are not to be compared with thofe of " the Dd 2
illuftrious
:

" rendered more

;

204

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
:

BookX.

" the meaneft For their excellence does not conplebeian " fift in arms, but in words ; neither is their power exerted

"
againft

their enemies,

" look upon the city " but as their own

but againft their friends: They as common to all, they inhabit, not
;

they had not been freed *' but had received us, by us, and with us, from tyranny, " as an inheritance from the I of the fay nothing tyrants.
property
as if

" other infults, both great and fmall, which they continue " to but they have carried heap upon us, as you all know; " their will not fufFer any one of us to pride fo far, that they " utter a free word in favor of our nor even to
country,

" open our mouths. Spurius Caflius, who firft propofed " the Agrarian law, was adorned with three confulfhips, " and two moft illuftrious and had fhewn in
triumphs,

"

" a of that age; yet they accufed politician, as any man *' him of tyranny, and circumvented him with falfe wit*' neffes, for no other reafon, than becaufe he was a lover " of his country, and of the people ; and, carting him down " the When Caius Tarpeian rock, put him to death. " one of our refumed the fame inflituGenucius,
tribunes,

many inftances

that he was as great a general, and as able

"
*'

having negleded " to into execution the decree of the fenate concerncarry " the of the commiilioners to divide the
ing

tion after the expiration of eleven years, confuls of the former year to a trial, for

and cited the

appointment
put him

*'
*'

lands, finding they could not, openly, take

"

they, the day before the trial privately, This infpired the fucceeding tribunes with terror, and,
to death
:

him

off,

"

after

BookX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

205^

"
*'
''

none of them would expofe themfelves to the fame danger ; and this is the thirtieth year we bear thefe
after that,

things, as if

we had
I

loft

XXXIX.

"

our power under a tyranny.
reft:

omit the

though by law their when they endeavoured to oppofe the violence, that was " offered to fome of the plebeians, what dreadfu' treatment

But your prefent magiftrates,. perfons are facred and inviolable,.

" did they not meet with?
*'

*'

" "
*'

they not driven out of the forum with blows, kicks, and every other outrage ? Can you bear thefe things, and not endeavour to revenge

Were

yourfelves
at leaft,
is

on the authors of them ? Do this by your votes in which alone you can exert your liberty. This
;

" your landion to the Agrarian law, now it is brought in " by your tribunes, and fuffer not a word to be faid againft " it. As for you, tribunes, you want no exhortation to pro" ceed in this affair For -you began it, and you do your " duty in not deferting it: And, if the audacious, and " fhamelefs ^' youth fhall obftrud you by overturning the urns,
:

the time, plebeians

aftume the

fpirit

of free

men

;

give

are obliged to KxinTKH!. the Vatican manufcript for this word, inftead of nxlo^Jwn'; in the editions,
3'-

We

the affirmative, and a, antiquo, for the negative. Thefe billets were called, in

Greek,
alfo,

4'>j<P

or,

in Latin, tabellae, and,,
^

which can have noplace
a diminutive of or
'

here.

K<x(J-a->c<]c

xastJbf,

fignifies

m urn,
Into

pun^a; from whence
.

Horace
.,
,
,

i'^//(j/^'c?.Y,

we are not rather to
Cicero
authorfays, T»f
thefe
billets

calledby ''Livy, ///^//rt, if read ciftella, becau fe
for

took „

this expreffion, ,. „ .^ . ^""''' "'^" P"""^"""' i"' ""/""*

.

"^'^-^ ^''^''^

fays,, ciftas dejicit,
xaJjo-xiis-

what our

The account I
and
alfo
'

have given of the word

oiva7^f7r«.

the
;

Roman

xaJio-Kssisconfirmed by ''Julius Pollux,

and on thofe

people caft their billets were in-

by

Harpocration,
ir/.a^xi.
'^

who

ex-

plains

this

word by afyw^ n, «j
'£. viii.fegm. i6.

fcribed the letters u. r. uii rogas, for
5'B.xxv.c.3.

£4"J?'»«P»(=ifi' 01
:?.

=^AdHeren.

c. 12.

=

De

Art. Poet

343.

In

K«J.fl-«?.

*'

taking

2g6
*' *'

ROMAN

ANTIQ^UITIES OF

BookX.

"
*'

taking away the billets, or committing any other diforders, while the people are giving their votes, let them feel the whole weight of the tribunitian power. And,
fince

you

are not allowed to abrogate the dignity of the

"

"
"
«' '*

confuls, bring to trial the private men, ufe of as the minifters of their violence

whom
;

they make and take the

votes of the people concerning

them, as charged by you

with violating, and fubverting your magiftracy, contrary
to the facred laws."

XL. The
and fhewed
fay a

people were fo
fo great

much

pleafed with his difcourfc,

that, as I faid

an indignation againft their adverfaries, before, they would not even fuffer them to

word

riilngup,
o-ave great

law. However, Icilius, the tribune, againft the faid that Siccius had fpoken exceedingly well, and

commendation

to the

man

;

but fliewed, at the

fame time, that it was neither juft, nor agreeable to a well ordered commonwealth, to refufe liberty of fpeech to thofe,
v/ho defired to fpeak in oppofition to the law, particularly fince the law itfelf, now under their confideration, was
calculated to render equity fuperior to violence ; and that this would give occafion to fuch, as entertained no fentiments of equality, and juftice with regard to the people, to
raife frefli difturbanccs,

and caufea

dlvlfion,

when any thing

was propofcd. Having advantageous to the commonwealth faid this, and appointed the next day for hearing thgfe, who had any thing to objedl againft the law, he difmiffed the On the other fide, the confuls held a private afiembly.
meeting of thofe
patricians,

who were

the moft diftingulfhed
for

BookX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S S ENSI S.
and reputation
in the city,

207

for their courage,

and fliewed

them
fing,

that,
lirft

by all means, theymuft hinder the law from pafby their words ; and, if thefe cannot perfuade the
:

people,

they defired them all to come early in the morning to the forum, with all the friends, and clients they could, pofTibly, aflemble ; and that

then by their adions

And

fome of them fhould place themfelves round the tribunal,, and the comitium, and ftand there ; and others form feveral
bodies,

and poft themfelves in

different parts of the forum,

in order to divide the

plebeians,

and hinder them from,

This advice was approved of; and,^ uniting in one body. before it was broad day ligkt, the greatefb part of the forum

was taken up by the

patricians.

XLI. After that, the tribunes, and the confuls appeared ; and the cryer made proclamation that any perfon,

who men

might objed; to the law And many worthy offering to fpeak, none of them could be heard, by reafon of the tumult, and diforderly behaviour of the afdefired
it,
:

fembly

For fome encouraged, and animated the fpeakers, and others exploded, and hooted them But, neither the
: :

the favourers, nor the clamors of the oppofers applaufe of The confuls being incenfed at this, and proprevailed.
tefting

that the people began the violence, in refuling to hear what the others had to offer, the tribunes excufed them

by faying

having already heard the fame arguments for five years together, it v/as not to be wondered at, if they would not fubmit to hear thefe ftale, and trite objections.
that,

The

greateft part of the

day being fpent in thefe contefts,

and

2o8

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
infifting

OF

Book X.

and the people

upon giving

their votes, the

young

patricians, unable to bear thefe proceedings any longer, hindered the people from dividing themfelves into their tribes ;

took the urns from thofe who were appointed to keep them ; and, beating fuch of the officers, as would not part with them,
V

them out of the forum. Upon this, the tribunes they pullied cried out ; and, rufbing into the midft of them, the others
indeed

made way

for thefe,
;

and fuffered them to go,
but the
reft

quietly,

vvhitherfoever they pleafed

of the people,

who

either actually followed them, or were endeavouring to follow them from different parts of the forum during this tu-

mult, and confufion, were not allowed to pafs So that, the of the affiftance of their tribunes. people were deprived At laft, the patricians prevailed, and would not fuffer the
:

law to be enaded. Thofe, who were thought to have affifted the confuls with the greateft zeal upon this occafion, were of thefe three families, the Poftumii, the Sempronii,

and the
birth,

by the dignity of their the number of their friends, and diftinpowerful by
Cloelii,
all

men

illuftrious

auiflied

exploits

:

reputation, and their military by their riches, Thefe were allowed to have been the chief inftrutheir

ments

in preventing the

law from being pafled.

XLII. The next day, the tribunes confulted with the moft confiderable plebeians what meafures they were to take,

down for a rule univerfally acknowledged, not laying this to bring the confuls to a trial, but the private men, who had
been
their inftruments
;

whofe punifliment would be

lefs

the generality of the citizens, as Siccius had regarded by
fu2:2;efted. DO

Book X.
fuggefted.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

209

how many

However, they confidered with great attention they fliould accufe, what name they fhould give
difpo-

to their offence, and, particularly, how great a fine they Thofe who were of a fevere fliould fet upon them.
fition, advifed to carry all thefe things to

a great, and dread-

ful height.

On the other

fide,

the milder fort were for a

more

The peffon, who was moderate, and humane proceeding. the author of this advice, and prevailed with the reft to come
into
it,

was

Siccius,

who had made

in favor of the Agrarian law.
let

the fpeech to the people They refolved, therefore, to

the reft of the patricians alone, and to bring the Cloelii, the Poftumii, and the Sempronii before the people to give an account of their a6lions: And that their charge fiiould

whereas the facred laws, which both the fenate, and the people had enabled concerning the tribunes of the

be

that,

forbid any perfon to compel the tribunes to fubmit people, to any thing againft their will like the reft of the citizens,

they,

"by

violence,

had hindered them from carrying through
patricians were fo far from detaining the tribunes, that our author tells us

33This Word I oivla;. Kxlia^ua)f!cc have taken the liberty of fubftituting which is the in the room of ;c(*Ta^o»7«f, of all the editions, and manureading The former is a word often fcripts. ufed by our author in this fenfe; particularly in the fixty fifth chapter of the fixth book, where he fays the

they

made an opening
them
to

fuffered

On
ufe

for them, and where they pleafed. go

the other fide, they certainly of violence to hinder them
I

made

getting the law pafl^ed. occafion what I have

from do upon this always done

ariflocratical party defired the confuls

to remain neuter between the two parties, and to offer violence to neither ;
//i)

KATISXTEIN
the latter

/jiyJiV.^otv

ruv

nxa-jaiv

:

And

taining,

fignify here deor fomething of that kind ;
cafe
:

muft

have made any alteration in give the word I except againft, with I'hat which I have inferted By this means, I may indeed expofe my own ignorance, but cannot

whenever
the text

I

;

I

:

do any injury to the
miftaken
in

text,

if I
:

which was not the

For the young

my

conjeiflurcs

am The
the

Vol. IV.

E

e

2IO

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

BookX.

the deliberation concerning the Agrarian law. And they, alfo, refolved that the judgement confequent to their con-

vidion fliould be neither death, banidiment, nor any other invidious punifliment, left this fhould fave them, but that
their fortunes fhould be confecrated to Ceres;

the mildeft punifliment ordained by that law. folutions were purfued, and the time came when

which was Thefe retlie

men

were to be

tried.

In the

mean

while, the confuls, and the

moft confiderable of the patricians held a confultation, in which it was refolved to let the tribunes go on with the
they were hindered, they might do fome and to fufter the inraged plebeians to fpend greater mifchief ; their fury upon the fortunes of thefe men, to the end they
trials,
left,

if

might be tamer
ftnce
it

for the future,
leaft

after they

had taken fome
;

kind of revenge at

upon

their

enemies

particularly,

was eafy to make the fufferers amends for a calamity from a pecuniary punifliment; Which happened arifing For the men being condemned by defiult, the accordingly
:

the people ceafed, and fome reafonable fatisfadlion fury of feemed to be made to the tribunes ; and the patricians

bought

the delinquents eftates of the purchafers, with the public money, at the fame price they had given for them, and reftored them to the owners. Thus, by the conduct of the
patricians
at this jundlure,

the ftorm that

hung over

their

heads was ^^difpelled.
law here alluded
tribunes
to,

defigned charge againft thefe the eighty is fct forth ct length in ninth chapter of the fixth book.

to

upon which the ground their young patricians,

3+'

AiaKiXvlo.

Livy

gives

a

account of this convery tentious fcene between the confuI<, and the tribunes of this year Of all which he fays no more than this;
flight
:

XLIII.

BookX.

DIONYSIUS

II

A L IC A

RN A S S E N SIS.

211

XLIII. Not long after, when the tribunes began again to mention the Agrarian law, news was fuddenly brought that the enemy had made an irruption into the territories of the
Tufculani
fign
faid
:

;

which was

fufficient to

put a ftop to their de-

For the Tufculani, coming to Rome in great numbers, that the Aequi were, already, in their country with a
it

numerous army laying

wafle,

and

that, unlefs

fome fuc-

cours were fpeedily fent, they would be mafters of their within a few days. Upon which, the fenate ordered city
that both the confuls fhould
fuls,

go to

their relief.

The

con-

having given notice of their intention to raife forces, called all the citizens to arms. This, alfo, produced fomething like a fedition,
"^

the tribunes oppofing the levies, and
give himfelf that ^'ouble, he feems to have done it with no other view than
to feledt fuch fads, as were

Hi

(tribtini) fequenti anno, 'T. Roviilio,

Veturio confulibus, legem ommbus concionibus fuis celebrant : pudere fe ntiC.

moft

luf-

fnerifui nequicquam au£ii, ft ea res aeque fuo bienniojaceret, ac toto fuperiore Itifiro

ceptible of ornament, and of thofe

'

moft comjacuijjet. that ever was given pendious account, of the many interefting particulars, that fill this important fcene ; and the This
is

fure the

glowing colors, which his mafterly pencil was very capable of throwing But this choice, however on them.
happily improved, is rather the province of a poet, who is mailer of his fubjeft, than of an hiftorian, who ought
to be a

omifiion
in

is

the

more

to be

lamented

Livy, becaufe no hiftorian, in my opinion, ever related with greater elegance, and peripicuity, or enUvened
his relation with greater
fpirit
:

Have to
did,

it.
"

The former may

indeed

do what

Horace

fays that

Homer

But
et

the misfortune

(and a misfortune, which all his readers feel) that he was either too indolent to confult all the
is

quae

Defperat trail at a nitefcerepoJfe,relinquit .

hiftorians,

records, and monuments, that were neceflary to fupply him with

a large ftock. of materials ; or had too much vivacity to confine himfelf to fo

But the hiftorian is tied down, not only, by the fafts, but, even, by the order, in which they happened ; and has no other choice than in the manner of relating them.
Art. Poet.

laborious a tafk

;

However,
^B.
iii.

if

he did

c. 31.

<De

)!.

149,

E

e 2

not

212.

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF
:

Book X.

not fuffering the punishments, ordained by law, to be inflided on the difobedient ; but without effe6t For th^ fenate affembling ordered that the patricians fhould take the field with their clients, and fuch of the citizens, as were
willing to join
prefervation

them

of their

an expedition undertaken for the country, with an aflurance that the
in

gods would be propitious to thofe who fhould join the confuls upon this occafiion, and offended with thofe who fhould
defert

them.

When

the decree of the fenate was read in

the aflembly of the people, many even of thefe voluntarily in the fervice: The worthieft men, ingaged through the

not relieving a nation in alliance with them, which, by reafon of their attachment to the Romans, was always receiving fome damage from their enemies Even
felt in
:

fhame they

of the people, had inveighed of the public lands, was one of thefe, and againfl the ufurpers brought with him a body of eight hundred men, who were the military age as well as himfelf, and not paft fubjedl to the
Siccius,

who,

in the affembly

but, as they honoured the confideration of the many confiderable favors

compulfion of the laws

;

man, in they had re-

ceived from him, they refolved not to leave him,

when he

This body of men, by their in war, and their refolution in dangers, was far experience the reft of the army. Great numbers were fuperior to

was going upon

this

fervice.

induced to ferve by the exhortations of the moft ancient Others citizens, and the affedion they bore to them:

were ready to expofe themfelves to any danger for the fake of the booty they cxpeded to acquire in this expedition
:

Sa

BookX.
So

DIONYSIUS H ALIC A R N ASSENSIS.
an army took the

213

that, in a lliort time,

field, fufficiently

The enemy, who numerous, and magnificently provided. had intelligence beforehand that the Romans deligned to
march out
forces:

to return home with their againft them, prepared But the confuls, making a forced march, came up

with them, while they lay incamped on a high, and fteep hill near the city of Antium, and ported themfelves not far

from them.

For fome time, both armies continued in

their

camps

After which, the Aequi, defpifing the Romans for not having, firft, attacked them, and judging their army not
:

to be fufficiently numerous, they detached parties to cut off their provilions ; forced back with their horfe the Romans, when fent out to bring in corn, or forage; fell

fuddenly
often,

upon thofe who went for water, and challenged them, to come to an ingagement.

XL IV. The
war no

longer. milius had the condutSl of

confuls, feeing this, refolved to protra<fl tha It happened that, during thefe days, Roit
;

and

it

belonged to him to give
to

the word, to draw
nity

up the army, and
and

watch the opportu:

both of beginning,

ending, the battle

Who^

be given, and led his army out having ordered the fignal to of the pofted the horle and foot, according to their

camp,

divifions,

each in their proper places Then, calling Siccius " We to him, he faid : propofe, Siccius, to ingage the enemy in this place ; but, before we begin, and while both
:

armies are preparing for the battle, do you march, by that winding road, to the top of the hill, where the

enemy
guard "
it,

" have placed

their

camp, and attack the

men

left to

>i4
'

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
to the end that thofe,

Book X.

it,
((

who

"

either fearing for their camp, may turn their backs, and,

will be ingaged with us, and defiring to reHeve it,
eafily

by that means, be

defeated,
retreat,

as

I all

and

are making a hafty expert, while they one road; or, by ftayprefling through

" ing " to
(C

here, lofe their

camp

:

For the

forces, that are

left

guard it, are not ftrong enough for that purpofe, as may be conjectured, fince they place all their fecurity in the

of eight hundred ftrength of its fituation ; and your body men, exercifed in many wars, will be of force fufficient
to defeat,

by a bold attack, thofe guards of
:

their

camp,

" when
Siccius

aftonifhed by your unexpe(5led onfet."
replied

To whom

" "
*'
*'

ready to obey you in every thing ; but the enterprife is not fo eafy as it feems to you For the rock, on which the camp is

" For

my

part,

I

am

:

{ituated,

is
it,

high and fteep

;

and

I fee

but one road that

leads to

*'
*'

by which the enemy will come down upon us ; and probably, a fufficient guard is placed there; which, though very fmall and weak, will be able to maintain
their

"
*'

ground againft a much greater
itfclf

force than

mine;

and the place

"
"

"

fecure the guard from being all means, therefore, reconfider forced: By your defign: For the attempt is extremely hazardous. But, if you are
refolved,at
all

will

events, to fight

two

battles at the

fame time,

" order a fufficient number of chofen men to follow me and " the veterans For, in that cafe, we fliall not march up the
:

**

hill
35-

to take the place

by

"

furprife,

but by open force."
the Lacedaethe

Ou

TO pi^u^iiv. yct^ Khi^ovlii

This

rallying Cheirifophus,

is

an exprelTion of Xcnophon, who, in

monian general, upon

cuftom of

XLV.

BookX.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN AS SENSIS.
he was going on in
this

215

XLV. While

and faid: interrupted him, " words : If you dare to obey my orders, march this minute, *' and do not play the general ; but, if you decline ift, and
*'

manner, the conful " There is no need of many

ftart at the

danger,

I fhall

give the

command

to others

:

**

As

for you,

battles,

have fought an hundred and twenty and ferved forty years, and whofe body is covered

who

with wounds; linceyou came voluntarily, depart, without

enemy, or feeing them ; and, inftead of your arms, fliarpen your tongue once more againft " the Where, 'now, are thofe many rewards of patricians. ** valor, thofe collars, braceletSj fpears, gorgets, thofe crowns
either encountering the
**

" with
*'
*'

the gifts of confuls, and the fpoils gained in fingle combats, all your tedious boafts, which we, then, fuffered you

to difplay? For,

when you

are tried in this

one action, where

" and found " in "
'

the danger

is real,

to

you are found to be the man you are, be a boafter ; and that you pradlife fortitude
not in reality."
Siccius, flung

you propofe
(C

" I am fenfible, Romilius, that reproaches, anfwered; to yourfelf one of thefe two things, either to

appearance,

with thefe

deftroy

me

living,

and to
in the

vilify
rovJt;

me

by fixing the moft

ftealing, which boys at Sparta,

was encouraged

care, left, in

advifes him to take ftealing a march to the
to

ra o^m, wV i*» woWoa rrAnyon a«The old Englifli tranflator of €fti/*£v: the expedition of Cyrus, John Bingham, has rendered this, to Jleal fonie

mountain they propofed poflTcfs themfelves of, they were not difcovered, and treated like the Spartan boys,
that
aoi
is,

This unpart^ or other, of the hill. fortunate verfion is taken notice of by

feverely

whipped: 'Nuv!iv,uaA«
tjjv arasiJ'rtav,
(/.evlot fill

jcaipof Eyiv

fn'iSei^oii&oii

me in the preface to the AnabaflS.

my

tranflation

of

K«i (piJAxilft^eii

Ai}$3w^«v Khi^-

fAraS. B. iv. p. 325. Edit, of Hatchinfon;

" fhameful

2i6

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

BookX.

" fhameful mark of cowardife on me,
you

or to expofe me to a miferable, and obfcure death by the hands of the enemy, look upon me to be one of thofe, who enterbecaufe
:

" tain fentiments of For you fend me not to a liberty " doubtful, but to a determined death. However, I will " undertake even this adlion, and endeav^our, by {hewing " that I am no coward, either to the camp, or, if I fail, gain " to die: And I defire fellow-foldiers, if
bravely

you,

you

" hear of
'*

my

death, to bear witnefs for
that I
fell

me

to the reft of

the citizens,
areat
liberty,

a facrifice to virtue, and to the
I*

"

with which

expreffed

my

thoughts."

Having made
braced
all his

anfwer to the conful, and wept, he emacquaintance, and fet out at the head of the
this

eight hundred
as if they

men, who were

caft

down, and fhed
:

tears,

had been going to certain death And the reft of the army were moved at the fight, expeding to fee them no more.

XLVI. However,

Siccius

took a different road from

That propofed by Romilius, and marched by the Tide of the hill ; then, leading his men into a thick wood that lay " We near, he halted, and fpoke to them in this manner: " are fent, as you fee, by the general to deftrudion For " he expeded we fhould have taken the winding road, " which it was we could afcend without
:

impoffible being difcovered by the enemy ; but I will lead you by a way, where they fhall not difcover us, and have great hopes of that will bring us over the gaining fome paths, top of
the hill to their

*'

camp

:

Be

not,

therefore, caft

down."

Having

Book X.

Having

faid this,

and, after

217 he continued his march through the wood ; he was far advanced, he happened to meet a man,

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

who was

travelling that

way,

by the youngefl of his guide: This man, after
confiderable time,
'*

he ordered to be feized company, and took him for his leading them round the hill for a
it,

whom

brought them to the top of
to

that
fliort,

commanded

the camp,

which they had now a

and eafy defcent. During their march, the armies of the Romans, and Aequi ingaged, and fought hand to hand
with equal numbers, equal arms, and equal ardor; the

was long and doubtful ; the horfe and foot, fometimes, gaining ground upon one another, and, fometimes, giving
battle

way and many perfons of diftindion fell on both fides : At laft, the fate of the battle was decided For Siccius, and his men, when they came near the camp of the Aequi,
;
:

found that part of it unguarded (becaufe all the forces, which had been appointed to defend it, were gone to the other
iide that lay next the field of battle, to fee the adion) and,

entering the

camp with

a

higher ground ran to attack them: The Aequi,

much

great eafe, faw themfelves upon than the guard Then, fhouting,
:

terrified

with

this

unex-

and judging them to be more numerous than pedled danger, they were, and that the other conful was there with his army, threw themfelves out of the camp ; many leaving,
even, their arms behind them.
36-

Siccius

and

his

men

flew

E-n-aay-Bvov.

The

editions,

and

manufcripts have jErajaKMjtxjuov, which does not feem to me near (o proper as the other; particularly as our author
fays,

place, the oJof was ivi^po^o?, or ivezi(po^of, as the Vatican manufcript has
it, which implies a declivity, and feems to fuggeft the word I have made ufc

prelently after, that,

from

this

of.

Vol. IV.

F

f

all

2i8
all

ROMAN
The

ANTIQJJITIES OF

BookX.

; and, having pofleffed themthey could come up with felves of their camp, marched againft thofe, who were in

the plain.

Aequi, being informed by the

flight

and

outcries of their

men,
the

that the

camp was
upon

taken,

and, not

long

after, feeing

enemy

falling
;

their rear, fought

but broke their ranks, and endeavoured to fave themfelves fome one way, and fome

no longer with the fame

fpirit

another.

Romans

For the here was the greateft flaughter did not give over the purfuit till night, putting all
:

And

to the fword they could overtake.

But no

man

flew fo
;

many
who,

of them, nor performed when he faw the affair was over,

fo great adlions, as Siccius
it

being

now dark,
full

returned

with

his

men

to the

camp
his

they had taken,

exultation.

And

all

men

fafe

of joy, and and unhurt, not only

without having fuffered any of the mifchiets they expedled, but alfo crowned with the greateft glory, called him their and their god ; and, giving him every father, their preferver,
honourable appellation, could notfatisfy themfelves with emand fliewing every other inflance of their bracing the man,
gratitude.

In the

mean

time, the reft of the

Roman

army,

with the confuls, returned from the purfuit to their

own

camp.

XLVII.
fentment

It

was now midnight, when

Siccius, full

of re-

the confuls for having fent him to deflrucof the vidory ; tion, refolved to take from them the glory
againfl:

to his companions, having communicated his defign and they approving it, and every one of them admiring the and fpirit of the man, he took his arms ; and,

and,

fagacity,

ordering

BooIcX.

DIONYSIUS HALIC AR N A SS EN S I S.
all
all

219
the the

ordering the reft to do the fame, firft put to death Aequi, whom he found in the camp, and ftabbed
horfes,

and other beads of burden
full

;

then

fet fire to

the tents,

•which were

of arms, apparel, warlike ftores, and of the booty they had taken from the Tufculani, which was ex;

ceeding great

after

every thing was confumed by the

fire,

day, carrying with him nothing but his arms, and, after a quick march, came to Rome As foon as armed men appeared, celebrating their vidlory, marching haftily, and covered with blood, the people
left
:

he

the

camp about break of

flocked to them, earneftly defiring both to fee them, and to hear their exploits. But they went diredly to the forum, and gave an account to the tribunes of what had ;

and
it

palled the people together, ordered them to thefe, calling repeat before them all. There being a great concourfe, Siccius

prefented himfelf, and related to them both the vidlory, and the circumftances of the adion, and that, his own

by

and the valor of his eight hundred veterans, whom the confuls had fent to be flain, the camp of the Aequi had been taken, and the army, which was ingaged
valor,

with the confuls, put to
:

flight

:

He

defired they

would

impute the vidory to no other perfons, and ended with " We have faved our lives, and our arms, and adding this " have brought with us no other marks of our vidlory."

The

people, hearing this, exprefled their compaflion, and wept : The age of the men afleded them, their valor moved
;

them

and they were

filled

with refentment, and indigattempted to deprive the

nation againft thofe,

who had

F

f 2

com-

220

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
vvarriours.

Book X.
(as

commonwealth of fuch
had
forefeen)

This relation

Siccius

drew upon the confuls the hatred of all the citizens ; even the fenatc was exafperated beyond meafiire For they granted them neither a triumph, nor any other
:

diftindtion, the ufual confequences of victory.

The

people^

at their next election, created Siccius one of their tribunes,

rewarding him with an honor, of which they themfelves had Thefe were the moft remarkable tranfaitions the difpofal.
of that time.

XLVIII. the

confuls for the following year were Spurius

" Aterius Tarpeius, and Aulus
in every thing during their

Thefe favoured the people magiftracy, and particularly in
:

vote of the fenate for laying before procuring the previous them ^* the propofal of the tribunes : Since they faw that the patricians reaped no advantage from their oppofition ;
but, on the contrary, that the moft zealous aflertors of their caufe drew upon themfelves envy, and hatred, private lofles,

and

calamities

:

But they were,
laft

chiefly,

terrified

with the

recent misfortune of the
37-

confuls,

who had

been Severely

Are^iof.

Sigoniiis,

in

his note

alluded to, relates, in
their

my

6 upon the confuls of this year ia Livy, this name upon the authority prefers In the Fafii of Diodorus Siculus.

refokition to

folicit

opinion, to the previ-

the confuls of csnfulares of Petavius, this year ftund thus, Spurius Tarpeius

ous vote of the feoate, which our author will explain in the fifty iecond chapter of this book, and which

Motitaia, Julus Aeternius vel Aterius
Fontinalis.
3*'

had been i'o often prelled bunes, and pafled, at lafl,
fulfhip, I

in this

by the tricon-

mean That

To Twv

ar,y.oi.iX<^^ ioyfj.x.

It

ap-

the people

the propoHil

for laying before of the tri-

pears by the

tranflation
his

that wsf) was not in neither does the fenfc admit that preThe J'oj'juw ir,fA»^^uv, here
-,

of Lapus, manufcript

bunes tor compihng

by which

a body of laws, the patricians, as well as the plebeians, the magiftrates as well as

pofuion.

private men, ihould be bound.

iB.ui.c.jK

treated

BookX.
For

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S SENS
who had
taken the

I S.

221
'

treated by the people,
Sicciiis,

and found no protedion from the fenate :
the Aequi, and one of the tribunes, as I

camp of

defeated their army, being now faid, the very firfl: day he took poffeffion of his magiftracy, after he had offered up the ufual facrifices for the prefervation of the

commonwealth, and before he entered upon any other public affair, had cited Titus Romilius to appear before the tribunal of the people, and make his defence to
a charge brought againft him, for having injured the public j and appointed a day for his trial : And Lucius Icilius, who

was then

aedile,

and had been tribune the year
trial, alfo,

before,

had

fummoned Caius
year, to take his
interval

Veturius, the other conful of the former
for the like offence.

During the

between the

citation,

and the
;

trial,

both fides

em-

ployed
relying

many

intrigues,

and
;

on the fenate

the perfons accufed and, encouraged by the affurances
felicitations

both of the old and young fenators, that they would not fuffer the trial to proceed, made light of the On danger
:

the other lide, the tribunes, who had long provided againft: all attempts, and confidered neither intreaties, threats, nor

any danger, when the day was come, affembled the people. Before this, great numbers of handicraft's men, and labourers

were come out of the country; and, having joined the
citizens,
filled

not only the forum, but
tried firft

all

the ftreets that

led to

it.
:

XLIX. Romilius was

When Siccius preiented

himfelf; and, after charging him with all the ads of violence he had committed againft the tribunes, while he was conful,

he

222

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
command
:

OF

Book X.

he came, at laft, to the infidious defign, which the other had formed both againft him, and the cohort, that was under
his

And,
moft

as witnefl'cs, the

to fupport this charge, he produced, condderable men, then, in the army,
;

not plebeians, but patricians
youth, diftinguiflied remarkable bravery,
*'

among whom there was a by his birth, his own virtue, and his by name Spurius Virginius, who faid

being defirous to get Marcus Icilius, who was fon to " one of the men commanded by Siccius, and of his own
that,

exempted from that fervice, in which " he expedled that both he, and his father would perifh, ne " had prevailed upon Aulus Virginius, his own uncle, then " a legate in the army, to go to the confuls, and afk this
age,

*'

and

his friend,

" favor of them which ; they refuling, he himfelf wept, and " lamented the misfortune of his friend that the ; young
*' *<

man,

for

whom he had interceded,

being informed of this,

"

to the confuls; and, defiring leave to fpeak, faid that he thought himfelf much obliged to thofe, who had
35y^7en|;

" interceded

for him,

but could not accept a favor, that
not with any propriety beaddrefled to
the latter. Thefe reafons, I fuppofe, did not occur to M. * * * ; bccaufe he has made the youth go to Virginius, not to the confuls, que/ejeune Icilius Pctoit venu trouver : But then he feems embarrafled with 'thefe cere-

39- ea9«v. This is rendered by the Latin tranflators fimply veniffc as it is in Greek, without laying to whom he went, which is explained by the Tubwords, A.o}^ov ai1)j(rrtjt*6vav Thefe

fec^uent ean relate only to the confuls;

:

fince

it

be fuppufed that the youth would ufe fo much ceremony with a man of his own age, and his friend, Again, he fays that tok iiofjuton sroAA»!v which interceflbrs were the cii

cannot

;:(^«f(v,

monious words, Koyov «i7>j(r«/x£K;v, and leaves them out. I always commend le Jay with pleafure, when I can commend him with juftice he has tranf•,

and Virginius confequently thofe words, Myot «i1>)(r«/*£v(ivj could
legate,
-,

Uted

this

extremely well.

" would

deprive him of the opportunity of fliewina his " piety to a parent, whom he was the more refolded not to " abandon, becaufe he was going to his death, of which " every one was convinced ; but that he would o;o with " him, detend him to the utmoft ot^ his power, and fhare *' the lame fortune with them all." After the young man had given this evidence, there was not a fingle perfon, who

BookX. " would

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

223

did not feel fome emotion at the fate of thofe men.
Icilius the father, and his

But,

fon were called when upon as witneiles, and gave an account of what related to themfelves, the greateft part of the plebeians could, no longer,

Romilius, then, made his defence; and, in his fpeech, neither courted the people, nor ufed a ftyle his lituation; but expreffed himfelfin adapted to haughty
refrain

from

tears.

terms,

exalting the

inverted with, as

power of the magiftracy he had been By which, he infubjed: to no account
:

flamed the refentmxcnt of the citizens

;

So that,

when

they

came to give their votes, every one of the tribes condemned His punifhment was a fine, which amounted to him
:

ten thoufand
this

ajfes.

And

Siccius feems to

me not

to have

done

patricians

without fome delign, but with this view that the might be the lefs felicitous to fave the man,
at

and commit no outrages
they
refleded
that

the time

the

condemned

of voting, when be perfon would

only fined;

and,
"^

alfo,

that the plebeians

might be the
aJfes

4°'

A(Ts»^iot. ixM^tM.

I

have, before,

flievvn

that a

Roman
^

cs

amounted

to

money: So that, 10,000 amount to 32/. 5J. 10 d,

will

three farthings

and one tenth of our
See the feventeenth annotation on the ninth book,

more

^24

ROMAN ANTiaUITIES OF
for the punifliment,

BookX.

more eager

when

it

was not to extend

either to the death, or banifliment -of a confular perfon.

A

few days after the condemnation of RomiHus, Veturius was Hkewife condemned ; his punifliment was alfo pecuand amounted to one half more than the other. niary, L. The prefent confuls were terrified with the confideand attentive to prevent the Hke ration of thefe
'^'

from being

inflicled
:

puniiliments, on themfelves after the expiration of

their confulfhip

So

that,

refolutions, but, openly,
interefl:

their they no longer concealed directed all their meafures to the

of the people. And, firft, they pafTed a law in an which all magiftrates affembly of the people by centuries, "by
*'
*'

are

impowered

to fine fuch, as are guilty of any diforderly,

or illegal attempts againfl: their authority :" For, till then, none but the confuls had this power. However, they did

not leave the fine arbitrary in thofe, who fhould impofe itj but confined the greatefl to two oxen, and thirty fheep.
'^-

41'
ajfcs,

or 48

H|«ioAiovS^a7jf». I. B s. g d.

I find that

M.

* *

*,

That is, 15,000 of our money. in his note upon

and his veterans to dcftiudion. This induced Sylburgius to read i-'f^io-u,
Siccuis,

this paflage, and alfo le Jay, in his note, make 10,000 ajfes to amount to no more than 500 French livres, which do not make 2 5 /^ of our money. This is much below Arbuthnot's computa-

inftead of vfMohm. By this corredtion, the fine of Veturius will come to no

more than 5000
to
1

ajj'es

:

But, as both
it

Livy, and our author make

amount

tion, and, in
lefs

my

opinion, a great deal
to be.
Is

5,000, and, as all the manufcripts, and editions concur in this fum, the correction of Sylburgius appears too
violent.
4^-

than

it

ought
fine

feems very

odd

that our author,

make

the

and 'Livy lliould of Veturius to have

Avo

^oa;? koh

t^ixkovIcx.

w^oSooct.

I find,

amounted

to fo

of Romilius,
/noft guilty;
'B.

much more than That who was certainly the fince it was he, who fent
c.

by a note of Sylburgius, that "^Briironius thinks we ought to read
cJuo

^^^oi^alx
is,

reafon

Hi.s xat t^kx-aoCix Qmrn becaufe 'Gellius fays that the
:

iii.

31.

'"In Seleft.

ex Jur. antiq. B.

i.

c. 3.

'B.xi.

c.

i.

And

BookX.

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A RN A S S E N SI S.
law continued long
in force

225

And

this

among

the

Romans.

In the next place, they referred to the conlideration of the fenate the laws, which the tribunes prefTed to have enadled,
that fliould bind
all

the

Romans, and be obferved

for ever.

Upon this occafion, many fpeeches were made by the beft men; fome tending to perfuade the fenate to grant the
requeft of the tribunes, and

fome

to

reject:

it

:

However, the

opinion of Titus Romilius, who, contrary to the expedation both of the patricians, and plebeians, fupported the intereft of the people againft the oligarchy, carried it : For they

concluded that a man,

who

had, lately, been

condemned

by the people, would both think, and fay every thing that But he, rifing might oppofe the deiires of the plebeians.
up,

when

called

upon

to deliver his opinion in his turn (for
by our author. But, if there was fuch an article in that law, which Dionyfius has omitted (a fuppofition,
recited

greiteik B.ne, }!inha fHpre>!ia, amounted to two flieep, and thirty oxen, from the confideration of the plenty of oxen
Italy, and the fcarcity of fheep. But, if this was the only reafon Brif-

in

by the way, not
in

at all

probable)

ftill

this will not reconcile the contradiftion

fonius had for altering the text, it is not a very flrong one ; becaufe Gellius

Gellius,

and

Feftus-, becaufe
to

the

latter fays that

the law, which fixed

contradifts

himfelf

three

lines

the

muUa

ftiprema

two

flieep,

and

after: For he there fays that, by the Aterian law, which is the very law

thirty oxen,was pafied inthe confulfhip of Menenius Lanatus, and Ceftius

treating of, and was fo called from Aulus Aterius, one of the confuls of the prefent year, the

Dionyfius

is

now

Capitolinus, which coincides with the year of Rome 302, that is, two years

perfon fined was to pay ten ajj'es for every flieep, and one hundred for
pojlea lege Aterid in ovesfingulas aeris de>ii, conftiiutifunt in boves aeris centerd. Feftus, I know,
i

every ox

idcirco

law was enacted, by which, they fay, the condemne.l was to pay ten times more for perfon an ox, than for a flieep So that, according to Gellius, and Feflius, the
after the Aterian
as
:

greatelt fine

the word fays the fame thing under Peculium. Notwithftanding their authority,

and

to two flieep, fame period of thirty oxen, time, when an ox was ten times as

amounted
at the

we

find not a tittle of this
in the Aterian law, as

dear as a

flieep.

commutation

Vol. IV.

G

g

he

226

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
for
:

OF

Book X.

he was of the middle rank both
as follows

dignity,

and age) fpoke

" " " " "
'*

LI. " I fhould be troublefonie to yon, fathers, if I related " what I have fuffered from the people, not for any crime, " but for my attachment to you, when you yourfelvTs are " fo well However, I find myfelf under acquainted with it " a to the end neceflity of mentioning it, you may be afTured " that the opinion I fhall deliver, which I think will prove " advantageous to the commonwealth, does not flow from
:

a defire of flattering the people, whom I look upon as my enemy, but from the greateft fincerity : And let no

have been of a different opinion upon many occafions, both before, and when I was conful, am now changed on a fudden ; and let not any of you

one wonder,

if I,

who

imagine either that
while
I

"

my fentiments were,

or that I have, now, altered

grounded, without reafon: For, them

then,

ill

" "
**

thought your party ftrong, fathers, I fupported the ariftocracy as it was my duty, and defpifed the plebeians;
but,

" and finding by " is lefs than
**

grown
will

wifer, flnce,

by

my own

misfortunes;

a dear
;

your

bought experience that your power and that, yielding to neceflity, you

" " " misfortunes, which you all commiferate, had never hap" pened either to myfelf, or to my collegue But, fince our " affair is over, and you have it in your power to corredl ** thefe things for the future, I advife you to confidcr in
:

have, already, fuffered many who defended your caufe, to be dragged to deftrudlion by the people ; I no longer I wifh, indeed, thatthofe entertain the fame fentiments.

'*

time

Book X.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

227

" time by what means the fame misfortunes may not happen *' to others; and that all of you in general, and every one
*'

in particular, will ad:

" "
*'

with prudence in the prefent juncis

ture:

For that nation

bed governed, which changes her
private

conduct, as circumftances change; and that man is the beft " counfellor, whofe advice is influenced not by his

• enmity, or favor, but by the advantage of the community " and they judge beft of future events, who make the exam-

"
*'

of their judgement. It has pies of the paft, the rules pened, fithers, that, in all the difputes, and contefts we

haphave

had with the people, the difad vantage has been on our fide ; " and we have been chaftifed with the death, the ignominy, " and the banifliment of illuftrious men. And what greater " misfortune can happen to a commonwealth, than to lofe

*'

" her greateft men by degrees? Thefe, therefore, I, who " advife you to fpare, and not to plead your caufe, expofe " either the to manifeft confuls
'^^

" fend fome of them to the Greek cities in Italy, and others " to to defire the Greeks will communicate to them
Athens,

or any others from whom " the commonwealth may reap the leaft advantage. Upon *' the whole, my advice is that you chufe embafladors, and
*'

prefent defert them in the article of

danger, and, then,

it,

"
'''

their beft: laws,

and fuch

as

are

moft adapted to our
thefe laws hither;

cuftoms
43-

;

and that the embafladors bring
This
all

Txlm
is

bv (TuvsiKwv vfxiv.

fage

certainly corrupted in
-,

pafthe

trouble the reader with their correcMine has this merit at leail, tions.
that it difturbs the text lefs than any, and feems connefted with the preceding fentence.

which the editions, and manufcripts Latin tranflators have been lo fenfible
of, that

by them

great pains have been taken I fhall not to corred it.

Gg

2

"
and,

228

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
when

OF

BookX.

" " " "
*'

and,

they return, that the confuls propofe to the confideration of the fenate whom to eled: as legiflators,

with what power, and for how long a time; and to determine every thing elfe in fuch a manner, as they fliali
that

" think proper: But
plebeians;
*'

you contend, no longer, with the

particularly,

nor accumulate calamities upon yourfelves ; Jfince you will ftruggle about laws, which, if
give,
at leaft, a fpecious color to their
""

" nothing "

elfe,

re-

quefc." LII. After Romilius had fpoken in this manner, the two his opinion by long, and elaborate fpeeches; confuls

So that, it was carried by a maWhen the previous decree was going to be drawn up, jority. had cited Romilius to be tried by the Siccius, a tribune who

and

alfo

fupported many other fenators

:

people, rifing up,

and praifed him
ring his private

fpeech in his commendation ; for changing his opinion, and for not preferrefentment to the public utility, but deliver-

made a long

an advice, that was advantageous to the ing with {incerity " In confideration of which, fays he, I make commonwealth
:

acknowledgement; I remit the fine, and am re*' conciled to him from this time: For he has overcome us " This was confirmed by the reft of the his probity."
*'

him
by

this

tribunes.
this favor
44;

However, Romilius would not fubmit

to receive

but, having returned thanks to the tribunes for
This word has been a
to
all

A^ifcffEu?.

lations of this paffiige abfolutely
intelligible.
^«i?//,

ftumbling block Thty ha\e agreed to give to a^iuicig the fenfe of o.^'"!"*'. and rendered it in
the trannatois
:

I

have rendered

it,

imRe-

their

refpcftive

language.% Majejly.
all

which isthe common arcepration of the word ; too common indeed to itand in need of any authorities to
fupport
it.

This miftake has made

their tranf-

their

BookX.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN AS SENSIS.
him, he faid he would pay the
;

229
fine,

their defire to oblige

becaufe

it

was, already, confecrated to the gods

and

that he

fhiould adl contrary

both

tojiiftice,

and religion,

if

he deprived
paid
it

the gods of

what the law had given them.

And he

accordingly. The previous order of the fenate being drawn up, and afterwards confirmed by the people, the perfons who were appointed embafiadors to receive the laws from

the Greeks, were Spurius Poftumius, Servius Sulpicius, and Aulus Manlius, who were furnifiied with orallies having three

of oars, at the public expence, and fuch an equipage, as was fufficient to difplay the dignity of the Roman empire.
tire

And

thus the year ended. LIII. In the eighty fecond

Olympiad,

at

which Lycus of

the prize of the ftadium, Chaerephanes being archon at Athens, when three hundred years were completed fince the foundation of Rome, and during;
LarifTa in Theilaly

won

the confulihiip of Publius Floratius, and Sextus Quintilius, Rome was afflided with a peftilential diftemper, the (evereft that had ever been known before ; by which, almofl: all the
fervants

were carried

off,

and near one half of the
affifl:

citizens,

the phyficians being unable, any longer, to
their domeftics,

the fick, or

and

For

thofe,

who

friends to fupply them with necefiaries : were willing to relieve the calamities" of

by touching tlie bodies ot the difeafed, and continuSo that, ing with them, contraded the fame difiemper many houfes becam.e defolate for want of people to attend the
others,
:

of the greatePc grievances, and the reafon why the contagion did not quickly ceafe, arofe from their manner of
fick
:

One

throwing

230

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
:

Book X.

throwing out the dead For, at firft, both from fliame, and the plenty they had of ev^ery thing that was neceffary for burials, they burned the dead bodies, and laid them in the

ground ; but, at laft, fome, through a negledl of decency, and others, from a want of necefTaries, threw them into the

common

fhores,

and many more

caft

them
"^^

into the river,

For the dead bodies, being thrown up by the waves upon the rocks, and fhores, a grievous and horrible ftench was difperfed by the wind; and, being received by fuch as were yet in health, produced

which occafioned the

greateft mifchief :

For the fame reafon, the a quick change in their bodies. water brought from the river was, no longer, fit to be drunk,
partly

by

its

uncommon

bad
+5'

^'^

digeftion.
ITjOf
TtfSf axIflJS X(Xi

and partly by its caufing a Thefe calamities were not confined to the
fmell,
I am forry thati cjnnot r^iH^y,;. purfue the panegyrical ftrain in fpeaking of le Jay But he has tranHated this
:

author makes

here

T«f >ji'ov«f. Our a difference be;

tween
fliore:

ajc/asj

and

n'iova^

the

firft figni-

fying a high,

and the other a low,

This

diftinftion in the

Greek

paffage in fo burlefk a manner that his verfion is below cenfure He has
:

language,

ferved, is gives to ctKh the epithet of i^iSaTioi; ; from the roaring of the fea at the foot

though not conftantly ob'" as old as Homer, who

faid, ni propres a bien atire les viandcs

qn'on mettoit boiiiltir. The reader may poffibly be farprifed at this ridiculous

of

it,
ITC

miftake, but I can explain it. found in Portus (for the Greek
uvxSostti

He

AKha^

UKlduv s^iSaTTuv f^xx^ov «ut«.

could not poflibly
cibi

word lead him

into

Any
I
"

other voice but that of Minerva,

it)

malam

concoSiioncmfaciebat;

imagine, would have been filenced by the noife of the waves. As for yj'iuv,

and

this conco^lion,

Homer

gives that

name

to the fpace
•,

from takins not for the concocflioii performed by the ftomach, but for
his misfortune arofe

between two promontories

That performed
ci\ttai is

in a kettle.

t\v»So<!i<:

a

medicinal term of no very

difficult

the digejlion,
'"

comprehenfion, and fignifies and dijlribulion of nourifi-

ment through the whole body.
II, V.

f. 50.

city

BookX.
city only,

DIONYSIUS H ALIC A RN ASSENSIS.

231

but extended themfelves to the country alfo; where the hufbandmen felt the feverity of the diflemper in

no

the infedion being communicated to them by the fheep, and the other cattle they were always tending. While the people had any hopes in the afliftance of Heaven,
lefs

a degree

;

and expiations: And, upon this occaiion, many innovations, and pradices unknown to the Romans, and indecent in themfelves, were introduced
they
all

had recourfe to

facrifices,

into the worfhip of the gods ; but, when they found thefe fliewed no regard, or compaffion to their fufferings,

abandoned, even, the obfervance of religious
this

rites.

they Durino-

calamity, Sextus Quintilius, one of the confuls, died, as

alfo

Spurius Furius, who had been appointed in his and four of the tribunes ; together with many

room

;

worthy

fe-

diftemper, the Aequi prepared to make war upon the Romans, and fent embaffadors to the other nations, who were their enemies, to ingage them to enter into the war; but they had not time to draw the forces out of their cities : For, while

nators.

While the

city

was afflided with

this

they were making preparations, they were attacked with the fame diftemper j which fpread itfelf, not only, over the

country of the Aequi, but,

alfo,

over Thofe of the Volfci,
their

and the

Sabines,

and carried off great numbers of

people; by which means, it happened that, as the lands were not cultivated, the plague was followed by a famine.

By

reafon,

therefore, of this diftemper,
civil,

no

a6lion,

either

military or

worth

relating,

was performed by the

Romans under

thefe confuls.

LIV,

232

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
"^^

Book X.

Caius Menenius, and Publius *^ Ceftius were chofen confuls, when the diftemper, intirely, After which, public facrifices of thankfgiv^ing were ceafed.

LIV. The following year,

performed to the gods, and magnificent games celebrated
:

at

a great expence ; the people palling their time, as may well be fuppofed, in rejoicings, and feftivals And thus was the In the beginning of the fpring, a large winter employed. quantity of corn was brought to Rome from many places ;
the greateft part of which was purchafed with the public money, and fome imported by private merchants For the
:

people laboured under a great want of provilions, the lands having lain uncultivated by reafon of the diftemper, and the death of the hulbandmen.
fadors arrived

At

the fame time, the embaf-

from Athens, and the Greek cities in Italy, After which, the tribunes went to the conwith the laws.
and defired them to appoint the legiflators purfuant to Thefe knew not how to elude their the decree of the fenate
fuls,
:

and importunities; but, as they difliked the the ariftocracy fliould be fubverted thing, and were unwilling during their confulftiip, they had recourfe to a fpecious prefolicitations,

tence,

that the eledion of magiftrates being at hand, they were under an obligation, firft, to appoint the

by

telling

them

confuls ;

which they would foon do ; and,
faid,
"

after thefe

were

appointed, they
47-

they would, in conjundlion with them,
ca.\\ed

Faiof

Mmnc^.

Fajli coiifulares

cd\\ this

Livy, and the conful, Caius:

of Petaviiis, he

have followed inftead of the ediiions, which call \\\m, Lucius.

Thefe
4*'

I

Sjfiof.

So

this

conful

is
iii.

alfo
c.

F^ifii co»/ulares called Cejlius, as he is alfo by Feftus in thepafi'ige I quoted from him in the forty fecond anp.otation on this book.
is

by

''

L'lvy Jn zhe
.

•B.

32.

rid.

ib.

refer

BookX.

DIONYSIUS HALIC A RN A S S EN S

I S,

233

refer to the fenate the coniideration, relating to the legifla-

tribunes confenting to this, they gave notice of the eledlion much fooner than ufual, and appointed Appius
tors.

The

After which, layClaudius, and Titus Genucius, confuls. to the affairs of the public, as if that ing afide all attention care was now devolved upon others, they paid, no lono-er,

during of their confulfliip. And it happened that the remainder one of them, namely Menenius, was feized with fome illnefs Some gave out that grief, and of long continuance.
tion ot

any regard to the tribunes j but determined to withdraw themfelves, under this color, from their importunities,

dejecto be

mind had brought on him a confumption hard
Ceftius laid hold

removed.

on

this occafion, pretendino-

he

could do nothing alone; and eluded the

folicitations

of the

tribunes by fending them to the new confuls. The tribunes, deflitute of all other relief, were forced to have recourfe to

not yet entered upon their magiftracy, and folicited them fometimes in the prefence of the people, and fometimes alone. At laft, they overcame them, by difplaying great hopes of honor, and power, if they would efpoufe the intereft of the people : For Appius was defirous of a new magiftracy, in order to conftitute fuch laws for his country, as fhould

Appius, and his collegue,

who had

produce

unanimity and peace

;

and to teach

all his

fellow-citizens,

by his own example, to look upon the commonwealth as one body. However, when he was, adually, invefted with this great magiftracy, he did not but ; preferve his
probity

corrupted with the greatnefs of

his

Vol. IV.

H

power, was, at

laft,

h

carried

234
carried

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
away with an ambition
:

Book X.
it
;

to perpetuate

and was
in

into tyranny very near running
its

All which

I fliall relate

place.

LV. At

that time,

he took thofe refolutions with the

the greateft fmcerity; and, having prevailed upon his colenter into the fame, and the tribunes, often, calling legue to upon Appius to be prefent at the aflemblies of the people,

he appeared there, and made many fpeeches to them full of benevolence; the fum of which was, that both he, and his
collegue were intirely of opinion that legiflators ought to be appointed, and an end put to the contefts of the citizens, concerning the eftablifliment of equal rights ; and thefe they declared to be their fentiments However, as they had not,
:

yet,

power

entered upon the magiftracy, they faid, they had no to appoint the legiflators, but would be fo far from

and his collegue in their execution of oppofing Menenius, the orders of the fenate, that they would not only afTift them, but return them great thanks for it And, if they
:

declined
it

pretending that, new magiftrates being appointed, was not lawful for them to create others with confular
it,

power,

after the

lormer had, already, been elefted to

it,

they

faid that, as far as this related to themfelves,

they would

For they were willing to refign the confulfhip to fuch magiftrates, as fhould be appointed in their room, provided the fenate fhould approve of it.
give
:

them no oppofition

The

people applauded them for thefe fentiments; and, running in a body to the fenate houfe, Ceftius was forced
to affemble the fenate alone (Menenius being unable to attend

by

235 of his fickncfs) and propofed to them the confiby reafon deratioii of the laws. Many fpeeches were made upon this
occafion alfo, both by thofe,

Book X.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

who contended

that the

com-

monwealth ought

who

to be governed by laws, and by thofe, advifed to adhere to the cuftoms of their anceftors.

However, the opinion of the confuls eled: carried it; which opinion was delivered by Appius Claudius, who was firft
called upon, that ten perfons be chofen out of the moft that thefe govern during one diftinguiflied fenators; year from the day of their eledlion; and be inverted with the

whole power of the commonwealth, in as ample a manner as the confuls, and, before them, the kings, enjoyed it; and
the other magiftracies be abrogated during the government of thefe decemvirs ; that thefe felect, as well out
that
all

cuftoms, as out of the Greek laws brought by the embaffadors, the beft inftitutions, and fuch as are advantageous to the Roman commonwealth, and form

of the

Roman

them

body of laws ; that thefe laws, after they have been approved of by the fenate, and confirmed by the people, be eftabliflied for a perpetuity ; and that all future magiand adminifter ftrates fliall determine private contefts,
into a
affairs

of the public, according to thefe laws. LVI. The tribunes, having received this decree from the the people; and, fenate, went to the affembly of having
the

both to the fenate, and gave great commendations to Appius, who had propofed it: And, when the time came for the election of magiftrates, the tribunes affembled
read
it,

the people, and defired the confuls eled: to come, and per-

H

h

2

form

236

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES,
to

etc.

BookX.

and they apthe people pearing, abdicated their magiftracy ; upon which, commended, and admired them ; and, when they were to
;

form the promifes they had made

them

chufe

and the perfons apcenturies were Appius Claudius, pointed in an afiembly by and Titus Genucius, who had been chofen confuls for the
legiflators,
firfl:;

named them

following year

;

Publius Ceftius, then conful

;

Spurius Po-

ftumius, Servius Sulpicius, and Aulus Manlius, who had brought the laws from the Greeks; and Titus Romilius,
conful, was conhaving, a few years before, demned by the people upon a charge brought againft him Siccius, and was now chofen in confideration of the

who

been

by

of which he feemed the author ; and popular advice, with thefe. Gains Julius, Titus Veturius, and Publius
Horatius,
all

confular

fenators.

At

the fame time,

the

and of all authority of the tribunes, aediles, quaeftors, the other magiftracies inftituted by their anceftors, was
abrogated.

LVII. The following

year,

the legiflators took
affairs,

upon

themfelves the adminiftration of

and

eftabliflied this

form of government

:

One

of

them had the

rods,

and the

other enfigns of the confular power; aflembled the ienate ; declared their refolutions ; and performed all the other

fundions belonging to the head of the commonwealth : While the reft, contrading their invidious power within a

more popular compafs,
little

differed in
:

from the other
exercii'e

citizens

appearance but After that, another fucceedtheir

ed to the

of this power.

And

thus they governed fuc-

BookX.
"^'^

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S SENS I S.
during the

237

fuccefiivcly,

upon, till the year expired. bunal early in the morning, and took cognizance of allcaufes, both private and public, and alfo of the complaints, that were
brouo-ht againfl: the fubjedls, and allies of the Romans, and who gave reafon to doubt of their obedience againft thofe, to them ; every one of which they examined with great

number of days they had agreed But all ot them fate in the tri-

And the Roman commonwealth moderation, and juftice. feemed, that year, to be exceedingly well governed by the decemvirs. But, above all, they were commended for their
care of the plebeians, and foroppoling every kind of violence, that was offered to the weaker fort : And the generality of the people faid that the commonwealth flood, no longer, in need of tribunes, or of any other magiflracies, while all

were managed with prudence by this fingle regency ; of which Appius was looked upon as the chief; and the him the praife flowing from the condudt of people gave to
affairs

For he gained the reputation of thofe things, which he did in concert probity, not only, by with his collegues from the beft motives, but much more
the whole decem.virate
:

49-

OT«ji*i'o,M>)f.

I

know

nothing

1

Livy

of this word ; neither have I ever met with it before though it ftands in all the editions, and manufcripts, except
•,

(whom

fays that each of the decemvirs he calls upon that occafion,

the Vatican, which

has £«

3r£^ivo,u!}f.

This exprelTion, though very uncomyet, when joined to zsragaAAflt^, The fignity a cujlomary fuccejfion. sk^ ^<a«?o;^>;yi fer.fe feems to require

fraefeSutn juris) governed one day ; during which, he was attended with the twelve /«/?«, and each of the other nine with an officer, called by the

mon,

may

Romans, Accenjus-, Decimo die jus populo ftnguli reddebant. eo die fenes 'g'i'2.t'i^Cx.\.\vi\]m\^ fafces duodeclm erant :
coUegis bant.
iii.

but a^«faA^a| fupplies
J°"

that.
oe^i^j^ov.

novem ftnguli acccnfi appare-

Ei$ e\'y>i.n^iva})

Tiiiei Yifj-i^uv

iB.

c.

33,

238

ROMAN ANTiaUITIES OF
that were

BookX.

by

tliofe,

owing

to his perfonal behaviour, with

regard to his falutations, his obliging affability, and the other favors he conferred upon the poorer fort. The decemvirs,

having formed a body of laws, both from Thofe of the Greeks, and their own unwritten cuftoms, propofed them to the confideration of the public in ten tables ; and, by
receiving every amendment fuggefted by pri\'ate perfons, endeavoured to correct them in fuch a manner, as to give a general fatisfa6lion. They confulted long in public with

the beft

men

concerning thefe laws, and examined them

with the greateft attention; and, when they were fatisfied with them, they, firft, alTembled the fenate, and no new objections being made to the laws, thev procured a previous
vote of that aflembly in approbation or chem: After whicli, they convened the people by centuries, and the pontifs, the

augurs, and the reft of the priefts being prefent, and having directed the performance of the cuftomary rites, they gave
thefe laws being, alfo, confirmed by the people, they caufed them to be ingraved on brazen pillars, and placed them in order in the moft con-

the centuries their votes.

And

Then, as the time of their fpicuous part of the forum. magiftracy was near expiring, they affembled the fenate,
and propofed
to their confideration

what kind of magiftrates
carried that a

fhould be chofen at the next eledion.

LVIII. After a long debate,
virate fhould, again,

it

was

decem-

For

this

be inverted with the fupreme power: colledion of laws feemed to be imperfed:, by reafon

of the fhortnefs of the time, in which they had been compiled,

and

BookX.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARNAS SE NS
in

I S.

239

and fome magiftracy, abfolute

power, feemed necefiary to compel the unwilling to obferve thofe laws, that wctq But the chief motive, that induced the already enacted.

fenate to give the preference to the decemvirate, fuppreffion of the tribunitian power, which

was the

above

all
;

things.

they defired This was the refult of their public conful-

but, in private, the leading termined to make intereft for this
tations

men

of the fenate de-

magiftracy, from an apprehenfion that the turbulent, if inverted with fuch a povver^ The people having, might occafion fome great mifchief. cheerfully, received the refolutions of the fenate, and con-

firmed them with the greateft alacrity, the decemvirs themfelves appointed a day for the eledlion ; and thofe
the patricians,

among

the moft diftinguifhed both for their dignity, and age, ftood candidates for this magiftracy. this occafion, who was the chief of that Appius, Upon

who were

decemvirate, received great praife from the whole aflembly, and all the plebeians defired to continue him in the

magi-

ftracy,

fince

no man had governed

better than himfelf:

But he pretended, at iirft, to refufe it, and defired they would difcharge him from a fervice, that was both troublefome and invidious. But, at laft, when they all prefled him,
he, not only, fubmitted to fue for it himfelf, but, accufing the moft worthy of thofe, who ftood candidates with him,

of being
lator

ill

difpofed to

him through
:

in favor of his friends

envy, he openly folicited So that, he was, again, chofen legifv/ith

by the centuries

;

and

him Quintus
thrice

Fabius, fura

named Vibulanus, who had been

conful,

man
irre-

240

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
till

OF

Book X.

and adorned with every virtue: Thefe patricians, whom he favoured, wereairochofen, Marcus Cornelius, Marcus Sergius, Lucius Minucius, Titus Antonius,
irreprehenfible
that time,

and Manius Rabulejus, men of no great note
plebeians,

;

and, of the

Quintus Poetilius, Caefo Duillius, and Spurius Oppius ; for thefe alfo were taken in by Appius, in order to flatter the plebeians: His pretence was that, as only one
magiftracy was appointed to govern all the citizens, it was the people fhould likewife have fome fhare in it. juft that

Thus Appius, whofe reputation
and

vvasraifcd by all thefe thino-s,
kino-g,

who was
:

looked upon as fuperior both to their
this

and

confuls, received, again,

magiilracy for the follow-

Thefe were the tranfadions of the Romans under ing year that decemvirate, nothing elfe having happened worth relating.

LIX. The year

after,

Appius, and
the
^'

his

collegues Iiavino-

received the confular power on

ides of

May

(for

the

Romans computed
the moon, and the

their
full

months according

to the courfe of

coincided with the ides) the firft ftep they took was to enter into an agreement, without the privity of the people, which they confirmed by their oaths, not to oppofe one another in any thing ; that, whatever was propofed of by any one of them, all the reft fhould
that they fhould hold their magiftracy during their lives, and admit no other perfon into the adminiftration ;

moon

fupport

it

;

5'-

Eticii U»iaic.
foi

This was the day
the magiftrates to
'

Maiae foknnes
erant.

ineundis

magtjlratibus

then appointtcl
enter

upon

their

office.

Litis

turn
iii.

'Livy, B.

c.

36.

that

BookX.
that
all

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A SS EN S I S.
fliould enjoy the

241

fame honors, and the fame power ; and that they would feldom make ufe of the votes either of the fenate, or people, and only in thofe things, that were abfolutely neceffary; but tranfa6l the greateft part of affairs by the day was come, on which their own authority.

When

they were to enter upon their magiftracy, after they had offered up the ufual facrihces to the gods (for the Romans

look upon

this

day

as

holy, and particularly

make

it

a point

of

on

religion neither to hear, nor fee any thing difagreeable that day) they appeared in public early in the morning,

each of them being attended with all the enfigns of royalty. When the people faw they, no longer, preferved the fame
popular, and modeft appearance in the ufe of their power, nor took the enfigns of royalty, as before, by turns, they

were greatly

afflided,

and

caft

down

:

They were

terrified

with the axes fixed to the rods, which were borne by the lidlors, twelve of whom preceded each of the decemvirs,

and with blows forced the people to make way, as had been formerly praftifed under the kings; but this cuftom was
abolifhed prefently after their expulfion by Publius Valerius, a popular man, who fucceeded to their power; and all the
confuls after him, following the good example he had fet them, would never, from that time, fuffer the axes to be
fixed to the rods, unlefs they went out of the city either to command the armies, or upon any other occafion ; but,

when

they were in the

field,

or

went

to

infped: the affairs

of thofe, who were fubjedt to the Romans, the axes were added to the rods, to the end that this fight might
terrify

Vol. IV.

I

i

their

242

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book X.

their enemies, or fubjcds,
citizens.

but never give ofience to the
confaid,

LX. When, therefore, they all faw this, which was fidered as a mark of the kingly power, they were, as I

and concluded they had loft their liberty, greatly terrified, and chofen ten kings inflead of one. The decemvirs having,
by
means, ftruck terror into the multitude, and refolved to make that terror the fupport of their future government, each of them formed a fadion confifting of the moft
this

daring among the youth, attached to their perfons.
fortunes,
flatterers

and of

who were moft That moft men of defperate
thofe,

and low condition fhould fhew themfelves the

of a tyrannical power, and prefer their private advantages to the public good, is neither extraordinary, nor
furprifing;

among

but that there fliould be found many, even the patricians, qualified both by their fortune, and

birth to entertain fentiments of

fome

elevation,

who

could

fubmit to join with the decemvirs in fubverting the liberty of their country. This every one muft wonder at, who confiders

that thefe decemvirs

governed the commonwealth

with great licentioufnefs, indulging every paffion, that fubdues mankind, and difregarding both the fenate, and people ; affuming to themfelves to be not only the Icgiflators, but the judges, of all laws; putting many of the citizens to death, and depriving many others of their fortunes, contrary
to juftice: However, to give a color to their illegal, and cruel proceedings, they appointed tribunals to try every caufe ; but the accufers, who were chofen from among the inftru-

ments

BookX.
nicnts

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN ASSENS IS.

243

of their tyranny, were fuborned by the decemvirs themfelves, and the tribunals filled with men of their own

one another by turns in the dccifion of thofecaufes: and many, not of the leaft confequence, the
fa<5lion,

who

gratified

decemvirs themfelves heard

:

So

that, thofe fuitors,

who had
:

the leaft right, were under a necefiity of entering into thefe
fa6lions, fince they

could not, otherwife, be fecure of fuccefs
infedled
thofe,

And, in time, the corrupted, and numerous than the incorrupt: For
fatisfied

became more
dif-

who were

much as

with the condu6t of the decemvirs, would not fo in the city ; but retired to the ftay country, in order

to wait for the eledion of magiftrates, that the decemvirs would refign their

from an expedation

power

after the year

was expired, and appoint other magiftrates. But Appius, and his coUegues, having caufed the remaining laws to be infcribed on two tables, added them to Thofe they had,
before,

publifhed

:

" That^" itfhould not be lawful
*'

Among

the former there was this law, for the patricians to contrad:

marriages with the plebeians ;" which law they inferted for no other reafon, in my opinion, than to prevent the two
orders from uniting, and mixing together by reciprocal Even when marriages, and a communication of
affinity:

the time for the eledion of magiftrates was come, they bid adieu both to the ancient cuftoms, and to the new laws ;
S--

Ml) f|«v«r TOK

jsralf/jcio/f,

etc.

I

fpeaking of the laws of the twelve tables till 1 come to that unfortunate hiatus in the next book, which muft have confifted of many
fhall defer

pages, fince our author fays he there gave an account of thefe laws, and

compared them with Thofe of the
Greeks,

I

i

2

and.

244

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES,

ete.

BookX.

and, without the appointment either of the fenate, or of the people, they continued in the fame magiftracy. LXI. After the expiration of this year, the eighty third

Olympiad was

celebrated

;

at

which Crifo of Himera won

the prize of the ftadium, Philifcus being archon at Athens, while, at Rome, Appius Claudius, who was at the head of the dccemvirate for the third year fucceffively, retained the confular power; and the other decemvirs, who had
jointly with him the year before, continued giftracy for the fecond time.
in the

governed fame ma->

The end of the Tenth

book.

THE

THE

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
O F

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
THE ELEVENTH BOOK.

IN Athens,

the eighty third Olympiad, at which Crifo of Himera won the prize of the fladium, PhiUfcus being archon at
the

Romans

abolifhed the decemvirate, after

it

I fhall now had governed the commonwealth three years. endeavour to relate from the beginning in what manner

to extirpate a domination, by this time, they attempted who the leaders were in thecaufe of liberty ; deeply rooted ; and what reafons, and motives induced them to undertake
it.

look upon it that knowledge of this kind is neceflary, and does honor indeed to all men, but particularly to thofe,
I

who

are

employed
are

either in philofophical fpeculations,
civil

or

the adminiftration of

affairs:

For the generality of
this

mankind

not

fatisfied

with learning

alone from
hiftory.

246

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
in
'

BookXI.

example) the Athenians, in conjundlion with the Lacedaemonians, overcame
hiftory, that,

the Pcrfian

war

(for

the Barbarian, whofe forces amounted to three miUions, in two battles at fea, and in one at land, when the army of the
former, with their
allies,

did not exceed one hundred and

ten thoufand
places,

:

where

to be informed of the require, alfo, thofe battles were fought ; of the caufes, that

But they

enabled them to perform fuch wonderful, and aftonifhing who were the commanders of the Greek, and exploits; Barbarian armies, and to be unacquainted with no one cir-

cumftance, as

I

may

fay,

that
all

happened

in

thofe ingage-

ments

:

For the minds of

men

are

pleafed with being

condudted by narrations to fads, and not only with hearing what is related, but, alfo, with feeing what is adled. In
the fame manner,
they read an account of civil tranfadions, they are not fatisfied with knowing only the prin-

when

An NOT AT IONS
1-

on the Eleventh Book.
fum.

twenty book. not be

See the Tov nsgo-ixov aroAc/Aov. fourth annotation on the fixth

They had both

the

ill

luck to

The

fiirprifed

reader, by this time, to find that the

may
two

tranflate tricies, three times, not thirty times, as they ought to have rendered
it.

French

tranflators did not

know how

the

Our author ieems to have taken number of which the Perfian army
four tlioufand Peloloft

many

T§ii)nto(ri«(/xu5(«j£f

amounted to;

confided,

but he may be furprifed to find they have rendered, tricies centena millia, in the Latin tranflators, trois cents milk or ten hommes. T^nxKocnoci av^iai;?, thoufand, multiplied by three hundred, make three millions; and tricies ceniena miUia, or one hundred thouiand,
niultiplied

from the epitaph, which ^Herodotus fays was infcribed on the
their
in

monument of the ponnefians, who
glorioudy at

lives fo

defending that pafs againft the Perfians

Thermopylae

:

^..p,.^,., _,-;,,„-

.pp,„„,,^,.,^

7

en,
c.

'

by

thirty,

make

the fame
»

^

,

,

j

i ^

In Polym.

228.

cipal

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S S EN S

I S.

247

cipal points,

inftance,

and the events of thofe tranfadions, as, for ^ that the Athenians fuffered the Lacedaemonians
AaKiSxiAfter Lylinder had de-

*

Otj

(7\)vi^a)(ritTM A^y.vaiot

jj-iucK, etc.

ftroyed the Athenian fleet at Aegos potamos, he failed to the port of Piraeeus, and blocked up Athens by fea,

were fpent, would hear reafon. In the fourth month he returned, and told the Athenians that Lyfander had detained him lb long, and ordered him
to Sparta, fince the Ephoii, not had the power to grant what was he, delired. The Athenians then fent him, and nine others to Sparta, with full power to conclude a peace. The Ephori, being informed of their arrival with thele powers, called an affembly of the Lacedaemonians, and

to

go

with one hundred and fifty fhips, while the ^ Lacedaemonians, with all
the
forces

ot

Peloponnelus except

Thofe of the Argivi, invefled the city by land, incamping in the gymnafium of the academy. This blocade lading
a confiderable time,
the Athenians,

being oppreffed

w

many had died, the Lacedaemonian kings, who combody of forces at Decelia, to treat of a peace The terms they
a
:

th famine, of which fent to Agis, one of

their allies

:

Of

and Thebans, with
prefied,

thefe the Corinthians, feveral others^

manded

were to enter into an alliance with the Lacedaemonians, and to preferve the port of Piraceus, and the walls that lead to that port from the « city of Athens, called by them, ^axf But Agis alledged that he had ^f^Xy,• no power to treat with their embaffadors, and lent them to Sparta. While they were on their way thither, and
offered,

with great vehemence, that Athens might be totally deftroyed j but the Lacedaemonians generoufly laid they would not indave a people, who had done fo great fervice to Greece in the greatefb dangers. They made peace, therefore, with the Athenians

upon

thefe terms

•,

that the latter

fliould demolifli the long walls, toge-

ther with the port
liver

of Piraeeus

;

de-

up

reftore

their fhips except twelve ; their exiles ; have the fame
all

before they entered the teiritories of the Lacedaemonians, the ephori, hearing they had brought no ocher propo-

than Thofe they had offered to Agis, ordered them to depart ; and, if they defired peace, to confider better,
fals

and return. Upon this, the Athenians fentTheramenes toLyfanderto found
his

friends, and enemies with the Lacedaemonians, and follow them by fea, and land, whitherfoever they fhould lead them. Thefe are the dreadful conditions our author alludes to ; and this is the peace, which put an end to the Peloponnefian war. In confequence of this peace, the Athenians

Theramenes

intentions concerning their fate. ftaid above three months

delivered

up

to

'Lyfander

all

their

with Lyfander in expeftation that the Athenians, when all their proviflons
''

fhips except twelve, and the long wal's, on the fixteenth of the month Muny''

chion, about the eighteenth of April.
Plutarch, Life of Lyfand.

Xenoph.
"^

Ewr-.ix. B.

ii.

p.

458. Edit. ofLeunclav.

Petav. part. prim. B,

iii.

to

248

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
their eftabliflied

OF

Book XI.

to demoHfli the walls of their city ; to deftroy their fhips ; to garrifon their citadel, and, inftead of a democracy, which

was

form of government, to

veil the

admi-

niftration in

an oligarchy, without fo much as fighting a But they will, prefently, want to be inbattle with them
:

them to fubmit to fuch dreadful, and miferable calamities ; what the reafons were, that perfuaded them to it ; and by whom thofe reafons
formed of the
neceflity,

that reduced

were urged; and of every circumftance, with which thofe tranfadions were attended. Men, who are ingaged in the management of civil affairs, among whom I place even thofe

who look upon philofophy to confift in the philofophers, exercife of fine adlions, rather than in That of fine difcourfes,
have
The
this in
in

common
this

with the

reft

of mankind, that they
their

year,
is

which

peace was

changed
the
that
is,

afcertained, becaufe fays that the Olympiad 'Xenophon was celebrated the year after, in which

made,

furely

manner
from

related

form of government in by our author,

Athens, year Pythodorus thouo'h not named by the Athenians, becaufe he was chofen during the olithat year an angarchy, they calling he fays, there archy In that year alfo, All of the fun. happened an eclipfe coincide with the fiift thefe charafters
:

was archon

at

they transformed their conllia democracy to an oligarchy, connfting of thirty tyrants, as they foon appeared. Xenophon, by
tution
fetting

down

all

their naines, has

con-

demn- d
the

them
after,

to

perpetual

infamy,

Not long

thefe

Lacedaemonians

tyrants defired to fend them

fourth Olympiad, year of the ninety as appears by the when
fucceHTion

Pythodorus, of the Athenian archons, was archon at Athens and the eclipfe ^ of the fun he mentions fell our, that
-,

third day of September in year, on the In the fame year, the the morning. at the defire, or rather by Athenians,

troops to garrifon their citadel, which It troops they ingaged to pay. may be eafily fuppofed they found no fort of difficulty in obtaining this requeft. Thefe troops ariived ; and they were, as our author fays, introduced into the citadel, and ma ;e ule of by the oli-

the

command, of the Lacedaemonians,
•Xenophon
E\^):»i)'..

garchy to fecuic every man, who had virtue, and fpirit enough to oppofe their unwarrantable proceedings.
fUflier, p. i*S.

B.ii. p. 461.

are

BookXr.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS,

249

are pleafed with the iiitire view of all the particulars, that befides that pleafure, they every adtion : But,

accompany
this

have

by

advantage, that fuch means, enables

the experience they have acquired

them

to

countries in
their interefts

times of

difficulty,

do great fervice to their and to lead them to

quence

:

the power of their elothrough choice, by For all men are eaiieft convinced both of their

when they difcover advantages, and difadvantages, and thofe, through the medium of many examples ; advife them to make ufe of thefe, are applauded by
for their prudence,

them

who
them
detail

and great wifdom.

For

thefe reafons,

therefore, I have determined to enter into

an accurate

of

the circumftances worthy of notice, that attended the I fliall not begin this relation fubverfion of the oligarchy.
all

from the laft incident, which many people look upon as the fole caufe of the reeftablifhment of liberty, I mean, the excefs committed by Appius in regard to the virgin he was in love For this was an acceffion, and ferved to fill up the with
:

meafure of the people's refentment, which a thoufand other had provoked But I fiiall begin with an account indignities
:

of the

firft infults

offered

and

relate, fuccefiively,

by the.decemvirate to the Romans, all the enormities committed under

that adminiftration.
II.

The

oligarchy

caufe of the hatred conceived againft the feems to have been this, that the members of it
firft

had conneded

their

fecond magiftracy with the

firft,

in

Another was, contempt both of the fenate, and people. that, by falfe and heinous accufations, they banifhed fome

Vol, IV.

Kk

of

250

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
who were
diffatisfied

BookXI.

of the worthieft men,

with their pro-

to death: And, to efFed this, they ceedings, and put others fuborned fome of their own fadlion to accufe them, and

But nothing drew thefe caiifes. upon they themfelves tried them fo much hatred, as the hcence they gave to the moft
audacious of the young men, with

whom

each of them was
all,

and pillage the fortunes of ahvays attended, to plunder

who

flripped

Thefe men, as if the oppofed their adminiftration. Rome had been taken by force of arms, not only city of of their effedls, but even ravifhed the poffefTors
legal

their wives,

when inflamed by

their beauty

;

abufed fuch of

their daughters, as were marriageable ; and, when the others refented their brutality, they beat them like flaves. And,

they forced thofe, who were unable to bear it, to leave their country with their wives, and children, and take refuge in the neighbouring cities, where they were

by

this ufage,

received by the Latines,

on account of their

affinity,

and by

the Hernici, in acknowledgement for the conceffion lately the Romans of the rights of citizens. So made to them

by

might be expedled, there were none left at Rome but the friends to tyranny, and fuch, as had no concern for the good For neither the patricians, who were
that, at laft, as

public

:

of flattering the decemvirs, and of oppofing equally incapable continued there ; nor the fenators, whofe their proceedings, was neceflliry to the magiflirates ; but the greateft prefence of thefe had removed with their whole famihes ; part alfo and, leaving their houfes empty, lived in the country. The
oligarchical
fadlion

were pleafed with the

flight

of the moffc

con-

Book XI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
men
for

251

coiifiderable
it

many reafons, but

particularly, becaufe

encreafed the arrogance of the licentious youth not to have before their eyes thofe perfons whofe prefence would

have made them blufh at their enormities.
III.

Rome being,

thus, deierted

by her beft

citizens,

abfolutely deprived

of her

liberty,

the nations,

who

and had

been conquered by her, looked upon this as the moft favourable opportunity both to revenge the infults they had received,

and

to repair the lofles they

had

fuftained, while the

commonwealth was weakened by the government of the
oligarchy, and unable, from henceforth, to allemble its forces, to unite, or refume the adminiflration of affairs : And, to

end, they prepared every thing, that was neceflary for the war, and marched towards Rome with numerous armies :
this

lame time, making an irruption into that part of the Roman territories, that lay next to them,
Sabines, at the

The

of a large booty; pofTeffed themfelves
great

and, having killed

numbers of the hufbandmen, incamped
fladia

a city fituated near the river Tiber, at

Eretum, the diftance of one

at

^

hundred and feven
3-

from Rome.
the

On

the other fide.

Hs^i-ly.

So

mufl:

we

read

town, notwithftanding the authority of Stephens, and even of the Vatican manufcript, both which have P.ij/fti, as Hudfon has obferved: For?Livy fays, in fpeaking of this incurfion of the Sabines, recepto ad
£1/

name of

this

only 107 ftadiafrom Rome, and here he fays it is 140. ''Cliiver, I find, thinks the laft number is corrupted, becaufe Eretum, now Monte Ritondo, is 13 Roman miles from Rome, or
'

Eretum
:

which make only '^y^ more than 13 miles. Upon the paces
107
ftadia,

quod-pajfim vagatum erat, agBut here is a difmine, cajlra locant. told us in the third ficulty Dionyfius

authority, therefore, of Cluver,

I

have

made
other,

this

pafTage correfpond with the

book, chapter 32, that Eretum was
?B.
iii.

c.

^

38.

Ital.

Antiq. B.

ii.

p.

568.

See the twenty feventh annot. on the third book.

K

k

2

the

252

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book XI.

the Aequi made an inroad into that part of the territories of the Tufculani, that was contiguous to their confines; and, having laid wafte a large trail of it, placed their

near the city of Algidum. When the decemvirs were informed of this irruption of their enemies, they were confounded ; and, affembling the men of their own faction,

camp

confulted with

them what meafures they were

to take

:

of opinion that they ought to fend an army into the enemies country, and not ftay till their forces advanced to Rome itfelf But they were in great doubt,
all
:

Thefe were

firft,

who
ing,

whether they fhould arm all the Romans, even thofe, were diffatisfied with their adminiftration ; and, fe-

condly, whether they fhould

make

the levies in an overbear-

and rigorous manner, according to the pradlice both of the kings, and confuls, or with indulgence, and moderation : They were of opinion, alfo, that no fmall confideration was
this point, who fhould authorize tlie neceflary to determine war, and the levies ; whether the fenate, or the people ; or

neither, fince they fufpedled both
felves
:

;

but the decemvirs them-

a long confultation, they concluded to affemble the fenate, and prevail with them to vote for
laft, after

At

the war, and to allow them to make the levies For, if both thefe were decreed by the fenate, they imagined, firft, that all would obey them, particularly fince the tribunitian
:

legally oppofe the orders of the magiftrates; and, in the next place, that, if they obeyed the diredions of the fenate in any one

power was

fupprelTed,

which alone could

point,

and carried

their orders into execution, they fhould

appear

BookXr.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

253

received a legal commiffion to enter upon appear to have the war.

IV. After they had taken
their friends,

this

refolution,

and prepared
in the

and

relations ,to deliver fuch opinions

fenate, as

were calculated to promote

their views,

and to

oppofe thofe,

who

fliould not efpoufe the

fame fentiments,

they went to the forum, and ordered the cryer to call over But no man of worth anfwered. the names of the fenators
:

The

cryer often repeating this,

flatterers

and none appearing but the of the oligarchy, and thefe the moft profligate of

their fadlion, everyone

the rejoiced that fenate upon any account, found, the
it,

who happened to be then in the forum, decemvirs, who had never aflembled the
at

that there

was

"^ftill

Rome

time they attempted an aflembly even of worthy
firft

men, who deferved
the public.

The

to be confulted in all things relating to decemvirs, obferving that the fenators did

not anfwer to their names, refolved to fend to their houfes,

and fummon them to attend ; but, hearing the greateft part of thefe were left empty, they deferred the matter till the
next day
:

In the

and called them
pius,

time, they fent into the country, from thence. The fenate being full, Ap-

mean

them

the chief of the decemvirate, rofe up, and informed that Rome was attacked on two fides, by the Aequi,

and the Sabines ; the confequences of which he fet forth in a very elaborate fpeech ; and ended with preffing them to
reader will obferve by tranflation that I read £?;, inftead my ofTj; in which I think myfelfjuftified
4'

Eti.

The

viz. that the greatejl pari of the (ena-

difgufted at the government of the decemvirs, had retired into the
tors,

by what our author before

told

us,

country.

order

254

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book XI.

order levies to be made, and the armies to take the field immediately, fince the juncture admitted of no delay. While

he was fpeaking, Lucius Valerius, furnamed Potitus, rofe up; a man, whofe ancellors infpired him with exalted fentiments :

For

his father
it

when
and

was that Valerius, who retook the capitol, was pofTefTed by Herdonius the Sabine, and recofortrefs,

vered the
his
^

and he himfelf

loft his life in

the adlion

;

grandfather by the father's fide was Poplicola, who expelled the kings, and eftablifhed the ariftocracy. Appius,
obferving that he was going to fpeak, and expedling he would fay fomething againft him, " This is not your rank,
**
*'

"
**
*'

Valerius, fays he; neither does it become you, now, to fpeak : But, when thefe fenators, who are older and more
dignified than yourfelf, have delivered their opinions, then you alfo will be called upon, and may fay what you think

**

**

proper : In the mean time, be filent, and fit down." Neither did I rife up, fays Valerius, to fpeak to thefe points ; but to others of greater moment, and far more
neceflary, which, I think, the fenate ought firft to hear; and, from what they will hear, they will be able to judge

*'

" " " " " " "

whether the fubjed,
I fiiall lay

which you have aflembled us, is more neceflary to the commonwealth, than That, which
for

before them.

Confider that

I

am

a fenator,

and that my name is Valerius ; hinder me not, therefore, from fpeaking, when theobje<a of it is the prefervation of my country But, if you perfift in your ufual arrogance
:

5-

nxTTTTOi Si w^o? OT«7^flf TloTr^iMKci?,

TKf

^ustKets tK^ahm.

See the
((

firft

annotation on the fcventh book.

to

BookXI.
*'

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.

255

to

all

" me? "
" "
*'

men, what tribunes fliall I call upon to afTift For you have aboliflied this relief of the citizens

" be than

againft oppreflion ; and what greater oppreflion can there this, that Valerius Potitus, like a man of theloweft

rank, cannot enjoy a right common to all, but ftands in need of the tribunitian power ? However, fince we are de-

** *'

prived of this magiftracy, I implore the afliftance of you all, who, with this man, are invefted with the power of
that magiftracy,
:

and

exercife a

domination over the com-

" mon wealth I am not ignorant that I do this in vain ; " but my defign is to lay open your conspiracy ; to fhew " that you have thrown every thing into confufion, and that " you have all the fame intentions But I chufe rather to " call upon you alone, Quintus Fabius Vibulanus, you, who
:

" have been honoured with
**

" "

three confulfhips, if you ftill preferve the fame fentiments : Rife up, therefore, and relieve the opprefled : For the fenate fix their eyes upon

you.

through But Appius, and all fhame, and made him no anfwer. the reft of the decemvirs, leaping from their feats, hindered Valerius from going on. Upon this, there was a
the fenate, the greateft part of the fenagreat tumult in tors exprefiing their refentment at the behaviour of the decemvirs, and thofe of their faction juftifying them ; when

V. After Valerius had

faid this,

Fabius fate

ftill

Marcus Horatius, furnamed Barbatus,
*•

^

the grandlbn of that

Atto^/ovo? 0^«7(«

(!-uvu7r*7£U(r«v'?of

was

alfo

Marcus Horatius, who, upon

UoTtXtio

Ov«A££iw

HonhDKihx.

The

grandifather of this

Marcus Horatius,

the death of Sp. Lucretius Tricipitinus, was the collegue of P. Valerius

Horatius.

256
Horatlus,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
who was

BookXI.

after the expulfion

conful with Publius Valerius Pophcola, of the kings, rofe up ; he was a man of

" You will the fooner force me, Appius, fentment, faid *' to break through all reftraint by your want of moderation,
:

and had been great perfonal bravery, and not uneloquent, unable to contain his relong a friend of Valerius; who,

" and by
**

" "
*'

in not fuffering thofe adling the part of Tarquin, to (peak, who are led to it by a defire to fave their counHave you forgotten that there are defcendants ftill left try. of that Valerius, who expelled tyranny, and fucceflbrs of

thofe Horatii, in
''

whom

it

is

hereditary to oppofe, both

'*
*'

" of the Romans, have fo mean a fpirit, as to be contented " if we are fuffered to enjoy life on any terms, and neither to
"

with others, and alone, all, who would inflave their that both we, and the reft country ? Or do you imagine

" Or

in favor of liberty, and freedom of fpeech? fpeak, nor a6t are you intoxicated with the greatnefs of your power?
the furviving

Poplicola in the year 245, the year after the expulfion of the kings They were aifo collegues in the year 247. Here we fee the two worthy defcendants of thefe confuls oppofing the tyranny of the decemvirs with a fpirir,
:

which fpeaks that defcent. We fhall prefendy find them the great inftruments in efFefting that glorious revolution, by which the decemvirate was abolifhed, the tyrants punifhed, and
I

champion of the three, fought for the fovereignty of their from country againft the Curatii, ^ whom, as our author fays, Horatius Codes was defcenJed, who was alfo nephew to Marcus Horatius, one of the confuls at the time, when he defended the bridge alone : And this, in

who

my

opinion,

is

the circumftance, to

which the laft word in this paflage alludes. Thefe confiderations feem necefi"ary to

the liberty of their country reftored. y Kai jweI* t«v «\Awv, xtf jiAoiioK. I

look upon the
tcnce to relate

firll

words of

this fen-

characterize the fpeech of Horatius, and to fhevv that thefe words could be fpoken by none but himfelf.

to

Marcus Horatius,
•B.v.c. 23.

«

Who

BjokXI.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN ASSENS IS.
you,

257

or vvliat legal magiftracy are you invelled with, that you dare to deprive Valerius, or any other fc" nator of the liberty of fpeaking? Were you not appointed

Who are

" to Is not the term govern the commonwealth for a year? " of your magiftracy expired ? Are you not become private men by that law ? Think of laying thefe things before the people For, what fhould hinder any of us from af:

"

fembling them, and from charging you with exercifino- a power unwarranted by the laws ? Take their votes upon
this point,

whether your decemvirate

fliall fubjfift,

or, the

" "
*'

ufual magiftracies be reeftabliilied ; and, if the people are fo mad, as to fubmit to the former, reaffume your ad-

miniftration

;

and,

then, hinder any

man from

faying

what

"
*' *<

people

he pleafes in defence of his country : For, if the give their fandion to thefe things, we fhall deferve

to fuffer this,

and a worfe treatment, by
both our

living fubjed: to

you, and by fullying " our anceftors."

own

virtues,

and Thofe of

VI. While he was yet fpeaking, the decemvirs furrounded him, crying out j urging the tribunitian power, and threatedown the Tarpeian rock, if he was not ning to throw him filent. Upon which, all called out that their liberty was
taken away
confuiion.

And the fenate was full of indignation, and When the decemvirs faw die fenators were exafpe:

rated at their behaviour, they prefently repented both of the obftrudion they had given to the freedom of fpeech, and of
their threats
:

Then Appius,

riiing up,

defired thofe,

who

were raidng difturbances, to have patience a moment ; and, L I Vol. IV. having

258

ROMAN
But we

ANTIQJJITIES OF
faid
:

BookXI.

having appeafed the diforder, he

"

We

hinder none of

" yoUj " time

fathers, froni fpeaking,
:

provided you fpeakat a proper hinder thofe, who are too forward, and rife
of-

" up before they are called upon. Be not, therefore, " fended For we fhall leave to Horatius, and
:

give

Valerius,

*'
*'

and to every other

fenator, to deliver his opinion in his

own

" deliberation, and to no others ; but, if they endeavour to " feduce you by popular harangues, and to divide the com" mon wealth, without fpeaking to the fubjed: in debate, " you fhall then find, Marcus Horatius, that we are in pof" feflion of a power to reftrain the diforderly, which we " received from the when inverted us with the
*'

rank, according to the ancient cuftom and order, provided " that are the fubjeft of your they fpeak to thofe points,

"
*'

they people, the confuls, and tribunes; and that magifliracy both of the term of it is not yet expired, as you may think : For
w^e

"

were not appointed for a year, or for any other limited time; but tiH we had inftituted the whole body of laws: " When, therefore, we have completed what we propofe,
eftablidied the remaining laws,

" and " our
"

we

fhall

then refign

magiftracy, and give an account of ouradions to any " of you who defire it: In the mean time, we fhall fuffcr no
part
either of the confular, or the tribunitian

power

to be

"
infringed.

As

to the war,

I

defire

you

will deliver

your

what manner we may repulfe our enemies with opinions *' the greatcfi celerity, and fuccefs; and that, in doing this, " the oldcfl: fenators, according tocuftom and decency, may
in
*'

"

"

them, fpeak firft; of all, the youngeft."

after

thofe of a middle age;

and,

laft

VII.

Book XI.

DIONYSIUS HALIC AR N A SS EN S

I S.

259

VJf. Having faid this, he firft called upon his uncle, Caius Claudius, who, riling -up, fpoke in the following manner ; " Since Appius, lathers, by a delerence due to-

" our

" "
'

opinion firft, and that I am under an obligation to fay what I think concerning the war with the Aequi, and Sabines, before I
affinity,

defires

me

to deliver

my

acquaint you with
to inquire

('

(C
( '

bines to

you what hopes have induced the Aequi, and Sadare to make war upon us, and to lay wafte our
they who,
till

my own fentiments,

I

would

defire

now, thought themfelves happy, " and under great obligations to Heaven in being fuffered " For, if you once know what quietly to enjoy their own " thofe hopes are, you will alfo know what meafures will " be the moft effedual to deliver you from this war. Thofe " then informed that our conftitution
country
;
:

been fhaken, and difordered, and that neither the "plebeians, nor the patricians are well affected to thofe, who
fince,

"

people

being

has,

long

" are at the head of the commonwealth (and, in this, their " information was not groundlefs, but really true, the caules *' of which I need not explain to you, who are acquainted " with if concluded war fhould
*.'

any foreign be brought upon us, while we are oppreffed with thele " domeftic evils, and the magiftrates fhould determine to
*'

them) they

that,

march out with an army in defence of the country, n the citizens would not prefeat themfelves chearfully,
(C *' *'

all

as

before, to take the military oath, by reafon of their difaffedion to the magiflrates ; neither would thefe inflidl the

punifhments ordained by law upon thofe,

who
"

did not
prefent

L

1

2
»*'

260

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book XI.

"
*'

prefent themfelves, left they fliould occafion fome greater mifchief; and that thofe, who did obey, and take arms,

" would either defert their enfigns, or, if they ftaid, volun" mifbehave themfelves in every adlion. None of tarily " thefe hopes were ill grounded For, when an united people " enter upon a war, and both the governors, and the go" verned look upon their interefts to be the fame, they
:

encounter terrors with alacrity, and decline no

toil,

nor
they

danger
(C *'

:

But,

when

difunited

among

themfelves,

foreign enemy, before they have compofed their domeftic troubles, and the army comes to confider
that they are labouring not for their own advantages, but to fecure the domination of others over them; and the
that their own forces are not lefs animated generals relied: againft them than the enemy, every thing is diftempered, and any force fufficient to defeat, and deftroy fuch armies.

march againft a

" " " " "

" Thefe are the thoughts, fathers, both of the " Sabines, and Aequi ; in confidence of which they have
VIII.

" made an
**
*' **

irruption into our territories.

And,

if

we, in

refentment for their infolence, and contempt of us, fuffer ourfelves to be fo far tranfported with our pafTlon, as to refolve to march out againft them, lam afraid left thofe things have forefeen fliould happen to us; or rather I know

"

they

"

"

Whereas, if we eftablifli thofe rethat are the firft, and the moft gulations, neceftary (I " mean the order of the people, and that all good may
they will

happen.

" look upon
*'
*'

the pride,
to
us,

by banifhing and ambition that are now grown familiar
its

their interefts to be the, Hime)

and by reftoring the conftitution to

ancient

" form J

Book

XL DIONYSIUS
thefe

H ALICARNAS SENS IS.

261
wili
fooii

" form,
*' *'

enemies,

tremble;

and,

who are now fo confident, throwing down their arms, will

come

" a peace; " men of fenfe would
*'

to us to indemnify us for our lofles, and to treat of and we fhall have it in our power, which all
willi, to

put an end to
I

this

war with-

out employing our arms.
that, for thefe reafons,

am,

*'

we ought

therefore, of opinion for the prefent to defer

".the confideration of the war, lince our domeftic affairs " are in diforder; and, inftead of that, give leave to
great

" " "
*'

every one,

who

delires

it,

to propofe the

means of

re-

ftoring concord,

For,

till

this

and good order in the commonwealth: war broke out, we were never called upon

"
*'
*'

by

thefe magiftrates to take the affairs of the commonwealth into confideration, nor had liberty to debate whe-

ther any of
fore,

them were

ill

conducted.

That man,

there-

would deferve great cenfure, who fhould let flip this " and employ it in fpeaking of other things opportunity, " Neither can one affirm with certainty, that, if we
:

any
is

*'

"
*'

negledl find one that

this occafion as

improper,
it

we

fhall ever
if

be able to

more proper: For,

one

may judge
relating

of the future by the paft,
fhall

will be a long time before

" we
*'

meet again to confider of any one thing

*'

to the public. IX. " I defire this of you, Appius, and of your collegues, who are at the head of the commonwealth, and under

" an the advantage of the public^ obligation of confulting " rather than the truth own intereft, that, if I
your
fpeak

with freedom, and do not " that reafon be offended,
*'

flatter

will not for you, you

when you

confider that

I

"

fliall

26a

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book

XL

"
*'

not fpeak with a dcfigii to abufe, and infult your to {lii::w in how great a fiorm the commagiftracy, but
iliall

" monwealth is toffed, and to point out the road that leads " to It is, and a redrefs of thefe grievances. perfafety, " have any concern for incumbent upon all, who haps,
*'

their country,

" larly upon " ceived in being the " and it would be a

to plead for the advantages of it, particume: Firft, by reafon of the honor I have refirft

whofe opinion is afke4 ; great fliame, and folly for the man, *' who firft rifes up, not to mention thofe things, that require *' In the next place, as I am, by the firft to be reformed " father's fide, uncle to Appius, who is at the head of the
perfon,
:

" decemvirate,
*'

I

have more reafon than any one both to be
the

governed by them in " manner, and to be grieved, when it is not fo. " Befides thefe motives, I have inherited fuch political prinpleafedj the beft

when

commonwealth

is

my anceftors, as teach me t(3 prefer the good " of the public to my own private advantage, and to confider
*'

ciples

from

" no which principles I would not willperfonal danger; ^ " This is the rule of life they delivered down ingly betray
:

**

me, and I will endeavour not to difhonour the virtues " of thefe men. As to the prefent form of government, " there can be no ftronger proof to convince you that it is " bad, and that almoft all ranks of men are diffatisfied with
to
8-

Onloi

Je

zra^imuoiffocv rxvlyjy

«v«(

|Moi

Tx ^(«

zir^octi^nriv.

Sylburgius, and

ments The learned reader will judge whether the two words I have added
:

Portus have attempted to rdtore this

which palTage,
all

is

plainly defeflive in

do not render the fenfe complete. I need not inform him that skhvov in the
next fentence does not always fiippofe* a diftant reference.

the

editions,

and
us

manufcripts.
their

Hudfon

has given

amend-

"
it,

BookXI.
it,

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S S ENS I S.
this
;

263

than

all

the former magiftrates (which you alone

cannot be ignorant of) abandon their paternal houfes, and fly out of trie city every day ; the moft confidcrable do the fame, fome removing, with their of the
plebeians

wives and children, to the neighbouring cities, and others to that part of the country, which is fartheft from Rome ;

{qw even of the

patricians

live

now

in the city as they

ufed to do, the greateft part of thefe alfo being retired to But why fhould I fay any thing of the others, the country
:

of the fenators, and thofe fuch as only a few even are attached to you either by affinity, or friendfhip, remain within the walls ? The reft look upon folitude to be more

when

defirable than their country.

This you were

fenfible of,
;

when you thought

it

neceflary to affemble the fenate

called they were then

up from

it by one ; they, with whom to watch over the fafety of their country in conjundion with the magiftrates, andtoabfent themfelves from nothing

their country feats one was an eftablifhed cuftom

that concerned the public. to fly leave their

And do you

think that

men

country

mifery I think. be to a commonwealth, particularly to That of the Romans, which ftands in need of a great number of national
forces to preferve the fovereignty (lie exercifes over her

From

And

from happinefs, or mifery ? what greater mifery can there

neighbours,
deferted by

than to be abandoned by the plebeians, and the patricians, without being opprefled with

inflidled by the war, peftilence, or any other calamity hand of Heaven ?

X,

"Would

264 X. "
*'

ROMAN

ANTIQ^UITIES OF

BookXI.

Would you be informed of the compelled thefe men to abandon the

reafons, that have

"

temples, and fe-

"
*^

pulchres of their anceftors, to defert the houfes, and pof-

of their fathers, and to look upon every country as dearer to them than their own ? For thefe things
feflions

inform you of " without concealing any thing Many cenfures are palTed " upon your government, Appius, by many people Whethis I

"

happen not without reafon;

fhall

:

:

*'

" but fuch cenfures are pafled: In a word, none but your " own fadion are friends to your adminiftration. For the " men of worth, defcended from men of worth, who ought " to enjoy the priefthood, the magiftracies, and the other " which were their cannot bear
honors,

ther they are true, or falfe, I need not at prefent inquire;

enjoyed by

fathers,

'<

" "
*'

to be deprived of thefe by you, and to lofe the dignities of their anceftors : The men of middle rank, who have

"
<'

nothing in view but an undifturbed tranquillity, accufe offer to their you of rapine; and lament the infults

you

"
**

wives, and your drunken licentioufnefs to fuch of their daughters, as are marriageable; and many other grievous abufes : And the poorer fort of the people, who have no

" "
*'

longer the power either of chufing magiftrates, or of giving their votes upon any occafion; who are never
called to hold their allemblies,

''

"

or partake of any other inftance of humanity, to which citizens are intitled, hate a you upon all thefe accounts, and call

your government

tyranny.

XI. "

How

BookXr.
XI. "

a

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A SS ENS S. How then fliall you reform thefe things,
I

265

and
this

filence the accufations

of your fellow-citizens?

For

cc

((

remains to be fpoken to. The way to effect this, is for you to procure an order from the fenate, by virtue of which you will reftore to the people the power of deliberating whether confuls, tribunes, and the ufual magiftrates fhall be reeftabliilied, or the fame form of governif all

*'

" ment continued: For,
*'

the

Romans

are content to

be governed by an oligarchy, and vote that youfliall retain " the fame power, your magiftracy will be founded on law,
*'
*'

*'

manner, and avoid the imputation of governing your equals without their *' confent ; for this is tyrannical; but to receive power from *' the confent of the governed, ariftocratical. This is a " meafure, of which, in my opinion, you ought to be the

"

and not on violence: But, if they deGre that confuls, and all the former magiftrates fhould again be chofen,

you

will reiign

your power in a

legal

*'

they delight enjoyment of their illegal power, every one will think themfelves " obliged to you for being the only perfon, who delired to «* acl with and will force the power out of the juftice;
*' *'

" " Hear then what you will gain by now, a grievance. " following my advice, and by refigning this invidious " power If all your coUegues are adluated with the fame *' fentiments, every one will think they owe their virtue to you, " who fet the if in the
:

author, and put an end to an oligarchy inftituted by yourfelf, Appius, which was, once, an advantage to us, but is

example; but,

hands of thofe

who

refufe to refign

Vol. IVr

Mm

it,

with ignominy, and

"a fevere

266
*'

ROMAN

ANTICUIITIES OF
But,
if

Book XI.

you have entered into any *' contra6ts, and given private affurances to one another " to atteft them (for it is poffible you by calHng the gods " may have done fomething of this kind) look upon thefe " contrads, fmce they are formed againft your tellow" citizens, and your country, to be impious, if obferved, " and For the gods defire not to be if tranfgreffed pious, " called to fecure the performance of fhameful, and
a fevere chaftifement:
:

upon

"
" "
*' *'

but of Thofe, that are honourable, and juft. unjuft contradls, " XII. However,- if you are afraid to refign your magiftracy,

ftgns

deyour enemies fhould form fome dangerous and you be compelled to give an account againft you,
left

of your adions, your fear is vain: For the Roman people will be neither fomean fpirited, nor fo ungrateful, as torefaults,

" member your

and forget your

fervices;

but will

"
*'
*'

ballance your prefent merits, with your paft errors, and look and thofe of praife. upon thefe as worthy of forgivenefs,

You

*'
**

have the advantage of putting the people in mind of the many great adions you performed before the eftablifhment of the oligarchy, of claiming the acknowwill, alfo,

"

due to them, as a means toaftift, and fave you, ledgement ** and of defending yourfelf by various methods againft thefe " accufations; as, that you yourfelf were not in fault, but

" one of the others without your knowledge; that, as the " who committed the crime, was of equal authority perfon, " with had no power to reftrain him ; and yourfelf, you
*'

that

you were forced

to fubmit to

fome things againft
*'

"

your will for the fake of others, which you thought ufeful.
I ftiould

BookXI.
•'

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENS IS.
If I
:

267

I

rhould fay a great deal,

endeavoured to enumerate

" in your defence every thing you may alledge " who can make no defence, that is either
**

Even

thofe,

" " " wicked men ; thefe, on the greatnefs of their power ; and *' thofe, on fortune, that mifleads all human confiderations.
*'

or phiufible, by-acknowledging their crime, and begging pardon, foften the refentment of the injured ; fome, by laying the fault on the folly of youth; and others, on the converfation of
juft,

If
all

you

"
(( ((

refign your magiftraCy, I myfelf will undertake that your faults fhall be buried in oblivion, and that the
as,

people fhall be reconciled to you upon fuch terms, will be honourable. your unfortunate fituation,
XIII.

in

" But

I

am

afraid that the

danger

is

not the real

"
*'

motiveofyour unwillingnefs to refignyour power (for many men hav^e refigned their tyrannies without being punifhed
in

"
*'

any manner by

their fellow- citizens)

but that a vain

ambition, which purfues the fhadow of an honeft glory, " and a fondnefs for thofe pernicious pleafures, that accom*'

of tyrants, are the true caufes of this un*' inftead of purfuing thefantoms, willingnefs: However, if, " and fhadows of honor, and glory, you defire to enjoy real

pany the

lives

(.C

l(

honors, reftore the ariftocracy to your country, receive honors from your equals, and gain the admiration of

*'

exchange for a mortal life, leave an immortal glory to your defcendants: For thefe honors are lafting and real ; they can never be taken from you, and afford pleafure without repentance Transform
pofterity
;

and,

in

:

"

your mind

;

take fatisfadion in the advantages of your

Mm

2

"

country,

268
**

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

BockXI.

will be looked upon as the chief country, of which you caufe, by delivering her from an infupportable domination;

"
(C

imitate the example of your anceftors upon this occalion, and confider that not one of thofe men aimed at defpotic

to be a flave to the infamous power, or fuffered himfelf " For which reafons, they were not of the body pleafures
:

**

after their death, only honoured while they lived, but,

" and all acknowledge that they applauded by pofterity ; " were the firmeft guardians of that ariftocracy, which Rome " eftablifhed after the Neither expulfion of the kings. " both of the fentithe to
great glory forget ought you " ments you difplayed, and of the adions you performed ; " For firft entered upon the adminiyour views, when you " ftration, deferved us and of
*'

"
*'

" of the ariftocracy ; fly from tyranny, efpoufe That of " thofe flatterers, by whom you have been prevailed upon " to deviate from your virtuous principles, and to wander " from the For it is not to be expedled that a right way
;

gave great hopes applaufe, your virtue; and we defire that the reft of your adions may Return to your own difcorrefpond with thofe views. Appius, my child ; and, inftead of the caufe
poiition,

*'

*'

man who
to

can be reftored to
firft

his virtue
it.

by the fame perfons,

robbed him of

XIV. " Thefe
**

things I have often defired to remonftrate
;

you when you erred, and to *' reform you when you tranfgrefl'ed ; and, with this intention, " I have been more than once at ' your houfe ; but your fer-

you

in private

to inftrud

9"

IlxtSii.

See the 128"' annotation on the

firft

book.

" vants

Book

XL

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S S ENS
me

I

S.

269

" "
**
*'

away, faying you were bufy, and employed in things more neceilary ; as if any thing could be more It may be they fliut neceffary than piety to your family
vants fent
: :

your doors againft me of their own accord, and not by " This has laid me your orders; and I wifli it may be fo " under a to neccffity of declaring my fentiments you in the " fenate, fince I had no opportunity of doing it in private ; *' and whatever is honourable, and advantageous, Appius, " be in mentioned rather than

" no where. Having now performed the duty I owe to " our family, I call the gods to witnefs, whofe temples, and " altars we, who are the defendants of Appius, honour " with common of our and the
facrifices;

may

always

fealonably

public,

genius's

anceftorsj

"
*'

to

pay a fecondary worfhip, and acknowledgement in common, and above all thefe, this land, that contains

whom we

*'
**
*'

" power, I beg of you not to attempt " not to lofe even what
evils;
*'

your father, and my brother, that I have employed both my mind, and my voice to give you the beft advice; and, now, deiiring to reform your errors to the utmoft of my

nor,
»°'

by affeding
TOK
KotKci;

to

by more; youpoffefs by to your equals, and give law your
aiming at
KCiKd.

the

cure of

evils

Mt)
is

KnS-ott

TCi

a fimllar paflage of Thucydides, fays
that this proverb took
its

This

among

a kind of proverbial expreffion The firft the Greek writers.

rife

from
by

author, in

whom
it,

I

remember
'

to

have

Oreftes, the fon of Agamemnon, who aired the murder of his father

though probably not the Herodofirft, who made ufe ot it, is tus, who makes the fifter of Lycophron
fay to her brother,
jmjj

met with

That of
^o(|M«xv £|

his

mother

:

T)jv a^^j^^xixv ar«-

Of £?» t»

Aj/«/ji?poi'Of p'>jS«<rav,-

oVu

TOK

Ta WlxJ^OS B'dVOiloV TW

to xxkoi

tw

not-iu tu.

The

""Greek Scholiaft, in explaining
'In Thalia,
c.

53.

270

ROMAN ANTiaUITIES OF
more
I

BookXI.

"
*'

fuperiors, to expofe yourfeif to receive it from tliofe, who are inferior to you both in dignity, and virtue. I could

"

"
*'

willingly fay

to

you upon

this

fubje6t,

and many

others, but fhall decline it:
better refolutions,

For, if the gods lead you to

have faid more than was neceffary ; " but, if to worfe, what I have ftill to fay, will be faid in *' You have now my opinion, fathers, and you, who vain.

" are at the head of the commonwealth, concerning the " means to put an end both to the war, and to the civil " diforders. If let the one fhall offer a better
any
opinion,

"

beft carry it."

After Claudius had fpoken thus, and given the fenate to hope that the decemvirs would refign their great reafon power, Appius did not think fit to make him any anfwer ;

XV.

but Marcus Cornelius, one of the other members of the
oligarchy, advancing, faid
*'
:

"

We,

Claudius, fhall deliberate

concerning our

*'

" fo as to be ignorant of nothing prudence, " and want no friends to advdfe us, us;
**

your advice:

own interefts, without ftanding in need of For we are of an age the beft qualified for
that concerns
if

neceffary:

Ceafe then, old man, to do an unfeafonable thing, in " to thofe, who do not want it ; and, if giving advice you
c*

defire to advife, or abufe

Appius (which

is

the truer)

when

you

are out of the fenate, abufe him.

Now,

give us your
to deliver

" thoughts concerning " in to which
regard
*'

the war with the Aequi, and Sabines,
called

you have been

upon

" no

your opinion, and ceafe to talk idly of things, that have relation to it." After him, Claudius rofe up again, with

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
his looks,

271
faid
:

with grief in

and

tears in

his

eyes,

and

Appius does not even think me, who am his uncle, worthy of an anfwer, fathers, in your prefence ; but, as he fliut
houfe againft me, fo he does every thing in his power to render the fenate inacceflible to me ; and, if I muft fpeak the truth, I am even expelled the city t
his

own

no longer, bear the fight of a man, who is unworthy of his anceftors, and emulates tyrants in his I fhall, therefore, retire with excefs. my family, and " effeds, to the Sabines, and live at Regillum, from whence
For
I

can,

we

derived our original, as long as thefc

men

continue in

the pofTeflion of this worthy magiftracy ; and, when the fate I forefee fhall have overtaken the decemvirate, which
will foon

happen,

I fhall

then return.

So

much

con-

cerning myfelf.
fathers,

to

come

to the war, I give you this advice, to no refolution concerning any thinp-

As

the ufual magiftrates are appointed." After he had faid this, and received great applaufe from the fenate

whatever,

till

for the generous fpirit,

and love of

liberty,

with which he

had given his opinion, he fate down. After him, Lucius Quintius, furnamed Cincinnatus, Titus Quintius Capitolinus, Lucius Lucretius, and all the leading men of the fenate rofe up one after another, and of fupported the
opinion
Claudius.

coUegues, being ruffled at this, refolved, no longer, to aikthe advice ofthefenators according to their age, or their dignity in the fenate, but according to
"•
PKytAf^sv.

XVL

Appius, and

his

See the thirty

fifth

annotation on the

fifth

book.

their

272

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF
:

Book XI.

their friendfliip,
this view,

and attachment to the decemvirs

And, with

Marcus CorneHus, advancing, called upon Lucius Cornelius his brother, who had been collegue to Quintus
Fabius Vibulanus in his third confulfliip, a man of activity, and not uneloquent in political debates ; this perfon, rifing

" Even this is wonderful, fathers, that up, fpoke as follow^s; " men of fuch an age as thofe are, who delivered their opi" nions before me, and who pretend " retain an in the
perfons
fenate,
*'

to

be the principal

"
*'

implacable enmity, derived from political difputes, againft the leading men of the commonwealth, whom it is their duty to defend with all

*'

" and
*'
*' **

power, and to exhort the young men to ingage with the beft intentions in contefts, of which glory is the prize;
their

to look

upon thofe, who oppofe them
ftill

in order to pro-

cure advantages to the public, not as enemies, but as friends: they fliou Id transfer their private animojdties to the public affairs, and chufe rather to perifh with their enemies, than to be preferved

However, itis

more wonderful

that

**

" with all their friends. This is an excefs of folly, and not " far from a Heaven-fent madnefs, which the leading men " of our fenate have been guilty of: For thefe, being " more that others, who at the
difpleafed
*'

appeared worthy were preferred to them, when they ftood canelection, « didates for the decemvirate, which they themfelves now «' declare an eternal, and irreconcileable againft,
inveigh
*'

war againft them, and are arrived to
or rather madnefs,
that,

this

"
*'

in

order to

pitch of folly, accufe thefe to

rcfolve to fubvcrt their wliole country; who, you, .they

" when

Book

XL DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

273

" when laid wafte by the enemies, and they fee our territories " that they are upon the point of coming even to our gates, " as from us, inftead of exthey are at no great diftance " to for their and
*'

" and "

fight excitingthe youth and going themfeh'es to her reHef with

horting,

country,

all

the

alacrity,

earneftnefs,

which

their age,
this

and ftrength

will admit,

they defire you will, at

" of government,

" rather than annoy the enemy; and even this they cannot " fee, that their opinions, or rather their wiflies, are im*'

jundure, confider of a form create new magiftrates, and do every thing

pradlicable.

" " "
*'

For, confider the thing in this light; there muft be a previous vote of the fenate for the eledion of magiftrates
;

XVIL "

after that, the

decemvirs mult lay

this refolution

before the people, and appoint the third market day for the confideration of it: For how can any thing, that is

(C

voted by the people become really valid, if it is not tranfaded according to the laws ? Then, after the tribes have
the new magiftrates muft take upon given their votes, themfelves the government of the commonwealth, and

<'

" "
*' *' *'

of the war In this interval propofe to you to confider between the appointment of the eledion, and the holding if our enemies march it, which will take up fo much time,
:

to the city,

and approach the
Shall

walls,

what
;

fhall

we

do,

Claudius?

we

really fay to

? appointed other magiftrates

Stay till we have For Claudius advifed us nei-

them

ther to

<'

a previous order of the fenate upon any other account, nor to lay any thing before the people, nor to raife

make

Vol. IV.

N

n

"

forces,

274

ROMAN
till

ANTIQJJITIES OF

BookXI.

"
''

forces,

we had

fettled every thing, that

relates to the

" "
*'

eleclion of magiftrates according to our defire : Return, hear that the confuls, and therefore, and when you fliall are appointed, and that we have the other

"

"
<'

damages you the fum, that fhall appear by tions, and pay us punctually '' As to the murder of the that means to be due to us " hufbandmen, the infults, and abufes offered by youF

magiftrates the neceffary preparations to give you battle, then come, and fue for peace, fmce you firft injured us without any provocation ; and let an eftimate be made of have caufed to us in your feveral irrupall the

made

all

"

:

*'

foldiers to

"
*'
*'

nothing for them. And they, no doubt, upon our offering them fuch conafter they have fuffered ditions, will ufe moderation; and,
rable

women of free condition, mifchief, we (hall charge you

or any other irrepa-

*'

us to chufe

new

magiftrates,

and to make preparations

" for the war, will then come with olive branches in their " hands, inftead of arms, and deliver up themfelves to us ? " O the of thofe men, who can enXVIII.
great folly

"
*'

tertain fuch idle imaginations
infenfibility,
if,

!

And as

great

muft be our

while they are uttering fuch things, we ** fhew no difpleafure, but fubmit to hear them, as if we " were confulting how to fave our enemies, and not how
*'

to fave ourfelves,
triflers?

and our country.

Shall

we

not get rid

" of thefe " that is
**

Not
?

laying wafte
ftay at

vote a fpeedy relief to the country, Not arm all the youth of Rome?

Not march " Or fliall we

ourfelves againft the cities of our enemies?

home, and employ our time

in

abufing

"the

BookXJ.
*'

DIONYSIUS H AL IC A RN A S S E N S I

S,

275

*'
*'

the decemvirs; in eftablifliing new magiftracies ; in conif we were in fidering a form of government, as peace ; in the country become a prey to the let everything

enemy;

and, at laft,
<c
(C (C

run the hazard of being inflaved ourfelves, and of feeing our city laid in ruins, by fuffering the war
?

to approach our walls

Such

counfels, fathers, cannot be

given by
' ((

men

in their fenfes,

nor didlated by found policy,

(( (C

which always prefers the public good to private animoUties; but by an unfeafonable contentioufnefs, a thoughtlefs enmity, and an unfortunate envy, which will not fufFer
thofe
let

(C
*'

has taken poflefllon of, to judge rightly. However, us take leave of thefe men, and of their animoiities.
it

" "
*'

I fhall,

now, endeavour to
if

and formidable to " our enemies. Refolve, immediately, upon a war againft the Aequi, and Sabines, and raife forces with the greateft
yourfelves,

you commonwealth, becoming

which,

lay before you thofe refolutions, concur in them, will prove falutary to the

and expedition, to be employed againft both : And, after the war fhall be terminated in the happieft " manner, a peace concluded, and our forces returnalacrity,
*'

ed,
call

"

of your government j the decemvirs to an account for all their adlions,
their

then confider of the form

"during the time of
*'

adminiftration

;

create

new

"
**

appoint judges, and honour with both thele offices thofe, who are worthy of them, when both are in
magiflrates
;

*'

your power; and be affured that opportunities are not Corfubfervient to affairs, but affairs to opportunities."

nelius having delivered this opinion, thofe, n 2

who

rofe

up

after

N

him.

276

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
in favor of

OF
it
:

Book

XL

him, except a few, declared

Some looking
prefent

thefe things as necefiary, and fuited to the and others yielding to the times, and jundlure ;

upon

making

their court to the

stracy

:

decemvirs from a dread of their magiFor the greateft part of the fenate ftood in awe of
the
fenators

their power.

XIX. After moft of
opinions,

had delivered

their

and

thofe,

be

much more

declared for the war, appeared to numerous than the others, the decemvirs
laft
:

who

called

upon Lucius Valerius among the
:

He,

as I faid,

had

offered to fpeak in the beginning of the debate, but

had

" You follows fee, fathers, the treachery of the decemvirs, " who would not fuffer me at firfl to to fay thofe things " you I had propofed, and now give me leave to fpeak " be with this as the
:

been hindered by them

And now

rifing

up, he fpoke as

among

laft,

view,

may

eadly judged,

" that, if I adhere to the opinion of Claudius, I fhall do no " fervice to the commonwealth, becaufe few have efpoufed " it and, if I deliver an opinion different from thofe they ; " have foever it may be, my propofed, how advantageous " reafons will an For thofe,
appear
unavailing rhapfody:
**

who

" fhould
*'

me, are not many; and, if they all agree with me, what good fhall I do, when their numbers will be vaftly inferior to thofe, who vote with
are to rife

up

after

" Cornelius
*'

?

However, with

all

thefe things to fear, I fhall

" heard "

not decline giving you my opinion: For, when you have all, you will have it in your power to chufe the beft.

Concerning, therefore, the decemvirate, and the manner

"in.

BookXr.

DIONYSIUS H A L IC A R N ASSENSIS.
I

277

"
'*

in

which they govern the commonwealth,

deiire

you will

think that every thing Claudius, the beft of men, hasfaid, to have been faid by me alfo, and that you ought to create
magiftrates, before you come the war : For, all he faid refped: to

(C

new

to

any refolution in

" founded on the
*'

greateft reafon.

that fubjedl was But, fince Cornelius has

upon

endeavoured to fliew that his opinion is impradicable, and " that much time would be fpent in this civil oeconomy, " while the war is prefling; and attempted to ridicule " things, that do not deferve to be ridiculed, and by that " means feduced many of you to concur with him ; I fhali " fhew you that the opinion of Claudius is not impradicable *' that it is unprofitable, none even of thofe who derided (for,
*'

have dared to alledge) and let you fee by what means " the country may be fecured thofe, w:ho have dared to lay it
it,
;

*'

" " currence of " fition: In "
*'

wafte, punifhed, and we recover our ancient ariftocracy ; and how thefe things maybe brought to pafs with theconall

the citizens, and without the
this, I fhali

leafl:

oppo-

fort

doing of wifdom, but produce your
to follow
:

not pretend to difplay any

own actions,

as

examples

for

you

For,

when experience

fuggefts

what

is

"

ufeful,

XX. " You remember that numerous forces, fent from " the fame nations, made an inroad into our territories, " and into thofe of our allies at the fame time, and in the " fame manner, when Caius Nautius, and Lucius Minucius " were about nine or ten and
confuls,

why

(hould

we have

recourfe to conjedlures?

years ago;

that, upon.

*'

our fending a numerous, and brave youth againft both

"

thefe

278

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book XI.

one of the confuls being obliged to incamp *' in a ftreight, and difadvantageous poft, could perform " and in danger of nothing, but was befieged in his camp, " While Nautius, being taken for want of provifions
thefe nations,
:

"

" being "
*'

preffed by the Sabines,

and under a

neceffity of

was not in a condition ingaging with them continually,
to
relieve
his

collegue:

Thus

it

was manifeft

that,

if

" our fhould be army which was oppofcd to the Aequi, " defeated, the other, that was carrying on the war againft " the Sabines, would not be able to maintain its ground, " when both the armies of our enemies fhould be united. " While the commonwealth was furrounded with luch
*' *'

even the city itfelf not free from diffenlion, dangers, and what relief had you recourfe to ? You affembled in the
fenate about midnight, and came to a refolution, which all acknowledge to have been of great advantage to your affairs, and to have preferved the commonwealth from

*'

" " " imminent ruin; you

created a fingle magiftracy with

"
*'

abfolute authority both in war and peace, and abrogated all the others ; and, before it was day, Lucius Quintius,

" that moft worthy man, was appointed didator, who was " then in the country. You are acquainted with the adions, " which this man foon after ; that he raifed a numperformed
*'

ber of forces fufficient to

anfwer his defign

;

that he deli-

" " "

vered the camp, which was in danger; that he chaftifed the enemy, and took their general prifoner: and, having " effedled all thefe things within the compafs of fourteen

and reformed every diforder of the days only,

common"
wealth,

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN ASSE NSIS,
:

279

" And nothing hindered you wealth, he laid down the rods " then from creating a new magiftracy in one day, when " This example, therefore, you thought proper to do it. " I think you ought to imitate, fince there is nothing elfe " we can do, and chufe a didator before you go out of this " For, if we lofe this opportunity, the decemvirs place " will never affemble us again, to deliberate upon any thing: " And, in order to render the appointment of a didator " fliall regular, create an interrex, and chufe the perfon you " think the moft This is no proper to execute that office.
:

*'

"
(C
'

unufual thing, when you have neither kings, confuls, nor any other legal magift rates ; which is the cafe at prefent :
received their magiis expired, and the law has taken their rods from ftracy, This is the advice I give you, fathers, which is them.

Since the term, for which thefe

men

both advantageous, and pradicable; Whereas That of " Cornelius tends of your ariftomanifeftly to the fubverfion

" Since, if the decemvirs are once cracy " under the I am pretence of this war, " make ufe of them againft ourfelves:
:

trufted with

arms

afraid they will For will thofe,
their

" who "
*'

refufe to lay

down

their rods, lay

down

arms?

beware of thefe Confider, therefore, what I have faid ; men, and forefee all the effeds of their treachery For
:

it fhews more repentance j and « truft wicked men, than to accufe them prudence not to " after they have betrayed you." XXI. This opinion of Valerius pleafed the majority of their the fenators, as it was eafy to conclude both from
*'

forefight

is

better than

accla-

28o

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book XI.

acclamations, and the concurrence of tliofe, who fpoke after him (for there were ftill fome of the young fenators left) and,

except a they had

After few, declared their approbation of it. all delivered their fentiments, and the debate was
Valerius deiired

near a concluiion,

the decemvirs might

to refume the debate, and again call propofe to the fenate upon all the fenators in their order This was approved of by
:

many of them, who defired to retra6l their former opinions But Cornelius, who had advifed the fenate to give the command of the war to the decemvirs, ftrongly oppofed this,
:

the affair was already decided, and legally determined, fince every man had given his vote ; and he infifted on counting the votes, and that no innovation fhould be
faying
that

Thefe things being urged by both with great heat, and exclamations, and the fenate dividing in favor of each, fuch as were defirous to reform the diforders of the
admitted.
to Valerius, while thofe, who efpoufed government, adhered the worft caufe, and all, who fulpecled fome danger from a The decemvirs took advantage change, fupported Cornelius
:

of

this difturbance to carry their point,
;

Cornelius opinion of

and adopted the and Appius, one of their number,

aflembled you, fathers, to confider advancing, faid: " of the war with the Aequi, and the Sabincs, and have " of you leave to fpeak, from the oldeft to the given all
*'

"

We

" three different opinions delivered by Claudius, Cornelius, " and, laft of all, by Valerius, the reft of you have coniider" ed them, and every one has declared, in the hearing of " the

youngeft,

in

your refpedive ranks ; and there having been

BookXr.
*^
*'

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
fenate, to

281

whole

which of the three he gave

his affent:

been tranfa6led according Every thing, therefore, having " to the laws, and That of Cornelius having been approved

" of by the majority, we pronounce that his opinion carries *' we fhall order it to be drawn up, and it, and accordingly " and his when Let

" " "

Valerius, partifans, publifhed. they fhall obtain the confular power, rehear, if they think fit, caufes already determined, and annul refolutions paffed by you all." Having faid this, and ordered the clerk to

read the decree, by which the power of raifing forces, and the command of the war was given to the decemvirs, he difmifled the fenate.

XXII. After this, thofe of the oligarchical faction, apand infolence, as if they had peared every where with pride, gained a victory over their adverfaries, and prevented a diffolution of their

power by having the fword put into

their

hands

While the men of the beft affedlions to the commonwealth were under great afflidion, and conflernation,
:

as deprived for ever of looking upon themfelves any fhare in the government : Thefe fplit into many parties ; thofe of

the leaft refolute difpofitions, thinking themfelves obliged to abandon every thing to the conquerors, and join the oligarchical fadion
:

And

fuch, as were

lefs

timorous, deferting

the care of the public in exchange for a quiet life : But thofe, whofe minds were warmed with a generous fpirit,

themfelves in colleding a
in the defign

number of

their friends,

employed and united

of defending one another, and of changing The heads of this party were the form of government.

Vol. IV.

O

o

Lucius

282

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
firft
:

OF

BookXL
the refo-

Lucius Valerius, and Marcus Horatius,
lution

who had

cemvirate

to propofe in the fenate the abolition of the deThefe fecured both their houfes with arms, and

their perfons with a ftrong in fuch a manner as to
force, or

guard of their fervants, and clients, have nothing to fear either from

thought of the public, or to lead an inadlive
it as

the other Iide, thofe perfons, who were unwilling to court the power of the conquerors, and it unbecoming in them either to abandon all care
fraud.
life,

On

and looked upon

a power, the eafy matter openly to attack fo great fubverfion of which they thought it a folly to expedl, quitted

no

At the head of thefe was the illuftrious Caius the city. Claudius, uncle to the chief of the decemvirate, who by this ftep performed the promifes he had made to his nephew
in the fenate,

when he attempted
power He was
:

in vain to

prevail

upon

him

to refign his

of his friends, and clients. citizens alfo, not priv^ately as before,

followed by a great number After his example, many other
or in fmall numbers,

but openly, and in a body, abandoned their country, taking with them their wives, and children. Appius, and his colat this, endeavoured at firft to legues, being inraged ftop

them, by caufing the gates to be fhut, and fome perfons to be feized. Afterwards, being afraid left thofe they attempted to ftop, ftiould have recourfe. to violence, and judging it
rightly

to be

more

for their intereft that their enemies fhould

be out of the way, than that they ftiould ftay to create difturbances, they opened the gates, and fufFered all, who were wilHng, to depart. However, they treated them as
deferters»

BookXI.
deferters,
eftates,

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSEN SIS.

283

them

;

and conlifcated, in appearance, their houies, and and every thing elie they could not carry away with but, in reahty, they beftowed thofe confiications on
they had purchafed them of the Thefe grievances, added to the former, greatly

their friends, pretending

public.

inflamed the animofity both of the patricians, and plebeians the decemvirs. However, it is my opinion that, if againft they had not gone on in multiplying their crimes, they

might have preferved their power a conflderable time For the fedition, which maintained that power, ftill continued
:

and had been encreafed by many caufes, and by a of time. To this it was owing that each of the great length
in the city,

two

parties rejoiced
fpirit

in the other's miferies

:

The

plebeians in

of the patricians humbled, and the fenate deprived of every branch of their authority ; and the patricians, in feeing the people ftripped of their liberty, and
feeing the

without the

leaft

ftrength, flnce the decemvirs
:

had taken

from them the tribunitian power But thofe men, by treating both parties with great arrogance, and by ufmg neither moderation in the army, nor modefty in the city, forced them both to unite, and to abohfh their magiftracy as foon as the war put arms into their hands. The laft crimes
they

were guilty
the people,

of,

and

for

which

their

whom

power was fubverted by

they had chiefly inraged by their abufes,

were

thefe

:

XXIII. After they had procured a decree of the fenate
for the war, they prefently raifed forces

into three bodies, left

and, dividing them one of thefe, which confifted of two
;

Oo

2

legions,

284

ROMAN
guard the

ANTIQJJITIES OF
city
:

Book XI.

legions, to

This body was commanded by Appiiis Claudius, the chief of the oligarchy, and by Spurius Quintus Fabius, Quintus Poetilius, and Manius Oppius.

Rabuleius marched with the fecond, in which there were
three legions, againft the Sabines.
Duillius led the third body,
'five

And Marcus

Cornelius,

Lucius Minucius, Marcus Sergi us, Titus Antonius, andCaefo

which was compofed of the

The auxiliary remaining legions, againft the Aequi. troops both of the Latines, and their other allies joined them,

But the debeing not fewer than Thofe of the Romans. cemvirs fucceededin nothing they undertook, notwithftanding the armies they commanded confifted of fuch numbers both
of national,
fpifing

and

auxiliary forces

:

For the enemies, de-

compofed of new raifed men, incamped in the roads, oppofite to them; and, placing ambufcades cut off their provifions, and attacked them when they went
their troops as

out for forage ; and, whenever they came to an ingagement, in which both the horfe, and foot charged one another, they

were always fuperior to the Romans, many of whom voluntarily

mifbehaved themfelves in every a6lion ; difobeyed their That part of the army, officers, and refufed to charge
:

therefore, that

was oppofed to the Sabines, grown uife by

leffer evils, refolved to leave their

camp

of their

own

accord

;

and, decamping about midnight, withdrew from the enemy's territories to their own, making a retreat not unlike a flight,
till

a city not far from Rome. they came to Cruftumerium, But the other, that lay incamped on mount Algidus in the

fuffered alfo very mucli from country of the Aequi, having the

BookXr.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN A S S E N S IS.
ftill

285

the enemy, and

midft of thefe dangers,

ftand their ground in the refolving to of repairing the difadvantages in

hopes
their

they had fuftained, were

nioft miferably treated

:

For the

enemy, having attacked
trenchments of thofe,

camp, and cleared the in-

defended them, forced their way into it ; and, pofleiling themfelves of their camp, killed a few who refifted, but flew many more in the purfuit:
efcaped from this rout, being moft of them wounded, and having almoft all loft their arms, went to the of Tufculum ; but the enemy took their tents, beafts city

who

Thofe,

who

of burden, money,
viftons:

flaves,

and the

reft

of their military proto

When the news

of

this defeat

was brought

Rome,

the enemies of the oligarchy, and thofe who before had concealed their hatred, difcovered themfelves now by rejoicing at the misfortunes of the generals ; and both Horatius, and

who, as I faid, were the leaders of the ariftocratical had already a ftrong body of men at their command. party, XXIV. In the mean time, Appius, and Spurius fupplied their collegues, who were in the field, with arms, money,
Valerius,

and every thing elfe they ftood in need thefe with a high hand whether they belonged
corn,

taking all to the public,
of,

or to private perfons ; and, lifting all the men in every tribe, who were able to bear arms, in order to replace thofe, who

had been

killed,
all

they fent

them
:

to the

army

:

So

that, the

centuries were

completed

They were
left

alfo very careful

in providing for the fecurity of the city, in the

moft advantageous

pofts,

by placing guards thofe, who had joined
diforders: After that,

Valerius, fhould privately foment

fome

they

286

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
;

OF

Book XI.

their coUegues in the they gave fecret inftrudions to army to put to death all, vvhooppofed their meafures; the men of

diftindlion privately

and thofeof

lefs

confideration

openly

;

ufing always fome pretences to

make them appear
:

criminal.

Thefe

inftrudlions

were purfued

For fome of the former

being fent for forage, others to convoy provilions, and others upon different military fervices, when once out of the camp,

were never feen

after:

As

to the

accufed of having been the upon the enemy ; of giving them fecret intelligence, or of and put to death publicly, in order quitting their ranks ;
to ftrike terror into the
reft.

common men, they were firft, who turned their backs

Two

caufes, therefore,
;

con-

tributed to the deftru6tion of theToldiers

the friends of the

the enemy in different adions, and oligarchy were flain by Thofe of the ariftocracy, by the generals. XXV. Many cruelties of this nature were alfo committed
in

generality
others,

the city by Appius, and his collegue. However, the of the people were lefs affeded with the lofs of

though many were taken off: But the cruel, and wicked affallination of one man, who was the moft diand had performed of all the plebeians, ftinguifhed
the greateft exploits in war, executed in one of the camps, where the three generals commanded, difpofed every The perfon affaffinated was Siccius, one there to a revolt.

who had
rewarded

fought the hundred and twenty
for his bravery in all;

battles,

and been

and who,

as I faid,

when

he was exempt from fervice by reafon of his age, voluntarily the head of a band ingaged in the war againft the Aequi, at
of

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS H ALI C A RN ASSENSIS.

287

of eight hundred men, who had alfo completed their term of fervice ordained by the laws, and followed him from their affedtion to his perfon ; with whom being fent by one of the
confuls to attack the enemy's
deftrudlion, as every

camp, or rather to manifeft

one thought, he not only made himfeli mafter of their camp, but gave occafion to the confuls to obtain a

complete victory

:

This man,

fpeeches in the city againft the were then in the field, and accufed

who had made many condud of the generals, who
them of the want both of

courage, and experience, Appius, and his colleguerefolved to him to friendly converfadeftroy ; and, to that end, invited
tions,

and to confult with them concerning the operations of

the war, defiringhim to give them his opinion by what means the errors of the generals might be corrected; and, at laft,
prevailed

upon him

to

quality of legate. honourable, and the mofi: facred
it is

go to the camp This dignity is of

at
all

Cruftumerium in
others the moft
to

among the Romans, and

annexed the power, and authority of a general, and the When he came inviolable, and holy charadler of a prieft.
to the camp, the generals received
friendship;

him with

great marks of

and, defiring

him

to flay there,

and command

in conjundlion with

them, and making him fome prefents, and promifing others, this military man, indued with fimof manners, was deceived by thefe wicked diffemblers, plicity and fo far deluded by the magic of their profefiions, as not
to fee the fnare, that
counfels,

was

laid for

him

;

and,

among

other

of

all

which he thought advantageous to them, he firft advifed them to remove their camp from their own
territories

288

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
Thofe of the enemy, and

OF

Book XT.

territories to

laid before

them both

the inconveniences they then fuftained, and the advantages

they would gain, by removing their camp.

XXVI. The
*'

generals pretending to receive his advice

with great fatisfadion,

"
*'

" an advantageous
*'

when they take upon yourfelf decamp, and go before hand to view the ground, and chufe

then, faid they, the command of the army,

"

Why

do you not

poft ? with the country by the
there,

You

are fufficiently acquainted

many campaigns you have made

and we

will give

you acentury of chofen youth armed

you fhall have a horfe by reafon of your Siccius having age, and armour becoming your dignity." an hundred chofen light accepted the commi{rion,and defired
for expedition;

" "

armed men
while
it

to attend him, they without delay fent

him out

was night, and with him the hundred men, whom moft daring of their faflion, with they had picked out as the orders to kill the man, promiling them great rewards for the murder Thefe, when, at a great diftance from the camp, they
:

came
and

to a

mountainous place, where the road was narrow,

go any other pace than a walk, by reafon of the unevennefs of the ground, gave the fignal to one
difficult for a horfe to

another, and afiembled with a defign to return upon him in a body But a fervant of Siccius, who was his fhield bearer,
:

and a brave man, guefledat
notice of
pafs,
it
:

their defign,

and gave

his

mafter

Siccius,

where

it

was
;

feeing himfelf confined in a narrow not pofiible for him to drive his horfe full
hill

fpeed, alighted

and, ftanding againft the
he,

to avoid be-

his affailants, ing furrounded by

without any other
afTiftance

Book

XL

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSENS IS.
fhielcl bearer,
:

289

afUftance than that of his
their attack

determined to receive

upon him all at once, he preabout fifteen of them, and wounded twice as fently killed many and would have flain all the reft, if they had come to clofe fight with him ; but they, convinced that he was a

They

falling

;

not to be overcome, and that they could never vanhim by ingaging hand to hand, gave over this way quifli

man

of fighting

;

and, retiring firther

off,

threw

javelins, ftones,

him, and fome, afcending the hills, that ftood on each fide, and getting above him, rolled down large ftones upon him; till, by the number of the miflive weapons, that were thrown by thofe before him, and the weight of the

and

flicks at

ftones, that fell

upon him from above, he

fell

dead.

This

was the end of Siccius.

XXVII. The aflaffins returned to the camp bringing their wounded with them, and fpread a report that a party
of the enemy having furprifed them, had killed Siccius, and fuch of their company, as they firft attacked ; and that
they themfelves, after receiving
:

many wounds, had

efcaped

with great difiiculty This every one believed. However, their crime could not remain concealed ; but, though committed in a folitude, and no information could be given of
it,

yet,

by

fate itfelf,

and

that juftice,

which

infpedls all

human
For the
for

adlions,

undoubted proofs appeared to convid; them :

foldiers in the

camp, looking upon the man to de-

ferve not only a public funeral, but alfodiftinguifhed honors

many

perfon

reafons, but particularly becaufe, though he was a in years, and exempted by his age from the fervice, he

Vol. IV.

Pp

had

290

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book XI.

had voluntarily thrown himfelf

into danger for the public refolved unanimoufly that a detachment from the three good, legions fhould go out in fearch of his body, to the end it
fecurity,

might be brought to the camp with great

and honor ;

and, the generals confenting to this for fear of creating fome iufpicion of their guilt by oppofing a worthy, and becoming adiion, they took their arms, and went out of the camp.

and faw neither woods, nor nor any other place proper to conceal an ambufcade, valleys, but a naked, and open hill on each fide of the narrow pafs,
they
to the fpot,

When

came

they prefently fufpedled what had happened ; then, approaching the dead bodies, and feeing Siccius himfelf, and all the reft lying unftripped, they wondered what fhould

have induced the enemy, when vi<5lorious, to have taken av/ay neither their arms, nor their clothes ; and, when they

examined every part round the place, and found no traces of horfes, nor footfteps of men, befides Thofe in the
road, they thought it impoffible that the enemy fliould have themfelves at once before their companions, as if prefented they had wings, or fell from Heaven But, befides thefe,
:

and many other Siccius had been

things,
flain

the

moft convincing proof that

men, was this ; former was to be found
Siccius,

not by the enemy, but by his own that not fo much as one dead body of the
:

a

man

irrefiftible

For they could not conceive that both by his ftrength, and valor,

or his fhield bearer, or thofe,

who had

been

flain

with him

could have fallen unrevenged,

particularly fince they

had
:

fought hand to hand

;

this

they obferved by their wounds

For

BookXr.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASS EN S I S.
Siccius himfelf,

291

For both

and

his fhield

bearer had

many

wounds, fome by
fvvords;
all

flones, others by javelins, and others

whereas thofe,

who had been

ilain

by by them, were

wounded by

fwords, and none by ftones, javelins, or other

miflive weapons: This raifed their refentment, and they all cried out, making great lamentations. After they had

bewailed the calamity of

body

'y

and, carrying

it

brave man, they took up his to the camp, threw out many inthis

vedlives againft their generals j and, above all things, they wanted to put the murderers to death by military violence ; or, if that could not be done, to have judges prefently appointed to try them, many offering themfelves to be their accufers.

generals paid no regard to any thing they defired, but concealed the men, and put off the trial, telling

The

anfwer any accufations, when the army returned to Rome Upon which, the foldiers, finding that the generals had been the authors of this aflaffination, buried Siccius in a moft magnificent manner, and eredted a large funeral pile, where every man, according to his power,
fliould
:

them they

of every thing, that is ufually employed in performing the laft honors to brave men; but they were all alienated from the decemvirs, and refolved
prefented the
firft

ofterings

from that moment to

Thus, the army, that lay incamped at Cruftumerium, and Fidenae, were, by the murder of Siccius the legate, irritated againft the rulers of the commonwealth.
revolt.

other army, that lay on mount Algidus in the territories of the Aequi, as well as the whole body of the

XXVIII. The

Pp

2

people

292

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
Rome, became
exafperated againft them,

Book XT.
for the

people at

following reafons: plebeian, whofe name was Lucius Vira man inferior to none in ginius, military

A

accomplifhments,
five legions,

had the

'^

command of a

century in

one of the

that were

employed againft the Aequi ; this perfon had a daughter, called from her father, Virginia, who far furpafled all the Roman virgins in beauty, and was promifed in marriage
'^ to Lucius, formerly a tribune, the grandfon of that Icilius, who firft inftituted, and was firft inverted with, the tribunitian

Appius Claudius, the chief of the decemvirs, having feen this virgin, who was now marriageable, as fhe was

power

:

reading in a fchool (for the fchools ftood at that time near the forum) he was prefently captivated with her beauty, and the violence of his paffion forcing him often to return to

the fchool, his phrenfy was, by this means, encreafed. But, to marry her, both becaufe (he finding it impoflible for him
'-•

Ao^ii

Tivof

))'j/fjW(iviav

i^m

iv

tcij

in

fpeaking of the

command

of Vir-

srfv7£ TotyiA.cta-iv

il^xh-

"Whenever Por-

(who certainly underftood Greek extremely well) miftakes the fenfe of our author, le Jay never fails to adopt his miflake This, if it happened but feldom, might, and ought to be attritus
:

ginius, fays, ducchat.
'3-

homjlum ordinem

in /Jgido

buted to accident But, when it is it can be afcribed to never otherwife, nothing but to his tranflating him without any regard to the Greek text, Portus, through inadvertency, had
:

Yiwvsf. Sylburgius has very well cbferved that Lucius Icilius muft have been the grandfon, not the fon of that Icilius, who was one of the firft tribunes ; fince, from that time to the

prefent year 305,

there

are

no

lefs

than 44 years, and this Lucius is all along fpoken of as a young man. This concftion ! have followed in the

rendered this pafTagc,
cn'ihus fraefecius fuerat

j?n'«jK£'?7//j/c^/;

and

his faith-

ful follower has faid, cjloit

commandement das cinq

parvenu ait " Livy, legions.
"

Greek text, and in my tranflation, have fubflituted ijwvof in the room of the ifoc, which is the reading of all editions, and manufcripts.
iii.

B,

c.

44.

was

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

293

was promifed to another, and becaufe he himfelf was marand looking upon it, at the fame time, to be below ried him to marry into a plebeian family, and contrary to the
')

law,

which he himfelf had
firfl:

inferted

among Thofc

of the

twelve tables, he

endeav^oured to corrupt her with

mo-

ney; and, for that purpofe, was continually fending fome

women

to her governeffes (for Virginia

had

loft

her mother)

The women and gave them much, and promifed more. he fent to tempt the governeffes, had orders not to acquaint them with the name of the man, who was in love with
Virginia, but only that he was a perfon, who had it in his power to do good, and bad offices, to thofe he thought fit.

When he
paflion

found himfelf unable to gain the governefies, and faw the virgin guarded even with greater care than before, his

was inflamed, and he refolved upon more audacious meafures Then, fending for Marcus Claudius, who was one
:

of his

clients,

a daring

man, and ready

for

any

fervice,

he

acquainted him with his paffion ; and, having inftruded him with what he would have him do, and fay, he fent him

away, accompanied with a band of the moft profligate men. Claudius, going to the fchool, feized the virgin, and at-

tempted to lead her away publicly through the forum ; but, there being an outcry, and a great concourfe of he was hindered from carrying the virgin to the people,
place he had deflgned, and addrefl^d himfelf to a magiftrate; this was Appius, who was then fitting alone in the tribunal
to hear caufes,
for
it
:

and adminifter

juftice

to thofe,

who

applied

But,

when Claudius was going

to fpeak, the people,

who

294

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book XI.

the tribunal, cried out, and exprefled their indignation, and all defired he might flay till the relations of the virgin were prefent : And Appius ordered it fliould

who Aood round

be

fo.

In a

iliort

time, Publius Numitorius, uncle to Vir-

ginia by her mother, a
beians,

man

ot diftindlion

among

the ple-

appeared with many of his friends, and relations ; and, not long after, came Lucius, to whom flie had been promifed by her father, accompanied with a ftrong body

of young plebeians. "^ breath, and labouring

He came

to the

tribunal out
to

of

for refpiration,

and defired

who it was had dared to lay hands upon a virgin, a Roman citizen, and what he meant by it. XXIX. All being filent, Marcus Claudius, who had
:

know who was
laid

"I have committed hold on Virginia, fpoke as follows " neither a radi, nor a violent action in relation to this
*'

virgin,

Appius Claudius;

but, as I

am

her mafter,

I

take

" her I fliall now inform according to law. you by what " means fhe is become mine; I have a female flave, who
"Horace has M£%M^of TO arv£u/x«. Greek expreffion very trandated this fine ode, where, in happily in that he fays to Paris, fpeaking of Tydides,
i4-

d'hakine,

^ %m

/«, cervus utt

.•

//• -7*^^;? valltsm altera

which very well explains but what becomes of ^ /If «<5-/x«iywv to nrvsu,"* ? w^oc They have avoided thefe words as religioufly, as if there ^^s ^o"^^ conjuration in them. It is
;

^^^^^.^ j
^-^^

^^J^^
.^

^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^

^^^.^

Fifim parte lupumgramms^mmcmor, SnbWnv fugus mollis anhehtu.
wifh the reader would accept this verfion, and give me leave to follow
I

^^^
f^,.

.^

now

to call

^^^
the

^^^^^^^

^j^^^ j

^^^^ attempted

tranflation of

fo

many

difficult

the example of the French tranflators, who have both agreed to leave out
thele

pallliges, rather than leave them out. If the reader diflikes my tranflation of
this,
I

words

:

They have

faid, tout hors

diflike

it

can alTure him that he cannot more than I do.

'B.i.

Ode

15.

*'

belonged

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S S E NS
to

I

S.

295
:

" belonged " This
*'
*' *'

my
''

father, and has ferved a great
in

many

years

Have,

being with child, was

of Virginius
to
vifit,

whom

(lie

gaged by the wife was acquainted with, and iifed

"

to give her the child flie fhoiild be brought to bed of; and, in performance of this promife, when

" " Numitoria
*'

delivered of this daughter, fhe pretended to us that flie was brought to bed of a dead child, and gave the girl to
;

who, having no children,
'^
;

either male,
it,

or

female, took the child
'5'

and,

fuppofing
have known,
I ftiall

brought

it

up:

H Ovfpyivt^ ywvj
M.
le

ffuvijfitj,

k*i

eiffoSiccv

if

xirav

* * *

iTreiiriv.

very juftly cen-

underftood, the

he had confulted, and Greek text: However,

fures
felf to

Jay for having fuffered himbe mifled by Porcus in renderpart, Jay for miftaking text, becaufe it is plain that
le

do him the juftice I have aldoneto tranfcribe his own words: ways
tine

I

ing this paflage. never cenfure

For

my own

J'ay

efclave chez vioy qui cjloit au-

trefois a

mon pere,
atinees
et
:

the

Greek

plufieurs
lui plaire,
flvec
lui-,

he never confulted it ; but here he has grofsly miflaken the Latin of Portus ; and, by miftaking it, has invented an intrigue between the father of Claudius, and his flave, for which there
foundation either in the Greek text (but that is out of the queftion) or in the Latin tranflation
is

par

et qui mefert depuis elk eut Vavantage de le commerce qiCelle eut

elk en devint enceinte.
I

'^'

TzoioiKKdoii.

hope the reader

will allow

me

to tranflate tWis fuppojes,

not the

leaft

of Portus.
haberet.

The
et

latter fays,

quod

ipft

ejfetfamiliaris^
le

cum

ipfd confuetudinem

upon

Thefe laft words impofed Jay, and gave him occafion
;

cannot do otherwife without nor properly with it. I own that I do not remember to have met with this word ufed in this fenfe as a verb in our language but we make ufe of the pa.nic\ph fuppofed, and of the adjedive fuppofititious. I
I

which

a great circumlocution,

-,

whereas, ipji relates to the wife of Virginius, plainly and not to patri, as he has taken it ;
fince the father of Claudius is not mentioned either in the Greek text, or in the Latin of Portus: In the former,

to fuppofe this intrigue

was furprifed to find that the French employ this verb ; fmce fuppofer un enfant is certainly good French. If they had done this, le Jay needed not to have faid Numi' torie la fit pafjer pourfa file, and I'ileva
tranflators did not

nvec
la

le

mefme

fo'in

the flave is called 9-s««7raiva Tsrxl^uyj ; and and, in the latter, paterna ferva
-,

confuetudinem haberet
tranflation of

is

defigned for a
as le

otrotfiav,

Jay mull

mere: Nor M. * * * elk rikva avec autant de foin que fi c'eut ete Id fienne : which, by the way, are almoft the fame words with the former. They

que ft

elle

en eufi

efie

" For

296
*' *'
'*

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

BookXI.

For a long time, I was ignorant of all this; but now being informed of it, and provided with many credible witneffes,

and having alfo examined the flave, I fly to that law, " which is common to all, and determines that the children

" " " " " " "

fhall

belong to their mothers, not to thofe who fuppofe them; that, if the mothers are free, the children fhall be
free;
if

thofe are flaves, the children fhall be flaves alfo

;

and that both the children, and the mothers, fliall have In virtue of this law, I defire that I the fame maflers
:

take the daughter of my flave, and am ready to fubmit my pretenflons to a trial ; and, if any one claims her,

may

*'

to give fufficient fureties to produce her at the time apdefire to have this affair fpeedily pointed ; but, if they determined, I am willing this minute to plead my caufe

before you,

and

fhall neither give fecurity for

" Let them chufe which of " befl."

pearance,

nor offer any thing that
thefe

may

her apcreate a delay.
like

two conditions they
this,

XXX.
intreaties

After Claudius had faid
that
his

and added many

claim might not be lefs regarded than That of his adverfaries, becaufe he was his client, and of

mean

the uncle of Virginia anfwered in few words, and thofe fuch, as were proper to be addrefled to a magibirth;
ftrate, faying,

this girl,

and

that Virginius, a plebeian, was the father of then abroad in the fervice of his country ; that

Numitoria, his

own

fifter,

a

woman

of virtue, and worth,
qui

might have faved themfclves

this cir-

books that une femme

a fuppofe

////

cumlocution by faying elle lafuppofa : For I have read in the French law

enfant, doit perdre foil dcuairc.

was

Book Xr.

DIONVSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

297

perfon that fhe had been folemnly betrothed to IciHus, and that the had taken efFed:, if the war with the Aequi had

was her mother, who died not many years before; that the hcrfelf had been educated in fuch a manner, as bevirgin of free condition, and a citizen of Rome ; came a

marriage not intervened;

than fifteen years, Claudius had never attempted to aver any thing of this kind to the relations of Virginia ; but that now the virgin was
that,
lefs

during no

he was charmed marriageable, and of diftinguifhed beauty, with it, and publiilied an infamous calumny, contrived not
indeed by himfelf, but by a man,
right to o-ratify
all his

who thought he had

a

invent

:

He

paOions, by all the methods he could added that, as to the trial, the father himfelf

would defend the caufe of his daughter, when he returned from the campaign; and that, in the mean time, as he was her uncle, and ready to fupport her right, he himfelf claimed her perfon, to which he was intitled by the laws ;
that was either new, and, in this, he infifted upon nothing or not allowed to every Roman, if not to every other man, which is, that, if it is pretended that any perfon is a
ilave,

not the man,

who

maintains that he

is fo,

but he

who

have the cuftody of that perfon, till And he faid that Appius was the decifion of the conteft
aflerts his liberty, fhall
:

on many accounts, to obferve this inftitutlon ; '^ this becaufe he had inferted very law with the reft in firft, the twelve tables ; and, in the next place, becaufe he was
obliged,
This law will be trandated, when we come to Thofe of
17-

Tov

voy.ov Tislcv.

our author has here given us the fenfe
ol-it.

the twelve tables.

In the

mean

time.

Vol. IV.

Q^q

chief

298

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
;

BookXI.

chief of the decemvirate

and, befides, that he was inverted not only with the confular, but alfo with the tribunitian, fundion of which was to relieve fuch power, the principal

of the citizens, as were weak, and deftitute of all other help : He then defired him to compaflionate a virgin, who fled to

him

for affiftance,

and was

fince loft her mother, then deprived of her father, and in danger of lofing

and

who had long

not only her paternal fortunes, but alfo her hufband, her country, and, the greateft of all human bleilings, her liberty.

And, having lamented

the abufe, to

which the

virgin

would

be delivered up, and, by that means, raifed great compaflion in all prefent, he, at laft, fpoke of the time to be appointed
for the deciflon of this caufe,

and

faid:

" Since Claudius,

"
"
*'

who, during

fifteen years, never
it

complained of any injury,

*' *'

fhould be prefently decided, any other the event was of fo great conperfon but myfelf, to whom he wasfevercly treated, and have fequence, would fay that
defires

now

to exprefs his indignation, great reafon
that,

and

alfo to infift

" " " " " "

the peace was made, and all, who are now in the army, were returned, he fhould then defend his caufe, by reafon that both parties would then have great numbers

when

of witnefies,

and judges ; and, in that cafe, his demand would become a citizen, be full of moderation,
friends,

But we, fays he, ftand in need of none of thefe rcafons; we want ** neither peace, nor a number of friends, and judges; " neither do we off the caufe to the time put appointed for
and agreeable
conftitution:
'' *<

to the

Roman

fuch dccifions; but, even in war, in a fcarcity of friends,

"

before

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS H A LIC A UN A S S E N SI S.

299

" before judges not

" " " "

and without delay, we fubmit impartial, to defend ourfelves, and delire only that you will grant us fo much time, Appius, as will be fufficient for the
from the army, to lament
his his

father of the virgin to return

own misfortunes, and plead XXXI. Numitorius having faid
juft,

own

caufe."

this,

and the people,
:

who

flood round the tribunal, fignifying by their applaufe that " I faid his demand was Appius, after a fliort paufe,

" am not who ignorant of the law concerning bailing thofe, " are claimed as flaves, which does not fufFer their perfons
*'

power of the claimants till the hearing " of the caufe; neither would I willingly break through a *' For which reafon, law, of which I myfelf am the author " as there are two claimants, the mafter, and the father, I " think it the father if were both
to continue in the
:

"

"
*'

prefent, they of her perfon till the hearing : fliould have the cuftody But, jQnce he is abfent, let the mafter take her away,
fufficient fureties to

juft that,

gi^'i^o
*'
*'

produce her before the magiI fliall

take great care, Numitorius, concerning the fureties, and the '^fum they
ft rate,

when

the father returns.

The Latin tranfTi|Wn/^«7o<-. have rendered this de litis aeftiviatione ; and by them, both le Jay, and M. * * * have been mifled ; the
'^-

nounced.
fureties

lators

nifies the

The word here plainly figfum of money, in which the were to be bound This, and
:

firft

and the other,
cii

has faid, I'ejiimation des depens ; de I'ejiimation du proces,
I'amende

the iufficiency of the fureties to jay that fum, if they failed to produce

qu'il Ttutifix, in this place,

de

either the cojls,

foudra does not fignify or a fine; neither of
impofer.

Virginia, explains that part of tne decree, where it is laid tfyvyiio^f a,^ioxpeoos J'ovl*. pQur author, in fpcaking 01 the
affair

of Caefo, has himfelf explained
ti^i;/** in this place,
Tji

which had any relation to the decree, which Appius had, juft before, propB. X.

what he means by
viz.
c. 8.

t« w£§j

(]-wf/-»Iaj T>jf «;rci!««7(»s-«irE«y

Qj\

2

"

are

300

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
bound
in,

Book XI.
lofe

"
*'

are to be

and

alfo that

you

fliall

no advan;

tage
*'

you

are intitled to in the courfe of thiscaufe
virgin."

now

After Appius had pronounccdthis fentence, Virginia, and the women, who attended her, broke out into lamentations, and beat their breafts; and all
deliver

up the

the people,

who

ftood round the tribunal, cried out, and

But IciHus, exprefled their indignation: " her, caught her in his arms, and faid:

who was
While
this
I

to

marry
alive
;

am

"

at leaft,
if

Appius, no

man

fhall take

away

virgin

but,

"
*'

you

are refolved to violate the law, to

confound our

rights,

" tyranny you are reproached with, but take off my head, " and, after that, order this, and every other virgin, and " matron to be carried away to any place you fhall appoint ; " to the end the Romans may, atlafl:, be convinced that, from " free men, they are transformed toflaves,and ceafe to enter** tain fentiments more elevated than their condition. What, " therefore, do you ftay for ? Why do you not pour out
*'

and deprive us of our

liberty,

deny no longer the

" " "

blood before your tribunal in the prefence of all the But affure yourfelf that my death will prove citizens ?

my

to the

Romans

the fource either of great miferies, or of

great blellings."

XXXII. He was going on, when the lidors, by order of the him off from the tribunal, and commanded magiftrate, kept him to obey the fentence. Upon which, Claudius laid hold
on the
virgin,

and was going
The
great care

to take her away, while flie
of judge
craft, calculated tofoftcn the

oiJi.o\oytiMa, xi^t^oiloi-

Numitorius that he would Appius take of thefe two points, was a piece
told

injuftice of his decree,

hung

BookXr.

DIONYSIUS H AL ICA RN ASSENSIS.
uncle,

301

The people, who fpoufe. flood round the tribunal, feeing her in fo moving an agony, cried out all at once ; and, without regarding the authority
hung upon her
and her
of the magiftrate,
to force her avi^ay
:

fell

upon

thofe,

who were

endeavouring

So

that, Claudius, fearing their violence,

quitted Virginia, and fled for refuge under the feet of the decemvir. Appius, feeing all the people in a rage, was, at
greatly difordered, and in doubt for a conflderable time what meafures to take; then calling Claudius to the tribunal, and fpeaking a few words to him, as it feemed, he made a
firfl,

" citizens, Ifhall wave the exadnefs of that part of it, which " relates to the giving fureties by Claudius for the appearance " of Virginia ; and, in order to gratify you, I have prevailed " upon my client to confent that the relations of the virgin *' fhall bail her till the arrival of her father Take away the " and acknowledge yourfelf virgin, therefore, Numitorius, " bound for her to morrow For this time is
:

" Since I find flgn for the audience to be fllent, and faid: " you are exafperated at the fentence I have pronounced,

*'
*'

appearance fufficient for you both to give Virginius notice to day, and to bring him hither in three or four hours from the

:

they deflring further time, he to be taken gave no anfwer, but rofe up, and ordered his feat

"

camp

to

morrow."

And

away.

XXXIII. He
more

left

the forum

full

of anguifh, diftraded

with love, and determined not to
to her relations;

relinquifli the virgin

but, vt^hen fhe
force
;

any was produced by her
guard about

take her furety, to

away by

to place a flronger

302
about
his

ROMAN
pcrforij in

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book XI.

order to prevent any violence from the

multitude, and early to poft a great number of his friends, and clients round the tribunal. That he might execute this

fhew of juftice under the pretence of the nonappearance of the father, he fent fome horfemen, whom he chiefly confided in, to the camp with letters for Antonius,
refolution with a

the legion, in which Virginius ferved, to defire he would detain the man in fafe cuftody, left, when he was informed of the fituation of his daughter, he might
'' efcape out of the camp : But his defign was prevented by the fon of Numitorius, and the brother of Icilius, who

who commanded

being
rode

fent

away
fpeed

by the reft of her relations
as

upon the

firft

motion
fent

of
full

this affair,
;

by informed Virginius of every thing which had paffed : Appius, who, going to Antonius, and concealing the true caufe of his requeft, pretended that he had received an account of
the death of fome near relation, whofe funeral, and burial he was obliged by the law to perform ; and, by that means, "° obtained his difmiftion ; and, out in the
fetting

they were young, and full of and, arriving at the camp before the

fpirit,

men

evening

with the youths, he took a by road for fear of being purfued both from the camp, and the city ; which :
really

happened

For Antonius, having received the
'9"

letters

about the

firft

E(p^ciir»v

h

a^^lov,

etc.

Nothing

can be laid with greater fimpHcity, and beauty than what Livy lays
"^

upon
liuiii

this occafion

:

Jmprobum

conji'

ftrtwi, ut deki!t,fiaL
rieji Ai';^vwv oi^df.

It is a with the ancient very thing writers, particularly with Homer, to exprefs the time of the day by the employment of it.

/be time of lighting up lamps.

common

*°'

Literally, at

iB.

iii.

c.

^6.

watch,

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.
city, patrolled
all

303

watch, detached a party of horfe after him, and others, fent

from the
the

camp

to

Rome.

night in the road, that led from When Appius was informed of the

unexpected

of Virginius, he was in a fury ; and, goins to the tribunal with a Q-reat number of attendants, orarrival

When they were dered the relations of Virginia to appear. come, Claudius repeated what he had faid before, and defired

Appius to decide the conteft without both his informer, and his witnefies were

delay, faying that prefent, and that

he was ready to deliver up the flave herfelf to be examined : He ended all with a feigned lamentation, grounded on a fuppofed fear of not obtaining the fame juftice with others,
as

he had

faid before,

becaufe he was his client

;

and

alfb

with defiring that Appius would not relieve thofe, whofe complaints were the moft afFedling, but^ whofe demands

were the moft equitable.
the other fide, the father of the virgin, and the reft of her relations, brought many juft, and well-

XXXIV. On

grounded proofs to fhew the child could not have been fuppofed ; alledging that the fifter of Numitorius, and wife of Virginius, could have no probable reafon to fuppofe a
was then young, and married to a young man, and had brought forth a child no very confiderable time
child, fince fhe
after her

marriage ; neither, if fhe had been ever fo defirous to introduce a foreign offspring into her own family, would

fhe have taken the child of another perfon's flave, rather than That of a free woman united to her by confanguinity,
or friendftiip, whofe fidelity might have fecured to her the
poffeflion

304
poffefiioii
it

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
of the child £he had taken
;

BookXI.
fhe had

and,

when

in her

llie

power to take either a male, or a female child, would certainly have chofen the former: For, after a
is

brought to bed, if fhe wants children, fhe mud be contented with, and bring up, whatever nature neceflarily

woman

a woman, who fuppofes a child, will in produces , whereas, chufe one of that fex, which excels the other : all

As

probability to the informer,

and the credible
in

witneffes,

which

great numbers, they their teftimony by this reafon drawn from probadifproved that Numitoria would never have done a thing openly,
bility,

Claudius faid he would produce

with witneffes of free condition, wliicli and might have been tranfadled by one required fecrecy, that means, have expofed herfelf to have the perfon ; and, by taken from her by the mafter of the mother, after fhe

and

in conjunction

girl

had brought her up
proof, they faid, well o-rounded
:

length of time alfo was no fmall that the claimant advanced nothing, that was For it was not to be imagined that either the
:

The

informer, or the witneffes

would have kept

this

fuppofition

of the child a fecret during fifteen years, but would long beAfter they had refuted the proofs of fore have difclofed it.

and fhewn them to be neither true, nor probable, they defired that their own proofs might be weighed and named many women, and thofe of no mean againfl: them, note, who, they faid, knew thatNumitoria was then with child
their adverfaries,

Befides thefe, they produced others, who, as by her fhape relations, had been prefent at her labor, and delivery, and
:

had feen the child brought into the world, and defired they

might

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS H ALICAR N ASSEN SIS.
:

305

might be examined But, the clearefl proof of all, which was attefted by many both men and women, free people, and even ilaves, they referved for the laft, and faid that the child had been fuckled by her mother; and that it was
impoflible a
file

woman

could have her breafts

full

of milk,

if

had not been broufrht to bed.

While they were alledging thefe reafons, and many others of equal weight, and fuch as could admit of no the calamities of reply; and, at the fame time, reprefenting
the virgin in a very affeding manner, when thev cafl: their eyes upon her,
diftrefies, in
all

XXXV.

heard them, compaflionated the

who

dreffed in

which her beauty had involved her (for, being mourning, her looks fixed on the ground, and

the luftre of her eyes drowned in tears, fhe attracted the regard of all the fpedlators ; fuch was her beauty, and fuch

her grace, that fhe appeared more than mortal) and all bewailed this unexpeded turn of fortune, when they confidered

from what profperity fhe was fallen, and to what abufes, and infults (he was going to be expofed They alfo refled:ed that, fince the law, which had Secured their liberty, was
:

violated, nothing could hinder their
ters alfo

own

wives, and

from fuffering the fame treatment. were making thefe, and the like reflexions, and communito one another, they could not refrain from cating them
tears.

daughWhile they

But Appius, who was not

in his nature a

man

of

being then corrupted with the greatnefs of his power, his mind diftempered, and his heart iiiiJamed with the love
fenfe,

of Virginia, paid no regard to the reafons aliedged in Pier Rr Vol. IV. favor,

3o6
favor, nor

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
tears,
;

Book

XL

was moved with her

but even refented the
fince he looked

compaflion fhewn to her by the audience

Wrought up

to deferve greater compafTion, and to fuffer which had inflaved him. greater torments from that beauty, all thefe incentives, to madnefs, therefore,

upon himfelf

by

he had the confidence both to make a fhamelefs fpeech, by which he plainly confirmed the fufpicion, that he himfelt

had contrived the calumny againft the virgin, and to commit a tyrannical, and cruel adtion. XXXVI. For, while they were going on to plead in her favor, he commanded filence; and all being filent, and the people in the forum flocking to the tribunal from a defire to hear what he would fay, he often
turned his eyes here and there, to obferve the number of his friends, who by his orders had pofted themfelves in different
'

parts
is

This

of the forum, and then fpoke as follows: not the firft time, Virginius, and you, who at-

'

'

tend with him, that I have heard of this affair; I was informed of it long ago, ev^en before I was invefted with
this

'

magiftracy.
:

'

knowledtre

Hear now, by what means it came to my The father of this Marcus Claudius, when

*

*

he was dying, defired me to be truftee for his fon, whom he was leaving an infant: For the Claudii are hereditary

'

*

'

During the time of this truft, I had information given me that Numitoria had fuppofed this crirl, whom fhe had received from the flave of Clauclients to

our family.

'

dius

'

and, upon examining into the matter, I found it As it did not become me to flir in this affair was fo.
;

m\ yfelf,

BookXI.
*'

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN ASSEN SIS.
1

307

myfelF,
*'

thought

it

befl to leave

it

to this

man, when he

grew up, either to take away the girl if he thought fit, " or to come to an accommodation with.thofe, who had *' brought her up, for a fum of money, or to gratify them " with the of her. Since that
poffcilion
*'
*' ''

in public affairs, I

time, being ingaged gave myfelf no further concern about
it
is

Thofe of Claudius; But

probable that,

when he was

*'
*'

taking an account of his own fortunes, he alfo received the fame information concerninor this girl, which had
neither does he claim any thing unwarranted bylaw, in defiring to take the daughter of his ownilave: If they would have accommodated this matter,
before been given to

me;

" "
*'

it

had been well; but,

fince

"

"

give this teftimony in his the mafter of the girl."
I

brought into litigation, favor, and decree him to be
it is

XXXVII. When
friends to juftice,

thofe,
this

who were
fentence,

heard

uncorrupted, and they held up their

hands to Fleaven, and tation, and refentment

an outcry mixed with lamenWhile the flatterers of the oligarchy of infpiring the men in gave acclamations capable power And the aflembly being inflamed, and with confidence.
raifed
:

full

of various expreflions, and agitations, Appius commanded " Difturbers of the filence, and faid ; public tranquillity, " and ufelefs both in peace and war, if you ceafe not to
divide the city, and to oppofe us in the execution of our Think not oflice, neceflity fhall teach you to fubmit.
that thefe guards in the capitol,

and the

fortrefs, are

"

placed

there by us only to fecure the city againft a foreign r 2

R

enemy, " and

3o8

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

BookXL

fhall fuffer you to fit here, and taint the " adminiftration of the Be more prudent for government. *' the future than you are now; depart all of you, wholiave " if you are nothing to do here, and mind your own affairs, " wife. And do you, Claudius, take the girl, and lead her " through the forum without fearing any one For the " twelve axes of After he had Appius fhall attend you." faid this, the people withdrew from the forum fighing, to refrain from tears ; beating their foreheads, and unable
:

" and that we

while Claudius was taking away the virgin, who hung round her father, kifTmg him, and calling upon him with the mofi:
indearing expreflions.

In

this diftrefs,

Virginius

refolved

upon an adion, deplorable
but,

indeed, and afBi6ting for a father; at the fame time, becoming a lover of liberty, and a
fpirit
:

man

For, having defired leave to embrace his daughter for the laft time without moleftation, and to fay what he thought fit to her in -private before fhe was taken

of great

from the forum, he obtained
enemies retiring a
little,

of the magiftrate; and his he held her in his arms, while fiie
it

was

ground, fainting, finking to for fome time, called port herfelf ; and,

the

and fcarce able to fup-

upon

her, kifled her,
:

and wiped off her tears that flowed without ceafing Then, drawing her on by degrees, when he came to a cook's fhop,
he fnatched up a knife from the
breaft, faying only this:
table,

and plunged
:

it

in her

I fend thee, child, to the manes " of and innocence For, if thou thy anccftors with liberty, " hadfi: lived, that tyrant would not have fuffered thee to " An outcry being raifcd upon this, he held enjoy either."

"

the

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN ASSE NS IS.

309

the bloody knife in his hand ; and, covered as he was with the blood of his daughter, he ran like a mad man through the city, and called the citizens to liberty. Then, forcing
his

way through
for

the gates, he

mounted

a horfe, that ftood

ready

"'Icilius,

him, and rode to the camp accompanied by and Numitorius, who had attended him from
city.

thence to the
beians:

He

was followed by many other pletheir

So

that,

in

the whole,

number amounted

to

about four hundred.

XXXVIII. When Appius was

acquainted with the ca-

the virgin, he leaped from his feat, and taftrophe of

would

have purfued Virginius, betraying great indecency both in But his friends {landing about him^ his words, and actions
:

and begging of him to

refrain

from

all

excefs,

he departed

with his heart full of refentment againft every man. he came home, fome of his people informed him that

When
Icilius,/

the fpoufe of Virginia, and Numitorius her uncle, together with many of their friends, and relations, were ftanding round her body, ufing all forts of invedives againft him,
the people to liberty. Appius, inraged as he was, fent fome of the lidtors, with orders to carry thofe, who had clamoured againft him, to prifon, and to remove the

and

calling

Which was an adion of the greateft body out of the forum leaft of all fuited to the prefent jundure imprudence, and he ought to have courted the people, who had a For, when
: :

21

iKiAia.

This was the brother of

and

Numitorius,

Virginia's

uncle,

that Icilius,

who was to have married Vir^nnia: Which I mention, becaufe the latter, who is called hihios e K'l^Jfijfj

with their friends, and relation?, were.
ftanding round her body,

J

ha

310

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book XI.

juft caufe of refentment,

by yielding to them for the prefent, and afterwards juftifying fome parts of his condud, and and regaining their affeclion begging pardon for others,
by fome inftances.of

ried

on

to

he fufFered himfelf to be hurviolent meafures, and drove them to defpair :
favor,
fuffcr the lidors either to

remove the to prifon; but, encouraging one body, or to carry the men another by their cries, they pufned, and ftruck them, when
For they would not and forced them to leave the they attempted toufe violence, forum : So that, Appius, hearing this, was obliged to go to the forum himfelf, accompanied with a great number of his

upon every one they found in the ftreets, and compel them to depart. But Valerius, and Horatius, who, as I faid, were at the head
friends,
clients,

and

and

to order

them

to fall

of thofe, of

who

defired to recover their liberty, being informed

his delign,

brought with them a numerous body of brave
:

themfelves before the body And, when youth, and placed Appius, and his people advanced, they, firft, inveighed
againft,

and abufed, the power of the decemvirs ; then, their anions, they ftruck, and confirming their words by threw to the ground all who durft attack them.

unexpeded oppoAppius, exafperated how to fubdue the authors of it, refition, and not knowing folved upon the moft pernicious of all meafures For, conin the continuance of the people's attachment to him,
:

XXXIX.

at this

fiding

he went to the temple of Vulcan ; and, afiembling them in that place, he attempted to charge thofe perfons with
havin<^ treated

him

in an outrageous,

and abufive manner and
;

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS HALI C A RN ASSENSIS,
he was invefted with the
power,

311
tri-

and

flattered himfelf that, as

biinitian

and

fuffer

them

the people would efpoufe his refentment, to be thrown down the Tarpeian rock.

the other fide, Valerius, and his party, pofieffed themkWes of another part of the forum ; and, placing the body

On

of the virgin where it might be ken by all, they held another aflembly of the people, and laid themfelves out in
invedives againft Appius, and the reft of the oliAnd it happened, as it might well be garchical fadlion.

many

exped:ed, that, while fome were invited thither by the dignity of the perfons ; otj-iers, by their compafTion for the
virgin,

whofe unfortunate beauty had drawn upon her fuch "dreadful, and more than dreadful, difafters; and others,
fole defire

of feeing their ancient conftitution reftored, this So that, afiembly was more numerous than the other only a few^ and thofe the abettors of the oligarchy, re-

by the

:

mained with Appius; among whom there were fome, adhered to it, no longer, for many rcafons ; and, if adverfaries gained ftrength, were ready to take arms
it.

who
their

againft

Appius, feeing himfelf deferted, was obliged to change his refolution, and leave the forum ; which proved of the
greateft advantage to
=Aeivot x«( znf^ci (J«vwv.

him: For,
Cafaubon

if

he had

fallen

into the
of

gical events in the afFcftlno- colours

has very juftly obferved that this is a But, if any event tragical expreffion can juftify an h:fl:orian in the ufe of
:

poetry. a mere
will

But the misfortune is that modern reader, who is unaccuftomed to thefe pathetic ftrains,^
think the author, or rather the tranflator^ mad, when he renders them,
as

thefe

expreffions, this

cataftrophe of

Virginia will juftify our author: If this will nor, cuftfem w-ill: For the
belt

he ought,

literally,

Greek

hiftorians often paint tra-

hands

312

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES

OF

Book XI.

hands of the populace, he had met with thepuniniment he deferved. After that, Valerius, and his party, having all the
opportunity they could defire, indulged themfelves in declaiming againft the oligarchy ; and, by their harangues,

The determined thofe, who were yet unrefolv^ed of the virgin ftill encreafed the difaffedion of the
:

relations
citizens,

by bringing her bier into the forum; by adorning her body with all polTible magnificence, and carrying it through the

moft remarkable, and moft confpicuous ftreets of the city For the matrons, and virgins ran out of their houfcs, lamenting her misfortune, and fome threw flowers upon the
:

bier,

and

their girdles, or ribbands, others, their virgin toys, others even cut off their curls, and caft them it :

fome

upon

of the men, either purchafing ornan"ients in the neighbouring fhops, or receiving them by the favor of the
owners, contributed to the pomp by prefents proper to the So that, the funeral was celebrated through the occafion
:

And many

whole

city

;

and

all

defired the fubverfion of the oligarchy
it,

:

being armed, kept them in awe; and neither Valerius, nor his friends, were willing to decide the conteft by fhedding the blood of their fellow-

But the favourers of

citizens.

XL. The
order.
his

affairs

of the

city, therefore,

were

in this dif-

In the

mean

time, Virginius,

who,

as I fiiid,

had

flain

daughter with

his

camp on mount he had left Rome, all
the
knife in
his

fpeed, arrived at Algidus that evening, in the condition

own

hand, riding

full

hand.

covered with blood, and holding the When the guards, who v/cre poftcd
before

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENS IS.

313

before the camp, Taw him, they could not imagine what had happened to the man ; but attended him in expedlation of hearing fome great, and dreadful event. Virginius, for

fome time, went on weeping, and making figns to thofe he met to follow him ; and the foldiers, who were then at
ran out of their tents, as he paiTed by them, and with torches, and lamps, followed him on both fides, in
fupper,
all

fufpenfe, and confternation. in the camp, he flood

When
upon a

he came to the open
riling

place be feen by
fallen

ground, fo

as to

and related the misfortunes, which had behim, and called upon thofe, who came with him from
all,

the city, to atteft the truth of his relation. When he faw of them lament, and fhed tears, he had regreat numbers
courfe to fupplications, and intreaties, and conjured nor to fuffer him to be unrevenged, or their

them

be abufed

:

While he was faying
to hear him,

this,

country to they all fhewed a
to

great defire

and encouraged him

go on.

For which

declaimed againft the oligarchy with greater confidence ; and, having fhewn that the decemvirs had deprived many men of their fortunes ; cauled
reafon,

he

now

many

to

be whipped; forced

many

innocent perfons to

leave their country ; and enumerated their infults offered to matrons; their ravishments of marriageable virgins; their abufes of boys of free condition, and all their other excefles,

and
''

cruelties,

he

faid

:

"

And

thus are

we

infulted

by thofe

who

derive their

" of " of

power neither from law, the approbation

the fenate, nor the confent of the people (for the term their magiftracy, that was confined to a year, after S
s
*'

Vol. IV.

which

314 " which
*'
*'

ROiMAN ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book XI.

to others the adminiftration they were to deUver up " of the moft violent of all affairs, is expired) but from

''

means, while they look upon us as fo many women Let every jDne of you conwithout courage, or fpirit. iider both his own fufFerings, and thofe of others ; and,
if

them with pleafures, or gratifiany of you, allured by " cations, neither fear the oligarchy, nor apprehend that,
*'

" one thefc calamities will reach them as well as others, day, " let them refledl that are not to be trufted ; and tyrants " that favors, and every thing of that nature, flow not from " the and let them change good will of the men in power ; " their therefore, all in the refolution to
opinion.
Join,

"

free

from thefe

in tyrants your country,

which are placed

" both the and the fepulchres of your temples of the gods, *' anceftors, whom you honour next to the gods ; in which *' are your aged fathers, who demand of you many ac*'
*'

as the pains they- have beknowledgements, and fuch, flowed upon your education, deferve ; and in which arc

*'

"
<'

and your marriageable daughters, who your lawful wives, no fmall attention from their parents, together
require

have a natural right to continue " the race derived to them from tlieir anceflors For I fay " and efl'eds, which nothing of your houfes, your eftates,
with your fons,
:

who

*'

have been acquired with great pains both by your fathers, *' and yourfelves; none of which you can fccurely enjoy " while the tyranny of thefe decemvirs. you live under neither of ndi brave XLI. " It is the
part

prudent,

*'

to acquire the poflcirions of others by their valor,

men, and to " lofe

BookXI,
*'

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A SS ENS I S,
own
by their cowardice
;

315

lofe their

neither does

it

become

*'
*'

the Aequi, the you to wage long, and inceflant v/ars with Volfci, the Sabines, and all the reft of your neighbours,
for

*'
*'

fovereignty,

againft thofe,
*'

and dominion, and not to take arms who govern you againft law, when both
liberty

" "
*'

your prefervation, and your
pofiiblc,

are at ftake.

Is

it

you fliould not affume the fpirit of your into a coniideration country? That you fhould not enter worthy the virtue of your anceftors, who, becaufe one v/oman was abufed by a fon of Tarquin, and, by reafon
that

*'

put herfelf to death, refented this miffortune with fo much warmth, and were fo much exof
this calamity,

"
ii

the abufe to be common to afperated at it, looking upon but even aboall, that they not only expelled Tarquin, lifhed monarchy itfelf, and paffed a law that, for the future,

no man fhould govern the Romans with a perpetual, and

n uncontrollable authority; and, binding themfelves with u
cc
ii

the moft folemn oaths to obferve this law, they curfed if ever their they fhould violate it. They could
pofterity,

not bear the tyrannical abufe of one licentious youth,

committed upon one perfon of free condition; and will " that revels in all forts of you bear a many headed tyranny, " and licentioufnefs, and will ftill encreafe in
excefs,
if

both,

you now fubmit to it ? I am not the only man, who had a daughter diftinguifhed for her beauty, whom Appius " to force, and abufe, but many of you openly attempted
(C

*'
**

have daughters, others, wives, and others, young fons remarkable for their beauty; and what fhould hinder
alfo
.

.

S

s

2

"

thefe

3i6
*'
**

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
from being
treated
in the

Book XI.

thefe

*'

" " not fall upon many of you, but that this tyrannical luft " will ftop at my daughter, and grow chafte to all other " Be affured that it is a great folly, youths, and virgins. " and weaknefs to '^ reflect that thefe things have happened,
<'

other of the ten tyrants, indeed fome god fhould undertake that, if you fuffer my calamities to go unrevenged, the fame misfortunes will

fame manner by fome or by Appius himfelf ? Unlefs

and then to

"
*'

fay that they will not

happen again

:

For the

" fear. Revenge, therefore, with juftice the injury I have " fuftained and, at the fame time, fecure yourfelves from " the like treatment; break your chains at laft, O miferable " men and fix your eyes on liberty. What greater caufe *' of refentment can you have than the prefent, when the " take away the daughters of citizens, like flaves, tyrants " and force them to their beds with ? At what
;
!

pailions of tyrants are unlimited, as we may juftly conelude, lince they are not to be checked either by law, or

ftripes

*'

ture will
this,

"

you refume the fpirit of free men, in which you have arms in your hands?"
yivofAivai,

if

juncyou omit

*3'

rayild vcyirctt,
is

xat

&'?

makes Virginius conclude from

tha

XX fs-«», Asj'fv. to be corrupted in
Toivloi

This paflage
all
it

allowed

manufcripts, where
n^y-iva,

the editions, and flands thus, t«

misfortune, which had happened to his own daughter, that the fame would

happen to the daughters of others.

wf

etc.

Cafaubon has
it

The

endeavoured to correft
jiTfovoftv,

by reading

be repafTage, therefore, flored in fuch a manner, that fome

mud
The

or TO ar^ovoHu

ju£v Tocv'ix.

T his,

wotds may exprefs the
i^xt exprcfies the future. reader will chufe which

pall, as wV kk

to be fure,

makes fome

fenfe, at lead,

learned

of the words; but, in my opinion, it is not the fenfe of our author ; who

of thefe cor-

redions he likes

befl.

xLir.

BookXI.

XLII.
cried

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN AS SE NS IS. 317 While he was yet fpeaking, mod of the foldiers
:

and promifed to revenge him Then, calHng upon the centurions by name, they defired them to begin the work ; and many of them prefented themfelves, and were not afraid to pubHfh any ill treatment they had
out,

fuffered.
faid,

In the

mean
ran
all

time,

the five generals, who, as I
legions, fearing

had the command of the
foldiers,
it

from the

to the general's tent,

fome attempt and confidered
poffible to ap-

with their friends whether

might not be

thofe of their own fadlion, and peafe the tumult by arming them round the tent: But, being informed that the polling foldiers were retired to their tents, and that the difturbance

was ended, and appeafed, and not knowing that the greateft of the centurions had fecretly confpired to revolt, and
part to unite in freeing their country, they refolved to feize Virwhen it was day, as the author of this diforder, and ginius,
to keep

him

in cuftody

;

and then

to

decamp, and, march-

the enemy, to poft themfelves in the beft part ing againfh of their country, and lay it wafte; and not to fuffer their

men

fo

much

as to inquire,

in the city, but to divert

from that time, what was doing them from that inquiry, partly by

the booty they
battles,

in

would acquire, and partly by the continual which their own fafety would be the fole objed:

of their thoughts. But they fucceeded in none of their deficrns: For the centurions would not fufFer Virginius to go tc
the general's tent, when he was fent for, fufpeding he might fuffer fome ill treatment ; but, hearing accidentally that the
generals

had

refolved to lead the troops againil the

enemy,
they

3i8

ROMAN ANTIQUITIESOF
alfo entertain

Book XI.

" How fucthey broke out into the following reproaches ; *' us hitherto, that we fhould cefsfully have you commanded
*'

now

" who, " and
*'

any hopes of fuccefs in following you, after you had raifed more forces both in Rome itfelf, among our allies, than any other Roman generals,

" " and in difadvantageous pofts; experience, by incamping " and, by harraffing your own country inftead of That " belonging to the enemy, you have impoverirhed us, and " we ufed to us of all thofe
deprived

never gained any victory over -the enemy, nor did them any damage, but only expofed your own want of valor,

advantages

acquire by

*'

our vidtories, when we were commanded by better gene" rals and the ; enemy now ere6l trophies to perpetuate the
*' *'

of our defeats, and have feized, and flill retain our tents, our flaves, our arms,^and our money."

memory

XLIII. Virginius ftill indulging his refentment, and in awe of the generals, inveighed againft ftanding, no longer,

them with

the greater confidence,

calling

them
all

the bane,

and fcourge of their country, and exhorting to feize the enfigns, and lead back the But the
greateft part

the centurions
to

forces

Rome.
remove

of them were

ftill

afraid to

thefe holy enfigns, and did not think it either confiftent with religion, or fale for the whole army to defert their

commanders, and generals: For the military oath, which
the

Romans

people, ever they lead
generals

obferve with greater ftridnefs than any other to follow their generals whitherfoobliges them

them

;

and

alfo the

law gives power to the
trial,

to put to death, without a

all

who

are difobedient,

BookXi.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
them

319

dient, or defert their enfigns.

that thefe motives kept

Virginius, therefore, perceiving in awe, told them that the law
it is

had difpenfed with
general,

their oath, becaufe

the neceliary that

who commands

ed

;

and the power

the troops, fhoiild be legally appointof the decemvirs was illegal, fince the term

of a year, for which they had been created, was expired ; and whofe power was not fupthat, to obey the orders of thofe, was not obedience, and piety, but folly, and ported by law, madnefs. The men, hearing thefe reprefentations, approved of them and, after mutual exhortations, and receiving even
;

fome encouragement and marched out of

fr

Dm Heaven,
camp
:

they feized the eniigns,

However, as it often hapof various difpolitions, and when all have pens among men not the beft intentions, fome, both foldiers and centurions,,
tlve

flayed
rior in

with the decemvirs,

but thefe w'ere greatly infeafter

number to the others; who, camp, marched the w^hole day, and

they had

left

the

arrived at

Rome

in the
:

For evening, no notice having been given of their arrival this reafon, the inhabitants were under no fmall confternafuppofing an enemy was within their walls, whichi occafioned an outcry, and a diforderly concourfe throughout
tion,

the whole city.

However,

this

tumult did not

lafi

long

enough

produce any mifchief : For, the foldiers, pafling that they were friends, and through the ftreets, called out come to preferve the city And indeed they confirmed their
to
:

doing no injury to any Then, proceeding to the Aventine hill (which, of perfon all thofe that are within the walls, is the moft proper for a
profeflions
:

by

their behaviour, in

camp)

320

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
to their

BookXI.

camp) they ftood

arms near the temple of Diana. The day after, they fecured themfelves by an intrenchment; and, having appointed ten tribunes, at the head of
their

whom

was Marcus Oppius, to take care of interefts, they remained quiet.

common

foon joined by the moft eminent of the centurions belonging to the three legions, that lay at

XLIV. They were

Fidenae,

who came
:

of forces

Thefe

to their aiTiftance with a great number had been long difaffedled to their generals,
:

Howfor having caufed Siccius to be aflailinated, as I faid were afraid to begin the re'v olt, becaufe they looked ever,

they upon the five legions, that lay at Algidus, to be attached to the decemvirs ; but, as foon as they heard of their revolt,

embraced the opportunity prefented to them they chearfully

by

Thefe legions were alfo commanded by ten tribunes, who had been created during their march, the The moft confiderable of whom was -*Sextus Manilius.
fortune.

troops,

jundion, incamped, and commiffioned ^^ tranfadl all affairs in the name of the twenty tribunes to the reft: Out of thefe twenty, they appointed two perfons,
after

their

2+-

Hf^TOi MuviXio;.

wemuft
fays
thefe

Thus, I think, read this name, becaufe 'Livy

that

M.

Oppius,

and Sextus
to

he, and M. Oppius were afterwards chofen out of the twenty tribunes. I fliail not repeat what I menthat

Manihus were chofen
feceders:

command
he

tioned in the fortieth annotation
the fixth

Though
•,

makes

on book from Livy, concerning

them

iunftion thor fays that Manilius was firft apcommander by the troops

to have been chofen after the and our auof their forces

the deputation fent by the fenate to the torces, that lay incamped on mount

Aventine.
-5'

pointed

Aiyeiv re nai sr^^T7«v.

Literally,

from Fidenae during their march, and
f

io
iii.

Jhy and do.
51.

B.

c.

Marcus

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS H ALIC A RN A S SEN SIS.

321

Marcus Oppius, and Sextus Manilius, who were the mod confidcrable among them, to be their prefidents: Thefe formed a council conlifting of all the centurions, and tranfthings in concurrence with them. Their intentions not being as yet generally known, Appius, who was confcious occalion to the prelent difturto himfelf of having

adled

ail

giv^en

bance, and to all the evils, that were expected to refult from it, did not think fit, any longer, to ad in a public capacity,

but

ftaid

at

home

:

Hov/ever, Spurius Oppius,

who had

been appointed to govern the city in conjunction with him,
being himfelf alfo in a confternation at firft, and expecting that their enemies v/ould prefently iall upon them, and

with that intention, when he found they attempted nothing further, he laid afide his fears, and affembled the fenate, fending officers to the houfes of every

were come to

Rome

them to attend. While thele were coming to the houfe, the commanders of the army at Fidenae arrived, full of indignation that both the camps had been abandoned by the foldiers, and endeavoured to fenate to refent this defertion in the manner it perfuade the
fenator with

diredions for

deferv^ed.

When the

fenators

were to deliver

their

opinions,

Lucius Cornelius faid that the foldiers,

who were
;

ported

upon
their

the Aventine

hill,

ought, that very day, to return to
their generals

own camps, and obey

that

no other

be called in queftion for what had happened, but perfons the authors of the revolt ; that thefe ought to be puniflied the generals ; and that, if they refufed to return, the

by

fenate

fhould deliberate concerning them, as concerning t Vol. IV. perfons,

T

322
perfons,

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
who had abandoned
their

OF

Book XI.

poft, in

which they had

been placed by their generals, and violated their military ^* On the other fide, Lucius Valerius * * * * * * oath. * * *

***** ********** ****** ******** ******* ****** ***
=*•

It

appears

that

in fpeech of Valerius anfwer to the motion of Cornelius, and pofTibly fome others on both fides It feems of this important queftion.

many things by The firft, is the

this

we have loft untoward hiatus.

on them; and, above all, to the comparifon we find he made between thefe laws, and Thofe of Greece, cannot
pofTibly be, in

any degree,

repaired.

probable by Livy, obferve prefently, that the decemvirs

as

the reader will

had

ftill

fo ftrong a party in the fe-

nate, as to prevent them from coming to any refolution in prejudice of their

This obliged the army, ufurpation. which was ftill incamped on the Aventine hill, to remove to the Holy
mountain,
anceftors.
after the

example of

their

All thefe, and the fubfetranfaiStions to the confulfhip quent with of Valerius and Horatius, which our author begins the next
well lupplied chapter may be pretty out of Livy, whom I fliall tranflate fo far, to the intent that thofe, who do hot read Latin, may have an of this revolution uninterrupted thread
in the

can do, fhall be done ; but that is not much It will confift of the colleftion of thofe laws as publiftied by Fulvius Urfinus, which Hudfon has alfo inferted from Sylburgius, at the end of his firft volume. But, as thefe laws were written in the language then fpoken by the Romans, and according to the orthography then in ufe among them, I have added, I had almoft faid, a verfion of them into fuch Latin as every one, who is acquainted with this language, will undcrftand at firft fight, which will be accompanied with a tranflation of thofe laws into Englifli. I do not know that any thing of this kind has b^en
I
:

All

attempted before; and, if the trouble, which this attempt has coft me, can recomiTicnd it to the reader, on that

Roman

government.
I

The

lofs

account at

leaft,

I

may hope

for his
=

of the other part,

mean of That,
of the twelve

which
tables,

relates to the laws

and to our author's reflexions

But I fliall begin approbation of it. with tranflating that part of Livy, which I before mentioned.

>B.iii. c. 51.

[<'

The

fathers, folicitous for the fafcty
;

of the

commonof Siccius, the

wealth, affembled every day

the time in contefts yet fpent

oftener than in deliberations.

The

affailination

Book XI.
the
liift

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
of Appius, and the difgraces in the
field

323

were ob-

The fenate refolved to fend Vajeded to the decemvirs. Thefe refufed to Aventine hill. lerius, and Horatius to the would lay down the enfigns of that go unlefs the decemvirs But the had expired the year before. magiftracy, which decemvirs complained that they were reduced to the condition of private men, and faid they would not refign their for till thofe laws were enacted, compiling which
power,
they had been created.

The

people,

being informed by

Marcus Duiiius, who had been one of their tribunes, that reafon of thefe perpetual conthing was refolved upon by to the Holy mountain tefts, went from the Aventine hill Duiiius afiuring them that the fenate would take no care
:

they faw the people abandoning the city : 'That the Holy jnountam would put them 172 mind of the Jleadi-

of any thing of the

till

7iefs

reftored.

They would then hiorw that, without the concord could never be ?-eftitution of the tribu7iitia72 power The army marched through the road Nomentana,
people.
.^

which was then

called Ficulnenfis,

and incamped on the
their anceftors

Holy mountain; imitating by committing no fort of

the

modefty of

violence.

The

people followed

They

the army, none, whofe age allowed him to go, declining it. were accompanied by their wives and children, who

they defigned to abandon them in that city, in which neither modefty, nor When an unufual folitude had rencould be fafe. liberty

aiked them, in moving accents, to

whom

dered every thing defolate at, Rome, and none were to be feen in the forum but a few of the elder fort ; and conie-

T

t

2

quently

/

324

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
now
fathers

OF

BookXI.

when fummoned to the fenate, obferved quently the fathers, that place to be deferted, others, befides Horatius and
Valerius,
fcript

called out,
?

" What

will

you

flay for,

con-

If the decemvirs

do not put an end to

their obftinacy, will

you

and burft into flames ?

every thing to fall to pieces, But, w^hat is this dominion, defuffer

juftice there fliould be almoft a greater

cemvirs, that you are fo tenacious of? Will you adminifter Are you not afliamed that to houfes and walls?

number of your
and others
city
?

lidors

feen in the
will

forum than of
if

citizens,

?

you do,

our enemies approach the
fo fmall

What What if

our

own

people fhould prefently

come armed,

flnce their

fecefTion

an impreilion on us ? Do you defire that your dominion fhould end with the deftrudlion of the city ? It is certain that we muft either not have a

makes

people,

or have their tribunes.
patrician,

We fliall

fooner bear the

want of

They

extorted this

than they of plebeian, magiftrates. new, this untried power from our an-

they have once tafted the fweet of it, they will ever brook its abfence ; particularly, flnce we, on our fide, do not abftain from thofe powers,
ceftors;

think not that,

now

that

teach

them how much they want

Thefe things being thrown out on all overcome by the concurrent fenfe of the fenate, faid that, flnce this was their pleafurc, they would be governed by

a protedion." fides, the decemvirs,

them; they only requefted, and advifed that the fenate would protcd them from the refentment of the public;
and not, by
their blood,

accuftom the people to the punifli-

ment

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN ASSENSIS.
fenators.

325

ment of
to bring

Then

Valerius,

and Horatius were fent

bances upon alfo ordered to provide for the fecurity of the decemvirs and violence of the populace. When againft the refentment,
in the camp with great joy they arrived, they were received by the people, who looked upon them as their undoubted

back the people, and compofe the prefent difturfuch terms, as they (hould think proper ; and

deliverers

both in the beginning of the commotion, and in For thefe reafons, at their arrival, thanks the event of it.

Icilius fpoke in the name of the reft. were given to them. The fame man, when the conditions came to be difcufled,

and the deputies defired to know the demands of the people,
concerted his plan with the reft having, before their arrival, of the feceders, demanded fuch things, as made it apparent
that greater confidence was placed by

them

in the equity of

thofe demands,

than in arms: For they redemanded the tribunitian power, and the right of appealing to the people the inftitution of the (which had been their fafeguards before

decemvirate) and that no perfon (hould be called in queftion for having excited either the foldiers, or the people to re-

cover their liberty by the feceftion The only fevere demand to the punifhment of the decemvirs : they made related
:

For they infifted upon their being delivered up to them ; To thefe things the and threatened to burn them alive. anfwer: " That part of your demands, which deputies made " flows from deliberation, is fo reafonable, that we fhould " have offered it to you of our own accord: For you defire " fuch not of licentiof as are the
things,

fupports

liberty,

((

oufnels

326
*'

ROMAN
annoy

ANTIQJJITIES OF
Your refentment

Book XI.

oufnefs to

others.

deferves rather

" "
*'
*'

to be forgiven, than indulged; iince you run into cruelty the deteftation of it ; and, almoft before through you
delire to domineer over yourfelvesare free, your adverfaries. Shall our commonwealth never be at reft from

punifli-

*'
*'

ments inflided
or
fhield, rather
ficiently

either

"
*' *'

by the people on

by the fenate on the Roman people, the fenate ? You ftand in need of a

than of a fvvord.
lives in

That man

is

at leaft fuf-

humbled, who

with others,
Befides, if at

" "
*'

a ftate upon the fame terms without either doing, or fuffering,
injuries.

"

any time you defire to render yourfelves formidable, let it be after the recovery of your magiftracies, and your laws, when you will have the power of trying us
for

All giving leave to the deputies to do as they thought proper, thefe foon to return promifed ratification of their defires. with a After they arrived at

" "

our Hves and fortunes; then you
its

v/ill

determine every
fufficient that

caufe according to

own merits

:

Now it is

your

liberty isreftored."

Rome, and had

laid the

demands of the people before the

fenate, all the decemvirs except Appius, finding that, conto their expedation, no mention was made of their trary He, who was fierce punifliment, confented to

every thing:

in his nature,

and the principal objed of public refentment

meafuring the hatred of others to himfelf by his own to " I am not them, faid; ignorant of the fate, that hanc^s

" over my head. I find that the attack upon us is deferred " till arms are deHvered to our adverfaries. Our blood " muft be ofiered up to public odium. However, even I " the decemvirate." myfelf fhall make no delay in
refigning

The

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS HALICA R N ASSENSIS.
:

327

The

fenate pafled a decree that the decemvirs fhould forth-

with abdicate their magiftracy

That Marcus

Papirius, the

high prieftj fliould appoint the tribunes; and that no man fhould be queftioned for the feceffion of the foldiers, and
the people. After the decree was paffed in thefe term5, and the fenate difmiffed, the decemvirs proceeded to the aflembly

of the people, where, to the great fatisfadion of all men, they abdicated their magiftracy. The account of thefe things

was fent to the
city,

feceders.

And

all,

who had been

left

in the

This multitude was met by attended the deputies. another rejoicing multitude from the camp. They congratulated each other upon the reftitution of liberty, and The deputie-'Jcfpoke thus to the aflembly " Reconcord. " turn to your countr^'', to your houfhold gods, to your
:

" wives and children; and may your return prove benefi" cial, aufpicious, and fortunate to yourfelves, and to the " commonwealth. But bring with you to the city the fame
''

modefty you have obferved here, where, in the confumption of fo

"

" no
*'

things necefiary to fo great a multitude, man's land has fuffered. Return to the Aventine hill,

many

from whence you came.

On

that aufpicious fpot,

where

"

you

laid

the

firft

foundations of your liberty, you fhall

" create your tribunes. " hold the comitia."
trcneral
enfif^ns
;

concurrence,
and, in their

high prieft will be prefent to Every thing was approved of with a and alacrity. They took up tlieir
to

The

march

Rome, contended with

thofe

they

met

in their demonftrations of joy.

They proceeded
arms
;

in filence through the city to the Aventine hill with their

328

ROxMAN ANTIQJJITIES OF
:

Book XI.
prieft,

arms

Where, the comitia being held by the high

they immediately chofe their tribunes ; firft of all Lucius Virginius, then Lucius Icilius, and Publius Numitorius the

uncle of Virginia, who had been the authors of the fecefiion ; in the next place, Caius Sicinius, a defcendant of that Sici-

who, as it is recorded in hiftory, was created the Rvd tribune on the Holy mountain ; and Marcus Duilius, who
nius,

had fignalized himfelf in the exercife of the tribunefliip before the creation of the decemvirs, and had not been wanting to the people in their contefts with them After thefc, Marcus Titinius, Marcus Pomponius, Caius Apronius,
:

Publius Villius, and Caius Oppius were chofen rather through As foon-as Lucius Icilius had expediation than merit.
magifiracy, he j^ropofed a law, which the people enaded, that no perfon fliould be called to account for the feceilion from the decemvirs. Prefently Marcus Duilius procured a law to be pafled for the after,

entered

upon

his

creation of confuls with an appeal from them to the people. All thefe things were tranfadled in an affembly of the

people

held in

the Flaminian meadows,

now

called the

Qfcus

Flami7ims"'\
the eleftion of Lucius and Marcus Horatius to the Valerius, confulfhip, with which, as I faid, our author begins the next chapter.
^
I, now, proceed to the laws of the twelve tables, which I fliall tranfcribe

Then follows

from Hudfon
has
exhibited

;

becaufe

the

them,

as

they

former were

originally written, in capital letters, with a full point after each word;

which ancient way of ingraving infcriptions Hudfon has thought fit to change to fmall charaders with modern points.

from Fulvius Urfinu?,

rather

than

Book XI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENS IS.

329

LEGES DUODECIM TABULARUM.
The
Of private
.1.

laws of the twelve tables.
VIVITO. NEI. SOVO. VIVEIT. QVEI. IM.

DE JURE PRIVATO.
right.

VINCTOM. HABEBIT. LIBRAS. FARIS.
EN. DO. DIES. DATO. SEI. VOLET. PLVVS.

VOCAT. NEI. EAT. STATIM. ENCAPITO. ANTESTARIER.
SEI. IN. lOVS.
I.

Si in J us vocat, ni eat Jlatim, inci-

pito antejiari. 1. If any one cites another to apbefore a magiftrate, and he does

pear not go piefently,
witneires.
2.

let

the other call

SEI.

CALVITOR. PEDEMVE.
pedemve
Jiruit,

STRVIT. MANOM. EN. DO. lACITO.
2
.

Si decipt,

manum

injicito.

If he endeavours to deceive, or to run away, let the plaintiff feize him. IN. lOVS. VOCATO. MORBOS. 3. SET.
2.

DATO. ENDOTERATIM. PACIO. ESTOD. NEI.CVM. EO. PAGIT. LX. DIES. VINCTOM. HABETOD. EN.IEIS. DIEBOS. TERTIEIS.NONDINEIS. CONTINOEIS. IN. DV. COMITIOM. EN. DO. lOVRE. IM. PROCITATO. QyANTEIQVE. STLIS. AESTVMATA. SIET. PRAEDICATO. POSTIDEA. DE. KAPITE. ADEICTEI. POENAS. SVMITOD. AVT. SEI. VOLET. TRANS. TIBERIM. PEREGRE. VENOM. DATOD. AST. SEI. PLVSEBOS. ADEICTOS. SIET. TERTIEIS. NONDINEIS. PARTEIS. SECANTO. SEI. PLVVS. MINVSVE. SECVERINT. SE. FRAVDED. ESTOD.
4. Aeris confejfi rebufque jure judicatis

AEVITASVE. VITIOM. ESCIT. QVEI. IN.
VOCASIT. SEI. NOLET. ARC ER AM. NEI. STERNITO.
lOVS.
aetasve 3. Si in jus %'ocato morbus, in jus vocavent,jumcnvitiumeril, qui
Si nolet, arceram ne Jlernito. If the perfon cited is infirm, or 3. old, let the perfon citing provide him If he refufe it, let him with a cart. not furnifh him with a litter. CONFESEI. REBOSQVE. 4. AERIS. lOVDIKATEIS. XXX. DIES. lOVRE. lOVSTEI. SVNTO. POSTIDEA. EN. DO. MANOS. lACTlO. ESTOD. IN. DV. lOVS. EDOVCITO. NEI. lOVDIKATOM. FACIT. AVT. OyiPS. EN. DO. EO. IM. lOVRE. VINDICIT. SECOM. DVCITO. VINCITO. AVT. NESVO. AVT. COMPEDEBOS. XV.

triginta dies jujli Junto.
injeSiio efto.

IVMENTOM. DATO.

Pqftea matius In jus educito. JSlijudicatum
vincito,

facit, aut quis in eo ilium jure vindicat,

fecum

tum

data.

aut nervo, aut compedibus quindecim pondo ne majcre ; aut fi volet, minore vincito. Si volet y
ducito,

fuo vivito.

Ni fuo vivit, qui eum

vin£lum
St

habebit, libras

f

arris

indies

dato.

Interim pa£fio efto. volet, plus dato. cum eo pagit, fexaginta dies vin£lum

Ni

habeto.

In

eis

diebus

tertiis

nundinis

continuis in comitium in jure eum procicato lis quantique aeJHmata fit,
•,

prae-

dicato.

fumito

:

Pojtea de capite addi£li poena s Aut fi volet, trans Tiberim

peregre vemim dato. Aftfipluribus addiUusfit, tertiis nundinis partes fecanto.
Si

plus minufve fecuerint,fine fraude
4.

efto.

PONDO. NEI. MAIOSE. AVT. SEI. VOLET. MINOSE. VINCITO. SEI. VOLET. SOVO. Vol. IV.

Let thirty days grace be given to thedebtor after the debt is confefTed, u and

U

ROxMAN ANTIQJJITIES OF
and judgement given. After which, let him be arrefted. Let the creditor
If he bring him before the judge. does not comply with his order, nor
is

Book XI.

BITRIO.

FINIOM.

CCN'TROVERSIAS.

COMPONITO.
6. Si licini inter fe jurgarint^ intra quinque pedes ufucapio ne ^0 : Praetor arbitros tres data : Eorum arbitrio

bailed by any one, let the creditor take him away, and bind him with a nerve, or fetters weighing no more than fifteen pounds, or, ifhe willjlefs.

finiian

controverfias componito.
6. Ifneighbourshaveacontefl: with one another, let not prefcription prevail with regard to the boundary of five feet lying between their lands
:

If the debtor pleafes, let him maintain himfelf. If he does not maintain himielf,

let

the perfon,

who keeps him

in

bonds, give him a pound of fpeitevery day ; it he thinks fit, let him give him more. In the mean time, let them If the debtor does not agree agree. with his creditor, let the latter keep

praetor appoint three arbitrators ; and compofe the controverconcerning the limits, according fi^es to their report.
7.
IS.

Let

the

QVOI. TESTIMONIOM. DEFVERIT.

him

TERTIEIS. DIEBOS. OB. PORTOM.

in

bonds for
let his

thefe days,

fixty days. During creditor cite him to

OFVACOLATOM. EITO.
7.

Ctii

tejlimomim

defuerit, is tertiis

appear

in court three

market days fucproclaim the and cods are

fum,

and let him celfively, at which the debt, laid. After which, let
;

diebus c.d domitm obvagulntum ito. 7. If a perfon has no witnefs to prove that his goods are in another

him put

the

debtor to death

or, if he pleafes, fell

him

on the other
if the

for a flave to a foreign country, fide of the Tiber But,
:

man's houfe, let him go thither on the third day, and demand entrance with outcries to fearch for them.
S. TICNOM. IVNCTOM. AEDEEOS. VINIAEQVE. NEI. SOLVITO. QVEI. OLVD. IVNXSIT. DVPLIONE. LVITO. 8.

debtor

is

delivered

up

to

many

creditors, let

them, on the third mar-

ket day,

cut his

body into

fevcral

Tignura junthim aedibus vineae-

If they cut more, or lefs, let pieces. it be w^ithout prejudice.
5.

que nefolvito.
luito.

%/'

illudjunxit, duplione

SEI. QVEI. EN, DO.

lOVRE. MA-

NOM.

CONSERONT. VTRE1QI:£. SOPERSTITEBOS. PRAESETEBOS. VINDICIAS. SVMVNTO.
5.

8. Let no man pull down any part of a houfe, that is built joining to his own, or to his vineyard. Let the

conferunt, utrique fuperjtitibus fraefentibtis vindicias futnunto.
5. If any join ifllie, let both lay hold of the thing in contell in the prefence of witnedes. 6. SEI. VECINEI. ENTER. SE. lORCASINT. ENTERA. QVINQ^'E. PEDEIS. OESOCAPIO. NEI. ESTOD. PRAETOR. ARBITROS. TREIS. DATO. EOROM. AR-

Si

qui in jure

nmnum

who erected it, pay double damages. 9. (iyOM.NEXSOM. FACIET. MANCIPIOMQVE. VTEI. DINCVA. NVNCVPASIT. ITA. lOVS. ESTOD. 9. ^mrn nexum faciei
perfon,

mancipiumque,
ejlo.

ut lingua mtncuparit^ itajus
9.
title

When

any one

Ihall

warrant the
the tongue

of any thing he

fells, as

pronounced the words,
be.

ib let the

law

10.

PA-

BookXI.
10.

DIONYSIUS HALIC AR N AS S EN S I S.
ESTOD.
familid
fiiall

331

PATERFAMILIAS. VTEI. SOPER. FAMILIA. PEQVNIAQVE. SOVA. LECASIT. ITA. lOVS.

INIOVRIA. SECVESIT. XXV. AERIS. IN. DV. SINCOLAS. POENAE. SVNTO.
14.
Si quis

alienas ar bores

injuria

10.

Paierfamilids uti fitper

fecuerit, viginti quinque librae aeris in

pecunidqueftid legarity ilajus ejlo. 10. As the mafter of a family

fingulas pcsnae fitnto. 4. If any one fhall cut the trees of
1

difpofe of his (laves, and polfeirions his will, lb let the law be.

by

11. PATREI. EN. DO. FIDIO. VITAE. NECISQVE. POTESTAS. ESTOD. TER-

another wrongfully, lee the punidiment be twenty five pounds of brafs for every one. 15. QVEI. ALIENAS. AEDES. FRV-

QVE. IM. VENOM. DARIER. lOVS. ESTOD. SEI. PATER. FIDIOM. TER. VENOM. DVIT. FIDIOS. A. PATRE.

MENTEIVE. ACERVOM. IVXSTA. AEDEIS. POSITOM. SCIENS. D. M. VSIT. VSERITVE. PRAETORIS.ARBITRATVV.

LEBER. ESTOD.
1 1
.

Patri

infilio vitac

nee i que poJ

t eft as ejlo :

ejlo.

Terque ilium venum darijus Si paler filium ter venum dederit,
liber ejlo.

filius

a palre

VERBERATOSqVE. ICNE. AST. SEI. IMPRVDENS. SE. D. M. DAMNOM. DVIT. NOXSIAM. SARCITO. AVT. PRAETORIS. ARBITRATVV. VIRCEIS. CAESOS. POENAM.

VINCTOS.

NEGATOR.

1 1.

life

Let a father have the power of Let it be and death over his fon
:

LVITO.
15. ^ii alienas aedes, frumentive accrvum juxta aedes pofitum fciens dolo malo uffit, ufferitve, praetoris arhitratu

lawful for the fon to be fold for a Have
three times.
If the father
let
fliall fell

his

fon three times,

the fon be free

from

his father.

12. ASVORSOM. HOSTEM. AETERNA. AVCTORITAS. ESTOD.
12.

vsrberatufque igne necator. Afi ft imprudens fine dolo malo damnum dederit, noxiam farcito, aut praetoris arhitratu virgis caefus poenam luito.
15.

vinulus

Adverfus
ejlo.

peregrinum

aeterna

Whoever

has burned, or fhall

auSloritas
1

the right of a citizen never be extinguilhed by the prefcription of
2.

Let

and malicioufly, defignedly, another's houfe, or a ftack of corn Handing near his houfe, let him be

burn

a foreigner.
13.
SEI.

QVIS.

ACNATOROM.
DO. EO.
I ^

SIET. CENTILEOMQVE. EN.

FOVSIOSVS.

PEOyNIAQVE. EIVS. POTESfit.,

bound, and whipped at the difcretion of the praetor, and burned. But, if he did the mifchief undefignedly, and without malice, let him the
repair

TAS. ESTOD.
.

Si quis furiofus

agnatorum

damage, or be punilhed for it by being whipped at the difcretion of the
praetor. ,16. CLANDEM.
IN. DV.

in eo pecuniaque ejus pot efias gentiliumque
ejlo.

13. If any one is mad, let his relations by the father's fide, and thofe

QVAE. DE. TVOD. ALIENOM. ACROM. CADIT. SE. FRAVDED. LECERE. LICETO.
1

of the fame family have power over him, and his pofieliions. 14. SEI. QVIS, ALIENAS. ARBORES.

6.

Glandcm, quae de tuo in alienum
cadit, fine fraude legere licet 0.

agrum
16.

Let
u 2

it

U

be lawful for

thee to

gather

332

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
this

Book XI.

a gather up the fruit, that falls from on thy land into the land tree growing of another, without moleltation.

19. If either the hufband, or the wife fhall fend notice to the other, let

ARATRO. 17. QVEI. NOX. FRVCEM. FORTIM. PAVESIT. SE(iVAESITAM. CVESITVE. SEI. POBES. SIET. CERERI. SACER. ESTOD. IMPOBES. PRAETORIS. ARBITRATVV. VEREERATOS. NOXSIAM. DVPLIONE. SARCITO. no8u frugem aratro quaefi1 7. ^1 tam furtim faverit, fecueritve, fi puber
Jit, Cereri

Let the wife have fortune to herfelf Let the hufband take away the keys from his
:

be a divorce

her

own

:

wife,

and turn her out of his houfe. 20. MOLIER. TERTIEIS. NOCTEBOS.

OESORPATOM. EITO. NEI. ITA. OESORPASIT. AF. VIROD. OESOCAPITOR.
20. Mulier
tertiis

tum

ito.

Ni

ita ufurparit,

noUibus ufurpaa viro ufu-

facer

efto

:

arbilratu
farcito.

verberatiis

Impuber praetoris noxiam dtiplione

capitor.

17.

Whoever

fhall privately in the

20. Let the wife go three nights to difturb the prefcription. If flie has not diflurbed the prefcription by this

plough,
to

night feed, or cut gram raifed by the if a man grown, let him be
If not arrived
at

confecrated to Ceres.

manhood,

let

him be whipped

the difcretion of the praetor, and repair the mifchief by paying double

method, let her be poflefTed by her hulband by prefcription. 2 QVEI. REM. DE. QVA. CONTROVERSIA. SIET. I>f. DV. 'SACROM. DEDICASIT. DVPLIONE. POENAM. LVITO. 2 1. ^d rem de qua contrcverfiajit,
I .

damages.

infacrum dedicarit, duplicne poenam luito.
21.

QVADROPES. PAVPESIEM. DOMINOS. FAXSIT, QVADROPEDIS. NOXSIAM SARCITOD. AVT. QVOD. NOXSIAM NOCVIT. DARE. DAMNAS.
18.
SEI.

Whoever

fhall

confecrate to

ESTOD.
quadrupes quadrupedis dominus
18. If a

any thing litigated, let him be puniflied by paying double the value of it. 22. PATRISFAMILIAS. QVEI. EN.
religion

]8. Si

damnum

fecertt,

DO. TESTATO.

MORITOR.

<JVOICiyE.

noxiam farcito;
fhall

SOVOS. HERES.

NEC. ESCIT. ACNAPEC^V-

aut quod noxiam nocuit dare damnatusefio.

TOS. PROXSVMOS.

damage, let ped repair the damage; or

do any quadruped the owner of the quadrulet

FAMILIAM. HABETO, NIAMCL^'E.

2 2. Patrisfamilias, qui intejiatb mo-

him

be fentenced to deliver That, which
caufed the damage. AVT. MOLIER. ALTER. 19. SEI. VIR. ALTEREI. NONTIOM. MISEIT. DEVORSIOM. ESTOD. MOLIER. RES. SOVAS.

ritm; cuique fuus heres nee erit, agnatus proximus familiam., pecuniamque habeto.

22-

When
let

dies inteftate,

blood,
feffions.

HABETO. VIR. MOLIEREI. CLAVEIS. ADIMITOD. EXICITOCiVE.
SIBEI.

ther's fide

the mafter of a fainily and without heirs of his the next of kin by the fahave his flaves, and pof-

vir 19. Si

aut

mulier

alter alteri

23. LEIBERTO. Q\'EI. EN. DO. TES-

nuntium
res

fuM

: Mulier mifcrit, divortium ejlo ftbi habeto \ vir tnulieri claves

TATO.

MORITOR.

Q}'0IQ3'E- SOVOS.

admito

ejiicitoueq.

HERES. NEC. ESCIT. PATRONOS. HERES. ESTOD.
23. Liberie^

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS,

333

merit itr., ctii23. Liber to, quiintejlatb beres nee erit, patromis heres que funs
efto.

FORATOS. SIET. DVPLIONE. POENAM. LVITO.
26. Si quis doli malifraiidifve fufpecttis

23.
ate,
let his

When

a freed

man

dies

intefl:-

in

ttiteld Jit,

and without

heirs

of his blood,

deferto.

Ubi

ejus qui volet nomen detulerit, ft doli mali ar-

patron be his

heir.

COHEREDES. PARTEM. RESOVAM. HABERE. MALONT. FAMILIAE. ERCISCVNDAE.
24. SEI.

guerit, praetor eum cumflagitio removclo. Ajl fi tutor rem pupilli furatusfit, du-

ROM.

SINCOLEI.

plione

poenam

luito.

ARDITROM. SVMONTO. EIQVE. lOVS. PERMIAREITRIOMQVE. REROM. TVNTO.
24. Si coheredes partem rertim finguli fuam habere malunt, familiae ercifcendae arbitrumfunmnto, eiquejits arbi-

26. If any one is fufpefted of deceit, or fraud in a guardianfliip, let

any

perfoii,

who

will, fue
if

he has

fued

him,

him After he proves him
:

guilty of the deceit,

let

the praetor

remove him with ignominy.

But, if

a guardian has robbed his ward, let

triumque rerum permittunto. 24. If coheirs chufe to have each their own fhare of the inheritance, let

him be punilhed by paying double
damages.
27. SEI. CiyiS.

INIOVRIAM. ALTER!.

them take an
fion of
it,

arbitrator for the divilet

and

them leave

10

him

FAXSJT. XXV. AERIS. POENAE. SVNTO. 27. Si quis injur iam alter i fecerit^
poenae funto. 27. If any one fhall do an injury to another, let the punifhment be
aeris "jiginti qui?jque librae

the right, and arbitration concerning the inheritance. PRODICOS. SIET. •25. SEI. Q^'IS.

PRAETOR.

EI. BONEIS. SOVEIS. EN. DO. TERDEICITO. EN. DO. (iVE. EO.

twenty

five

pounds of brafs.

EIVS. ACNATOROM. CEN'iriLEOMQyE. POTESTAS. ESTOD.

PEQVNIAQVE.

28. SEI. MEMBROM. RVPSIT. NEI. CVM. EO. PACIT. TALIO. ESTOD. 28. Si ntembrum ruperit,
pagit, talio efto. 28. If a perfon fhall
tii

cum

eo

25. Si quis prodigus fit, praetor bonis fuis inter dicito ; inque eo peciiniaejto.

ei

que ejus agnatorum gentiliumque potejias

25. If any one is prodigal, let the the ufe of his forpraetor forbid him

by the and thofe of the fame ther's fide, mily have power over him, and
tune
;

and

let his relations

fa-

fa-

his

pofTefTions. 26. SEI.

QVIS.DOLEI. MALEI. CALPAEVE. SVSPECTOS. EN. DO. TOTELA. SIET. EIVS. QVEI. VOLET. NOMEN. DEFERTO. VBEI. DETOLERIT. SEI, DOLEI. MALEI. ARCVESIT. PRAETOR. IM. CVM. FLACITIO. REMOVETOD.
AST. SEI.

break the limb of another, and does not agree with him, let retaliation take place. 29. QVEI. NOX. FORTOM. FAXSIT. SEI. IM. ALIQVIPS. OCISIT. lOVRE. CAESOS. ESTOD. SEI. LOVCI. FORTOM. FAXSIT. TELOQVE. SE. PR AEHENDI ER. PROHIBESIT. SEI. IM. ALIQVIPS. OCISIT. lOVRE. CAESCS. ESTOD. AST. SE-I. LOVCI. FORTOM. FAXSIT. NEQVE. TELO. SE. PR AEHENDIER. PROHIBESIT.

SEI.

LEBER. SIET. PRAETOR. IM. VERBERARIER. lOVBETOD. EIQVE.QVOI. FORTOM. FAXSIT. ADEICITO. SEI.

TOVTOR.

REM. POPILEI.

SERVOS. SIET. VIRCEIS. CAESOS. EX. SAXSO. DEICITOR. SEI. IMPOSES. SIET.

PRAE-

334

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
V2RBEfi

OF

Book XI.

PRAETORIS. ARBITRATVV. RATOS. NOXSIAM. SARCITO.
29.
diquis
luce
occidetit.

dum
erit.

ne quid adverfum ejus ftatnm fu-

^i no£fu furtum feceril,
Jure
caefus

eum
Si

ejio.

31. Let it.be lawful for that mar> to be fold for a flave, who is ordered

furtum fecerit^ teloque fe prebend: prohibueritt fi eum aliquis ccciderit, jure
caefits eflo
:

Sed fi luce furtum fecerit,
liber

frehendi prohibuerit^fi neque fit, praetor eum verberarijubeto; eique cui furtum fecerit, addicito : Si fervus
fit,

tela fe

by his mailer's will to be made free upon fome condition not yet performed provided nothing is done to difable him from performing that con;

dition.

Si ex faxo dejicitor. arbitratu verbeimpiiber fit, praetoris ratus noxiamfarcito. fhall rob in the If a
virgis caefus,

DE JURE PUBLICO.
Of
I.

public right.

perlbn 29. one fhall kill him, let night, and any If he be warranted by law. his death
_

REM. VBEI. PACONT. ORANTO NEI. PACONT. ANTE. MEDIDIEM. EN'.
DO. COMITIO. AVT.
EN. DO. FORO.

fhall

rob by day, and make
to
if

ufe of a

weapon

prevent his being appre:

CAVSAM. CONICIVNTO. POST. MEDIDIEM. PRAESETED. AMBOBOS. LEITEM.
ADEICITO. SOL. OCASOS. TEMPi-xTAS. ESTOD.
I.

hended, any one fhall kill him, let But, his death be warranted by law if he fliall rob by day, and not make ufe of a weapon to prevent his being is a free man, let apprehended, if he order him to be whipped ; the
praetor

SOPRE.MA.

Rem

ubi pagunt,

cranio:

Ni pa-

gunt,

ante meridiem in comitio, out in

foro caufam

Poft meridiem, agunto. praefentibus ambobus, litem addicito. Sol
occafus fuprema tempejlas eflo. 1. If the parties agree, let

and deliver him over as a (lave to the If he is a flave, let perfon he robbed him be whipped, and call down the
:

them

Tarpeian rock.

If he

is

not arrived

to manhood, let him be whipped at the difcretion of the praetor, and repair the damage. PER. LANCEM. LICI30. FORTA.

pray judgement according to that agreement If they do not agree, let them plead their caufe before noon in the comitium, or in the forum. In the
:

afternoon, let the praetor give judgement in the prefence of both parties.

OMQVE. CjONCEPTA. VTEI. MANIFESTA. VINDICATO. lancem licitimque con30. Fur taper
vindicato. cepta, ut manifejla, Let him puniih thefts,

Let

the fetting of the fun be the laft

hour.
2. ASIDVO. VINDEX. ASIDVOS. ESTOD. PROLETARIO. QVOI. QVEIVIS. VOLET. VINDEX. ESTOD. 2 Affiduo vindex affiduus efio : PrO'
.

30. the goods are found

when

upon

a fearch, in

the fame
9 1.

manner

as if
fa6t.

the thief had

Jetivio cui quivis lolet,
2.

vindex

eflo.

been taken in the

STATOLOBEROM. VENOM. DARIER. LICETO. DVM. NEI. QVID. ASVORSOM. ElVS. STATOM. FVAT.
libenm venuni dari 31. Statu
liceto;

Let a rich man be bail for a rich man and let any one, who will, be bail for a poor man. 3. QVEI. SE. SEIERIT. TESTARIER. LIBRIPENSVE.FVERIT. NEI. TESTIMONIOM.
•,

BookXr.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
7.

335

NIOM. FARIATOR. IMPROBOS. INTESTABELISQVE. ESTOD.
,^«/ fe fiver it tejlari., libripenfve fucrit, ui (ejlimoftium fart velit, impro-

If

any one

fhall

pubiifh (lander,

or write verfes to the defamation of
another, let the offence be capital. 8. QVEI. PERDVELEM. CONCITASIT.

3

.

bus inteftabilifque
3.

efto.

Whoever
ot"

has

fufFered himfelf

QVEIVE. CEIVEM. PERDVELEI. TRANSDVIT. KAPITAL. ESTOD.
8.

to be cited as a

weigher

money, and
lee

witnefs, or been a refufes to give

^i perduellem concitaverit, quive
againft the Romans, or a citizen to an let

his teftimony, a wirnefs.

him be deemed

a

civem perduelli iradiderit, capital ejio. 8. Whoever fhall excite an enemy
to

wicked man, and incapable of being

make war
up

deliver

enemy,

PATRONOS. CLIENTEI. FRAVDEM. FAXSIT. PATRONOS. CLIENTIS. DEIVEIS. SACER. ESTOD.
4.

SEI.

the oftence be capital.
9. PREIVILECIA. NEI. IROCANTO, NEI. VE. DE. KAPITE. CEIVIS. NISEI.

4. Si

pa tronus clienti fraiidem fecerit,
a

MAXSVMO. COMITIATVV. FERVNTO.
9.

pa tr onus client is divis facer eflo.
4. If
client,
let

Privilegia ne irroganto, neve de

defraud his patron the patron of fuch client be
ftiall
t)

capite civis ni/i
9.

maximo comitiatuferunto, Let them enaft no private laws,

confecrated to the gods.

ORCTEI. 5. NEXSO. SOLVTOQVE. SANATEIQVE. EIDEM. lOVS. ESTOD. 5. Nexo fo!tt toque, forSli fanatique
idem jus
eflo.

nor try a citizen for his life, otherwife than in the greateft comitiatus.
10. PATREBOS. CVM. PLEBED. coNVBIA. NEI. SVNTO.
10. Patribus

cumplebeconnubia nefunto,

the debtor, who is in bond5. age, enjoy the fame right with him, who is releafcd and the ftranger, who

Let

Let there be no intermarriages between the patricians, and the ple\o.

•,

beians.
11. lOVSVS. POPLEI.

returns to his duty, enjoy the fame right with the Roman, who never fell

SOFRACIAQVE.

SVNTO. OyODCVOMQyE. POSTREMOM.
POPLOS. lOVSIT. ID. lOVS.RATOMQVE.

from
6.

it.

PEQVNIAM. QVEI. NANCITOR. HABETO. SEI. QVID. PICNORIS. NANCITOR. SIBEI. HABETO.
6. Pecuniam qui nancifcitiir, habeto Si quid pjgnoris nancifcitur, fibi habeto. 6. If a perfon has acquired any
:

ESTOD.
1 1
.

^odcumque pojlremum popuhis jujft,
jus ratumque
1 1.

Jufjus populi fuffrcgiaque funto. id
ejio.

Let there be

a

command, and
Whatever
laft,

fuffrages of the people.

the

him have them It he has acquired any pledge, let him have
pofleflions,
let
:

people fhall

command

let

that ht

law, and valid.
12. QVEI. lOVDEX. QVEIVE. ARBITER. lOVREDATOS. OB. REM. lOVDIKANDAM. PEQVNIAM. CEPET. KAPITAL. ESTOD.
1

it

to himfelf.

OCENTASIT. CASQVIS 7. SEI. CONDVIT. QVOD. ALTERI. MENVE. FLACITIOM.FAXSIT.KAPITAL. ESTOD.
Si quis occentarit, carmenve condiderit, quod alteri flagitium fecerit, ca7.

2

.

^d judex, quive arbiter jure djrem jttdicandam pecuniam
eflo.

tus ob

ceperit^

pital ejio.

capital

12. If

36
12. If

ROMAN

ANTIQ^UITIES OF
let

BookXi.
in

any judge, or arbitrator appointed by lav/ fhall take money for a judgement to be given, let the crime be capital. 13. QVEI. FALSOM. TESTIMONIOM. DIXSERIT. EX. SAXSO. DEICJTOR.
1 3 ^ii fdfum tejlimonium dixerit, ex faxo dejicitor. 13. It any one fhall give a falfe
.

him be amerced
l8. SEI.

four times the

fum.
(i\'IS. EX. LEIBERTATED. SERVITVTEM. ASERITOR. PRAETOR. SECVNDVM. LEIBERTATEM. VINDICIAS. DATOD. QVEI. VINDICIAS.

IN.

DV.

TOLLIT. SPONSORES. lOVDICIO. TIER. DATOD.

SIS-

teftimony, the Tarpeian rock.
14.

let

him be thrown down

18. Si quis ex liber tate in fcrvituiem ajferitur, praetor fecundum libertatem
vindic'ias

data,

^i
flave,

vindicias

tcllit.,

QVEI.

PLVVS. CAVSA. CADITO.
14.

ADORAT. LEGE. SET. PETET. QVAM. lOVS. SIET.
ft plus petet

fponfores judiciojijii data. 18. If any one fuppofed to
is

be

free,

^i agit lege,

quam

a jus fit, calif cadi 1 0. 14. If a fuitor
caufe.
15. lOVRIS.

the praetor decree the pofTefTion in favor of liberty: And let the man, who has obtained
let

claimed as a

prays for more than the law allows, let him lofe his

this

decree for

the

pofTcfTion,
at

give
the

fureties to
trial.
.,>,

produce the perfon

CENDAM.
ESTOD.

lOVRANDI. AD. STRINFIDEM. MAXSVMA. VIS.

19.

A.iy/BITOS.

PARIETIS. SESTPR-

T)OS. PEs. ESTOD. 19. Ambitus parietis fejlertius pes
efto.

15. Jiirisjurandi maxima vis ejlo.
1

ad jlringendamfidem
greatefl:

5.

Let an oath be of the

19. Let there be a fpace of two feet and a half round the outer wall of

force to infure credit.
16. QVEI. CALIM. EN. DO. VRBE. NOX. COIT. COIVERIT. KAPITAL. ES-

every houfe.

DE JURE SACRORUM.
Laws concerning
religious rites.
I. PRAECO. FONVS. ENDEICITO. DOMINOS. FONERIS. EN. LVDEIS. ACENSO. LICTOREBOSQ^'E. OETITOR. EN. DO. FONERE. TR IBOS. RICINIEIS. RICA. PORrOREA. DECEMQ^'^E. TIBICINEBOS.OETIER. LICETO. HOC. PLVVS. NEI. FACITO. I Praeco funus indicito. Dominus
.

TOD.
1

6.

^d

clam in urbe no5lu
aflembles,

coit, coi-

verit, capital ejlc.

16.

Whoever

or fhall

alTemble in the city privately in the let the crime be capital.
night,

FOENOSE. NEI. QVIS. IJ. VNCIASIO. PLVVS. EXSERCEROD. SEI. Q\MS. ALIVTA. FAXSIT. QVADRVPLIONE. POENAM. LVITO. 1 Unciarw foenore ne quisplus exer7.
ceto.

Si quis aliter fecerit, quadruplione
luito.

funcris in ludis accenfo li5loribufque utitor. In funere tribus riciniis, ricd pur-

poenam
1

purea,
intercfl

dccemque

tibicinibus

uti liceto,

7.

Let no man take more

Hoc

for

per cent, every month. If any one fhall do otherwife,

money than one

plus nefacilo. Let the cryer proclaim the funeral. Let the mafter of the funeral,
i.

in

BookXI.
in the
officer,

DIONYSIUS H ALICARNASSENSIS.
funerals
:

Z17

game?, make ufe of a public Let it be lawful and livflors. for him to make ufe of three fquare mantles in ihe funeral, a purple fillet for the head, and ten players on the flute. Let him do no more than this. 2. SERVILIS. VNCTVRA. CIRCOM-

any perfon were faltened with gold, let none be impeached for burying, or burnin"

But,

if the teeth

of

him with
6.

that gold.

MORTVO. OSA. NEI. LECITO. OyO. POST. FONVS. FA<;iAT.
EXSTRA. QVAM. SEI. QVIS. FORIS. MILITIAEQVE. MORTVOS. SIET.
ne legito, quo pojlca fiimts faciat ; quam Ji quis foris mitiiiaeqiie mortuusftt. 6. Let none gather up the bones of a dead body in order to make a funeojfa 6.

HOMINI.

POTATIOQVE. OyOM.FONVS. EXSEQVIANTOR. VINEI. VE. RESPERSIO. NEI. FVAT. ACERAS. SEPOLCREIS. AVT. LOXGAS. KORONAS. NEI. EN. DO. PO-

Ikmini morluo

extra

MTO.
2
.

Servilis

unHura, circumpotatioque,

qiiuinfinms exequiaiiiur, '-jitiive refperfio ue fiat. Acerr as fepukhris, aut longas

afterwards ; unlefs the perfon died abroad, and in war.
ral

coroans nc mponiio. 2. Let not the body of a flave be

anointed ; let there be no drinking round. a dead bo Jy, when they perform the funeral rites, nor fprinkling of wine. Let none place altars with perfumes, orfeftoonson the fepulchres. 3. MVRIN'AM. MORTVO. NEI. ENDITO. 3. Mttrinam mortiio ne indito. 3. Lee none pour wine mixed with precious ointment into dead bodies. 4. PLVSA. FONERA. VNEI. NEI. FACITO. NEI. VE. PLVSEIS. LECTOS. EN.
DO. FERTO.
4.
pliires

7. HOMINEM. MORTVOiVr. FN. DO. VRBE. NEI. SEPELITO. NEI. VE. VRITO. 7. Hcminem mortuum in urbe ne fepelito,
7.

neve urito.

Let none bury, or burn
in the city.

a

dead

body
8.

ROCOM. ASCIA. NEI. POLITO.
Let none
of a

Rogt'jn afcid ne polito. polifli the billets funeral pile with a
8.

8.

plane.

9.

ROCOM. BVSTOM. VE. NOVOM.

PROPIVS. AEDEIS. ALIENAS. LX. PEDEIS. INVEITO. DOMINO. NEI. ADICITO. NEI. VE. FOROM. SEPOLCREI.

Plura fun era uni
le£ios inferto.

m fact to
:

:

Neve

BVSTOM. VE. OESOCAPITO. 9. Rogttm hujlumve novum propius
cedes alienas fexaginta pedes invito domino ne adjicito : Neve forum fepulchri

4.

Let none make more than one

Nor carry one perfon more than one bier in the funeral profuneral for
ceffion.
5.

hujiumve ufucapito.
or a
ereft a funeral pile, fepulchre, nearer to another's houfe than fixty feet, without leave of the owner : Neither let one
9.

Let no one

new

NEI. VE. AVSOM. ADVITO. AST.

AVSO. DENTEIS. VINCTEI. QVOISIENT. IM. CVM. OLO. SEPELIRE. VRERE. VE. SE. FRAVDED. LICETO. cut auro 5. Neve aiirum addito : Sed
dentes vinSii ftnt,

any

enjoy

the porch of a fepulchre, or the fe-

pulchre
10.

itfelf,

by

prefcription.

eum cum ilk Jepelire
ufe of gold in

QVOM. FONVS. EXFERTOR. NEI. ENCOMITIATO.
10.
tiato.

itrerevejine fraude liceto.
5. Let none make Vol. IV.

Sliium

funits exfertur,

ne incomi-

XX

10. Whitft

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
10. Whilft the funeral
is

OF

Book

XL

proceed-

ing through the city, let not the comitia be held.

quumque foris esfertur, impofita fme fraude ejlo. 1 3 If any one had obtained a crown
pofitus
eff,
.

MOLIERES. FACIEM. NEI. CARPVNTO. NEI. VE. CENAS. RADVNTO. LESOM. FONERIS. NEC. HABENTO.
11.

himlelf,

or his (laves, or horfes for

faciem ne carpunt ; neve genas radunto : Lejfum funeris ergo
nee habento.
11.

II. Mulieres

him, let it be given to him on account of his merit And, after he is dead, let the crown be placed on his, and his father's head with impunity, as well
:

vvhilft

Let not women
their

fcratch

their

as

when

the body remains in the houfe, it is carried out to be buried.
a great controverfy

faces; nor tear ufe lamentations
neral.

cheeks;

nor
a fu-

on account of

There has been

12.

HONORATOROM. VIROROM.

among
fenfe
it

the

learned
laft

concerning the
'

of the

law. I have tranllated

LAVDES. EN. DO. CONTIONE. MEMORANTOR. EASQVE. NAENIAE. AD. TIBICINEM. PROSEQVVNTOR. 12. Honoraiorum virorum laudes in condone memorantor ; eafque naeniae ad
tibicinem profequuntor. 12. Let the praifes

of honoured be difplayed in an aflembly of the people and let mournful fongs,

according to That, which Pliny has given to it-, and, according to him alfo, I have laid, in the lawitfelf, pecmiiave, inftead o^ pecuniaeve; and virtulis, inftead of virtutisv.e. By this means, the law becomes intelligible, which it was not before. I have,
alfo, faid in the

men

-,

ftead of parentakbofque,

law, parentibtifque, inand have xtn-

accompanied with
praifes.

a flute, attend thofe

dered pareniibus, hy parent:, upon the " authority of Cicero, who, in explaining this law, fays, et ejus parenti. The reader will find that, in tranflating thefe laws, I have given a fenfe
to

13. QVEI.KORONAM. PARET. IPSVS. PEQVNIA. VE. EIVS. VIRTVTIS. DIDITOR. IPSEIQVE. MORTVO. PARENTIBVSQVE. EIVS. QVOM. ENTVS. POSITOS. EST. QyOMQVE. FORIS. EXFERTOR.IMPOSITA. SE. FRAVDED. ESTOD.
1 coronam pararit ipfe^ pecu3 niave ejus, virtutis ergo dator ei : Ipfique moriuo, ei parenti ejus, quuin intus
.

many

paflages in them, that
at firft fight
;

may
but,

feem
if

uncommon

^i

he pleafes to confult the interpretations, which the civilians have given to thefe paflages, I believe he will find

my tranftacion
u

to be juftified
c.

by them,

«

Nat. Hill. B.xxi.c. 3.

DeLegib.B.ii.

24.

* * * But
the

it

behooved

me

neither to

make no mention of
in

Roman

laws,

which we

find written

the twelve

tables, fince

they are fo venerable in themfelves, and fo far fuperior to Thofe of the Greeks, nor to extend the account of them further than was neceiTary.

XLV.

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.

339

XLV.
perfons,

After the fubverfion of the decemvirate, the firft who were inverted with the confular dignity by the

an affembly of the centuries, being, as I faid, people in Lucius Valerius Potitus, and Marcus Horatius Barbatus, thefe magiftrates, who were themfelves of a popular difpofition,

and had inherited

thefe principles

from

their anceftors,

adhering to the promifes they had

when
their

they perfuaded
^^

them

to lay

made to the plebeians, down their arms, that, in
intereft

whole adminiftration, they would confult the

of

the people,
ries,

which I were patricians

enabled feveral laws, in the aflemblies by centuneed not take any notice of, and with which the

but particularly

though afhamed to oppofe them, That, which ordains that the laws, pafled by
dilTatisfied,
all

the people in their aflemblies by tribes, fhould bind
*7iii

the

No//«f iw^ucccv
'''

«^.^sf

n

rivoii

Thefc laws are fet from whom I fhall forth by Livy, tranfcribe them. The firft, after That already mentioned by our author, reftored the appeal to the people from the magiftrates, which the decemvirs had abolifhed, and made it capital for
a SiofAoci y^xi^en.

in by M. Duilius, one of the tribunes, and paffed: By this it was enafted that, whoever left the

was brought

people without

their tribunes, and created a magiftrate without an appeal to the people, fhould be and

whipped,

beheaded.

1

M.

Duilius deinde tribunus
;

plebis plebem
<iui

rogaviiy plehque fcivit

any perfon to create any magiftrate Ne quis without an appeal to them.
ullum magijlratum fine provocntio7te ereeum jus fafque effet aret : crcajfet, occidi : Neve ea caedes capitalis noxae

plebem fine tribunis

reliquijfet, qiiique

magijlratum fine provocatione
tergo el capite puniretur.

creaffety

Thus we

fee

^i

that the

that, from this time, there lay an appeal to the people, even from the didtators. The fccond re-

baberetur.

So

not only brave enough to bring about a revolution, by which tyranny v/as aboliftted, but
alfo wife enough to affert thtir liberty in the plaineft, and ftrongeft terms, and to fecure it at once with all the

Romans were

lated to the renovation of an old law, "our author, in virtue mentioned

by of which the perfons of the tribunes were to be held facred. The third law
*
B.
iJi.

precautions, that wifdom could fuggeft, or a regard to themlelves,and
their

pofterity, infpire.
89.
'

c.

55.

'See the

fixth

book,

c

X

Livy, B.

iii.

c.

55.

X 2

Romans

340

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
diflindion, and have the

OF

BookXI.

Romans without

fame force with
:

Thofe, which fliould be pafled in the affemblies by centuries And the appointed againft fuch, as (liould abropunifliments
this law, if convided thereof, were death, gate, or tranfgrefs and the confifcation of their fortunes : This law put an end

to the cavils

the

made ufe of, before, by the patricians againft when they refufed obedience to the laws enplebeians,

abled by the latter, and would not allow, upon any account, that Thofe paffed in the afiemblies by tribes, were binding to the whole body of the commonwealth, but only to the

but allowed that they themfelves, as well as the plebeians ; reft of the citizens, were concluded by the refolutions of the centuries. It was obferved before that, in the aifemblies

by

afiemblies by tribes, the plebeians, and the poorer fort were to the patricians; but, in the afiemblies by cenfuperior
turies, the patricians,

though

far lefs

numerous, were fupe-

rior to the plebeians.

being enaded by the confuls, together with fome others of a popular nature, immediately the tribunes, looking upon this as a proper time to punifli Ap-

XLVI. This law

pius,

and

his collegues, refolved to
all

fummon them

to appear

might affift one For they concluded that, by this another, but one by one means, they would the more eafily be brought to juftice. to begin They confidered whicli of them it was moft proper was odious with, and determined to try Appius firft, who
before the people, not
together, left they
:

to the people

on account both of his other crimes, and of the outrages he had lately been guilty of with regard to
Virginia :

BookXI.
Virginia:

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN A S S E N S IS.
For they judged
that, if they

341

convided him, they

get the better of the others ; whereas, if they fhould begin with thofe of a lower rank, they imagined that the refcntnient of the citizens,. which is always more violent

fhould

c-aiily

would grow languid with regard to the moft confiderable men, if thefe fliould be tried laft, which had often happened before. Having refolved upon this, to be fecured; and appointed they ordered the decem.virs
in the firft contefts,

of Appius, without drawing lots. Virginius to be the accufer After that, Appius, being cited before the tribunal ot the
people
in their

to

anfwer an

accufation, exhibited

affembly by Virginius, himfelf for his defence ;.. but, being committed to cuftody till he fhould be tried (for he was not allowed to be bailed)

againft him defired time to prepare

he was put to death in prifon before the day appointed for his trial, as it was generally fufpedled, by order of the tribunes; but others, who defired to wipe off this afperiion, "^ After him, Spiirius hanged himfelf. gave out that he Oppius was brought before the people by Publius Numitorius,

another of the tribunes; and, being allowed to

make

was unanimoufly condemned; fent to prifon, and put to death the fame day The reft of the decemvirs puniOied themfelves by a voluntary exile, before they were accufed ; and the quaefcors confifcated the fortunes both of
his defence,
:

thofe
-*
*

who had
'iuulov

been put to death, and of thofe
^^o^^cf.

who had
:

fled.

Ai/7of

civc.ply,c-oeixevoi;

put himfelf to death
di£fa
dies
adejfet,

Priufqtiam pro-

I.,ivy

does not fay
in

affirms,

fo

how many words,

he died

but , that he
^B.
iii.

Appius jibi mortem

confcivit.
c.

58.

Marcus

342

UOMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
:

Book XI.

perAs for the others, who had been the banifhment. petual inftruments of the decemvirs in any iniquitous adion, none

Marcus Claudius, who had attempted to take away Virginia, as his flave, wasalfo accufed by IciHus her fpoufe However, the fault onAppius,who had ordered him to commit by laying that crime, he efcaped death.; but was condemned to

were brought to a public trial ; but an impunity was granted Marcus Duilius, one of the tribunes, was the to them all.
author of
meafure, the citizens being already and expeding to be treated like enemies.
this
diilatisfied,

the domeftic troubles were appeafed, the confuls aflembled the fenate, and procured a decree to be pafTed impowering againft the enemy

XLVII. After

them to lead oi'.t the forces immediately and the people having confirmed the ;

decree of the fenate, Valerius, one of the confuls, marched againft the Aequi, and the Volfci, with one hah of the army

two nations had joined their forces) and, knowing that the Aequi were elated with their former fucccflcs, and entertained a great contempt of the Roman army, he had a mind to encreafe their prefumption, and confidence, by infufing into them a falfe opinion that he apprehended an
(for thefe

ingagement, and affeded in his whole condud the appearance of fear For he placed his camp upon an eminence of difficult accefs ; furrounded it with a deep ditch, and fortified
:

with high paliladcs; and, when the enemy provoked him to battle, which they often did, and reproached him with
it

cowardife, he bore

it

with patience, and remained quiet:

But, after he had received intelligence that their beft forces

were

BookXI,

DIONYSIUS HALI C A RN ASSENSIS.
territories

343

guard the camp, were neither many in number, nor good troops, he thought this a proper opportunity to execute his defign; and, leading out
to
his

were marched out to lay wafte the and the Latines, and that thofe left

of the Hernici,

army

in order of battle,

he advanced with an intent to

ingage; but none coming out to encounter him, he remained
quiet that day
:

The day

after,

he led

his

army

to their

When the forces, that camp, which was not very ftrong. "' were before gone out to lay wafte the country, heard that their camp was befieged, they appeared, though not in a
body, and in good order, but fcattered, and in fmall parties, As foon as thofe in the every one coming up as h'* could
:

camp faw
fallied

their

own men^dvancing,

they took courage, and

many

out in a body. Upon this, a great battle infued, and fell on both fides : The Romans, gaining the
vidlory,

put to flight thofe, with
others prifoners.

whom
as

hand; and, purfuing fuch

they were ingaged hand to fled, killed fome, and made
laid

After this victory, Valerius overrun the
it

enemy's country with impunity, and

wafte.

the other flde, Marcus Horatius, who had been fent againft the Sabines, hearing of the exploits of his

XLVIII.

On

and prefently advanced with all his forces againft the enemy, who were not inferior to him in number, and perfedlly acquainted with
collegue,
his

marched out of

camp

alfo,

^9*

Tij? ;\^wf«?.

So we

mud

read

E^nKwv

this,

or

which

inftead of ts «fsof, ftands in all the editions, and
Tt;y

yyii,

manufcripts j becaufe our author before told us that the forces of the ene-

n xoet Aoilivuv ytjc, and never mentioned any town they propofed to And if he had, he would befiege never have called it «s-u, but jxyohiv ; and even to this, stti r»i sr^ovofjiXfj is,
:

my

were gone out tm

jirgovc^>i»

T>jf

in

no degree,

applicable.

the

344

ROMAN ANTKVUITIES
:

OF

Book XI.

fought with fpirit, and o-reat boldnefs, the confcquence of their former vi6lorics; and particularly their commander, who was not only a good o-ene-.
all

the art of war

For they

ral,

but alfo a

man of perfonal

bravery: However, theRomaii

horfe behaving themfelves with diftinguiflied courage, the conful obtained a mofi: illuftrious vidory, killing of

many

the enemy, and taking more of them prifoners; he alfo made himfelf mafler of their camp, which they had abahdoned, and in which he found all their baggage, and all the

booty they had taken in their excurfions into the territories of the Romans ; and here he found, and recovered a great number of his own people, who had been taken prifoners
:

For the Sabines defpifed the

Roni'^^ns fo far,

that

they had

not fent away their booty before the battle. All the effeds, therefore, of the Sabines he diflributed among the foldiers,

he had feledled fuch a part of them, as he defigned to confecrate to the gods ; and the booty, which had been taken
after

from the Romans, he reflored

to the owners.

XL IX.
Rome
their

Having performed thefe things, he returned to And Valerius came thither at the with his army
: :

fame time

And

vidories,

both of them, being greatly elated with expedted illuftrious triumphs; but the
:

For the fenate afevent did not anfwer their expedlations fembling in order to defeat their views, while they lay incamped without the city in the field called the field of
Mars, and being informed of the exploits of both, would not fuffer them to perform the triumphal facrifice Many of the
:

fenators oppofed their

demand

Caius openly, and particularly
Claudius,

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
I faid,

345

Claudius, the uncle, as

of Appius,

who had

eftabliflied

the oligarchy, and lately been put to death by the tribunes : He objecled to them the laws they had enadled, by which

of the fenate, and the other they had weakened the power meafures they had taken during the whole courfe of their of all, the death of fome of the demagiftracy ; and, laft cemvirs, and the confifcation of the fortunes of others, whom
to their oaths, they had betrayed to the tribunes, contrary and to the treaties: For he faid that, by the convention

entered into upon the vidims between the patricians and the plebeians, all were intitled to an impunity, and to an

amnefty
that

Appius

for every thing that was paft. had not fallen by his own

To

this

he added

hand, but by the

taken him off before his treachery of the tribunes, who had trial, that he might not, when tried, obtain either leave
to defend himfelf, or compaffion ; which, if he had been brouQ-ht to his trial, would never have been refufed to a

man

great fervices to the commonwealth, while he implored the faith of a treaty confirmed by oaths, in confidence of which mankind achis dignity,

of

who had done many

commodate
his children,

their differences,

and

relations

and prefented himfelf, with before the people, whofe pity his

and many other circumftances could very habit of a fuppliant, All thefe accufations having been not have failed to excite.

thrown out
nators,

againft the confuls
prefent,

who were

by Caius Claudius, the feconcluded that they ought to
:

content themfelves with not being punifhed Vol. IV. y

But

that they

Y

had

346

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
leaft

OF

BookXI.

had not the
L.

pretence

to a triumph,

or to any other

favors of that nature.

The

fenate having rcjeded the
his colleguc

demand of

a triumph,

Valerius,

and

were

looking upon themfelves to, bled the people ; and, after

of refentment; and, be highly affronted, they aflemfull

many

inveclives againft the fe-

nate, they obtained the triumph from the former ^° which the tribunes propofed in their favor, and
3°'

by a law, were the

TIpuloi Vu'uaiuv diTdtlccv tkIo

«a-t)-

Glareanus, and, after without naming the him, have obferved that our author former, contradicts himfeh" here ; becaufe he had faid, before, that Servilius obyy,(rotfjLivoi

to sSc?.

M. ***,

not at all furprifed that M. * * * fhould think that our author contradids himfelf; becaufe he has added to
I

am

fixth

tained the honor of a triumph from the people after the fenate had reluled it. But this is a miftake in both thofe

words quoted by me from the book thofe which follow, and for which there is not the leaft authority in the Greek text; quefes belles
the

anions
les

— rautcrifent a recevoir du peuple
it is

honneiirs que
that,

authors

:

For

Servilius did not obtain

So

le fenat hi a refujes. not Dionyfius, who con-

his triumph, like Valerius and tius, by virtue of a vote paffed

Horaby the

tradidls

who

he people; but, as he fays himfelf, derived the power of triumphing trom
his

himfelf; but his tranflator, has mifled himfelf. But the triumph of thefe confuls is attended with another difficulty, which muft not bii
paiTed over in filence.

own exploits, and
ziT^a^fu'v,

the army,
;

which

The

Fafti

Cathe

had ferved under him
kavx
xai
its

""i^^j vsa^a. tuiM

pitoljni

cvvayuvKrauiv^i

ides of

make Valerius triumph on the month Scxtilis, that is,
;

the

27th of the Julian Auguft

The people did not indeed contradift him, and even attended his triumph, but they pafled no vote in favor of it. Thefe two caffs, therefore, are very different i and we find not only by our
author, but alfo byi'Livy, that Valerius and Horatius were the firft perfons, who triumphed by the order ot
the people, without the authority of the fenate : Turn primum, fine auSiorilate Jemtus,fopilijuffii trimnphatitm eft.
'

ratius

on the feventh

ot the kalends

and Hoof

September, that is, the Icventh of the Julian September, in the year of Rome 304, according to that computation, which is the 305th of Varro, and the 306th of our author, and ofCato: The confequence of all this is, that, according to the two firft, they triumphed during the third year of the
decemvirate, or more properly before the expiration of it ; in other words.
B.
iii. c.

B. vi. c. 30.

63.

firft

Book XI.
firfl:

DION Y
the

S

I

U

S

H A L I C A R N A S S E N S I S.
this

347

Romans, who introduced and gave occafion to frefh difputes,
of
all
that the third year of the decemvirate, and the year of thefe confuls was one
as

cuftom.

This
urged

accufixtions

he contends, the ides of December had been the ftated time for the confuls

and the fame

This opinion, year. find, Doviwell has embraced ; and yet
1

to entfer

upon

their

magiftracy,
laid

our author needed not to have

brought, many arguments may both from our author and Livy, in oppofition to it, and in fupport of That, which Dionyfius has adopted ; namely, that the year of this conlullliip was dillincSl from, and fubfequ;nt tu, thelaft year of the decemvirate Even Dodwell himfelf is forced to have re:

be

that the confuls of the year 312 enBut tered upon theirs on that day.

not improbable that thefe confuls were chofen later than ufual ; becaufe,
it is

the year before, there had been firft military tribunes, who, being deterred

by fome omens, abdicated their magiftracy, after they had held it only feventy three days: Upon their abdication, the fenate, according to cuftom,
chofe inCcrreges, who referred it to the determination of the people whether they would chufe military tribunes, or
confuls

courfe to two fuppofitions in order to maintain the computation of Varro I call them fuppofitions, bscaufe they are not in fa6l founded on the authority
:

•,

of any author The firfl: is, that Valerius, and Horatius entered upon their magiftracy on the ides of DecemAnd ber of the Varronian year 305 the fecond, that this year, which he the ides of May in the fays began on
:

and they refolving to chufc ; confuls, the patricians ftood candidates
for this magiftracy,

Varronian year 304, comprehended 18 months. Nothing lefs than thefe

two aflumptions was
port
this opinion. I

neceff^ry to fupown indeed that

two of whom were All thele things, I fay, may probably, have occafioned the confuls of the following year to be chofen, and confequently to enter upon their I fhall, magiftracy later than ufual.
chofen.

the confuls of the year

312 entered

upon their magiftracy on the ides of ' December, as our author fays exprefsly.

now, proceed to fliew that the third, and laft year of the decemvirate was complete before Valerius, and Horatius were chofen confuls, and confequently that the year of their confuldid not coincide with the laft fliip of the decemvirate. There are year both in our author, many paffages,

From whence Dodwell

con-

cludes that Valerius, and Horatius entered upon theirs at the fame time His reafon is, becaufe Dionyfius does
:

not fay that the former were the

firfl

and

entered upon their magiconfuls, on the ides of December. But, ftracy I think, this argument may be turned him For, if, from the year 306,

who

upon

:

Livy, that infinuate this very ftrongly ; but I fhall only quote one from each, which do fomething more ; they prove it. The firft ftiall be taken from the fpeech of Virginius in '^Livy,
in
''B.
iii. c.

'B.

xi. c.

63.

Y

56.

y 2

by

348

ROxMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book XI.

againft the thing, which exafperated the But the fenate. plebeians the moft, was a jealoufy, confirmed by the artifice of the
tribunes,

by the plebeians againft the patricians; which were inflamed by the daily harangues, and invedlives of the tribunes

and encreafed by unavowed

reports,

and not a few

the patricians defigned to abolifh the laws, conjedlures, that which had been enacSted by Valerius, and his collegue ; and

a ftrong opinion of this, which was little lefs than an afThefe were furance, pofl^fi^ed the minds of the people. the tranfadions of this confulfhip. following year were ^'Larus Herminius, and Titus Verginius, who were fucceeded byLI.
confuls

The

of the

Marcus

***** ********** ********* ******** ******* ******
when he Is accufing Appius He tells him that he will pafs over all the ac:

Ge

32******************-'*

vernedthe commonwealth during three '
years
:

xxlmAvitfi

Pa)fji.caot

ti;u

t»v

<Jfx«

of wickednefs, he had been guilty of during injuftice itvo years ; Omnium igitur tibi, Appi

cumulated

adts

and

TPIA a^;^()vETH
If the

toivxcivmv fTi^6At;5«(rai'.

decemvirate governed the comthree years, the laft year

monweakh

Claudia quae impie nefariequc per biennium alia fuper alia es aufus, gratiara

muft have been complete, and confequently diftindl: from, as well as antecedent to, the year, in which Valerius, and Horatius were confuls.
Aa^oj conful Lar.
Larfius.
3»-

Thefe two years plainly relate facio. to the two laft of the decemvirate
-,

becaufe

all

authors agree that Appius

had gained univerfal applaufe by his behaviour in the firft year of his maIf, therefore, he governed the two following years, he wickedly The next o-overned thofe two years. Ihall be taken from our author, pafiage that the Romans abolithwhere he

'^Livy calls this Herminius, which the Fajii confulares of Petavius explain by
Efiwivjo?.

3>'

giftracy.

Here
of
s

is

another hiatus, which
fill

I

fhall

likewife

much

up by tranflating as as will carry us to the Livy,

fays

next chapter.
EB.

ed the decemvirate, after
'B.

it

had goffi. 111,0.65.
ill.

xi. c. I.

0.65.

[« The-

EookXr.

DIONYSIUS H A L IC A R N ASSENSIS.

349

[" The fucceeding confuls, Marcus Gegaiiius Macerinus, and Caius Julius, difperfed the cabals of the tribunes levelled
the patrician youth without impeaching the power of the former, and, at the fame time, maintained the majefty Levies having: been ordered for the war of the fenate.
againfl:

reftrained the people againft the Volfci and the Aequi, they from fcditions by forbearance ; and alfo by reprefenting to

them

that,
;

abroad
rage.

the city was quiet, every thing was quiet and that civil difcord infpired foreigners with cou-

when

Their care to maintain peace abroad was the caufe But one order always inlikewife of tranquillity at home
:

fulted the

modefty of the other.

When

the people were

began to opprefs them; and, when the tribunes endeavoured to relieve the lower fort, their endeavours were, at firft, of little effe6l ; and, at laft,
quiet, the

young

patricians

even they themfelves did not efcape violation, efpecially of their office, fince not only, during the laft months through the cabals of the powerful, injuries were done, but alfo the force of every magifiracy grows generally fomething

more languid
they

And now the end of the year fome hope from the tribunefhip, provided people derived could have tribunes like Icilius; lince Thofe of the
at the latter
:

fpirit,

had been only nominal tribunes. On the other fide, the elder fenators, though they might think their chofe rather, if there muft be youth too fierce, yet they fome excefs, that their own party fhould have too much than their adverfaries So difficult a thing is modera-

two

laft

years

:

tion in the defence of liberty, while every one,

by pretending
to

350
to

ROMAN
at

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book XI.

an equality, exalts himfelf To far as to deprefs, others; and menj by taking care to have nothing to iear,
wantonly render themfelves formidable: And thus we repel and inflid: them on others, as if injuries from ourfelves,
there was a necefTity either to do, or fuffer them. Titus Quintius Capitolinus for the fourth time,

aim

and

Agrippa Furius, the confuls of the following year, received with their magiftracy neither a domeflic fedition, nor a
foreign war; but both hung over their heads: For the civil difcord could now be no longer repreffed, both the tribunes,

and the people being inflamed againft the fenate, flnce a citation of any one patrician always difturbed their afiemthe report of which, as at a the Aequi, and Volfci took arms ; being at the fame fignal,
blies

with

frefli contefts.

On

time affured by their

chiefs,

who were

deflrous of plunder,

that the levies, ordered

years before, could not be raifed, " For this becaufe the people refufed to obey thofe orders " reafon, they told them no armies had been fent againft
:

two

" them

now
"
"
*'

military difcipline of the diffolved by licentioufnefs ; neither was
;

that the

Romans was

Rome looked
all

upon by them

as

their

common

country; that

the

ufed to exert againft foreigners, anger, and animofity they was turned upon themfelves: And that this was the time
todeftroy thofe wolves, while they were blinded with their inteftine rage." They fir ft defolated the territories of

*'

the Latines with their joint forces ; and, after that, when there to defend them, the authors of the none

appeared

war now indeed

exulting, they advanced to the very walls

of

BookXr.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENSIS.

351

near the Efquiline gate, laying vvafte the country in their march ; and expofing to the view of the city, by

of

Rome

way of

iniult,

the devaftation of her lands;

from whence

they drove their booty before them unpuniflied, and returned by a regular march to Corbio: When Quintius, the conful, called an afl'embly of the people; where, I find,

he fpoke to

this

"

purpofe:

" "
*'

Though
I

I

am

confcious to
to

myfelf of no crime, Romans, yet

am come

your

af-

fembly under the greateft confufion:

That you

(liould

"

"
*'

that pofterity fliould know that the Aequi, and Volfci, who were, the other day, fcarce a match for the Hernici, fhould, in thp fourth confulHiip of Titus Quintius, have approachefl the walls of Rome in arms, with

know,

Could I nave forefeen (though we have long impunity. " lived in fuch a manner, fuch is the ftate of our affairs,
could prefage no good) that this ignominy " threatened this I fhould have avoided particular year, it,

*'

"

my mind

" either by exile, or death, it there had been no other means " of from this honor. flying Might then Rome have been " taken in my confulfhip, if thofe arms, that were at our " had been in the hands of brave men? I had engates, " of a and more than a
honors, joyed fufEciency fufficiency of life; and ought to have died in my third confullliio. " Whom then did the mofl: daftardly of all our enemies
*' <'

" " and,
«'

Did they defpife us confuls? or you defpife? If the fault lies at our door, depofe us, as
if

Romans?

unworthy;

that

is

too

little,

add chaftifement

to our depofi''

tion:

If at yours,

may

neither gods, nor

men puniiLyour
errors.

352
«'

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
own
valor

BookXI,

errors, Romans; may you yourfelves only repent of them! " But they neither defpifed your cowardife, nor relied on
*'

their

;

lince,

" " "
*'

to flight,
lands,
felves,

difpofl^efled

by being often routed, and put of their camps, amerced in their

and fent under the yoke, they knew both themand you. The difcord between the two orders,

"
*'

the contefts between the fenate, and the people are the bane of this city : While neither we fet bounds to power,

nor you to liberty, while you are difl'atisfied with patri" cian, and we with plebeian, magiftrates, they took courage. *' What, in the name of the gods, would you have ? You

wanted tribunes of the people; ,we granted them for the " fake of union You defired deceir^virs ; we fufFered them
:

*'

" " "
*' ^' *' **
*'

to

be

eftabliflied

:

You grew

tired

of decemvirs;
:

we
per-

forced

them

to reflgn their magiftracy

-When you

fiflied in your refentment againft them, after they were become men; we allowed thefe moft noble, and

private

moft dignified perfons to be put to death, and banifhed: You defired that tribunes might again be created; we faw the injuftice that you created them Though would be done to the fenate, if you chofe confuls of your
:

" own we have feen a patrician magiftracy alfo beparty ; yet " come a The prote6lion of the trigrant to the people *' bunes, the appeal to the people, the laws made by thefe " the abolition of our rights, impofed on the fenate, and " under the the laws we have of
:

pretence
ftill

rendering

equal,

*'

fuffered,

and

fuffer.

What end

will there

be of our

"

diftcnfions?

Shall

we

ever be allowed to have one city?

"

Shall

BookXr.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A S SENSI S.

353

" Shall this ever become our common country? We, who " are conquered, are more willing to be quiet than you, a who are Is it not conquerors. enough that you are for''

midable to us?
poilefled
;

*' *'

In oppofition to us the Aventine hill is in oppofition to us the Holy mountain is feized :

But the Aefquihae were near being taken by the enemy ; " and no man offered to repulfe the Voifci, when they were " fcaling our ramparts. Againft us you are brave; againfl: "us you are armed Well then, after you have here befieged
:

*'

the ienate houfe, rendered the

forum

terrible,

and

filled

" " "
(C
((

the prifon with the principal men of the city, march out of the Efquiline gate with the fame fierce fpirit; or, if

you dare not do even
your lands
laid

that,

contemplate from the walls
fire

wafte with

and fword, the booty

carrying away, and your houfes

over the country in flames, and fmoaking: However, the commonwealth fuffers by thefe things ; the country is ravaged ; the city
all

*'

befieged,
(C

and the glory of the war transferred to our
But, in

what fituation are your private affairs? Prefently every one of you will receive an account of the " loffes he has fuftained in the country: And what fund is " there in the to thofe loffes? Will the
enemies.
city

repair

tribunes

*'

return,

and

reftore

" be
*'
*'

as lavifli as

what you have loft? They will indeed you pleafe of their voice, and their words;

of invedlives againft our principal men ; of laws upon and of their harangues; but none of laws, you ever re" turned home from thofe in his cirharangues
*'

cumftances, in his fortune Vol. IV.

:

Who Z

improved carried back to

his wife,

z

" and

354
*'
**

ROMAN ANTiauITIES OF

BookXI.

" preferved not by your own virtue and innocence, but by " the affiftance of others. But fo it is, when you ferved " under us confuls, not under your tribunes, and in the " camp, not in the forum, and your enemies trembled at " fhouts in not the Roman fenators at Thofe
your
in
battle,
*'

and children any thing but hatred, diicontent, public and private animofities? From which you are always

" the enemy ; full of riches, and of glory both public and " returned triumphant home to private, you your houfhold " gods: Now, you fuffer the enemy to go away loaded with " own fortunes. Stand fixed to and
your
harangues,
*'

your affemblies, you acquired booty

;

took lands from

liv^e

in the

forum

:

But the neceflity of fighting, which you

*' *'

Did you think it a grievance to march againft the Aequi, and the Volfci? The war is at your gates if it is not repelled from thence, would
avoid, follows

you
;

thither.

it

will

prefently

be within the walls
capitol,

;

will

mount both

the fortrefs,

and the
houfes.

and purfue you even into

your
levies

own

Two

to be

made, and

years ago, the fenate ordered the army to march to mount
at

" Algidus ; but we fit idle " another like women;
*'
*'

unable to difcern that,
will return manifold.

home, quarrelling with one pleafed with the prefent eafe, and from this fliort tranquiUity, war
I

am

fenfible that another

kind of

*'

" But, "
*'

language would be more agreeable to you than this : if my own temper did not admoniOi me to fay fuch
true rather than agreeable, necefiity would things, as are compel me to it. I could wifh indeed to pleafe you,

"

Romans,

Book XI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
I

-55

Romans, but
ever

cliufe

much

rather to preferve you,

what-

be your future difpolition towards me. It is in the order of nature that a man, who fpeaks to the

may

multitude from a regard to his own intereft, fhali pleafe more than he, who has no other view but the public good ; unlefs, perhaps, you think that thefe common

on the people, who fuffer you to be neither in war, nor in peace, incite and inflame you for your own fake When you are inflamed, you admiflatterers,

thefe fawners

:

and, becaufe they find themfelves inconfiderable every where -while the two orders are united, they chufe to be the chiefs in a bad
;

nifter either to their

honor, or profit

thing, rather than in none, in diibrders, and feditions. If thefe things can, at kft, give you a difguft, and you
will

exchange your nev/ condudl for That of your anceftors, once your own, I refufe no punifliments, if I do

few days, rout and put to flight thefe ravagers of our lands ; take their camp, and transfer the terror of
not, in a
this

war, with which you are

gates

and

walls,

to their

now aftoniflied, from our own cities." It has feldom

happened that the fpeech of a popular tribune was better
received by the people upon any occafion, than the fpeech this. Even pronounced by the feverefl: of confuls was

upon

the youth, who had been accuftomed, amidfl: fuch terrors, to make ufe of their refufal to inlift themfelves, as the fharpeft weapon againft the fenate, now breathed war and arms ;

and the

flight

of the country people, fome of

whom

had

been ftripped, and others wounded, by the relation they Zz 2 made

356'

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
all

OF

Book XI.

made of
fembled,

inore difmal havock than the citizens had beheld,

inflamed them
all

with rage.

When

the fenate was af-

turned their eyes upon Quintius, as upon the the Roman majefty; and the only affertor of principal fenators faid his fpeech was worthy of the confular dignity,

worthy of the many confuKhips he had exercifed, worthy of his whole life full of honors often borne, oftener deferved
:

That other
inp-

confuls had either flattered the people by betraythe dignity of the fenate; or, by maintaining the rights
rigor,
:

of that order with

impatient of CDntroll
tins

had rendered the multitude more That, on the contrary, Titus Qiiin-

been mindful of the dignity of the fenate; of the union of the two orders, and, above all, of the times. They befought him, and his collegue, to take

had

in his fpeech

they befought the tribunes to unite with the confuls in removing the war from the city, the and their walls, and to prevail on the people to
;

charge of the commonwealth

obey

fenate in this article

of danger:

They

fiid, their

common

the tribunes, and implored their afliftance country invoked at a time when their lands were laid wafte, and their city almofl; befieged. By general confent, the levies were decreed,

and made.

After the confuls had declared in the aflembly *' that this was no time to inquire into the of the people,
validity

of excufes

the

Campus

the youth fhould appear in Martius the next morning by break of day
:

That

all

:

That, after the war was at an end, they would appoint a time to inquire into the excufes of thofe, who had not
lifl:ed

themfelves:

And

that

all,

whofe excufes they did " not

BookXI.
*'

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARN A S S EN S I S.

357

not allow, £hould be treated as deferters," all the youth Each cohort chofe their own cenappeared the next day.
turions ;

cohort.

and two fenators were placed at the head of every I hnd that all thefe things were performed with
fame day,

fucli expedition, that the enfigns being, the very

taken out of the arfenal by the quaeftors, and brought into the field, were removed from thence at the fourth hour; and this new army, followed by fome tew cohorts of veterans,
next day gave them a fight of the enemy ; and they On the third day, the incamped clofe to them at Corbio. Romans being irritated with refentment, and the others

who The

ferved

as

voluntiers,

incamped

at

the tenth

ftone.

'

with the confcioufnefs gt the guilt they had contraded by without delay. frequent revolts, and by defpair, they ingaged

As

in the

authority,

Roman army there were two confuls with equal the fole command was, by the confent of Agrippa,
is
:

devolved on his collegue, which the adminiflration of great affairs

a

moft

falutary thing in

made

a

handfome
and

the perfon preferred return to the condefcenfion of the man,

And

who
his

fubmitted to him, by making
his praifes,
level

him

a partaker both of

counfels,

and by putting one, who was
with himfelf

inferior to

him, upon a

Quintius

commanded
:

In the battle, the right wing, and Agrippa the left :
Spurius Poftumius to Servius Sulpicius, another legate,
:

The

care of the center w^as

committed

to

Albus, a legate

And

The foot on the right the command- of the horfe they gave fouf^ht bravely, and the Volfci made no faint refiftance.
Servius Sulpicius with the horfe broke through the center

of

3

58

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
he thought
it

Book XI.

of the enemy; and, though he might have returned to his own people the fame way, before the enemy could have
reftored their broken ranks,

more

advifeable

to charge

them

in the rear;

and, by attacking the enemv,

when their backs were towards him, he would have difperfed them in a moment with the terror of this double afiault, if the horfe of the Volfci, and Aequi had not entertained him with a combat in his own way, and flopped him for a while.

Then
'*

Sulpicius

cried out,

"

this

was no time to

hefitate;

*'
**
«^

be furrounded, and cut off from their own they would if they did not fummon all their vigor, and put an

army, end to

*'

of the cavalry. Neither was it enoucrli to make the enemy fly without I'pfs of blood; they ought horfe and man, that not one of them might return to
this battle

flay

"
*'
*'

to the battle, or

renew the ingagement
horfe could
reflft

:

That

it

was not

enemy's poflible the clofe ranks of the foot

the

Thofe, before

whom

had given way."

The men

were not deaf to the orders of their general ; they routed the whole body of horfe at the firft fhock ; threw many
headlong to the ground, and pierced both the men, and the Thus ended the battle of the horfes with their fpears.
cavalry

they charged the foot, and fent the news of this adion to the confuls, where the enemy's
:

After that,

line

had already begun

to give

creafed the courage of the and ftruck terror into the Aequi,
firfl:

way This news both inRomans, who were conquering,
:

who were

retiring.

The

had been made in their center, where the impreflion furious charge of the horfe had broken their ranks : Then
the

Book XI.
the
left

DIONYSIUS HALICARN ASSENS IS.
wing began
give the right gave
to

359

But

their

way Romans moft

before Quintius, the conful.
trouble
:

There

in his youth and ftrength, feeing every Agrippa, exulting the a6lion more fuccefsful than his own, began to part of

of the enligns, which he had fnatched from their point fome bearers, againft the enemy, and even to throw others into

them The foldiers, ftung with the dread of this ignominy, fell on ; by this means, the vidlory became Then Quintius fent him word that he equal on all fides.
the thickeft of
:

was

vidlorious,

and going to
in,
till
:

but would not break
over in the
left

the enemy's camp; he knew that the affair was
aflault

wing

alio

And

defired that, if he

had then

routed the enemy, he v^^'uld join him, that the whole army might, at the fame time, poffefs themfelves of the booty.

Agrippa,

now

lation to his

advanced with mutual congratuvidlorious collegue, and to the enemy's camp ;
vidlorious,
it,

being foon put to flight, they broke into the intrenchments without any refinance ^ and brought home the army inriched with a vaft

where the few who defended

booty, the effedts, which the Romans had loft having alfo recovered I do not find that a in the plunder of their country.

triumph was either demanded by the confuls, or offered to

them by the

fenate

:

Neither
'^'

why
as I
*

that honor

was

there any reafon afligned As far negleded, or not expelled.
is

can conjedure at fo great a diftance of time, fince a
verbal analogy in Livy
noil
is,

The
aut

fpreti

feme of his with: This analogy

fperati honoris \ which readers may be pleafed
I

voured to preferve in the tranflation ; not becaufe I thoyght it a beauty^ but becaufe I thought it my duty^

have endea-

triu,mph

360

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF

Book XI.

the fenate to the conllils triumph had been refufed by Valerius, and Horatius, who, befides their vidory over the Volfci and Aequi, had alfo acquired the glory of putting an

end
to

to the

war with the Sabines,
alfo

thefe confuls

were afliamed
otliers
:

demand a triumph

for half the exploits

of the

apprehend left, if they had obtained it, a feem to have been fhewn to their pergreater regard might This glorious victory, obtained sons, than to their merit.

They might

over their enemies, was disfigured by an inglorious judgement pronounced at home by the people, concerning the

bounds of fome lands belonging to their allies. The Aricini, and the Ardeates, having often fought for a trad of contcfted land, and being tired out with frec>ijent mutual loffes, referred their difpute to the arbitration of the

Romans.

When

before an affembly of the they came to plead their caufe convened by the magiftrates for that purpofe, the

people,
affair

was debated with great warmth After the witnefTes were produced, the tribes called, and the people ready to give their votes, Scaptius, a plebeian and an aged man, " I be allowed to and faid rofe
:

up,

:

If,

confuls,

may

*'

I fpeak concerning the commonwealth, will not fuffer the " The confuls faying people to be mifled in this caufe." that fuch a trifler ought not to be heard, and ordering him

to be taken away, he cried out that the caufe of the public was betrayed, and appealed to the tribunes: Thefe, who are governed by the multitude oftener than they govern

Scaptius

them, indulged the curiofity of the people, by giving leave to fay what he thought fit ; who told them

"

that

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARN A SS E NS I S.
in.

361

"
*'

*'
*'

and had ferved on the land in queftion, not when he was young, but in his twentieth campaign, when the war was carried on at
that

he was

his eighty third year,

Corioli: For which reafon he fpoke of a thing, that " might indeed be obliterated by time, but was fixed in his " own memory That the land in difpute lay in the country " And, after Corioli formerly belonging to the Coriolani *' was taken, devolv^ed by right of war on the Roman people " in common. That he wondered with what decency the
:

:

" Ardeates and
*'

Aricini,

who had

never claimed any right

to this land,

" fhould expedt to obtain it by furprife from the Roman " people, whom, inftead of acknowledging as owners, they " had conftituted That the of his
"
*'

while the city of Corioli was in profperity,

life

" means
*'

remaining part old as he was, he could not however, that, ; forbear to claim that land by his voice at leaft, the only
judges.

was

fliort

" exhorted the people not to give fentence againft themfelves " When the confuls through an unprofitable modefty."
found that Scaptius was heard, not only with filence, but alfo with aflent, they called both gods, and men to witnefs
that a moft flagrant adlion was upon the point of being committed, and fent for the principal fenators : In com-

in his power, which, when a foldier, he tributed to take by his fword. And that he

had conearneftly

pany with

thefe they addrefled themfelves to the tribes,

and

" not to commit the worft of adions, and begged of them " feta worfe example, by converting a caufe, in which they

" themfelves were judges, Vol. IV.

to their

own advantage ;

efpecially

Aaa

"

,

fince.

362
''

ROMAN
though
it

ANTIQ^UITIES OF
la\\'ful

BookXI.

fince,
*'

was

for a

judge to take care of

his

own

intereft,

the gain they would

"
ing
*'

make by
this

interceptlofs

this land,

was in no degree equal to the
:

would

fuftain

" minds of
*'

their allies

by alienating, through For the lofs of reputation, and
Shall the
?

they injury, the
credit

was greater than could be eftimated.
carry this

deputies

*'

home?

Shall this be publiQied

Shall our allies,

neighbouring an haranguing old man. The Scaptian impute *', family will indeed be rendered famous by the reprefenta" tion of this exploit ; but the Roman people will gain the

" fhall our enemies hear this? With what grief will the " former, and with what joy will the latter, receive it ? Let " not the that the nations will
people imagine
this to

"

*'

" claims
*' *' *'

chara6ter of an informer, and an intercepter of other mens For what judge in a private caufe ever a(5led in :

fuch a manner, as to decree the thing in controverfy to himfelf ? Even Scaptius himfelf, though now he has outlived all fliame,
It

would not do

this."]
before the people gave their I'o which queftions Dionyfius

appears by what Scaptius fays in our author, that he afked prefently the Ardeates, and Aricini Ibme que-

ftions,

votes:

fays they did not give

any anfwer.

anfwer, but continuing diilatisfied, afcended the tribunal, and faid: " It is agreed, Scaptius again citizens, by your adverfaries themfelves, that they claim our
LII.

They making no

"

lands without having any fort of right to them.. Coniider thefe things ; and, in giving votes, have a regard tojuf-

your

While Scaptius was faying this, and to your oaths." the confuls were afhamed to find that the event of this trial would
tice,

"

Book XI.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARNAS SENS I S.

363

would prove neither juft, nor decent, if the Roman people, after they had been chofen umpires by others, fliould take away the lands in queftion from the contending parties,
without having ever claimed them before,
thofe lands to themfelves
:

And

and adjudge many fpeeches were made

both by the confuls, and the leading

men

difTuade the people from pronouncing this in vain : For, when called to give their votes, they faid it would be a great folly in them to fuffer their own lands to

of the fenate, to judgement; but

continue in the poffefHon of others ; and that their decifion of this caufe would not be confiftent with religion, if they fliould adjudge the contefted lands to the Aricini, or the
Ardeates, after they had fworn to adjudge whom they fhould find to have a right to

them them

to thofe,
:

Befides,

they were angry with the contending parties for having chofen thofe, who were deprived of thefe lands, for their
umpires, with this view, that they might not, even afterwards, have it in their power to recover their own pofleffions, which they themfelves, as fworn judges, had decreed
to others.

The
full

and being

people, therefore, confidering thefe things of refentment, ordered a "third urn to be

placed before every tribe on behalf of the
33-

Roman

people,

T^-ilov

>c«^(o-xcv.

If

the reader

pleafes to

thirty fecond annotation on the tenth book, he will find an explanation of the word ««1

turn to

the

in unaquaque tribu poni pro fopulo Romano. This he has trandated, kpeuple voulut qtCon dijiribuaft des urnes dans toutes les tribus, et que chacun puji don-

exped, and hope that the following animadverfion on le Jay's
<J(o-)co?.

be a blow. Unfortunately for him, parting Porcus had faid, Urtiumjujferunt urnam

tranQation of this pafTage will

ncr fon fuffrage pour la troifieme fois. has left out the material part j I do not mean, uVe^ r^y nroAEWf Pw/^«iwv, hnt, pro populo Romano.

Here he

A

a a 2

into

364
into

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES
:

OF

Book X!.

which they might put their billets And the people of Rome was declared, by all the votes, to be the owners Thefe things pafled in this confulof the contefted lands.

^"^

LIU. In the confulfhip of Marcus Genucius, and Caius Curtius, the civil contefts were renewed ; the plebeians
that
it

demanding

might be lawful

for all the

Romans

to be chofen confuls (for, till then, the patricians were the fole candidates for that dignity, and always elected in the affemblies by centuries) and all the tribunes of that year this meafure, except Caius Furnius, concurring to promote

a law concerning the confular eledlions, and they drew up which they left it, every year, to the determipubliOied it, by nation of the people, whether patricians, or plebeians fhould

ftand candidates for the confulfhip. The fenate refented this ; and, upon the law as the ruin of their authority, refolv-

looking ed to hazard every thing rather than fuffer it to pafs ; and both and public affembliesof all the patricians, great in the
private,

paffion

was expreffed

;

invedives thrown out, and oppofi-

whole body being violently exafperated the plebeians. Many fpeeches were made in the ao;ainft all fenate by the leading men of the ariftocracy ; and many in the more moderate the afiemblies of the people; by fuch,
tions concerted; their

looked upon the plebeians to be mifled by the ignorance feverer by thofe, who were of of their intereft ; and the
as
''

34'
1

Kkp^io"'-

Sigoni^s

"s

notes

upon Livy,

has fliewn, in that we mull read
is

called

in I

And,

the editions, and manufciipts. find, this conlul is called Cur-

Curtitis,

inftead of ^dnlius, as he

tius in the

Faji

confulares.

i-B.iv. c. I.

opinion

BookXr.

DIONYSIUS HALIC ARNASS ENS IS.

2^S

opinion that this attempt flowed from an infidious defign,

and from envy to their order. LIV. While they were protracting the time
fengers arrived

in vain,

mef-

from

their alHes, to acquaint

them

that the

Aequi, and the Volfci were upon the point of invading them with a numerous army, and to defire they would fend

them immediate relief, as their country lay in the paifige of the war. Thofe Tyrrhenians alfo, who are called Veientes,
be preparing for a revolt And the Ardeates no longer obeyed them, being irritated at the Roman people for having, the year before, when chofen umpires, adjudged

were

faid to

:

the contefted lands to |;hemfelves.
intelligence, ordered

The

fenate,

upon

this

bringthe execution of thefe orders oppofed (for they have a power of oppofing the confuls) by refcuing fuch of the citizens, as they were compelling to take the military not fuffering them to inflid: any punidiment oath; and

an^army to be raifed, and that both the confuls fhould take the field But the tribunes, who were
:

ing in the law,

by

on the difobedient: And, when the fenate

earneftly intreated

them to lay afide their animofity for the prefent; and, when the wars were at an end, then to propofe the law
the confuls, they were fo far concerning the eledions of

from yielding to the prefent jundlure, that they would oppofe every other decree of the fenate
fuffer

faid
alfo,

they

and

enaded, unlefs, by their previous vote, they would authorize the law they were bringing in And they were fo far tranfported, as not only to ule thefe menaces to the confuls in the fenate, but alfo to fwear to the per-

none

to be

:

formance

366

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

Book XI.

formance of them, in the afiembly of the people, by their faith, which with them is the moft folemn of all oaths, to
the end they might not be at liberty to revoke any of their refolutions, fhoiild they be convinced to the contrary.

LV. Alarmed at thefe menaces, the moft ancient fenators, and the leading men of the ariftocracy held a private meeting at the deiire of the confuls.

When

Caius Claudius,

who was

from being a friend to the people, and had inherited thefe principles from his anceftors, advifed them to carry things with a high hand, and not to admit the
far
:

people either to the confulfhip, or to any other magiftracy whatever And, if any fliould a<"tempt to adt contrary to this determination, to reduce them •')y force of arms, fhould
reafon not prevail, without giving any quarter either to or to magiftrates For he faid that all, who private perfons, endeavoured to change the eftabliflied cuftoms, and to cor:

rupt the ancient form of government, were aliens, and eneOn the other hand, Titus mies to the commonwealth.

Quintius diffuaded them from reftraining their adverfaries by violence, or from invading the plebeians with arms, and fhedding civil blood, particularly fince they were fure to be

oppofed by the tribunes, whofe perfons their fathers had decreed to be holy, and all facred, and made the gods, and
genius's

performance of thofe ingagements, and of the folemn oaths they had taken with imprecations
fureties for the

both againft themfelves, and their pofterity, a fingle article of that convention. grefTcd

if

they tranf-

LVI.

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENS IS.

367

LVI. This advice being approved of by all the reft of the council, Claudius refumed his difcourfe, and faid: " I am not of how calamities to us all
ignorant
great

a

" foundation will be laid, if we fuffer the people to give " their votes But, being at a lofs what concerning this law " to and unable to fo a I fubmit
:

do,

oppofe
:

great
is

number,

*'

to your determinations
fliould declare

For

it

juft that every

man

"
*'

what he thinks will be of advantage to the commonwealth ; and, after that, fubmit to the refolutions of the majority
:

"
*'

However,
fliall

as

you

are in a difficult,

and invohmtary fituation, I " not to admit either now, or
*'

give

you

this advice ;

hereafter, to the confuKLip,

" power, and magiftracy to the other " confular tribunes, inftead of confuls, and " ber as fliall think In
you
proper.

both by religion and law, quahfied for it: But, whenever you are reduced to " the at prefent, of neceffity, as communicating the
patricians, \^h.o are alone,

"

any but

greateft

citizens,

appoint

limit their

num-

my

**

be fufficient; and, of thefe, let <* In doing this, be fewer than the plebeians you will " neither debafe the confulfliip by conferring it on mean,
fix will
:

opinion, eight, or not the patricians

" and unworthy men, neither will you appear to be form" for yourfelves, by communiing unjuft dominations " All eating no magiftracy whatever to the plebeians." this opinion, and no one approving contradidling it, he *' Hear now, confuls, the advice I give to you added this " alfo After you have appointed a day for pafling the " and the refolutions of the fenate, let all, previous vote, " who
:

:

368

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF
it is

Book XI.

" who
"

in oppofition

defire to fay any thing either in favor of the law, or to it, have Uberty to fpeak ; and, after they

" have and fpoken,

time to afk the opinions of the '' with me, nor with Quintius, nor fenators, begin neither " with ancient fenators, but with Lucius anyone of the other

"

Valerius,

their opinions, then delire us, who are you have taken ** more ancient, to give ours. For my part, I fhall deliver " an to That of the tribunes with the opinion contrary
*'

" "

the greateft patron of the people; and, When after him, aik Horatius if he has any thing to fay
is
:

who

(ince this tends to the advantage of the greateft freedom,

" commonwealth. Now, as to^^the law concerning the " creation of confular tribunes, ii, you think proper, let
*'

" moft

Titus Genucius propofe
fpecious,

it

:

For

this

motion

will be the

and give the leaft fufpicion, if introduced ** This fuggeftion Genucius." by your brother, Marcus was alfo approved of. Upon which, they departed from the
council.

This

fecret

meeting infpired the tribunes with a

that it was calculated to bring fome great mifchief jealoufy the people ; fince it was held in a private houfe, and

upon

not in public, and they had admitted none of the tribunes to After which, they alfo held a partake of their counfels. meeting confiding of fuch perfons, as were moft in the intereft of the people, and prepared a counter-battery to

and guard them againft the infidious defigns, which the patricians would employ againft them. they fufpeded LVII. When the time was come for the previous vote to
repel,

be pafted, the confuls aflembled the fenate

j

and, after

many

exhor-

EookXI.

DIONYSIUS

11

A L IC A R N ASSEN SIS.

369

exhortations to concord, and decency, they called upon the tribunes, who had propofcd the law, to fpeak firft; when

Caius Canuleius, one of their number, advanced; and, or mentioning the juftice, or adwithout either
fliewing,

van tao-e of the law,

"

fliid,

that he

wondered

at the confuls,

had confulted, and determined between themfelves what they were to do, had attempted to lay before the fenate an affair, as unexamined, and requiring confideration, and then given every man who was willing,

who,

after they

leave to fpeak to

which they had been guilty of a diffimulation unbecoming both their age, and the greatnefs of the magiftracy, with which they were invefted. He
it
;

in

added that they introduced the beginnings of an
miniftration

evil

ad-

by aflembling
even

fecret councils in private houfes,
all

and

in defiring not

them, but only thofe, who He was lefs furprifed, he party.

the fenators to be prefent at were moft attached to their own
faid,

that other fenators

were excluded from
that

this

domeftic council ; but aftoniflied

Marcus Horatius, and Lucius Valerius,
wereconfular

who had

def-

fenators, troyed the ohgarchy ; none in giving advice for the benefit of the public, were not thought worthy to be invited to this council, and could

and inferior to

not imagine what juft motive they had to exclude them ; but he guelTed they were influenced by this Angle reafon,
that, deflgning to propofe
ao-ainft the plebeians,

wicked, and pernicious meafures

councils thofe,

who

they were unwilling to invite to thefe were the greateft friends to the people;

who would
Vol. IV.

be fure to exprefs their indignation at fuch Bb b propofals,

370

ROMAN

ANTIQJJITIES OF
fuffer

Book XI.

" "

propofals,

and not to

any unjuft defign to be formed

againft their intereft."

LVIII. Thefe things being urged by Caniileius with great lamentation, and the fenators, who had not been called to
the confultation, refenting the indignity, Genucius, one of confuls, rofe up, and endeavoured to juflify himfelf and his

" that collegue; and to appeafe their anger, by telling them, ** they had defired their friends to aflifl: at this confultation,

" not with any defign againft the people, but in order to con" fult with thofe in what manner moft confided
they
in,

they

*'

*'

might appear to do no prejudice to either of the parties, whether they referred the confideration of the law to the
fenate fooner, or later.
tius,

"

And that they had not invited Horaat the confultation for

"
*'

and Valerius to be prefent

any

other reafon, than that the plebeians might not entertain

an injurious fufpicion of them,
<'

as

of men,

who had changed

their principles, if they fhould have embraced the other opinion, which tended to put off the confideration of the law

" "
*'

to a

more proper feafon

:

But, fince

all,

who

aflifted at

the

meeting, had been of opinion that the confideration of it, rather to be accelerated, than retarded, he would

ought

" their determination. Having faid this, and called purfue " the o-ods to witnefs to the truth of what he faid, he added CD
*'

that the fenators,

who had been
:

called

to that

meeting,

" would clear themfelves of ev^ry imputation, not by their " words, but by their actions For heaffured them that, after " ail who fhould defire to fpcak in oppofition to the law, " and in favor of their reafons, he would firft had
it,

given

afk

BookXI.
*'

DIONYSIUS H AL ICARN AS SE NSIS.

371

"
*'

the opinions, not of the mofl ancient, and the nioft dio-nified fenators, to whom this privilege was due by the
aflc

eftabHQied cuftoin, nor of thofe,
plebeians,
as perfons,

who were fufpefted by

the

"

from whofe words, or thoughts they *' could exped no favor, but of the younger fenators, whofe " affe6lion to the the leaf!: doubted." people was LIX. After thefe promifes, he gave leave to any one
deGred
it,

who

to fpeak,

and none offering

either to cenfure

the law, or to defend it, he rofe up again ; and, beginning with Valerius, afked him what he thought was moft for the
intereft

of the public,

and

what previous vote he ad-

vifed the fenate to pafs.

Valerius, rifing up,

made

a long

both himfelf, and his anceftors, who, he fpeech concerning faid, had always been at the head of the plebeian party to the
advantage of the commonwealth
;

and enumerated

all

the

which had been brought upon dangers from the beginning, it by thofe, who purfued contrary meafures, fliewing had been of no advantage to that a hatred for the
plebeians

any

who had

profefled it:

He

then faid

many

things

in

commendation of the people, alledging

that they had been

the principal caufe not only of the liberty, but alfo of the of the commonwealth. After he had difplayed fovereignty,

and many others of the like nature, he ended with faying that no nation could be free, from which equality was baniflied ; and that, for his part, he looked upon that
thefe reafons,

law

as juft,

which allowed

all

the

Romans
:

to afpire to the

provided their lives were irreprehenfible, and their adions worthy of that honor But he thought this B b b 2 was
confular dignity,

372

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES OF

BookXI.
this

was not a proper time to enter into the confideration of law, when the commonwealth was difturbed with the

ap-

prehenfions of a war: He advifed the tribunes to fufFer the forces to be raifed, and not to hinder them, when

from taking the field, and alfo the confuls, after they had ended the war in the mofl fuccefsful manner, to layraifed,

before the people the previous vote of the fenate in favor of the law, before they entered upon any other bufinefs And
:

he defired that

thefe

refolutions

and confented to by both parties. which was fupported by Horatius

might now be drawn up, This opinion of Valerius,
(for

the

confuls called
all

upon him
prefent
:

next)

had the fame

efFedt

upon

who were

throw out the law, though pleafed to hear that the confideration of it was put off, were yet diffatisfied to find themfelves under an oblithofe,

For

who

defired to

gation to pafs a previous vote in favor of war fiiould be ended While the others,
:

it,

as

foon as the
wiflied the

who

law might receive the approbation of the fenate, though glad that it was acknowledged to be juftj were yet dilpleafed that the previous vote was put off to another opportunity.

opinion, therefore, having caufed a diforder in the fenate, as might well be expedled, fince neither fide was with every part of it, the conful, rifing up, afked, in pleafed the third place, the opinion of Caius Claudius, who fecmed

LX. This

the moft haughty, and the mofl: powerful of all the leaders of that party, which oppofed the plebeians This man made a premeditated fpecch againft them, in which he
:

enumerated

Book Xr,

DIONYSIUS HALICARNASSENSIS.
all

373

the attempts they had ever been guilty of to inftitutions of their fubvert, as he thought, the glorious anceftors : The end of this fpeech was, that the confuls fliould not refer the law in qucftion to the confideration of the fenate either now, or hereafter ; fince the intention of it

enumerated

to deftroy the ariftocracy, and to confound the whole This opinion having encreafed form of their government.

was

the diforder, Titus Genucius,
confuls, being called
fliort

who was

brother to one of the
place,

upon

in the fourth

rofe

up

;

of the prefent diftreffes, by and, after a recapitulation which the comm.onwealth was reduced to the neceility of fubmittino" to one of thefe two moft m-ievous evils, either to
ftrengthen the
animofities, or,

enemy ^hrough her own
from
'a

civil contefls,

and
of

delire of averting the attacks

foreign enemies, to

compofe with ignominy a domeftic, and civil war, he faid that, lince they were under a neceflity of fubmitting unwillingly to one of thefe two evils, he thought
v/as lefs difadvantageous for the fenate to fuffer the people

it

to ufurp

fome part of
faid this,

the

commonwealth

their ancient authority, than to expofe to the ridicule of foreigners, and enemies.

Having

he propofed the opinion, which had been been prefent at the meeting approved of by thofe, who had held in a private houfe, and which Claudius had offered,
as
I

faid

;

which was, inftead of

confuls,

to

create

tribunes with confular power, three of whom fliould be and three plebeians; and that, after thefe had patricians,

completed the term of

come

to create

new

magiflracy, and the time was magiflrates, the fenate, ^nd people
their

fhould

374

ROMAN AN TIQJQl TIES
carry
it
:

OF

BookXI.

fliould again afiemble,

and confider whether they would
or to confular tribunes:

commit the government to confuls, That the majority of votes fliould
fenate fliould pafs a previous vote
year.

And

that the

upon

this occaflon,

every

LXI. This opinion of Genucius was received with general and almoft all, who rofe up after him, allowed applaufe;

being it with great joy, and proceeded to the forum. After which, the people j and, having given great comthey aflTembled

The they could take for carrying them into execution, previous vote, therefore, drawn up by order of the confuls, the tribunes received
that thefe

were the

beft refolutions

:

mendations to the fenate, they exported fuch of the plebeians as were willing, to ftand candidates for this magiwith the patricians. But '' there is fo much not founded on reafon, and they incline levity in paflions fo fwiftly to the other iide, particularly the paflions of the
ftracy, together

looked upon it as a the greateft confequence to partake of the magipoint of and if this was not granted to them by the patricians,
multitude,' that thofe,

who,

before,

ftracy,
35-

Ovlo) ii u^ct K^(po\i t; sr^xyfj.a, etc.

If Dionyfius had written his hiiiory with no other view but to flatter the

He

to the preference the people to the patricians: given by
attributes this preference to

more noble motive

mo-

Romans
of
his

(as

Mr. Beaufort, and

feveral

countrymen have thought fit to moft certainly have alledo^c) he would
attributed this behaviour of the people, no: to their levity, but to their generofity.

defty, equity, and greatnefs of mind, But I fliali tranfcribe his words, be-

caufe

I

think them as beautiful, as
is

his

judgement

Iblid
et

aequitatemque
tiniverft fuit ?

mcdejiiaui altitudinem animi, ubi

:

Ha»c

This

1

am
1

the
'

more
Livy

juftified

nunc in uno inveneris, quae tunc po^u/i

in affirming, b-caufc

without

flattery,

think,

afl'igned

has, and, a

'B. iv. c. 6.

were

BookXI.

DIONYSIUS H A L IC A RN A S S EN S IS.

375

as they had done before, wereready either to abandon the city, or to feize that privilege by force of arms, as foon as they

had obtained this conceifion, they prefently reHuquidicd their fondnefs for it, and transferred their earneftnefs to the other
foi though many plebeians flood candidates the confular tribunefhip, and ufed the moft earnefl: felicitations to obtain it, the people thought none of them worthy

fide

;

fo that,

of

this

honor

:

But,

when

they

came

to give their votes,
all

they chofe the patrician candidates,
diftindlion;

who were

men of

thefe were

Aulus Sempronius Atratinus, Lucius
^'^

Atilius Longus,

and Titus

Cloelius Siculus.

LXII. Thefe were

tj.e firft,

who were

inverted with the

which they entered in the third proconfular power, upon archon year of the eighty fourth Olympiad, Diphilus being at Athens; but they retained the poffeffion of it only feventy
three days; after which, they voluntarily refigned purfuant to an ancient cuftom, fome heavenly omens oppofing their

continuance in the adminiftration.

After thefe had abdi-

cated their power, the fenate affembled, and chofe intera day for the election of reges; who, having appointed left it to the confideration of the people whether
magiftrates, they defired

to chufe confular tribunes,

or confdis;

and

the people refolving to adhere to the ancient cuftoms, they as were willing, to ftand gave leave to fuch of the patricians

candidates for theconfulfhip; and two patricians were again Thefe were Lucius Papirius Mugillanus, and eledled confuls
:

Lucius SemproniusAtratinus,brother to one ofthe perfons, who
36'

KXoiAtov.

^

Sigoniws, in his notes

upon Livy, fhews this to be the true

reading, and not Kavo-jov, as in the editions.

it

ftands

376

ROMAN ANTIQJJITIE

S

OF

Book XI.

hadrefignedtheconfulartribunefhip. Thefetwo magifiracies, invefted with the fupreme power, were appointed at Rome
the fame year: However, both do not appear in all the Roman annals ; but, in fome, the confular tribunes only,
in others, the confuls,

and

in a few,

both of them

;

with

which

agree not without reafon, but confiding in the " fecret books. No teftimonies of the holy, and tranfaclion,
I

either military,
37-

or
I

civil,

worthy the notice of

hiftory, ha|>-

ATTo^iluv /3i6awv.

take thefe to

have been the books, called by the
Lintei ; becauie Livy', in of the magiftrates of this fpeaking names of thefe conyear, fays that the i'uls were not to be found either in the ancient annals, or in the books of the but that Licinius Macer magiftrates had written that their names were mentioned both in the treaty with the

hiftory of the firft ages of no nation in the world was ever delivered down to
pofterity fo much
learnii'.''',

Romans,

by writers

ot fo great parts,

impartiality, and fo much as the hiftory of the firft

ages o^'the

Roman

empire.

But

this

•,

kind of Pyrrhonifm, revived by Bayle, has fo much infefted the French wriHolland, that, if they go on, will foon be brought to doubt whether the Perfians invaded the Greeks under Xerxes, or the Greeks, the Perfians; whether Alexander conters in

mankind

foedere

Ardeates, and in the Lintel libri, that were kept in the temple oi Juno Moneta ; Licinius Macer auElor eft, et in Ardeatino, et in Linteis libris ad

Monetaeinventa.

By

this itappears that

quered Darius, or Darius, Alexander; and whether the Romans, at laft, beat
the Carthaginians, or thefe the

thefe «jro6£7oi|8feAoi,or LibriLintei^vi^rt records, and not the memoirs of

Ro;

public

mans.
will

fome private
this

Mr. families, as fort has advanced, in order to

""

Beauprove

But much worfe confequences refuk from this Pyrrhonifm the

Roman
turies

extraordinary pofition, that the five firft cenhiftory for the

great examples of policy, of bravery, and of every other virtue, both public and private, by which the Romans,

was neither more, nor lefs than a romance. His way of reafoning will
equally prove that every other ancient the firft ages hiftory, nay the hiftory of of every nation, that either now fubfifts,

during the

or ever did fubfift
is

of the earth,

upon the face no better than a ro"

firft five centuries, laid the foundation of their future grandeur, will lofe their force, if they were never realized ; and hiftory will be deprived of the advantage Ihe has over philof )phy, which is That of teaching by

examples.

mance

j

with this difference, that the
'B. iv. c. 7.
Incert.

de

rhift.

Rom.

p. 99.

pencd

BjokXI.

DIONYSIUS H ALICARN A S SEN S IS.
confulfliip,
:

377

pened

in their

of friendlliip, and except a treaty

having of the lands they had laid alide their complaints on account been deprived of, had fent embafTidors to defire they might
be admitted into the friendlliip,and alliance of the Ro.ninSj

alliance entered into with the x^/djates

For

thefe,

and

this

treaty

was

ratified

by thefe confuls.

LXirr. TJie following year, the people having voted that Marcus Geganius Maceconfuls fliould again be appointed,

and Titus Qaintius Capitolinus, for the fifth time, entered upon the confuilliip on the ides of December. Thefe reprefented to the fenate that many
rinus, for the lecond time,

things were negledted by reafon of the continual employment of the confuls in the field, and particularly the moft
neceflary of
all,

the

number

the cuftom relating to the cenfus, by which of fuch, as were of the military age, was known,

together with the amount of their fortunes, in proportion to which every man was to furnifii the fupplies for the wars, there having been no cenfus for feventeen years fince the

and Quintus Fablus : So confulfhip of Lucius Cornelius, that, the worthy, and ufeful men only were regiflered, and
ferved in the armies, while the

mod profligate,
live

and the moft

abandoned were
their habitation,

left unregiftered,

and changed the places of
without controll. *

******** ******** ******** ******* **** *************
'The rejl

where they might

of the Greek text

is

wanting.

Vol. IV.

C

c c

(

379

)

INDEX
EXT.
[^be Numerals denote the Vohime
i

TO THE

the Figures the Pages."]
the

Acanthus,
i.

Lacedemonian,

was

27. See Poor.
26.

the

firft

who

ran in the ftadium

Abolition of ABERRIGINES, debts.



.

Aborigines natives,

i.

originally from Greece, 1. 28. defcended from the Ocnotri, i. 34,

naked, iii. 270. Acarnanes, in what manner they were rewarded by the Romans, i. 117. Acclamation, the people fignify their
ii. 292. archon at Athens, ii, 35?.' Achai, in Pontus, degenerated from the Greeks, i. 206, 7. Achaus, fon of Neptune and Larifla,' i. 41. Achaia, Peloponnefus fo called from the Achaians, i. 59.

— 205. of Arcadians, colony 288. — fome imagine them be
a the
to

will

by

it,

i.

28,

Acejiorides,

the fame
i.

with the nation of the Leleges,
27.

—.whence

their

name

is

derived,

— they —
i-

ib.

difpoflefs the
i.

Siceli

of their

territories,

24.

expel the Umbri and Siceli, i. 38, 39__. never put their children to death,

— theReatine _ began be of — kingLatinus,
pofTefs

39-

— —

of Hzemonia, or Theflaly, fo from Achseus, i. 41. Achilles lofes three fhips, i, 120. celebrates games at the funeral of
called

— part

Patroclus,
his fhield

ii.

339.
iii.

made by Vulcan,

272.

to

country, i. 307. called Latines, under
i.

C. Acilius, his account concerning the cleanfing of the aquedufts, ii. 130.
Acqiiifitions

i. 25. the Aborigines, ceremonies of Ceres, .^/Jy?<r«iow

their

of two

forts,

ii.

'jZ.

the cities

35,
74.
i.

i.

Acrofiics prove the modern Sibylline oracles to be impoftures, ii. 263.

Jcallaris;

daughter of Eumedes,

Acliumy

its

fituation,

i.

114.
A£tius

142.

Vol. IV.

Ddd

38c

INDEX
Eha,
conful,

to

the

TEXT.
by what
priefl:i.

A£iius. See Claufus. AdieSy or Afies, fon of Cotys, i. 60. Adultery punifhed with death, i. 270-.

JSgeJlus, the Trojan in Sicily, accident born, i.

.

— —
7".

L, yEbutius, conful, iv. 120. dies of the plague, iv. 121.
ii. 404. of the horfe, appointed general by A. Poftumius, the dictator, iii.

119. flies into Sicily, i. 120. j€grjlus, chief of the Lavinian

JEbutitts
is

150. y^geflus, fon of Numicor, i. 175. is aflafTinated by order of AmuJius,
ib.

hood,


.
\

4-

.

deprives the Latines of provifions,
7.
is

— pofled in the Roman army, — being wounded
iii.

iii.

Emilia, the. veftal, her prayer to Vefta, and efcape trom danger, i. 349. L. ^milius Mamercus, by order of
the fenate, flands for the confulfliip,

left

wing of

the

8.

in

a fingle

combat
falls

with Odlavius Mamilius, he from his horfe, iii. 17.

419, — marches 42 — through fliame of an ignominious
agiinft the Volfci,
in his
iii.

iii.

i.

defeat, remains

camp,

iii.

JEbiithiSy the fon of Titus, is appointed one of the deputies fent to the feceders, iii. 104.

— — —

426. is fecond time conful, iv. 30. marches with an army into Tyriv.

^diles,
:

— from whence they had
Aj/of oivc^oi.

01

iii.

13?' ^•
their

name,
iii.

— rhenia, 31. puts overcomes, and
to flight, iv.
is

the Veientes

and what were
i

their funftions,

137, 146. were minifters to the tribunes,
are

32. exafperated againft the fenate for

iii.


'—

empowered by the
iii.

fenate to de-

— denying time — whit opinion
'is third
'T'ib.

him

a

vidlory, iv. 34. conful, iv. 6c), his father gave, con-

corate the feftivals,
are

146.
fenate,

honoured by the

with

cerning the divifion of the public lands, iv. 93.

royal enfigns, ib. are rcpulfed by

the

patricians,

•while they were arrefting iVIarcius,

—by Volcro,
1—
;

order of the tribunes, iii. 191. the tribune, brings in a

— marches — 100. fecond time —
is
-,

JEmilitis.,

againft

conful, iv. 92. the Sabines,
conful, iv.
ib.

iv.

loS.

harrafles the Sabines,

Jaw, by which the rediles were to be created in the tributa comitia, iy.

Ainea, a town of Latium, called fo from iEneas and afterwards called

79^ So.
the elec'tion of the jediles and
tri-

Janiculum,

i.

167.
i.

Mnead^,
i.

their removal,

112.

bunes performed

in the

tributa co-

Mneas, fon of Anchifes and Venus,

«—

mitia, iv. 90. the violence

offered to

the

ce-

was equally criminal with ThatofFeiedtothe tribunes, iii. 202.
diies,.

JEdil.Jhip, a Plebeian

magillracy,

ii.

— 142. — what manner he from — upon whac Troy,
his progenitors,
ib.

in

conveyed

his

father

104. conditions he obtained

i.

54-'
^gelia,
a

town

in Sicily,
i.

ed

by fome

call-

leave of the Greeks to degartfrom Troy, j. 105, 6.

Segella,

120.
the

INDEX
.

to

the

why he betrayed his. country, according to Menecrates,
the reafo;i
i.

— trom Afia Europe, — with Trojans — where he landed and 118. — of /Eneas — fome deny by was
109.
^flies

into

iii.

— — —

TEXT.

381
a-

are conquered, iii. 64. are in alliance with the Volfci

120.

gainrt the Romans, iii. 304. the j^iqui and Volfci, in an expedition againft the Romans, turn
their

arrives

the

in

Italy,

arms againft one another,
incurfions into
iii.

iii.

i.

100.

in Italy,

ib.

the arrival

in Italy is
i.

va-

authors, rioufly related that he ever
i.

102.

there,

124. — concerning

the arrival

of ^Eneas

— fome —

in Italy. See the dillertation at the end of the firft book.
aflert that

he retired

out of

Italy into Phrygia, i. 125. ^^iieas brings with him ceremonies into Italy,

— j^qui make the Latin 436. — — take Hortona, 437. and invade Latines, — forced by Fabius to own — make an with Volfci Romans, 30. — beaten and plundered by SerFurius, proconful, — j^qui and Volfci beaten 31. by
the
territories,
iii.

381.

iv.

1

80.

the

iv.

2.

are

to retire

their

cities,

iv.

alliance

25. the

a-

gainft the
are

iv.

vius

the

iv.

the

are

345. what thofe ceremonies were, i. 155. a truce being made with Latinos, and the Rutuli conquered, he builds
i.

— are Latines, plundered
iv. iv.

the

iv.

6y.

by Titus Quintius,

— —

Lavinium, i. 136. fucceeds Latinus i, 144. arrives in Italy from the Moloffi, after Ulyfles, and is faid to have
built

— by ^. 100. — evacuate a of Antiates, 107. — on what conditions they accepted
Valerius, iv.
fortrefs

the

— and — —

i.

Rome.

i.

164.
i.

is flain

in battle,

145.
i.

— they — make an

of a peace from the Romans, 109.

iv.

violate that peace, ib. incurfion into the Roman

the temple of iEneas,

122, 26,

teriitories

by unguarded roads,
as

iv.-

46.

the ftatue of

^neas,

i.

115.

his epitaph, i. 146. his daughters married in

Arcadia,

— — Romulus
.

III. his four fons,

— advance — 167 — being
.

far

as

Tufculum,
iv.

iv.-

infeft the Latines,

172.

led under the

i.

163.
to

Romans,

yoke by the deliver up Corbio, they

and Remus are faid be the fons of ^Eneas, i. 166. the races of iEneas and Venus,
114.
Silvius,

i.

— —

together with their general, iv. 177, take up arms again, iv. 179. march to Corbio, and put the Roman garrifon there to the fword, iv.
are

^neas

king of the Latines,

i.

^57yEnus, a town of Thrace, built by ^neas, called alfo jEnea, i. 1T2. infeft the confines of the Laj¥^q^ui,
tines,
iii.

— 179. forced by — again annoy
their cities,
lofe their

Horatius to
188.

retire to

iv.

the Tufculani, iv. 2 1 r camp and the viftory, iv.

.

54.

D

217.

d d 2

defign-

3^2
I

INDEX
to

to the

— deHgning

attack the

Romans

TEXT.
of thofe
paft the milttaiy
trieir

a cohort

during the plague,

are themfelves

— incamp
i

afBided with it, iv. 2:^1. ~- make another irruption into the territories of theTufcuhini, iv. 252.
are

age voluntarily follow to the war, iv, 212.

leader

Agonenfes inftituted by T. Hoftilius,
i35^Agrarian law is debated, iii. 397. is poftponed for more than thirty

Algidnm, ib. (.defeated by Valerius,
i.

at

iv.

343.

their feciales, yEc^uicoli,

355. of feed time j/Equinox, the beginning about the autumnal TEquinox, iii.
148.
JEfcula-piuSi


years, iv. 197. is referred to the

people by th&

tribunes, ib.

one of the demigods,
ii.

iii.


~-

lis

oppofed, iv. 207 again oppofed, iv. 211.
for

334. M. yStilhis, his punifliment for parricide, ii. 262.
.

— theifland of iEfculapius,

what reafon by

this affair

is

pro-



trafted

the confuls, iv.

70.
iv.

thofe

who

hindered the pafling of
law,
are
fined,

JEtoli, formerly Curetes, i. 41, 117. JEzii, a people afterwards called Ly-

the Agrarian 20S, 9, 10. the debate
is

warmly
in

carried

on,
iv..

caonians, and Oenotri, i. 31. ^zius, his reign and pofterity, i. 30. JEzius and Phoroneus were the firfl: kings of Peloponnefijs, ib. /igatharchuSy of Corcyra, viflor at
the Olympic games, ii. 229. ^ge, at the age of twenty years the

iv. 73.
is firft

brought

by Caffius,

92' 3Sp. Cajfius, author law, iv. 204. Jiee Lands.

of the Agrarian

manly gown was taken
iii.

at

Cumje,

Agreements., compulfive are feldom lafting, iii.

agreements

357

165.

r—

Servius, at the age of twenty years is appointed to command the auii.

Agriculture and war, the ftuJy of them is united by Romulus, i. 276.

Agriculture and grafing,

recommend-

'

— the laws permitted the Romans
— at
ii.

xiliaries,

147.

at

the age of thirty, to enter commonwealth, ii. 154.
forty
five, a

upon the
was
dif-

ed by Ancus Marcius, ii. 83. ./^r//>/)rtJ, king of Alba, i. 158. Agrippa, fee Menenius.
Agylla, called fo by the Pelafgi, and afterwards called Cnsre by theTyrrheniaiis,
i.

;

citizen
in

charged from ferving

the field,

47. and

ii.

1

16.
iii.

-—

— thole who

177. thirty years was the proper age for entering upon the adminiftrar tion of public affairs, ii. 212.

Ajax and Ulyffes,

their wreftling,

were employed

are pall the military age in the defence of

270. Ajus LocutiuSy fee Faunus. its founder, Al/^a Longa, fituacion, and fortune, i. 102, and 148, 9. All'd, the mother of thirty Latin cities, is

the walls, iii. 342. and iv. &. thufe were obliged by the Roman

rafed

by Marcus Horatius,
tranfplanted
i.

and
yf/i-a^

its

citizens
ii.

to

laws to marry, who were of a proper age, iv. 42.

Rome,

62, yi.

country,- fniitful,

83, 149.

Alhn

INDEX
Jil>an kings,

to the
i.

TEXT.
againft the allies, who did it againft the Romans thcmiv.

a

catalogue of them,
feftivals

— Latin ment kept upon 428. not do — of what people compofed, 222. — removed Rome, — war, and of — — an demife of Numitor, annual of —
hill,

158.

the

derates, iii. 404, 7. thofe powers exercife their refent-

it,

iii.

nation,

felves,

180.
i.

i.

patricians,

to

ii.

Alontium, its fituation, Alps, i. 26.
Alfwrt,
its

1

1

7;

69.

fituation,

i.

the caufe, the general,
it,
ii.

47.
ii,

the event

Altar, the royal altar, andthefacrifice

5.

ufually laid
altar
9.

wine, delicious, i. 149. Jlbans, after the chofe diflators,

upon

it,

146.

overturned by lightning,
280, r. upon, and
i.
i.

iv.

inftead

kings; according to Licinius, ii. 433Jlba7is and Romans, their under
treaty

a fubterraneous altar, Altars, erefted to fwear
tify

ra-

Romulus,

a treaty, i. 305. Amata, the wife of Latinus,

ii.

145.

5.

Ambracian
^»;<5ra;^,

Jlbas Sihius, king of the Latines, i. 158. jdlbinus, fee Poftumius. Jlbiila, the ancient namei of the Tiber,
i.

bay,
its

i.

115.
ib,
i.

kingof Ambracia,
fituation,

Amiternim,

158.
is

Alcaus the poet

'^j, 310. Amnefly, offered to all thofe who had fled with Tarquinius, if they would return to the within

profcribed,

ii.
i.

430.
51.

Alcyone^ a prieftefs of Argos, Jlgidum, the camps of the

days,
iii.

Volfci before the Romans
iv.

it,

iv.

^Equi and 169,252.

city twenty 334. an amnefty propofed to the feceders,
ii.

greatly beaten there,
i,

73, Amphiiiyon, his inftitutions,
the

ii,

197.

284,

Amphidlyonic council^ and
ib.

5.

laws, id.

Madius, king of Alba,
Allies

fend fuccours to

of the Romans were obliged to Rome in time of
iv.

158,9.

Amphitheatrical portico, ii. 132. Anmlius defrauds his elder brother

Numitor

of

the

— —

war,

171. the Latines and Hernici fend dou-

kingdom,
at

i.

ble the

number ordered,

iv.

8.

the allies could neither create a general, nor lead out forces when
pleafed, iii. 303, the Romans fend
4.

— reigned —
Anchift,

174.

forty

two years

Alba,

i.

they

i. 195. fon of Phraftor, Amyntor,

is flain,

i.

63,

^««(^7mK»3, 167.

its

dems

fceptres and diakings their allies, as a confirmation of their government,
to the

fituation,

i.

117,
i.

fo called

from Anchifes,
\.

ii.

121. the forces of the to thofe of the
iv.

Anchifenft an table,

16^,^0.

allies

city,
c;,

were equal in the Tyrrhe-

Anchifes, fon of Capys, father of neas, i. 142.

M-

— whatever was

nian war,

2

31.

acquired after alliance was in common among the confe-

116. Athens, iii. 282. Ancilia, or bucklers of theSalii, i. 354. Ancus,
i.

146, — the chappel,of Anchifes, haven
i.

his

^//f/^z/fj,

archon

at

384

INDEX
ii.

to

the

Ancus. fee Marcius.

— the people
ii.
!

TEXT.
Aricini,
to
ii. iii.
-

Ancus Publicius of Cora, the Latin
general,
79.

of Antium enter into a treaty with Tarquinius Super bus,
alTift

.

Anio, the name of a river, ii. 51. runs not far from the holy moun-


tain,
its

69. courfe and quality, ii. 369. the confluence of the Anio, and the
ii.

iii.

Tiber,

1

12.
i.

Amus, king of Delos,

112, 136. Annals, Greek, i. 20. what the annals of Fabius relate concerning the death of Aruns Tar-

— —

— 240.the 366. — fend help theLatines, — troops Coriolani, 140. — beaten by Poftumus Comi143. — obliged the 206. —embafladors, town of Volfci
5.

fend
are

to the

iii,

:

nius, are

iii.

to difmifs
iii.

Sicilian

a fmall

feaport

the

is

taken with lome

fliips

belonging

quinius,
for

ii.

209.

in their relation

what reafon they are miftaken of the tyrants of
iii.


.—

the annals of Pifo, ii. 157, 174. Annibaly his war, i. 255.
i.

Sicily,

153.

together with their furniture, iv, 102, 3. the Antiates, and the garrifon of the TEqui furrender to Quintius, iv.
it,

to the Antiates in

107.
a colony is led out by the triumvirs into the the country of the
Antiatc!^, iv. 108. the exiles of the Antiates,

yfK««rt/ magin rates, 326. Annual magiftrates at Athens,

as well

as at

Rome,

iv.

101.
the Albans,

togein-

Annual

diftators

among
ii.

ther with the
iv.

^qui, make an
10.

433. Antemna, taken formerly by the Oenotri, or Aborigines,
cell,
i.

inftead of kings,

curfion into the territories
1

of the

from the
ib.

SIt

— made colony of Rome, — founders of Antemnates, — Romulus, — taken by Tarquinii 283. Roa

288.

the

the

i.

39-

—Latines, 114. — begin both and Roman 167. —colony openlyftorm, 170. taken by — Marcius, Banifliment,
to revolt, iv. the natives,

the

revolt, iv.
iv.

are

after his

re-

i.

tires to

Antium,

iii.

283.
iv.

afTifls

the
ii.

againft the

T. Antonius, one of the decemvirs,

mans,

346.

Antcncrida, their treachery, i. 102. Anlbemone, daughter of jEneas, i. in. AntiaSy fonof Ulyfles, founder of An-

his collegues againft the i^qui, iv. 284.
i.

240, 284, 302. marches with four of

Apennine mountams,

24,

35.

ii,

tium,

i.

165.
Apiolani, their city taken and rafed by Tarquinius Prifcus, ii. 102. Appeal from the confuls to the peo-

..^«//^«<Y.f,

archon at Athens, iii. 152. Antiochtis, of Syracufe, a very old
hiftorian,
i.

Antiftius Petron, killed

32, 78, 167. by the treach-

ery of Sex. Tarquinius, ii. 253,4. Antium, chief city of the Volfci, iii.

— 283. .^qui the
213.

iv.

102.

given by the \'altrian law, ii. 344, 424. iii. 87, 211. iv. J2i' a punifliment is demanded of the confuls, who obftruded an appeal
ple,

incamp

near

it,

iv.

to

the

people,

iv.

74.

^ppiiis.

See Claudius.

y/puduS

INDEX
^queduSl, one of the
flnidtures at

to

the

TEX
265.
received
fociety

T.

385

magnificent 129. C. Jquilius, conCul, in. 382. iv. 198. bravely defeats the Hernici, iii. 385triumphs over them, iii. 391. L. and M. Jquilius are among the

mod
ii.

count of the controverted lands,

Rome,

— —


iv.

are

into the friendfhip,

and

of the Romans,

iv.

ArgoHc bucklers, i. 47. Argos, the Achaian, i. 40.

confpirators, ii. 32 i, are impeached, ii. 327. y^ra Maxima, i. 92.

the hiftory of the prieftefles in Argos, i. 164. Aricia, diftant 120 ftadia from Rome,
i.

yfrcadia,

Lycaonia, — Atlas formerly King of Arcadia, — befieged by the Tyrrhenians unthe der Aruns, fon of Porfena, 139. — the deluge of Arcadia, 139, 366. 158.
firft
is
i.

221.

iii.

50.

t[\t

ii.

i.

— —

iii,

relieved by Ariftodemus of Cumse,
iii.

the Arcadians delight
tains,
i.

in

moun-

159.
ii.

35.

migration from Peloponnefus on account .of the deluge, i.
their
>

Aricini, a people of Latium, defire fuccours from the

409.
iii.

Cumas-

ans againft

the Tyrrhenians,
in

— 54— accufe the Romans the aflemGreeks, who held Ferentinum, 391. — what —bly and Ardeates they brought oufted of with Evander controverted — what place they ^6^, not Rome 102. but — moft honoured and moft anamong the neighbouring peoare the firft
i.

failed to

Italy,

29.

at

ii.

inftitutions

into Italy,
firft

ys. inhabited,

i.

the Aricini, the
4.

the

are

lands,

i.

iv.

their

Arijlocracy alfo
ple,
iii.

at

only,

cient divinity was Pan, i. 71, 2. j^rchedemides, archon at Athens, iv. 1 12.
Archeftratides^ archon at Athens,
ii.

iii.

94.
father

Arifiocrates,

of Ariftodemus,

154,

144.
yir£iinus,

Ariftodemus., fon of Ariftocrates, called Effeminate, iii, 154.

why

an ancient poet, i. 153. fon of Ulyffes, and founder Ardeas, of the city of Ardea, i. 165. Ardeates, a people of Latium, ii.
the
feciales
6.

— upon what — performs
his

occafion, and in what manner he made himfelf tyrant at Cumse, and the cataftrophe he met with, iii. 154.
a great achievement for country in putting the Barbariflight,
iii.

—409.
bus,
ii.

of the Ardeates,

i.

— 355»befieged by Tarquinius Super- — endeavours by are

ans to

157.

all

methods

to gain

— make

iv.

ii.

265.
a truce with the

Romans,

— are 296, of the controverted lands, oufted
312.

363, 4.

revolt

from the Romans on ac-

— — obtains — having
Aricia,
ib.

the affecflionsof the people, ib. leads the fuccours defigned for
iii.

159.

a

moft

famous vidlory,

(lain

the partifans of the
ariftocracy.

386
the
iii.

INDEX
iii.

to

the
lb.

ariftocracy, to himfelf,

he a(rumes the power
161.
in

manner
164.

which he governed,

— T. Menenius — T. Romilius
and
iv.

TEXT.
is

fined
fined

2000

afle«,

his

10,000 afles, coUegue Veturi us, 15,000,

is

he receives the banifhed Tarquin
into his friend fliip
•,

dying fhortly
iii.

after,

and Tarquin he buries him,
.

223, 4. Afcanian lake, i. 106. Afcanius, fon of .^Eneas and Creufa,

— higheft Cumsan by — cut with
in his

35-

.

,

fecurity
exiles,

is

oppofed
166.

— having
dom, he

left

his Dafcylitic
i.

king-

the

iii.

reftores the Hedtoridse to

is

off

all his relations, iii.

i6g.

Anns, fome tarnifhed with lightning, and others quite confumed, iv. 9. Ji'my ; a difpofition of the Roman

— ZEneas kingdom of Latium, — kingdom with
i.

their paternal throne, fucceeds his father

106.

in the

126, 146.

divides the

Roi.

mulus and Remus,

his brothers,
is

army, when drawn up,

ii.

335,

— 348.poorer the
420. — divided
ii.

iii.

S.

— by
to

167.
a profperous

omen

encouraged

fort pofted in the rear,

march out
230.
i.

againft Mezentius,

into three bodies
iii.

by the
iv.

fenate

and confuls,
part
is left

383.

— —

i.

builds Alba,
dies,
i.

148.

ii,

72, 3.

156.

— 125. a third
city,
iv.

to defend

the

of Cotys, i. 60 A£aracus, fon of Tros, i. 142.
AJies, fon

— Marcius125, — army could not be

168. does not fuffer his troops
iii
.

AJfemblies
i.

;

the place of aflemblies,
ii.

to be quartered in the cities,

3

1

1

.

difbanded the the confuls without an order of by the fenate, iii. 68.
ii.

— 312. 283. afTembled by people were found of oxens 236. — temple of
the
the

horns, i. aflemblies held at the
i.

Vulcan,

312.

iii.

loi. 178.

iv.

Arretini, a people of Tyrrhenia,

107. Artemifium, the battle fought there,
ii.

310.

340.

fon of Damaratus, ii. 99. Aruns, fon of Porfena, king of the Tyrrhenians, gives wife counfel to

Arum,

aflemblies called by the heralds through every flreet, ii. 220, 2S3, 402. the right of calling an aflembly was lodged in the magiftrates alone,
ii.

his

father,

much beyond

the ex-

— —

perience of a youth, ii. 358. fent by his father with part of is his forces to make himfelf mafter

— —

275.

power of calling an affembly, iii. 434, 5. a tribune of the people orders

the confuls had a

Appius the conful

to depart the af-

of Aricia,
is

ii.

366.

iii.

158.
at the

killed

by Ariftodemus

— fembly, no
bly,
iv.

ii. 367. iii. 159. fiege of Aricia, at what time he died, ii. ^66,

87. private perfon could fpeak in an aircmbly of the people, ii. 329,

iv.

Aruns Tarqidnius.
As, a

See Tarquinius.
its

— 3°- aflembly an
311.

oppofed to an aflemafter

Roman coin,

value,

iv.

53.

INDEX
~
3'4.
jijfejfmcntsy
i"i.

to

the

TEXT.
iii.

387

after the cxpulfion of the Tarquins, the right of holding afTcmblies was reftored to the peopk-, ii,

account of him, ii. 135, 7, he difippears, ii. 140. Attius (TtillHs) chief of the Volfcian

in

what manner made,
oath,
i.

— honourably283.
ftirs
iii.

nation,

entertains thebaniflied

173.

yJ^frtSffi

made upon

iii.

127.
the
the

ylffyn(!7is, their empire,

Aftyllus, of Syracufe, Olympic games, iii. 407. of Croton, victor AJiylus, Olympic games, iii. 282.

5, 6. victor at

— up 289. — mans, appointed bjing

iii.

Marciiis, and admits him to a fliare of th; government, iii. 285.
the Volfci againft the

Ro-

at

g.'neral of the war by the Volfci, he makes an in-

rurfion into the Latin territories,
i.

y|i^/«w

— a public afylum,

opened by Romulus,
ii.

251.

299.

j^.

Aterius (/lulus) conful, iv, 220. Athenians; the Eut.xI§ Jpii and Aj/^oim*

up the command of the army in the field to Marcius, and him It If commands the forces, which
gives
Itay at
iii.

of the Athenians, i. 236. the ©j;"??? of the Athenians, i. 238. the Athenians decreed an abolition -7of debts by the advice of Solon, ii.

414-


i.

the Athenians jealous of their

nobility, and privileges, i. 254. r-^ the Athenian computation of time,

143. Athenians and Lacedemonians with what number of forces they rout-

home, 302. — rage of people Marcius, 374. — he and Marcius — plunders 376. of Romans, — 387. but not 390, —
excites

the

his

againft

iii.

his faction, ftone
iii.

to death,
iii.

the

allies

the

a valiant foldier, for a general, iii. is killed in battle, ib.
his

qualified

Atys,

anceftors

and

pofterity,

i.

— how and how empire, — fubmit Lacedjemonians, 247, — deprived of power, 255— the Romans fend Athens a of 232. —bodyglory of Athenian comlafting,

ed the Perfians,
their

iv.

246.

extenfive
iv.

60, I. Avarice fubdues

all

men, and
ii.
i.

forces

i.

8.

them
185.

to a6t unworthily,
hill,

to the

Aventine

or mount,

387. 71, 159,
Silvius,
i.

8.

are

their

i.

to

for

laws,

iv.

the

the

monwealth, 24. L. Atilius Longus, a military tribune, iv- 375Atlas, firft king of Arcadia, his pofteii.

rity, i. 139. his fucceflbrs in the

kingdom,
i.

ib.

Atratinns.
yf///f

See Sempronius. computation of time,

143.

Attius (Navius)

the foothfayer,

an

— from Aventinus of Alba, —king — 185, 200. by Romulus, 290. — added by Ancus Marcius, — given 93.people on, — from the by decemvirs, 319. — from hence holy mountain, 323. — moft advantageous of
called fo

159. oppofite to the Palatine
is

i.

hill,

fortified

i.

is

to

the city

ii.

is

to the

to build

iv.
is

192.

fcized

the feceders

iv.

they retire
the

to the

iv.

is

all

Vol. IV.

E

e e

the

3B8
iv.

INDEX
319.
iv.

to

the
ii.

TEXT.
100.
augurs,
the

the hills in the city to incamp on,

Prifcus, fkilled in the art of augury,

i—


is

the higheft hill, ii. 200. its afcent and circumference,

— Tyrrhenian
ii.

mofl

knowing

in meteors, etc. iv. 10.

189. — 93. temple of Diana the
it,

flood

upon

See Minudus. Augurinus. Aulus {Balbus) is appointed one of the
deputies fent to the feceders, iii. 104. Angujlus C^efar puts an end to the civil

ii. 93. iv. 192. the Circus Maximus was fituated

between the Aventine, and Palatine
hills, ii. 130. Avernus lake, iii. 167, 8. is furrounded with hills, and far from Cumre, ib.

war,

i.

18, 19.

.

Aurunci, a people
is

not
1.

buft,
iii.

fierce,

of Italy, tall, roand warlike, i. 48.

Augurs, oimomMi,

their funftions,

— _
.

hired with the public money in the creation of magiftrates, i. 231. are confulted by Tarquinius concerning the building of a temple,
ii.

— the of Cam— demand Ecetranian of Romans, — arefubduedby 51, 52.
fineft plains

51. Inhabit

pania,

iii.

50. the

territo-

ries

the

ib.

Servilius,

iii.

Aurujpex.
Aufoiies,

134. — are confulted
cles,
ii.

See Augurs. being conquered

by

the

by him concerning

the purchafe of the Sibylline ora-

262.

r—

they, together with the pontiffs, appoint the king of facrinces, ii.
are prefent at the enabling of laws,

lapyges, remove to Sicily, i. 51. Aufonia, the ancient name of Italy, i. 80. Aufonian gulph, afterwards called
the Tyrrhenian bay, i. 3 t. Axes, and rods borne by twelve lidlors before Romulus, i. 277. twelve axes carried before the con-

—313— 192, moft was — augural
iv.

238.
celebrated
divifions

the

among them
ii.

Attius Navius,

135.
places,
art,
ii.

of

— 136. — great
by
i.

— 313. — and change the rods every month, — axes from
fuls,
ii.

the confuls

axes

ib.

Valerius takes the

the

teachers

of the augural
are

ii.

difficulties

undertaken
favourable

and orders the axes to be ufed abroad in time of war, or over conquered nations ; and the rods
rods,
to be ufed at

the

afTiflance
ii.

of

home

in

time of peace,

— auguries, 356. a controverfy decided by augury,
is

ii-

343' 4-

200.
parts of the heavens mofl: proper for

di<51:ator commands the axes with the rods to be borne before

the

-—

the eaflern

were eftc-emed the
i.
'

— Cincinnatus,

ferior
iii.

him

in

the city,

ii,

434.

is prcferved only for torm fake in canvafTing for magiflracies, i. 231. r-r Tanaquil, the wife of Tarquinius

—auguries, 229,of30. the ceremony augurs

has diflator, four axes, and as many rods twenty carried before him, iv. 175. the axes were lowered when an inthe

magiftrate

nitt

a iuperior,

352.

whether

INDEX
— whether —
171.
to behead with an ax,
i.

to

the

TEXT.
iii.

3^9
155.
batall

the twelve axes were bor-

rowed from the Tyrrhenians, and at what time, ii. 120, i.
277.
iv,

— which was — put
tles, iv.

Battle with the Barbarians,

the greateft of
off'

23.
I.

a battle

by unlucky omens,

iv.

100,

Beam;
B.

the Sifber's

Beech- tree;
ii.

Beam, ii. 49. Gracchus Cloelius, gene-

Babylon

•,

the walls of Babylon,

196. the beauty of the territory belonging to Babylon, i. 80.

ral of the 7Equi, bids the Roman embaffadors addrefs themfelves to

a neighbouring beech-tree, iv. 173.
Biggir.g ; no begging under the color of religion, i. 25S.

Bacchannli^,

Aiheman
ii.

feaft?,

iii.281.

BiKchiada, Damaratus deicendedfrom
that family,
./Siifir/.'K.r,

97.
i.

his adventures,

257,8.

Poftumius, the dictator, having made a vow, builds a temple to
Bacchus, Ceres,

Beheading vixth an ax, i. 277. iv.171. See Sicinius. Benefits ought not to be buried with the perfons of benefa6tors, ii. 159,
Bellutus.

and Proferpine,
is

— which
144.

iii.

27.

Betrothed; a lover flies to the relief of his betrothed wife, iv. 294. Biers adorned with garlands and rib-

temple

dedicated,

iii.

bands,
Births
;

iv.

312.

Baggage^ belonging to a camp, fold by the qusftors, ii. 364. Bail; an arraigned perfon, upon giving bail, is difcharged till the day of
trial,

monftrous births put to deaths i. 250, I. Bitumen, and pitch, veflTels filled with them are fet on fire, and thrown by
flings

amongft the enemy, who had
iv.

iv.

Balbus,.

143. See Atilus.
fire

pofl^efled the capito!,

160.

Ballot boxes.

See Urns. Banijhed perfons were interdided

and water,
Barbatus.

Barley

;

165. See Horatius. offerings of barley meal and
i.

ii.

Blood; attoned by luftration, ii. 403. See Ox market. Boarium. Boats ; a bridge of Boats made ufc of in pafTing rivers, ii. 112. boats filled jvith pitch in order to

the fhedding of civil blood

— —

268, 9. ! is cfteemed the moil ancient grain by the Greeks, i. 268. Barrennefs ; Spurius Carvilius was the firft Roman, who divorced his wife on account of barrennefs ; not without the difguft of the people,

fait in facrifices,

burn a bridge, ii. ib. Bolanit their city taken,

plundered,

and burnt by Marcius, iii. 307, 8. 5cO(^j,holy and fecret books, iv. 376.
See Sibylline. Sibylline books. Booty, taken from the enemy, is given to the people bylaw, iii. 251.

i.

271.
i.

Bajketbtzrtrs,,
firft

48, 261.
i.

the booty is fold by the qujeftors, and the produce of it carried into

fruits

offered in bafkets,
i.

264.
Batia,
its

the treafury, iii. 251. Ocrifia, a female captive,

is

feledt-

fituation,

'^j.

Battea, daughter of Teucrus, and fecond wife of Dardanus, i. 113,142,

ed out of the booty, and given to Tarquinius, ii. 145.
facrifices,

and games are celebrat2

Eee

ed.

39<^

INDEX
Spoils. 143. See Ludna.

to

the

ed, and temples built, with the tenths of the booty, iii. 27, 144. the bravcft warriour is honoured with the firfl fruits of the booty,
iii.

— —

TEX
is

T.

cut away from the city, ii. 350. the bridge, which joined the Sabine, and the Tyrrhenian camps,
fet

on

fire,
;

ii.

112.

See

Brujloia-ood

faggots
fire,

made of brulh-

Born.

wood
and

arc piled

tiie chief town of the Latines, taken by Marcius, iii. 311, 12. Bovillanit a people of Latium, ii.

Bovilla,

fct

on

up to a great height, in order to burn the
which had

citadel near the capitol,
iv.

been taken by Appius Herdonius^
160.
Brutus, HAi8(or,
that

409.
Boundaries^ Tf^^ovtg, the law of
ib.
i.

Junius why — Numa concerning furname, 270. quired — L. Junius, boundaries, upon — punifhment of taking away, him name of Brutus, 105. — whether Brutus or any — removing boundaries, 362. unto them, 341, See more — Terminus not be removed, Brutus, under Junius. — 134, people of Latium, powers which prefided over boundaries, 409. — Terminalia, ^6z.the of or Argolic 47. — of Buckk-rs, boundaries, — boundaries of public of fecond given
362.
ii.

L.

ac-

a plebeian, takes
iii.

the

the

i.

the
ii.

firil

left

facrifices offered

ib.

pofteriry,

2.

will

relating to

ii-

5-

the article
a

the

Bubetani,

ii.

i.

fcftival

Bucklers;

bucklers,

i.

ib.

lliields,

inftead

are

the

the

lands

to the centuries
ii.

the

diftinguifhed by
iii.

haadfome

pillars,

402. Bowls, and tables, a victorious army received with them, ii. ^^S. Boxing matches ; Irus and Ulyfles,
their boxing,
i.

iii.

270.

bucklers of the Salii, i. 354. what bucklers the facrificers of the Curetes carried, i. 352, 3See Shields. Bull; a fingle bull is offered in com-

c'afs,

1

76.

Boys, and girls afliftants at the facri-

mon
a

by

all

the Latin

cities,

iL

261. fices, the education of bo^s is rendered effeminate by Arittodemus, iii.

— 241. brazen

bull,

ii.

372..

164,5.
Bracelets, golden,
iv.

201.

Bride cake, a marriage ceremony called fo from the participation of
bread,
i.

See Suoveto.urilia. Burial. See Funeral. Burre-reed, an herb, i. 38. Buiy.ng a,\\ve, i. 180, 347.
Btitbrolum,
its

fituation,

i.

1

15,

269.
C.'iBALs,


Bridge, made of boats for the croffing of rivers, ii. 1 12.

held in private houfes are

the holy bridge built of wood, which ihe pontits had the care of,
'•

generally fufpicious, iv. 3 68. Cabani, a people of Latium, ii. 409..
Cabiri,

359''

the tenths

vowed

to

them,
i.

i.

a bridge of wood firft built crofs the Tiber by Apcus Marcius, li.

SSCc.cm\, his

robbery and death,

87,

y6.

L.

Ciccilius

INDEX
L,
Ctfc:/ius Metellus, his

to

the

TEX

T.

triumph, and zeal in faving the veffels, and ftatue of Vefta in the capitol, i. 344. L. C^dicius, a tribune of the people, cites Sp. Servilius, aconfular perfon, to trial, iv. 54. Calian hill, fo called from Cselius the

— fupport

391

the expelled Tarquinii againft the Romans, ii. 346. the fugitive Camerini accufe the Romans in the aflembly held at

Ferentinum, ii. 391. Camerinus (Sulpicius) is appointed one of the deputies fent to thefeceders,
104. Cameria, built
iii.

— Tyrrhenian, contiguous — 312. added
i.

i.

288.

to

mount

Pallantine,

by the
of

Albans,
ib.

i.

is

to the city
ib.

by Romulus

and Tatius,
is

included within the walls of the
3.

city by Tullus Hoftilius, ii. See P'irginius. Ccelimontanus.

— furrenders colony Rome,Prifcus, to Tarquinius 106. — the of Sextus Taris
'


i

313-

made

a

ii.

at

quinius

inftigation it revolts

from the Ro-

Calus caftrated, i. 257. Qenhia, its fituation, i. 186. formerly taken by the Oenotri, or Aborigines from the Siceli, i. 288. is taken by Romulus, i. 283^, and made a colony of the Romans, i. 288.

— —

mans,
is

ii.

373.

Camilli, 'K.otSuhoi,

taken and rafed, ii. 389. i. 262.
in their affeiflions
iii.

Campania, wavering
to the

Cere, formerly called Agylla,

47. befieged by Tarquinius, ii. 115. deretani confpire with the Veientes againft the Romans, ii. 202. See Julius. Ceefar.

i.

Romans, — the Campani Cumsan 166, againft Ariftodeinus, — the of Campania, 48. — very 82.
afTift

77. the

exiles

iii.

plains

i.

are

fruitful,

i,

the

Cum^an
fertil

moft

were the of the Campaniart parts
territories
field
iii.

See Fabius. Caifo. the name of a promontory, Cajeta, 123. Cake. See Bride : Barley.

i.

iii. 155. Martins, the Campus comitia were held,

plains,

where the

A«uxAi(, i. 79Calliades, archon at Athens, Callias, archon at Athens,
Calf,

— appointed of — comitia
in the

244.

likewilfe for the creation

magiftraces, ii. 295, and 332. the cencuriata were held

iv,
iii.

i, 2.

campus Martius,

iii.

244.
ii.

7.51.

Cajial

round the circus maximus,

179. Callias, the hiftorian,

iv.

i. 165. of Oceanus, i. 60. Cnllirhoe, daughter CMirlMe, daughter of Scamandrus, i, 142. CaUitbea, daughter of Chor^us, i. 60. Calpetus Sihiiis, king of Alba, i. 158. See Pifo. Calpurnius.

Canna, the detcat there, i. 256. C. Canuleius, a tribune of the people^ fpeaks in the fenate concerning the
laws forcomtnunicatingthe confulwith the Plebeians, iv. ^6c). fliip an eagle takes the cap of TarCap;
quinius from his head, and replaces
99. — the caps, or mitres of the
it,
ii.

Cfiriieriiii

conquered by Romulus, and Tatius, i. 31J. fubmit themfdves to Tarquinius
Prifcus,
ii.

are

Salii,

i,

106.

352.
.

a large train of

men

with caps in a funeral-

392

INDEX
ii.

to

the

a funeral procefllon,
Capeltis,

194.

TEXT.
the temple of Saturn

upon

the ca-

Capena, a gate at Rome, iii. king of Alba, i. 158. the peoCapital crimes determined by
ple,
ii.

288.

pitoline hill,

iii.

2.

See ^lintius. Capilolinus. in Italy, i. 167. Capua,

47.

Oipitol,

fcarce a ftadium
iv.

from the
levelled,
i.

Tiber, 155. the land about

it

is

Capya, — —

in Arcadia,

i.

no.
i.

fo called

from Capys,

i

lo.

Capys, the Trojan, i. no, 142. the fon of Aflaracus, ib.

312.
Carmentalis, the holy gate of the Cais always open by the dipitol,

Capys Silvius, king of Alba, i. 158. Cardianus (Hieronymus) an hiftorian,
i.

15.

— —

155. a fortrefs contiguous to the capitol, iv. 155. the fortrefs and capitol are fortified

redion of fome oracle,

iv.

Carina, a flreet at Rome, i. 151. Carmenta, or Carmentis, called in Greek BunttuSa^, or more com-

when

a fiege

is

apprehended,

iii.

—monly annual

0£;(*(f,

i.

6^9.

— 314-

facrifices of Carmenta the are offered under the Capitoline

the capitol and fortrefs are gariv. rifoned during a tumult, the capitol
is

hill, i. 71. See Capitol. Carmentalis. Cart; to rally people from a cart in

feized

by the

tri-

bunes, and people 88.
Capitolhie turnius,
is

in a fedition, iv.

— heaps

iii. 274. of dead bodies carried out in carts, during a peftilence, iv.

proceflions,

hill,
i.

formerly called
ii.

Sa-

— and — _

76.

alfo

Tarpeius,

Capitoline, put, a head was found there,

called

134. becaufe Caii.

121. Carthage, and Rome built at the fame time, according to Timseus, i. 168, 9.

256, and 259. is fortified by Romulus, i. 290. -_ the temple of Jupiter Feretrius ftands upon the top of the Capitoline hill, i. 285. i^ the building of the Capitoline temple is begun by Tarquinius Prifcus, ii. 256. continued by Tarquinius Superbus, ii. 259. and confecrated by M. Horatius,

Carthage contends again for empire, i. 255. Carthaginians driven oflf the fea, i. 9.

i. 85. the firft Roman, who Sp. Carvilius, divorces his wife on account of

their facrifices,

barrennefs

;

not without the difi.

guftofthe people, i. 271. Cajfander, king of Macedon,

112.

— — 366. length 260, had ~
ii.

Sp. Cajfius Vifcellinus, conful, ii. 388. triumphs over the Sabines, ib. is appointed general of the horfc

— —

the

and width of

it,

ii.

I.

after

it

in
ii.

the fame

manner

been burnt, is rebuilt it was before,
ii.

— he part of thedidator, 435. — would have
receives
ii.

by T. Lartius, 434-

the

didtator,

ii.

the

army from

261.
it

~. when

was burnt,

263.

the price of Caffius the corn, which had been given by Gelo, and divided among the people.

INDEX
iii.

to

the
Calo.

TEXT.

393

pie, to be reftored to the purchafers,

397.
of"

.. fpeaks
revolt

feverely for chaftifing the the Latines, iii. 32.

—.

is

created fecond time conful
iii.

by

— — and —Bacchus,time
is

the people,
111.

y§.

— —a

See Porcius. Cattle infefted with a diftemper, W. 231. fome cattle, let out of a fortrefs to
feed, are taken, ii. 353. facrifice of cattle at the funerals

allotted to take charge

of the

city.

dedicates
third

the

temple of Ceres,
iii.
iii.

144. 391. .— marches againft the Hernici and Volfci, iii. 392, alienates the fenate by his ambitious defign in demanding a triumph, and for his too gentle treatment of the Hernici, iii. 394. . recounts his exploits before an afof the people, iii. 395. fembly ~- endeavours to obtain the paffing of the Agrarian law by compulProferpine,
is

of princes and generals, iii. ^yy. Caucdjius, or rather Thaumafius, a mountain of Arcadia, i. 139. Cauls of net work for the hair, iii.
165. Caufeways, or paved ways, one of the moft magnificent buildings at Rome, ii. 129. Cekres, their name and fundtion, i.

conful,

— 245, borrowed
nians,
i.

6.

from the LacedsemoItoijmoi

248.
0/

•^

Celeres
i^ycc,
i.

kxi

t»x^(

"r*

fion,
.

is
iii.

iii. 400. accufed of aiming at tyranny, 408.

capitally condemned by the people, and thrown down theTarpeian
is
iii.

— the commanders of and — the command of 340. given Celeres 275,6. — toBrutusby Tarquinius, command, down Brutus
their Office,
i.
.

246.

the Celeres,

the

ii.

lays

that

ii.

28r.

41 — rock, he was accufed and put whether — which 85. abolifhed by death by 412, — why he was put death by the Hercules, — drive Tyrrhenians from the Siccius according Ionian gulph, 204. country — houfe demolifhed, and uied 414. 275. fewers be —goods nor banifhed, put out and or deprived of — upon what condition they130. permit honors, on account of divorce Wife, crimes, 414, — people 271. having
to
turn,
i.

1.

Celt^ offer

human

facrifices

to Sa-

his father,

iii.

[3.

facrifices are
i.

to

85.

patricians, Dentatiis, iv.
his
is

to

the

near the
in

iii.

his

confifcated, iii. his fons are neither

Cenfers

their their eftates, their father's

Cenfors cleanfed

proceffions, the repaired,

iii.

to

ii.

iii.

15.

Carvilius to

his

i.

the

are

forry for

Caffius, iii. 419. and Pollux, their fliape and C^Jlcr

condemned
age,
iii.

20,

i.

manifeftation at Rome-, namely a temple, a fountain, ceremonies, and annual games, iii. 21.
their
I

many monuments of

— 188. — why —

Cenforii comnientarii, or the records of the cenfors, i. 171, 2. Cf»/«J of the Romans, i. 172. inflituted

by Tullius,
iv.

ii.

171

inftituted,

377.
centuries,

the order, cenfus,

and arms

394
the

INDEX
of the
ib. to

to

the

TEX T.
among
the Greeks,
curfion of an
iii.

—armsfame — number of108.
claffes,

firft'clafs, ii. 175. afterwards for the other


Ccremoines; fhe abftemious ceremonies of Cere?, i. 74. the ceremonies of facrifices
2, 3.

the

the

firft

cenfus,

ii,


•—

190. the cenfus revived by the confuls,

ceremonies, difturbed by the in-

enemy,

are

renewed
iii.-

ii-

344-

with

double

magnificence,

— — another
the
firft
iii.

which cenfus the number of citizens amounted to 130,000, ib. a cenfus appc^inted by T. Lartius,
in
ii. 434, 5. 261 years from the cenfus, building of Rome, in which the number amounted to 110,000,


dictator,

49. the fupremacy of ceremonies belonged to the king, i. 248. the fuperintendence of the com-

mon
200.

ceremonies in the Latin

feiliii.

vals belonged to the

Romans,

147. — another,
litary
1

— foreign ceremonies never
by pubHc authority
at

adopted
i.

which thofe of the miage amounted to above
in
iv.

Rome,

— another,
found a
iv. 6(^.

10,000,

48.

— 258. ceremonies
i-

appointed by

Numa,

in
little

which there were more than 133,000,
for

339i.

Ceres teaches agriculture to Triptole-

— no cenfus renewed feventeen — mus, temple and — Poftumius, 377. — many remove from Rome vow ing
her

31, 2.

years together, iv.

in or-

to his

rite?, i. 73, 4. the diftator, accordbuilds a temple to

der to avoid the cenfus,
.

ib.

Ceres,

Bacchus,

and Proferpine,
is

the punifhment of thofe

who

neg-

lefted the cenfus, ii. 434. See Comitia. Centuriata.
Centuries of the clafTes were

one hun-

dred and ninety three,

.—

244. the 193 centuries diftributed into
ib.
iii.

iii.

— which temple — Sp. brazen — 414. of goods
iii.

iii.

27.

dedicated

by

CafTius, 144. ftatues erefted to Ceres,
iii.

the

thofe,

who

affaulted

— two

fix claffes,

a

tribune,
iii.

were

confecrated

to

centuries of carpenters,

— the

244.
century of hornblowers, ii. 179. iii. 245. centuries of old and young men in
clafs,
ii.

— and of
them

Ceres,

136. thofe likewife, whooppofed in the execution of their office,

— — each

177, 8. the fi.xth century feldom called to give their votes, ii. I06. iii. 245. their Centurions, appointment, ii. 179, 80. had the command of the holy enfigns,
iv.

iv. 210. P. Ceflius, conful, iv. 232. from beino; conful is made a de-

ccmvir, iv. 236. taken by Marcius, iii. ^29Chccrephanes, archon at Athens,
Cetia,

iv.

229.
Ch<eronea, the defeat there,
i.

255.

159.
i.

Ccphalo, the Gergithian, a very ancient writer,

Chair, confular, 4^8. an ivory chair placed for the confuls

iii.

no,

163.

when they

fit

in

judgment,

ii.

279.
Chal-

INDEX
Cbalcidenfes, a colony of

to

the

TEX

T.

395

them build
i.

Cumre,
CharaHers
;

iii.

155.

Chalices, little earthen chahces,
a

264.


tripod infcribed with ancient charaders, i. 45. a fliield infcribed with them, ii.

— what dowry
.'53-

Chronology of the Romans reduced to that of the Greeks, i. 169. Chryfes, daughter of Pulas, and wife of Dardanus, i. 139.
fhe brought to

Dari.

danus, as the gift of Minerva,

255. 6. and a pillar
ii.

in the

temple of Diana,
iv.

200. Chares, archon at Athens,
Chariots;
chariot,
i.

Cinathion, a promontory of Peloponnefus, fo called from one of the

69.

Romulus dedicates a brazen
and four horfes to Vulcan,

companions of ^neas, whofe name was Cinsthus, and was buried on
that place, i. 113. L. Cincius, an hiftorian, i. 6. Cincirinatus. See L. ^nntitts. CinBures ufed by the ancient comba1

318.
ii.

royal chariots ufed in the greater
chariots ufed
in

— triumph, 384. the games, 269. — 279. — Tullia orders her
fore
iii.

a proceffion be-

tants,

iii.

Ciraftus, father

chariot races,

iii.

Circaenfes,

269, 70. of Macar, i. 42. a people of Latium,

ii.

chariot

to

be

— — Lucretia 268. — Manius TuUius,
riots,
ii.

drivenover her father's body, ii. 225 Fufetius torne to pieces by cha71.
drives to

Rome in

a chahis

riot,

ii.

falling

from

409. Circe, daughter of the dwelt, ii. 264. Ttlegonus, fon of fes, ii. 233. Circeii, by whom, and and from whence

Sun ; where

flic

Circe by Ulyf-

where founded,
fo
called,
iii.

ii.

chariot,

during a procelTion, dies

before the expiration of his confulii. 403, 4. fliip,

CbarondaSf his law concerning children, i. 272. Char ops, archon at Athens, i. 162. Cheefe ufed in the Latin feftivals, ii.

— 264. Marcius, 302. dimenfions of — Circus Maximus, by whom130,
furrenders to
Circus, the
it, ii.

t.

built

241.
Chefts of ftone for
line oracles,
ii.

keeping the Sibyl263.
bear chil-

and adorned, where, and in what manner, ii. 130. in the end of the Circus Maximus ftood the temple of Ceres, Bacchus, and Proferpine, iii. 144.
^55-

Children;

women feldom

Citadel contiguous to the capitol, iv.
Citizens

<

dren after they are fifty years of of age, ii. 155. children not put to death by the
i.

(Roman)

in

what

manner

—Aborigines, compellable were
39.
thofe

children
iv.

who

to beget were of age to do it,

42. See Parents.
Cboricus the father of Callithea,
i.

60.

Chortaei, hairy vefts,

iii.

274.

— — — number, would have be — what common
ii.

they were divided by Romulus, i. ^33how Servius Tullius difcovered their number, fex, and age, ii. 174. by what means he encreafed their

190.

Tullius

citizens to

equal,

ii.

the rights of 161.

Vol. IV.

F

rights

the

ci-

f f

tizens

39^
tizens
";

INDEX
to have,
trial,
iii.
ii.

to the
the

TEXT.
diftatorfhip
city
is

;

ought — a citizen could not without a —death, not lawful for was
it

212. be put to
46.

any one to hands on the daughter of a cilay cizen, iv. 294. a Roman citizen was not allowed
to keep a tavern, or exercife

— — every Greek 431. — whether
lief to a
ii.

a great
ii.

re-

defperate city,

had

its

own

437. king,

the rights of a city

may
i.

be communicated to foreigners,

any


— —

254,
the

5-

communication of the

rights^

— —

mechanical trade,

275. the citizens deiert the city under the decemvirs, iv. 282. the preferver of a citizen was

i.

iv. 48.

of a city carries more glory than fhame, ii. 24. how conquered cities fhould be
treated,
i.

252.

crowned,
City
is
is

iii.

327.
ii.

-T-

like

an individual man,
to the

—419. compared
124. — what things
iii.

human body,

whether the youth of a conquered city fliould be put to the fword, i, 252, 3the Romans were moderate in
punilhing 378.
city

conquered

cities,

ii.

are the moft valuable


_*—

in a city, i. 223, 4. in what the glory of cities confifts,

— ploughing round
was defigned

the place where a to be built, i.

ii.

24, 5.

by what methods a city is rendered more large and auguft, i. 337,
8.

— 204.

reprefentations of conquered cities carried in a funeral proceffion, iii.

-

s- by what means

a city

is

preferved,

377• See Rome. Governor.

rendered pious, juft, mocity derate,and warlike by an emulation of worthy purfuits, i. 256. %- a city ought to change its conduit as circumftances change, iv. 227, in a city there are many ranks of
is

—1,223,4. a

^

Cm/ commotions,
caufes,

and feditions; the and fpeeches which compofed them, ought to be related by an hiftorian, iii. 260.
i

—psople, the affedled

iii.

130.
part of a
off,

— —

CbJfej,KAy,ffet(y ii. the fix clafles

So.

of centuries,

ii.

city fhould
iii.

diftinguiflied by Servius Tullius according to their cenfus, and the

fuffer a greater mifcity cannot ibrtune than to lofe her greatell jnen by degrees, iv. 227. the harmony of cities, ii. 199. p— how it may be maintained, i.

—a

:not always be cut

82.

order, and arms he the firft five, ii. 175

— alligned 181.

to

the clafits in the comitia are cited

by the cryer
iv.

in

their order to give

their votes for the future confuls,

162.

—224. — may

a city

weakened by domeflic war

Ckudian family derive their origin from Regillum, a Sabine city, iv,
the tribe, ii. 374. Apfius Claudius Sabimis affirms tliat the abolition of debts will not

b? cafiiy deftroyed, iii. 37. a city is oftener fubverted by the more powerful, than by the weaker
ii.

— 271. Claudian

patties,

417.

purge

INDEX
— — —

dilligrees

to

the

TEXT.

397

purge the city of ledition, ii.4i6. is chofen conful, iii. ^^^
with his

— moft —

tribunes, iv. Si, 3.

coUegue,

iii.

expoftulates with his collegue for

his patronage of the poor, iii. 38. flies from the forum in order to

grievoufly exafperates the people by a rough and imperious invcdive, ib. is feverely reprimanded by C. Laeftorius, a tribune of the people, iv. 85. in the Volfcian

avoid the fury of the people, iii. 42. beheads three hundred Volfcian hoftages for the perfidy of their
nation,
a
iii.

the

war he experiences contumacy of his army, iv.
I.

— hinders 47. collegue ing triumph, — what opinion he
his
ib.

from obtain-

delivered in or-

der to appeafe the foreign and domeftic commotions, iii. 58. is called by Valerius an enemy of the people, and a favourer of the
iii.

— 90, punifhes the contumacious with great 92. — opinion concerning the divifion of the public 94. — tribune of the peoby
foldiers

fcverity,

iv.

his

lands,

iv.

a cited, to take his trial before ple,
is

them,

iv.

99.

— oligarchy,the anfwers

88.
accufations of Vale-

a few days before his trial he put himfelf to death, iv. 99, 100.
Claudius, nephew of Caius Claudius by the brother's fide, iv. 259» 345. is appointed conful, iv, 233. is defirous of a new magiftracy,

y^ppius

— opinion — oppofes
his

rius, ib.

people,

iii.

for bringing back the 102. the demands of the fe-

— ceders, 133. by praifcd

iii.

is

C.

Marcius,

iii.

— — — —

186.
diflliades the fenate

from deliverbe tried

by ing the patricians to the people, iii. 221. oppofes CafTius in the Agrarian
Jaw,
iii.

— — — decemvirs be created laws, compiling 235. — decemvir, 236. — he alone gains the flowing
ib.

advifes that

for
is

the

iv.

created a

iv.

praife

from the conduft of the whole de237. —cemvirate,created a decemvir, again — continues m decemvirate
is

iv.

397.

iv.

his fpeech concerning the rian lavv, iii. 401, 2.
is

Agra-

the

for

highly praifed Atratinus for his great prudence,

by A. Semp.

— —

the third year, iv. 244. refers to the fenate
iv.

concerning a
JEqu'i,

and courage, iii. 403. what advice he offered for rendering
ineffedual the tribunitian
iv. 3.

war with the Sabines, and

power,

the fon of Appius, is Jj>p!us Claudius, to encouraged by the patricians ftand for the confulfhip; and,tho' abfent, and unwilling, is created

— —

253. compofes the difturbances in the fenate, iv. 257, 8. returns no anfwer to the advice of
his uncle, iv.

270.

decides the difpute in the fenate in favor of himlelf, and his party,

—conful, makes

iv. 78. a fevere fpeech againft

iv.

280,

I.

the

is left

with Sp. Opplus, and two
legions

F

f f 2

398

— and removes 284. govern — 282. with Vir— oppofes granting triumph 292. — what manner he endeavours to L. and M. Horatius, 293. — 345- opinion —corrupt her more of with more and people ought
legions to
falls

INDEX
governelTes, iv. in love

to

the

TEXT.
iv.

the city, iv.

leaves the city,

to the

defperately in love
iv.

Sabines,

ginia, in

the

a

to

Valerius,

iv.

is

her,

is

that the

ib.

-—

— pronounces
i

fends for Marcus Claudius, iv. 293. a partial fentence a-

gainft her, iv. 307.

— — — whether

deprived of the fruit of his in every paffion, and is oppofed thing, iv. 310. fliuts himfclf up in his houfe, iv.
but
is

— — fome
M.

not to be gratified either with the confulfliip, or any other magiftracy, iv. ^66. gives the fenate, and confuls wholeoppol'es

advice, iv. ^6y. the tribunes,
iv.

and people

very ftrenuouOy,

372.

Claudius, client to Appius Claudius, a man of confummate afiv.

dies in prifon, iv. 341. he hanged himfelf,

ib.

293. —furance, reafon for gives the

Caius Claudius,

fon of Appius, iv.
iv.

— — 259' 345-. what

1S7. uncle to Appius the decemvir,
_


apprehending Virginia, 294. endeavours to carry her ofF by force, but is obliged to quit her,
iv.

his

iv.
is

301.

political ceived from his anceftors,

principles he reiv. ?.62.

condemned
iv.

to

perpetual banifli-

his determination to retire to Regillum during the decemvirate, iv. 271.

342. Aciius Claufus removes with his clients from the Sabines to Rome, ii.

ment,

inclemency to be ufed rather than violence in overcoming our advcrfaries, iii. 204. fometimes even a tyrant makes ufe

adiieres to that determination, iv.

282.

C. Claudius, conful, iv. 144. his fpeech concerning the demands

of Virginius, one

the tribunes, to of theif inquring into a relating
ot iv
i

of c emency, n. 255.
Cleonidas,

the

Theban, vidtor
ii.

at

the

•— he

pretended confpir icy,
advifes
tlie

50.

pic games,
Clients, their

patricians to

march

with their clients againft tlie enemy, witiiout tlie aliiftance of the people,
iv.
I

— numero.is
honor to

97. duty, i. 239.
ciitnts

were a glory and
families,
i.

illuftrious

!^S.

•— commands

the guard without the
tlie

240.
clienffhip, the laws of
5>ee
it,
i.

238.

-~

walls, iv. 159.
is

Paircns.
at the

agunft doubling

number of

Clcelia,

head of the

—what
=— 259-. his

the tribunes, iv. 1H6. advice he gives to Appius, and the decemvirs in the fenate, iv.

m -kcs

iioftages,
it.

her tfcape with them,

— 362.

ipeech after the filence of

Ap-

file is prefented with a war horfe adorn d with trappings, :ind hon ured with a brazen ftatue, ii.

pius, IV. 270, I,

3.H^

5-

Clxlii

INDEX
ClaJii

to

the

TEXT.

399

remove from A]ba
the

to

Rome,
iv,

ii.

69. obftrudt

Agrarian

law,

Cohorts, of 500, iv. 117. of 600, iv. 127. of 800, iv. 212.

— upon

208.

— — — Casfb
legue,

that account are fined by the people, iv. 210. Ck'lius (Gracchus) general of the
iv.

liant cohorts to the relief
iii.

Fabius fends the moft vaof his col'-

425.

—JEqm,

172.

Collars, golden, iv. 201. Collatia is taken by Tarquinius,
ii.

and

haughty and ignominious anfwer to the Roman embafreturns a
fadors, iv. 172, 3. bids them addrefs themfelves to a

receives a garrifon, and a diftator,

104.

— — neighbouring — and — 176.
artfully
iv.
is

Collatinus, from his poflerity

whence Egerius, and acquired the furname
ii.

beech-tree, ib.

furrounds

the

Roman
camp,

Collatinus, — whether L. Tarquinius Collatinus

of

266.

troops, iv. 174. is beaten, fliut

was the fon of Egerius,
up
in his

ib.

See Junius.
Collegue
;

favor to be fhewn to a colii.

led in chains at a triumph, iv.

^

178.
Clcehus Sictdus, conful, is advanced to the adminiftration of domeftic
affairs,

— A.

legue,

330.

faithfully efpoufes his collegue, Spurius Servilius, iv.

Virginius

on account of
ii.

his

gentle

Colline

— having
he,
as

difpofition,

405.

abdicated the confulfhip, interrex appoints T. Lar-

— the Colline — Tyrrhenians
;

the Colline region,
gate,
i.

ii.

169.

347.

beaten at the Colline
i.

— —

tius,

didator, ii.428.


gate, iv. 47.

Colline Salii,

351.
iv.

body of troops from the ii. didacor, 435. takes a party of Latin plunderers,
receives a
ii.

Colony led out

by the triumvirs,

108.
colonies

owe

4.^6
is

founders, which children

that refpeft to their owe to 14.
juflice,

T. ClvlitisSiculus,

appointed a mili-

tary tribune, iv. 375. Cluilian ditches, ii. 7-. iii. 314. Marcius incamps there, ib. Cluilitis excites the Albans againft the

— not
ii.

their parents,

ii.

founded on truth, or

— fometimes —a

23.

— Romans, cut off
is

manner,
Cluf.ni,

4. in a private ii. 8, 9.

ii.

and fudden
ii.

a colony has commanded its mother-city, ii. 23. See Mother-city. Combats ; Siccius overcomes in nine

lingle combats, iv. 201, 2.
fingle combat between Aruns Tarquinius and Brutus, ii. ^36. between Mamilius and ^EbutiuSj
iii.

a

people

of

Tyrrhenia,

107.
Clymene, daughter of Qceanus, i. 41. Codes, why the furname of Horatius,


17.

— from whom 349. — brave defcended, bridge,
349.
ii.

ii.

exploit at the Codoney daugjhter oi JEn^as,
his

ib.

Cominius (Pcjiumus) conful, ii. 390, is created fecond time conful by the people, iii. "j^.
•»- dedicates the

i.

iii.

temple of Saturn on
the-

400

I

N D EX
hill,
iii.

to

the
the

TEX
tribunes of
call
ftreet

T.
the people,
iii.


if-

the Capitoline
is

2, 3.

appointed one of the five emiii. to Marcius, bafladors lent
3^5-

marches

againft the Vollci,
,

iii.

—434. heralds mitia — the
in

the people to the coftreet,
ii.

by

220,

— 138— and

were
...

tributa comitia the people fuperior to the patricians,

takes Longula, 111. 138. Polufca, iii. 139. leaves T. Lartius with one half of his army to carry on the fiege of

iv.

340.

the tributa comitia were held inftead of the centuriata, in the trial
iii.

Corioli, while he himfelf marches with the other againft the Antiates,

Marcius, —of law
a

246.

enafted, which ordained that the laws, pafTed by the people in
the tributa comitia, Iliould bind the Romans, iv. 339.
all

— them, 143. — rewards Caius Marcius, — home, and difbands
140. b'ats
iii.

iii.

iii.

143.
his

returns

army,
Comitia
;

iii.

144.

— commonwealth
256.

Commonwealth, three forms of 226.
rendered

it,

i.

pious,

in

what the curiata

differed


from the

tributa comitia, iv. 76. tributa comitia are permitted by the fenate to the people, inftead of

jull, temperate, and warlike by an emulation of worthy purfuits, i.

r— commonwealth compofed of mo290. — narchy, commonwealth, compofed of monj^rchy, ariftocracy, and democracy, the beft of all governments, iii.

— —and
iv.
-yrrr
-

the centuriata, iv. 85. the difference between the curiata
cerjturi^ta
cpmitija,
ii.

and arillocracy,

iii.

184, 5.

laws, pafTed in the tributa comitia, were equally binding with thofe

paffed in the

centuriata comitia,

— 236, the

7-

340.

the comitia held in the

Campus

-

244. the centuriata cqmitia are appointed by the iriterrex fpr the creation of confuls, iii. 435, 6.
iii,

Martius,

worfe Part of a commonwealth Ihould not be gratified at the CA'pence of the better, ii. 417. the adminiftrationof the commonwealth IS transferred from the pooreft to the richeft citizens by Servius
in

..— the mofl confiderable perfons carried every queftion in the centu'

TuUius, ii. 184, 5. Compass and treaties,

what man-

comitia, — the decrees of the 419. 340. centuriata comiiii.

riata

iv.

ner they ufed to be ratified, iii. 126, 7. Coiupitalia, fcafts at Rome, the time

tia

lid

alone were looked upon as' vaby the patricians, iv. 340. thoi'e were lawful comitia, to

•—

and folcmnity of them, ii. 171. flaves were tree duiing their celebration, ib.

which

numbers were

fent

from

Compidfive agreements feldom lafting,
'ii-

—every

t-

iii. 375. city in the nation, votes were comitia, in which the
iii.

Z51it,

given according to the cenlus,
th? comitia are not permitted

by

— — war, 260. preferved with
is

Concord, an exhortation to
abfulutely neceffary
iv.

in

ii. 199. time of

more

difHculty

.\mong

INDEX
among
many, than
;

to
iv.

the

TEXT.
Brutus,

401
and L. Tar-

among

few,

187. Condemnation

Confuh^ SuywCaAo/, or wf ogaAoj, the fame as uV«.7oi, ii. 282.

condemned

perfons

— L, Junius

were thrown down the Tarpeian rock, iii. 411, 12.
their

fortunes are confifcated,

iv.


•—

quinius Collatinus are the firft appointed confuls, ii. 295. the confuls are inverted with the
regal power, retain fome,
ii.

341-

^og.

See Marriage. Confluence of rivers, ii. 112.
Confarreatio.

and difcard others of

Conqueror ; in what manner he was received by the people after a fa-

the royal enfigns, ii. 120, i, 279, 434. iv. 241. have the power of calling the affemblies qf the people and giving
their votes, iv.
9.

— Ariftodemus
See
ViSiory.
;

mous

vidtory, iv.
is

6'].

received with
iii.

a

general joy, and applaufe,
Confcience
fcience,
§1-

161.

the fting
ii.

of an

evil

con-

— adminifter 188, 131. — power of making peace
juftice,
iv.

as the

kjngs
given

did formerly, the
iv.

is

397. Con/tdius, a tribune of the people,

to a conful by the fenate,

iii.

^Si-

brings
his
ill

T. Menenius
condu6t
in

to a trial

for
iv,

Tyrrhenia,

52.
Confpiracy

a confpiracy againft the commonwealth, in order to reftore
•,

— 109. — people themfelves — one conful 75. being
fucceflbrs, iv.

34. confuls nominate the confuls their
the
create

two

confuls,

iii.

killed in battle,

321. a confpiracy of the flaves againft the commonwealth being difcovered,

the tyrants,

ii.

another is appointed to fucceed him ; becaufe the adts of one conful are neither legal,

nor firm,

iv.

they are

crucified,

ii.

392,
freed

3-

a confpiracy both

of

the

men and
ii.

flaves

againft the chief
thefe

— —

396. — men,manner of apprehending 401. —a which many
the
confpirators,
ii.

fuperfeded by the didator, 178. Icilius, a tribune of the people, affumes a power of aflembling the
is

161, a conful

Iv.

fenate,

which power formerly be-

confpiracy, in
is

are
ii.

concerned,
12, d']^ 82.
IS

foon difcovered,

— the difcovery

— the — bunes, order
in

longed to the confuls, iv. 188, 9.
confuls quarrel with the triiii.

173, 6.

of

a

pretended con-

fpiracy fore the fenate, iv. 144. the tribunes of the people claim to themfelves the power ot inquiring
into that confpiracy, iv. 148. confpirators put to death, ii. 324,
5.

laid by the tribunes be-

— — hold

iv.

to fubvert the tribunitian the confuls gain fome of power, that college to their party, iv.
3.

the tiibunes order a conful to pri-

fon, iv. 87.

meetings at private houfcs, 368. a conful charges the tribunes with an endeavour to invalidate his authority, iv. 88. fince the confuls themfelves could

Confualia,

lirTrm^ixleix,

a feftival,

i.

74, 280.

noc.

402

INDEX

to

the

TEXT.
their opinions accordiii.

not be brought to a trial, their minifters could, iv. 206.
begin to govern the commonwealth in a popular manthe confuls
ner, iv. 220.

— were afktd —ingconfular
a

to the. r age,

102.

birch

— one of
among

the confuls is chofen from the favourers of the people,
ariftocraiii.

— P. Valerius
foften the

and were wavering, propofes a ufeful advice, ii. 426.
Poplicola, in order to envy of the people, diminilhes the enfigns of the confular

perfon, eminent for his dignity, while the f ;thers

and the other out of the

— — —

tical faction,

436. decemvirs are chofen
iv.

inftead

of

confuls, 236. confuls are again chofen, after the fubverfion of the decemvirate, by

power,

ii.

434.

iv.

241.

the fenate are infpecftors, and regulators of the confular power, iii.
is again fomethe what reduced by the tribunes of the

the people in their centuriata comitia, iv.

— 237,8. confular power

S39-

tribunes with proconfular power are chofen in the room of confuls,
iv.

'— two

375confuls die of the peftilence,

people, iv. 188. the confular power of impofing fines is likewife permitted to all the
the great refpedb that was formerly paid to the confular power, iii.
the confular

— —

iv.

121.

jnagiftrates, iv. 224.

confuls again fucceed the confular tribunes, iv. 375. the officers of the confuls are

beaten by thofe of the plebeians,

— of — triumph, 385.of ornaments
54. the robes
ii.

iii.

— 203. — months, Quintius

162, 3.

power exercifed by

iv, 79.
is

the confuls

in

a

fular robes

adorned with the conand enfigns, while he
in his

was plowing
the confuls afii.

own

farm,

iv.

the

ter the expulfion of the kings,

the confulfliip

— Menenius, and Sp. —

J2I.

the
Servilius,

month of June,
iv.

was entered upon in about the

two

confular perfons, are called to their trials by the tribunes of the people, for bad adminiftration in their confulfhips, iv. 52, 54. Caffius, after the expiration of his confulfhip, is called to his trial by

—fummerfolflice, was 47. — of — during December,
ides

entered upon the confulfhip on the calends of September, iii.
75the confulfhip entered
iv.

upon on the
277-

the qusftor?, for aiming at tyran-

—ny, —

iii.

408.
trial,

the fecefTion of the people no perlbn offering himfelf for the confulfhip, it is conferred on Poftu-

the confuls are called to a

by

the tribunes of the people, for not the appointing decemvirs to divide
lands,

mus Cominius, and Sp. CafTius by thofe plebeians, who remained in

70. confular perfons,
4.

iv.


the city, iii. 75. the coufullhip, at

firfl

belonging
is

why

fined

by the
iv.

to the patricians alone,

afFefted

tribunes,

and not put to death,

by the plebeians

223,

364. Claudius denies that the confulalfo,

iv.

fhip

INDEX
fhip ought to be

to

the

TEXT.
rafed

yielded to the
>

is

by Horatius,

iv.
iii.

plebeians, j6j. Valerius is ot opinion that the confiilfhip ought to be communicated
to all,

iv.

Cnrcyvcei^ their fedition,

188. 261.
ii.

Cor dm.
Coriolanr,

See Mucius.
a

people

of Latium,

who

arc

worthy of

it,

iv.

409.
Ccriolanus.
C'jrioH, the
iii.

371the confulfliip. vhiih v/as formerly open to the patricians alone, is afterwards communicated to the
iv.

See Marcius.

metropohs of the Volfci,
Poft.

plebeians, ^74. -— Qiiintius refufes to be continued in the confulfhip, iv. 166.
a conful, being ill of his wounds, abdicates his confulfliip, iv. 24.

— 139. by — furrenders
tal<.en

Cominius,
Marcius,

iii.

141,

to

iii.

310,

339C. Marcius derived his furname of Cori61anus from this place, iii.

the confuls,

and

all

other

ma-

giftrates, except the tribunes of the people, abrogated when a didtator-

144. See Marcius. Corn ; ripe corn
iv.

is

carried off
iv.

by the

Ihip


appointed, ii. 424, 5. iii. 4, 59, 60. iv. 175. the decemvirate is inftituted in
Jieu

is

of

all

the

magiftracies,

iv.

236.
the confular tribunefhip is inftituted in lieu of the confulfhip, iv.

— enemy, corn on 68. — corn every month out of the public — Thrafibulus Milefian194. of corn, — Roman embaiVadors were252.
ripe
is fet

114.

fire,

dillributed

granaries, the

ii.

ftrikes

off the talleft ears the
into Sicily to

ii.

fent

375.
Con/us, Neptune, Ihaker of the earth,
i.

buy corn,
ii.

iii.

149,

74, 280.

— devoted
50.

Contempt of riches in the ancients, iv. 164. : remarkable inftances of it in Po-

corn,

333.

a difpute in the fenate concerning the dirtribution of the corn given
iii.

plicola,
iv.

Agrippa Menenius, and 8. iii. 146. Cincinnatus, ii. 386

183. —by Gelo, would have
CafTuis

164, 178, 9.

the price of the corn, which had been given by Gelo and divided among the people, to be reCtored to the purchafers,

Controverfies are decided

by time,

iii.

229.

compofition of converfies moft praife worthy, iii. 261.
a brotherly
its

Cera,

fituation,

ii.

79.

Ccraniy a people of Latium, ii. 409. Ccrbienfes, a people of Latium, ib,
Ccrbio, a garrifon of the Romans, feized on by the Latines, iii. 4. furrenders to Marcius, iii. 310.

— — —

iii. 397. L. Cornelius, conful,

iv.

166.

— furrendered —Romans, by retaken
is

by the .^qui to the
77'

iv. 170. triumph, iv. 171. his opinion in the fenate concerning a war with the Sabines, and Volfci, iv. 272, 5. his opinion concerning the feceders, iv. 321. L. Cornelius Sylla draws envy upon

takes

Antium by

ftorm,

his

iv.

i

the diiSlatorfhip by his

immoderate

is

the

^qui,

iv.

179.

cruelty,

ii.

Vol. IV.

G

438.

g g

M.

Cor-

404-

INDEX
one of the decemvirs,
iv.

to
iv.

the

TEXT.
i.

M
• ;

Cornelius,

Cretans, their Phiditia,

263."

— the anfwer he makes to the advice of C. Claudius, 270. — brother Lucius to up'jn deliver 272. — marches opinion,the j^qui with — pardon criminal
calls

240.

his

Cretifa, daughter of Priam, and wife to^Eneas, ii. 73. Crimes; to let enormous, crimes ga unpunilTied is as bad as never to
:

his

iv.

againfl:

trifling offei.ces, iii. 33. caules tried by the

peo-

four of his collegues,

iv.

284.
iii.

ple,

ii.

47.

— grants
"—
is

Serv. Cornelius, confijl, iii. 407. a truce to the Veientes,
i.

Crimefus, a river of Sicily, i- 119. Crifo, of Himera, vidior at the Olym-

Corniculanian mountains,
C<?r«zVa/«?«, its fituation,

39.

105,145. taken, plundered, and burnt by
ib.
is

ii.

pic games, iv. 244. Crops ; lands bearing three crops ia a year, i. 82.
Croton,
is

when and by whom
the Pelafgi

built,

i.

Tarqumius
Corpfe

brought on a bier into the forum, ii. 282. iv. 72, 100, 312. the corpfe of a tribune is brought into the forum, iv. 72. <— the corpfe of Appius is brought into the forum, and honoured with a funeral oration, iv. 100.

— 329- by taken Umbri, — changes 47. and name, and — languageCorthonia, of
i.

from the

its

inhabitants,
i.

is

called

c,^.

the

the Crotoniatas,

i.

66.

Crowns; to be crov/ned with Oiive

Certhonia, formerly Croton,
Corfula,
its its

i.

^9.

fituation,

i.

36.

fituation, i.,310. Co/JK^, is taken by the Sabines, ib.
Cotys, his anceftors,
i.

and deicendants,

— brances, crown, 119, 20. golden — Porfena prefented with golden crown by Romans, 2^^. — goldtn crown reward of
iii.

22.

a

ii.

is

a

the

ii.

a

the

60.

thole,
iv.

who

recovered the enfigns,
iii.

Couvjels, with refpeJl to future events, ought to be founded on what is
paft,
iv.

227.
not private coniv.

S— ought
227.
Crajjiis

to regard

venience,

but public benefit,

(Liciuius) hia defeat in
i.

Par-

— 200. crown, 327. — 201. crown, — mural crown, — unlawful crowned mourning, — people being crowned with
199.
the civic
iv.

theobfidional the

iv.

ib.

to be

with laurel

in

iv.

24.

the

thia,

232.7!

,(''!!

flowers receive the conqueror, iv.

Cremra,

a lortrefs erecfted

by the Ro-

6j.
Crucify
;

againtt (he Veientes, .near to the river Crcmera, iv. 29. •^— is volu: tarily defended by 306 of

mans

flaves,

who had been

con-

fpirators, crucified, ii. 392, 3. Crufici, a people ot 'Ihiace, i. 108,

•—

the P'abi.in family, ib. is taken by the Tyrrhenians, iv.

12.

Crujlumerium fituated
iv;
i.

not far from

43Crejls

and plumes 271.

on helmets,
iii.

iii.

Cretan band of dancer;,

273.

284. — Rome, colony, 317. an Albau — made Roman colony, — by
'

is

a

ib.
iii.

is

beficgcd

ihc Sabines,

54.'

r— iS

INDEX
"—
•—

to
179.
to

tlie

TEXT
to

— the^Crultumeri
Rome,
i.

li

again infefted by them,
fei)d
> ^
;

iv.

-^

pravifions
ii.

316.
10^.
iy.
,



'

the fpoils of the Curatian threetwin brothers, ii, 42. the Ciiratii are tranfplantedfrom

— the
':

furrender to Tarqiiinius,

Alba

Rome,

ii.

69.
built,
i.

camp'

at

Cruftamerium,
••

Cures, a city

by whom
'

joS.

2S7.

Cryers call the. people to the comitjia,

in. the Sabine language fignijies a - '^ '''. '•.•' fpear, i.-goS.

11.220,183. people by the'ibund of oxcns horns, i. 236.
llreet,

ftreet

by

call the

•-— the cryer Calls ths clafTcs in their turns 10 give their votes, iv. 162.
.:— calls thole,

— what bucklers 352, — Curetes of the Greeks
ried, the
i.

Ciretes, a'peopl^, their tjrigih, i.'4r. their faciificers car3.

fame with the

Salii

are the of the Latines^

who

are againft a law,

to

come

forth,

and give their opi-

the cryers call over the names of the fenators, iv. 253. CumiS in It.dy, a Greek city in the
<;ountry of the Opici, built by the Eretrienfes, and Chalcidenfes, iii,

.nions,

iv.

207.

— famous ~
ib.
is

"^

Pyrrhic, or armed dance, ib. the Curetic dance moft in ufe among the Romans, i, 354, 5. Curiae, (p^al^iai, or ko^oi, the lefler divifions of the city, i. 233.

— — —

i-

353iii.

the Curetes nurfe the child Jupiter,

272.

are fuppofed to have invented the

ftands in

Campania,
its

ib.

— whether they received their names
the Sabine matrons, i. 306. divided into decuria?, i, 234, 5,
celeres,

for

riches and power,

—from


by the Tyrrhenians, Umbri, Daunii, and other Barbarous nations, and bravely defends
befieged
iii.

— they appointed the
fame manner
245as

in the
i.

the

fenators,


;

itfelf,

155.
it is

the partilans of the ariftocracy be-

— his to effedt — the ftrategemembafTadors Roman
it,

oppreffed with tyranny by Ariftodemus, iii. 161.

ing

flain,

iii.

154.
are
iii.

the thirty curias give their votes concerning the reftoration of the effedts of Tarquin, ii. 320. the people diftributed into curije chufe their annual magiftrates, iii.
^ the priefts the
.

fent to

buy corn fiezed by

at

Cumje

in Italy,
exiles,

the

Roman

•— «—

153its

ancient

form of government
169.
in

is

reftored,

iii,

the

Cumjeans

Campania fend

fuccours to the Aricini, iii. 158. *— the Cumaean exiles take up arms

— 134. of — common curi^, 260. of — 263, room each dining — and of — each had
the
i.

facrifice

the curife,
curia,

i,

a

in

ib,

the tables

facrifices

.each,

ib.

againft Ariftodemus, iii. 166. the haven of Cumse in Campania,
iii.

curia its particular ftation at the exhibition of the games,
ii.

131,

"

155. Curat!!, Albans, their mother, and relations,
ii.

Curiata.
Curis,

See Comitia.

>-iJ-'i4

Juno Quiritia, her
2

tablei^i

1".'

29.

Ggg

Ctirtius,

4o6

INDEX
i.

to

the
^iii.

TEXT.
the article of danger adds vigor*

Curtius, the lake fo called
lius Curtius,

from Me-

299.

C. Curtius, conful, iv. 364. Curtius ( Melius )th& braveft


champion

322.
iv.

great fuccefl*es are purchafed with

great dangers,

57.

298. fettles at Rome, i. 305. Cujlody ; the cuftody of perfons claimed as (laves belonged to their near297. Cutylia in the Reatine plains, (^— a lake and ifland, ib.
Cyclades, iQands,
i.

of the Sabines,

i.

DardanuSy fon of Jupiter by Eledtra,

eft relations,

iv.

i,

37.

— — Dardanum Troas, — removes dwelling and
leads a colony into Afia,
in
i.

141.
i.

builds

139, 141.

his

rites

out of Samothracia
i.

into. Phrygia,..,

41.

Cylkne mount, from the nymph, 34, 140. Cyprian ftreet
at

Rome,
i.

ii.

49.
ii.

Cypfelus tyrant of Corinth,

98*

Cythra, an ifland,

113

— — — — 139i.

154. confults the oracle, ib. tranfplants his rites into his
i.

own
i..

155. city, his ancellors,

and defcendants,

Idjeus, and Dimas,. his fons

D.

by

A ufed

formerly for©, i. 152. Dagger Lucretia ftabs herfelf with a dagger, ii. 269. Dazcles, of Meffene, i. 162. Damaraius a Corinthian of the family of the Bacchiadfe, ii. 97. dying, leaves all his fortune to
-,

— the
i.

Cryfes,. ib.

pofterity

of Dardanus by his

fecond wife Battea, i. 142. Dardanus, or Dardanum, its fituation^

102, 139.
its

abandoned by
they 105.

inhabitants,
in

when

beheld

Troy

flames, i.,
i.

LucLimo,
ii.

ii.

99.

Damajias, annual archon at Athens,
82.
iii.

Dafcy litis, a country fo cailed, Datis, of Argos, viclor at the
pic games, iv, 6^.

106.

Olym-

— an

Dance; the leader of the dance, 271.

Dcunii invade Cuma.",
their

iii.
i.

155..

ohve grounds,
is

S3.

— — 272. an — — —

unacceptable leader of the dance, iii. 263. dances in armour, i. 353.., iij-.
ancient

Dead; a dead perfon
72,. 100,

brought on a bier into the forum, ii. 282. iv,
^12.
ii.

See

Liliitina.

Greek

inftitution iniii.

Debtors, their perfons are bound,

vented by Minerva, •— triumphal dances,

272, iii. 274. and jccole dances of fa.-., fatyrical tyrs by whom invented, ib. bands of dancers, iii. 271. funeral dances, iii. 275. Dangers; common dangers generally produce union, iii. 320. i v. 2 S3. •^ dangers conciliate the ftrideft
friendfliip,
iii.

thole, who were bound for debt, were obliged to cultivate their own

,

lands fof the benefit of their cre-

— Tullius

ditors,

iii.

1

19.

forbids

a citizen
ii.

to

be

carried to prilbn for debt,

160-;-^

— 164.
be

10.

Servilius orders a proclamation nomade that no creditor fliould

carry

INDEX
.

to

the

TEXT.
licentioufly, ib.

407

;

iii.

carry a citizen to prifon for debt, 42. a Ibldier, pad the military age, and

the leaft conliderable, of the patricians to fupport their domination,

his

two
iii.

fons,

become
2.

flaves

for

— debtors

dtbc,

41,

aie confined with
collars,
iii.

wooden

and iron
See Poor.

119,20.

"December ; on the calends of ber an altar and rites are

Decem-

appointed

to Fortuna Muliebris, in memory of the day on which the matrons

more. — whatjudgements they pronounced, 243. — they hold magiftracy the 244. — what manner they governed 250. — during means they rendered by what
iv.

242. — govern

iv.

their

for

third year, iv.
in

that year, iv.

their

— on

prevailed over Marcius, iii. 370,1. the fourth of the ides of De-


the firft tribunes of the peowere created, and on the fame ple day afterwards the reft, iii. 134, 5.

cember

— obloquy, — they
to
iv.

government odious both to the patricians and plebeians, iv. 249. for what crimes they were expofed
iv.

.

264.

threaten Horatius, who oppofed them, with the tribunitian
are

the confulihip was entered upon ides of December, iv. 377. "Decemvirs are appointed to fix th-

on the

bounds of the public lands,
407.
the law
is

iii.

— power, 257. feverely inveighed againft 313. Virginius, — deferted by own
iv.

by.

are

their

foldiers,

by
iv.

laid before the people the tribunes for appointing de-

cemvirs to compile a body of laws,

— — —

iv.

319.

are punifhed fome with death, and others wiih banifhment, iv. 341. the decemvirate is canvafled for. by the moll dignified, and the mofl:

— upon

135.

what
to

conditions

Appius
decemvirs

moved

have

the

created, iv. 235. when the decemvirs were created

ancient fenators, iv. 239. three of the plebeians were alfo. chofcn into the decemvirate, iv.
the
is

compile a body of laws, all oiher magiftracies were abrogated,
to
iv.

^ 240. decemvirate
the
iv.

fubverted after
years,
iv.

the expiration of three
the lafl

236. — how they governed common- — 339- names of decemvirs,. wealth 284, 236,7. — decemvirate was entered upon — what manner they compiled of May, on 240. 23S. — how long-time they Decimation of colony,
the
for the
iirft

year, iv.

in

the

the

laws,
for

iv.

the ides

iv.
i.

'

their power, iv.
at
iv.

235 — 37.

received

— of

a

56.
iv.

a difobedient
is

army,

92.
and,

what time they were created,
at the

M.

Decius

fent with Icilius,

— 240. placed the people, head of 134., again — 40. Decrees of people 237 — confpire among themfclves, could determine nothing without a decree of the 207, — 240. feduce not few, nor m tribunes could not give the they
are

Brutus to obtain allurances from
the fenate to
iii.

affairs,

iv.

the fenate

;

the

iv.

fenate,

iii.

8.

,

likewife

a

the

I

people

40 8
people
the

INDEX
their

to

the

lowed

even a patricians, without
votes
againft

— concerning

TEX
the

T.

ftituted in the

a didator's being fubroom of confuls, ii.
iii.

of — Poftumus Cominiiis
decree

the fcnate, iv. 195. dedicates the

temple of Saturn upon the Capitoline hill, by a decree of the fenate,

— 425concerning the Agrarian law, — 407. Latin and Roman concerning
women, either to ftay with their hufbands, or to return home, iii.
I, 2.

— the decrees of the
fenate, iv. 70.

iii.

3.

fenate are not a

perpetual law, but an inftitucion for one year only ; thus, mention is made of an annual decree of the

Decuri^, AsxaJff,

i.

235.

Decurio, Afxa^ss^ptoy, ib.

J—

a decree of the fenate
quifite,
iii.

is

not re-

Defeat ; through fhame of an ignominious defeat the conful remains

when
211.

there

is

a law in be-

•—

ing, the previous order of the fenate for the trial of Marcius is drawn
iii.

426. camp, — a general impeached under of — T. Menenius
iii.

in his

is

the

article

a defeat, iv. 54. is fined for a defeat

— up,decree240, a of
i

I.

the fenate to ratify the made by the deputies to promifcs the feceders, iii. 133, 4. a decree of the fenate is referred to

the people, in order to receive their fanftion, iii. 340. r— a decree of the fenate, paffed by the confuls is brought before the

occafioned through his own fault, 5i'Defence denied to no man, ii. 317. the accufed are pennitted to defend themfelves, ii. 325. • the time for preparing a defence is
IV.


by —peoplePoftumius
Sp.

their tribune?, iv.

374.
the

confecrates

— — 316. Quintius Cfefo
defence
a

given to the third market day, 241. a defence with deprecation,
refufes to

iii.

iii.

make

his
iv,

temple of Dius Fidius, on which
his name is infcribed purfuant to a decree of the fenate, iv. 1 12.

before
is

the
to

people,

— 138. defence
ed, no not

not

be

decliniii.

•—

a decree of the fenate
iv.

is

confirmed

in a falfe accufation,

—by
8.
;

the people, 229. the previous order of the fenate is laid before the people, iii. 207,

225.
Dejanira^ daughter of Lycaon, mother to the laft Lycaon by Pelafgus, i. 30. Delos, an illand,
i. 112. See Oracle.

— a decree of the fenate for fubmitting

the patricians to be tried by the people, iii. 241. '— a decree of the fenate concerning the price of corn, iii. 205.
i

Delphic.

Deluge in Arcadia, Demigods, iii. 276,
Democracy.,
cefs,
is
iii.

i.

139, 154.
it

7.

— concerning
thofe,
ii.

whenever

runs into ex-

the confpirators, and
againft them,

rcftrained by the diftator-

who informed

fhip,

402. t— concerning the creation of decemvirs, iv. 235.

Dentatus.
Deputies J 04.

237. See Siccius.
to
the
feceders,
iii.

fent

Defertiotti

INDEX
Defertion
iii.
;

to

the

TEX
Po'ftumius,
is

T.t

dtfertion of a poft capital,
ion.

— A.
tor,
iii.

413. of Prometheus,
i.

the fecond diftaappointed in the Latin war,

Deticaliony

41-

— Manius —
tius

4.

Devoted perfons killed with Impunity,
corn, ii. 333, (on of Hercules, Dexamenuj,

— devoted
iii.

136.

Valerius is-appointed the confuls the third diftator, 59, 60.
the fourth didlator was

by
iii-.

L. Quin*

Diana,

her temple at

115. Ephefus, ii.
i.

i.

Cincinnatus,

iv.

>—

175.

— 198. ftatues
•—

the robes of a diftator, ib. Cincinhatus, the diftator,

has

of the Ephefian Diana,
Tatius,

262. her temple built by

i,



.

— 312,13. temple

of Diana on mount the Aventine, built by Servius Tullius, ii. 93, 200. a pillar, in the temple of Dii,.ia-, jnfcribed with ancient Greek charaders, ii. 200. Di£iteus, a mountain of Crete, i.

twenty four axes, and as niany rods carried before him, ib. the didlator commands the axes and rods to be borne before him in the city, ii. 434.
in (lead

annual didlators among the Albans, of kings, ii. 433. i— A fort of eledlive tyranny, ii.

—430.etymology of
the
ii.

the didlatorfhip,

:

Z)/'*rt/c?r,

whence

fo

called,

ii.

428,

"—

9.

— the428, was borrowed from the name —Albans, 432, the Greeks, the example from
9.
ii.

3.

ii.

fame almoft with the magiftrate, who, among the Greeks, was formerly called «i(rupv>i7ijf, ii.
the

—433it is

the only

ble flate,

remedy of a deploraand the lafl: hope in ex-

— 430when
•—

he ufed to be appointed

•—
;

with what authority ; and for long a time, ii. 424.

how

treme danger, ii.437. it takes away from the people the advantage of the Valerian law, iii.
it

ufually appointed, when the commonwealth laboured under any

lafted fix

months,

ii.

424.

«—

great diftrefs, ii.437. in what manner the
exercifed
that

the didlatorfliip is abdicated by Qiiintius before the fix months
expired, iv. 178.
ii.

firft

dictator

power,
the

ii.

433—

•— from
the

7-

following diiftators imitated the example of
firft

that

time

—wereLartius adds veneration T. 434. — through of
didlatorfhip,
falls

to the

the cruelty into difgrace, and

Sylla

it

is

found to

diftator
_

down

to Sylla,

ii.

.

diftator chofe a general of the horfe, ii. 434. <— the didlator, having refigned his

—437' every

S.

be a real tyranny, ii. 438. Dimas, fon of Dardanus, king of Arcadia,
i.

DiognetuSy

139. archon

at

Athens,

iii.

75-

power, and appointed the comitia,
creates the confuls,
iii.

-^6,

Dicnyfms, at what time he came into and with what afllftance Italy,

he

.}.io

I

N D

E X

to
i,

the

T E XT..
eagles,
i.
i.

he began to write
,

his hiftory,

— an augury by
Eof.;:-n part

so^.. ....


,

i8.

of the heavens the

mod

lived at

Rome

immediately

after

the civil war, i. i8, 19. what is the fubjeft of his hiftory, i. 20. was the fon of Alexander of HalicarnaiTus,
i.

proper for auguries, Ebutius. See ^btitius.

229.

Ecetra, the metropolis of the Volfci, iv. 170.

23.

— molt — Volfci
the
iii.

ftrongly.fic'jnt^d, ib. tiold their afiemblics

Dio7iyfius, the elder, at

what time he

fcized thetyranny of Sicily, ui.152.
i. 114. Dioryllus., an ifthmus, Dis, or infernal Jupiter, i. 240. Difobedient army decimated, iv. 92J)iftemper ; cattle infefted with a dif-

289. — there,plunder, taken the

from the Rois

man

territories

by Marcius,

car-

temper, iv. 231. See Plague^ and Pejliknce. Divorce ; Sp. Carvilius, the firft Roman, who divorced his wife on account of barrennefs ; not without
the difguft of the people, i. 271. his temple, i. 309, lo. See Oracle. Dodona.

— Tarquinius, —with Aurunci demand24O.
ii.

ried thither, iii. 338. the Eceirani enter into

a treaty

the

the Ecetraiii.

nian territories of the

Romans,

50. the Ecetranian territories are laid wafte by Fabius, iv. 170.
iflands fo called,
i.

£f/?'/««</<?j,

117,

Dins Fidius,

ii.

429.
;

Doors of houfes
37^D(jr/'««j, their

how

they opened,
19S. of one,
i.

ii.

Edifices

the

tribunitian
iv.

law con-

migration,
reftitution

ii.

Dowry, the 267,8.

i.

cerning them, 191. Education ; liberal education effeminated by Ariftodemus, iii. 164. Effects of Tarquinius diftributed a-

the

dowry of ChryiVs,

153.
Sicily,
i.

mong

the people,

ii.

J^'i,'},.

Drepiina, a 118.
iv. 24.0.

promontory ol

Effeminate, why AriftoJemus acquired that opprobrious title, iii. 154.

DuiliiHS (C^fo)

one of the decemvirs,
four of his collegues
iv.

— effeminacy
164,5.
Egeria, 334Egerii,

— marches with

cultivated by him, in order to fupport his tyranny, iii.

againft the .ffiqui, DuiUius (Marcus) a

284.

the

familiar

of
ii.

Numa,
105.

i.

tribune

of the

people, iv. 342. Dyna, or Launc, daughter of Evander,
i.

(K/TOfoi

y.i3(i

rolwj^oi,

9;.

from whence Egcrius, and Egeritis, his pofferity acquired the furname
of Collatinus,
for
ii.

E.

266.

Eagle
again,
;

takes

the ^ap

quinius'

head,
99.

from Tarand places it on
i.

what reafon the furname of Egerius was given to Aruns Tarii.

— an

— an eagle

ii.

fans a fire,

137.

airy of eagles deltroyed by a flock of vultures, ii. 265.

104, — Egerius marches Fidenjc, 114, — of Egcrius according
quinius,
i.

5.

againft

15.

the polterity to Fabius, ii, 266,

Egyptian

INDEX
jEf_y^//i7«

to

the

TEX
their

T.

411
enfigns,
iii.

pyramids,

ii.

196.

'—

the foldiers are ordered to remain

Elehm, daughter of Atlas, i. 113. mother of lafius, and Dardaiius

under

proper

by Jupiter,
Elehra,
166.

ib.

139.

— — —

it

was not lawful

to defert the en-

daughter

of

Latinus,

i.

figns unlefs they from their oaths,

were difcharged iii. 6^. iv. 318,

Elephants, hundred and thirty eight in the triumph of Mctelius, over the

Carthaginians,
Eliejifes,

344. companions of Hercules,
i.

i.

at his return, lays up the enfigns, iv. 24. the enfigns were fnatched from the

19. a general,

76.

Eha.


See /Ebutius. or £?jv, its fituation, i. 121. Elyma, Elymi, a people of Sicily, i. 122. being driven out of their native country by the Oenotri, they reinto Sicily, i. 119. Elymus, a Trojan of royal defcenr, ib, removes into Sicily, i. 51, 120.

ftandard bearers, and thrown by a general among the enemy, in or-

move

— —mans, 45.of the enfigns
iv.

der to excite the greater ardor in his men, iii. 385. the enfigns are taken from the Roa cohort are recovered from the enemy by Siccius,
iv.

Emathion, father of Remus,
Embajfadors
corn,
iii.

i.

166.


'

199, 200.

fent

into Sicily to

buy

149, 50.

See Legates. EmbaJJies of the Sabine

women,

i.

— punilhment, — a general might
the
to death thofe
--- the

enfigns were retaken, the perfon, who loft them, u.jJergoes a fevere punifliment, iii. 3S5.
unlefs the
iv.

92.
trial

without

put

who

deferted their

—- of the moft

confiderable

Marcius, iii. 3(5 41. See Euxenus. Ennius. Enjigns, the royal enfigns of the Tyrrhenians, and the Romans, ii. 120. the royal enfigns are diminifhed

men

to

enfigns, iv. 318, ig.
foldiers

kept under their en-

figns againft their will, iii. 1 16, the enfigns are thrown away by

the ftandard bearers through con-

in the confular

— —

magiftracy, ii. 120, iv. 241. I, ^79' 434the ftandards of the cohorts, iii.

— tumacy, 91. the holy the plebeians take
leave the

iv.

camp, and fecede
iii.

enfigns, to the

— every one 431. — of —mand army
fign,
iii.

the warlike enfigns are carried out in the inlifting of foldicrs, iii. 417.
lifted

— holy mountain, and Aventine — Sabines
to the

69.
hill,

iv.

319,

20.

the

defert

their enfigns,

under

his

own

en-

and run away, ii. 123. Eny alius. Curinus, a warlike power,
i.

the holy enfigns under the comthe centurions, iv. 159. the is difpofed under en-

307.

figns,

and leadeis,

ii,

334.

Epeii Ehenfes, companions of Hercules in his expedition to Spain, and Italy, i. 76, 7.

~— upon what account the foldiers dreaded to remove the holyenfigns,
iii.

— they
H

fettle in Italy,

ib.

69.

iv.

318, 19.

Ephejus, 198.

Diana's

temple

there,

ii.

Vol. IV.

h h

Epigoni

412
15Epitelides, a

INDEX
order
•,

to the
i.

TEX
the foot of

T.
i.

Epigoni of Hieronymus Cardianus,

at

mount Aventine,
his

Lacedemonian, vidtor the Olympic games, ii. 144.
the cenfus,
ii,
1

at

— Dyna, or Launa,
7'. 97-

daughter,

i.

Equefirian
turies,

centhe

Evening began
lighting

about the time
iv.

of

and

commanders of
80.

up lamps,

302.

"— four hundred of the moft wealthy
plebeians are added to the equeftrinn order, iii. 6S.
^^^

equeftrian order,

£a»?^i^.f, father of Acallaris, i. 142. Eurybates, an Athenian, victor at the

Olympic games,
Euryleon

ii.

2.

equeftrian combats in the votive games, iii. 269. Eretrienfes, a colony of them at Cumse,
iii.

equeftrian races,

i.

280.

Jfcanius, fon of JEntzs, of the Latines, i. 146, 163. king Euryjlheus impofes various labors on

155.

Hercules, i. ^6. Euxenus, an ancient poet, his opinion concerning the Saturnian hill, i.
77-


Eretum, its fituation, ii. j^. iv. 251. the Sabines are conquered at Ere-

tum by Tarquinius Superbus,

ii.

243the Sabine

— Horatius
luftrations

'

Expiation by fire, i. 204. for the death of Tatius,

i.

316,

camp
fon

at

Eretum,

iv.

251.
Ericbthonius.,

of Dardanus,

i.

— — expiations,

expiates the murder of his fifter, ii. 48. expiation after the cenfus, ii. 1 8 8,
9.

or public and private

— 114,
.

142.

in a

raging peftilence,

his anceftors,

defendants and

fe-


i. 142. an ifland, i. 86, 221. Erythea, Erythra, a town of Phrygia, i. 127. a place in Afia, ii. 263. Eryx, a. mountain, i. 122.

licity,

iv.
it

74.

was not lawful to approach, or
the facrifices, before an ex-

aflift at

piation was made for fliedding the blood of citizens, ii. 403. Expofed; what births it was lawful to

a city,

i.

120,

i.

expofe,

i.

251.

Efqttilhie hill,

added to the city by Servius TuUius, and built upon, ii.
168.
region,
ii.

<

169. Efquiline gate, iv. 123. Evatider, an Arcadian, fon of Mercury, and the nyn ph Carmenta,
leads a colony

— Efquiline

F the

j^olic

digamma,

or

v con-

before. placed words beginning with a vowel, i. 46.

fonanr,

forme, ly

trom Arcadia into
fettled

Fabian family, three hundred and fix of them voluntarily ofl^er their.
afiiftance to the

— what Arcadians, — what
Italy,
in
i.

69.

commonwcaltli,

at

part he
i.

with his

their

own expsnce, and march

to

68.

inftic;it;ons
i.

he brought with
'

— conlecraies
i.

him

into Italy,

75.

rhenia,

the fortrefs of Cremera, in iv. 28.

Tyr-

honors to Hercules,

80,
faciifices

theFabiicxercife feven confulHiips fucctflivtly, iv. 43. afta- the three hundred and fix of
the

<_ annual

made

to

Evandcr

Fabian

family

were put

to

death.

INDEX

to

the

TEXT.
iv.

413
iv.

^eath, v^hether only one youth furvived, iv. 42. whofe Ton that Fabius, and what

was the
that

common
iv.

foundation

of

— two opinion, different
tin'ftion

43. accounts of the cxiv.

of the Fabian familv,

— marches Cremera, fon of ^ 407. — marches with army the 417. yEqui and Volfci, — ilcond time 436. — when
to

his magiftracy,

24.

28.

Fnbiits,

Csefo,

conful,

iii.

"an

againft

iii.

is

legate,

is

conful, iii. killed in battle, iv.
iv.


Qefo Fabiifs, brother of Quintus Fabius fon of Cafo, iii. 40S. in his qurcftorfhip, he accufes Sp.
Cafiius

19, 20. SK Fabiui, conful,

— marches

loS.

of aiming

at

tyranny,

iii.

40S.
at the intercedlon

againft theiF.qui, iv. 108. leave of the fenatc, prefcribes by the conditions of peace to the
iv.

he

fets

up

of the patricians for the confullhip, iii.
his confulfliip,
ib.

— /Equi,
is

109.

fent

— upon — of the Romans, 421. — fends fuccouis collegue iEmilius, 425. — fecond time — marches Tyrrhenians, — difobey him, — obtains a reward — 24.conful — marches 25. iEqui, — 26. — with fuccours 20. — when proconful, follows
enters
afTifts

419.

after

embaflador to the TEqui, they had violated thofe coniv.

ditions,

no.
i.

allies

the

iii.

^

Sl._Fabitis, the hiftorian,

16.

to

his

Fahius PiSlor, what he relates concerning the twins of Ilia, i. 174

iii.

is

conful, iv. againft the

i,

— ^95Fabius,

and Cincius, what they write concerning the treachery of
i.

iv. 4.

his

foldiers

iv. 5,

— Tarpeia, 293. Fabius, concernthe opinion of

ing the fons of Tarquinius Prifcus, refuted, ii. 153. Fabius fays that the Roman territories were divided into twenty fix
is

6.

for his valor, iv.
ib.

is

for the third time,
iv.

againft the

iv.

afTifts his
is

collegue,

by — whetherTuUius, has 171. made Fabius rightly
parts
ii.

fent

to the conful,

L. Tarquinius CoUatinus the fon of

iv.

three

— Egerius, what he

hundred and fsx of his Cremera in Tyrrhenia,

relations to
iv.

M.

Fabiits,

28, 31. fon of Csefo, the brother
is

426. — 431. — fecond time — fpeech — marches with brother Csfo of the Fabius, — recovers theQ^ taken by the camp 22, — enemy, triumph, and
iii.

of Ca^fo,
is
is

made

fent to

afTift

conful, the allies,

iii.

.

his

conful, iv. 7. co the foldiers, iv. 13. his to
iv.

relief

20.

iv.

3.

refufes

a

abdicates

— 210. ^ Fabius time — fecond — TEqui, — ~ marches —^qui, over them, — triumphs with
antiquity,
is
ii.

266. has faid concerning the Roman manner of worfhip, and ceremonies, iii. 268. Fabius is remifs in his fearch into
ii.

Fibula/ius, conful,
iv.

iii.

407.

conful, iv. 112.

harraffes the

113.

is

conful for the third time, iv.i66. in all halte againft the
iv.

168.

iv.

171.

is

left

H

a third part

of the
forces

h h 2

414

INDEX
125, 172,
in great

to

the

TEXT.
i.
;

forces for the defence of the city,

Farracia^ a participation of fpclt,

iv.

fends fuccours to Minuclus,

when

268, 9. See Axes. Fafces.
Fathers

he was

danger ; and recalls the other conful Nautius from the Sabines to take care of the
iv.
is

why
_

the fe^ators were called

— L.
the

fo,

i.

235. Quintius Cincinnatus pleads

174. —commonwealth, decemvirs, made one 138. — how power was given by 239— Romans over reproof of L. 273. 255. — marches with Q^ had power over and
of the
iv.

the caufe of his fon Casfo before the people, iv.
great a
to the father

is

filenced at the
iv.

his

Valerius,

Poetilius

fon, a father

i.

a

Ma

ius Rabulcius,

two

of his coliv.

fon

and fortunes of

his

the perfon, iii.

kgues, 284.
Fables
;

againft

the

Sabines,

—414.
the

a fable fpoken in the ftyle of

9. JEfop, iii. 124 Faggots of brun-iwood piled up to a great height and fet on fire, in order to burn the fortrefs taken by the enemy, iv. 160.

the fevcrity of fathers in punifhing the offences ot their fons, iii.

—412. crimes — ^neas — — how
i.

of fathers did not
iii.

af-

fedt their fons,

414, 15.
fither

bears

his

on

his

Faith; by what methods faith was ufed to be given, and ratified
in conventions,

fhoulders through arms and through fire, iv. 185.
confcript fathers,
i.

244.

and

treaties,

iii,

^-

126. to promife by their faith was the fcrifteft obligation among the Ro-

long, and in what manner the fon was fubjeft to his father,

271.

at

what time he was

free

from

his

mans,

iv.

18.

to fwear by their faith greateft oath among the
iv.

was the

Romans,

366. public Faith, a temple and rices appointed to her by Numa, i. 364another temple and annual facrifices, ii. 422. Falernian wine, the choiceft wine in

— 273, — pulled down from roftrum —by fome even 273. — and have no property during the of 414. — the crimes of do not deprive
flave three times,
i.

father's authoriiy, i. 273. the father could fell his fon for a
4.

Tons

the
ib.

their fathers,

i.

killed,

fons

lives

their fathers, a fon

iii.

the fatlicr of

his eftatc,

iii.

414,

Italy, Falfrtius

i.

149.
fertil,
i.

mount very
iv

83.

— Brutus
among

15-

orders

his

fons to be put

Family

facrifices,
\

Famine

37. thofc are obliged to furren-

to licath for having

been
ii.

found,

the confpirators,

324,

der tlirough famine, who could not be c inquered by arms, ii.

— 406.famine
a

fucceeds a plague,

iv.

231.

mother fhould have the govern-. ment of her fon, ii x6(>. Faiims., a defcenciant of Mars, king of the Aborigines, i. 6c), 97.
FauJltihiSy

—a
5-

INDEX
— Romulus of 189. — apprehended by — 192. and — and
184. informs
i.

to the
is

TEXT.
i.

Faujiulus, keeper of the royal herds,
i.

his fortune,

is

the guards,

i.

his birth, his death,

condition,
burial,
i.

196. 202.

i.

— mulus, 317. Tiber, 320. wafhed by — byTullus — taken by him, — by Ancus Marcius, — and by Tarquinius 106. — of Sextus Tarthe
i.

is

befieged
,

Hoftilius,

ii.

72is

ii.

73. 4. 89.

ii.

Prifcus,

ii.

at the inftigation
it

Feafls.
;

See Fejlivah.
the Lupercalia were cele-

quinius

revolts

from the Ro-

February brated in this month, i. 187, 8. Feciaks the anH-rrovioipo^oi, among
-,

cient Pelafgi,

and Aborigines,

i.

*—

— —

47»

8.
i. ^§5. 356, 7. and form they dei.

Feciales, EifvjvoJixa/,
their fundions, in what manner

— — — —

mans,
is

ii.

373.

reduced, ii. 378. is invaded by the Sabines, Iv. 172. the Sabines are beaten, ii. 245. the Fidenates, and Veientes confpire againft the

Romans, ii. 10. the fugitive Fidenates accufe the Romans in the Ferentine affembly,
ii.

manded

reftitution,

i.

357.

391.

Ferentinum, the afiTemblies of the tin nation held there, ii. 79.
-

La-

the Fidenates, having obtained fuccours from Tarquinius Superbus
offer injuries to the nies, and embaffadors,

the debate concerning a war againft the Romans, held at this
"'

Roman
ii.

colo-

place,
Feretrius.

ii.

408, 9.

See Jupiter. Fr,ronia, formerly Ft-ronia, i. 311. •— her temple, and feftival, ib. Fefcennia, its fituation, i. 47. Fejlivah of the Latir.es, ii. 241. votive feftivals, iii. 268. feftivals, interrupted by the approach of an enemy, are renewed with double magnificence, iii. 49. the care of the feftivals was committed to the fediles, iii. 146.

— — being
field,

393.
ii.

are befieged

by Veturius, conquered by him

404.
ii.

in the

they retreat to their city,
5-

— furrender
Fidius
Fidius.
Figtree.

404^


— their camp

to Lartius,
is

{Me dins)

407, 8. abandoned, iv. 321. i. 308.
ii.

See Jupiter. See Rumitialis.
Sureties for a fine,
is
iii. 179. exafted from fureties, iv,

— —

Fines; —a

fine

feftivals

at
iii.

Athens
28
i.

in

honor of
ii.

Bacchus,

Ficana, rafed by

Ancus Marcius,
i.

Ficulenfes, their founders,
Ficidnenjis, called alfo

39.
;

— — 388. — why
143-

the fine of a conquered nation,

ii.

thirty fheep, and two oxen were the greateft fine, iv. 224. a fine is impofed on confuls,

the

name of a road Nomentana, iv. 323.

Fiden<e formerly built

by the Albans,

— —316. made
is

forty ftadia diftant ii. 62.

from Rome,
colony by

1.

and not a capital punifhment, iv. 223, 4. Romilius will not accept his fine though it had been remitted to him, but held it as a thing deiv.

a

Roman

Ro-

—voted, a
after

229.
is

fine

paid,

it

was lawful

4i6
ful

INDEX
to return
to

to

the

TEXT.
iii.

public

employ-

— — along — why was committed — why
147.
fires fliooting

ments, iv. 54. i^r're kindled Ipontaneoufly, 1.137. playing round a youih's head, ii.
the heavens,
fire

— —

garrifoned by thofe above the military age,

342.

iv. 8.

the puniiliment of thofe, ftrtcd a fortrc-fs, iii. 413.

who

de-

Fortune, two temples crcdtcd to her

iv.

132. the

perpetual

of Vcfta
i.

to virgins,

343.

.

— when

dedicated to Vefta,
fufFered

ib.

to

go out,
i.

why


'

dreaded by the Romans,
after its extindlion,

348.

how procured
and water, a

TuUius 203. —by temple of fortune 228. — temple, and of Fortuna Muliebris, — of Fortuna Mu370, — temple of Fortune
Serv.
ii.

the

is

burnt,

ii.

the
the

altar, ftatue,

rites

iii.

^6().

pricflefTes
iii.

liebris,

I.

the

flood in the

again, ib.
a

Ox

market,
in

ii.

203.
city,
i.

communion of
rite,
i.

fire

marriage See IFolf.

279, So.

Tirfl offerings were taken from all the limbs, and entrails of a vi(5tim, iii.

— —

Forumy 343-

what part of the

in the plain at the foot
line hill,
i.

of Capito-

312.

the forum,

miniftered,
the oblation of the
at
firfl;

where juflice was adand the aflemblies
is

offerings

were held,

adorned by Tarquiii.

the funerals of brave

men,

iv.

291. Flnmmea, i. 340. Flames iffuing from the tops of javelins,
ii.

129. — thciforum Boarium, or Ox market, — 92. 203. forum 49.
i.

nius Prifcus,
ii.

the

Popilii,

i.

382,3.

Fiamines, ^itptx-jyi^o^oi, i. 340. J^. Fiavokius a primipilus, fets the example to his fellow foldiers in a

Fox quenches a fire, i. 137. Freeborn, in what they differed from

— not lawful190,
mon women,

flaves,

ii.

i.

to ftrike a freeman, iv.

great exploit, iv. 16. is honoured with the reward of
iv.

74Friends, an appellation given to
i.

com-

braveiy, See Lartitis. Flavus.
fall in a violent pieces of flefh fliower, iv. 133. Flutes ; fhort flutes uftd in procefTions,

24.

196.

Fkjlo

;

Fnigi (Pifo) an hiflorian, ii. 157. Fufelius (Melius) fucceeds Cluilius in the command of the Albans, ii. 10. invites Tullus Hoftifius to an ac-

271. Force^ feldom binding. ni. ZSlForeigners^ driven away by the Greeks, who arc bhmed for it, i. 254. the reccpion of foreigners during the votive games, iii. 269. Forentanu a people of Latiurn, ii.

iii.

— commodation,
— and
his treachery,

ib.
ii.

51.

409.
Fcrs Fortuna,
.Fortrejfes
ii. 203. of the city, iii. 384.

— — — —

punifhment, ii. 71. Funeral performed in the night, ii. 227. cirried through the forum, ib. borne through the molt confpicuous ftrcets of the city, iv. 312.
funeral triumphal, iii. 376, 7. the fenate defrays the expences of

Popli-

INDEX
— Agrippa

Poplicola's
funeral,
ii.

to

the

TEXT.

417

387.

Menenius

is

honoured
at the

with a magnificent funeral public expence, iii. 146, 7.
Siccius, the legate,

GAB

1 1, an Alban colony, a town of Latium ftanding in the road to

is honoured with a public funeral, iv. 289 91. a fatyric dance at the funerals of


'

— men, 274,339. — games, — perbus, communicates — by whom an contrivance reduce ^39. — common denied an unGabini, 249. — Gabini betrayed by — worthy daughter, 44, them, feigned enjoined 250. — he made them, and 302. — fpendid honor -of of Gabii by king 312. 2-5-.. — Gabii, being taken by Tarqui350. (Agrippa)
great funeral
iii.

5.

ii.

Prsnefte, once great, and powerii. 246, 409. Romulus and Remus were educated at this place, i. 197. Sextus Tarquinius, fon of Suful,

funeral orations, ib.

to his father

invented,
burial

ii.

artful

to

the
a

ii.

ii.

funeral rites

5. to relations,

- the

are

revolt to

ii.

iv.

reduces

is

a

funeral

in

his

father,

ii,

Virginia,

iv.

Ftirius

conful, iv.
iv.

L. Furius, conful,

68. with hiscoll,;gue cited, together Aulus Manlius, to a trial by Cn. Genucius, a tribune of the people,
is

nius,

is

treated mildly

beyond exretires

— Tarquin,
to Gabii,
Galiies.

pectation, ib.

when banifhed,
ii.

296.

for

not having carried into exe-

See Legate!.
a proceffion

cution a decree of the fenate con-

Games,

on foot
\6().

in the vo-

cerning the Agrarian law, iv. 70. L. Furius, a triumvir, iv. 108.

tive

games,

ui.

P. Furius, conful,

iv.

74.

the fons of the knights lead an equeftrian proceffion in the votive
ib.

P. Furius, the legate of his brother Spurius, is killed, together with two cohorts under his command,
iv.

117. </