POLITECNICO DI MILANO Ingegneria dei Sistemi Edilizi PhD Program Sistemi Edilizi e compatibilita ambientale

C uluralH eriage i Egypt t t n
Conserva on of the old city of Cairo

URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON (UHI) GENERATION | MITIGATION
Individual Report
Presented to: Prof. GATTONI Presented by: Amr ELESAWY (750084)

This report provides an overview of the definition and description of the Urban Heat Island phenomenon, its causes, impacts, and factors that contribute to mitigating its effect.

......................................................................... 1 LIST OF FIGURES...................... 11 1................. 5 3.................................................................. 3 1............................................... 10 Properties of Cool Roofs ............................................................... 9 COOL ROOFS............................................................................................................................ 2 Scheme showing the difference in behavior between Cool and Hot Roofs.............................. 1 Thermal Image Depicting Surface UHI in Atlanta (Georgia)........................................................................................................... .......................................... vegetation........................................ ....................................................................URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................................................................................................................ 4 LIST OF FIGURES Fig......................................... 6 Buildings ....................... 13 CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................................... UHI Impact ...................................... 10 750084 | Amr Elesawy 1 .....4 Temperature Effects .......................................................... 8 Cool roofs ..... UHI Mitigation........................................................ 3 Surface UHI: ........................................................................................................................................................ 11 Solar Reflectance............................................................................................... 4 2...................... 1 Basic Characteristics of Surface and Atmospheric UHIs .............................. on September 28th........................... 15 LIST OF TABLES Tab............................................................................................................................................................................. 6 Properties of Surface Materials ........................................... Measurment ...... 1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................... Definition | Description.................................................................................................................................................................. 7 4..................................... 1 LIST OF TABLES....................................... 7 5............. 6 Reduction of Vegetation in Urban Areas........ 3 Atmospheric UHI: ............................................................................ 12 Material ................................................................... 8 Trees................................................ and green roofs ................. 14 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..... 2 URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON .......... 13 Cool Roofs Contribution Conflict .............................. 12 Geometry .......................................... 2 Report Objectives ....................................... 11 Cool Roof Types ................... 11 Thermal Emittance ......................... 2000......... 6 Anthropogenic heat ............... 9 Cool pavements ........................................................................................................................... Causes ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5 Fig.............................................................................................................................

D.Highlighting the doubts and conflicts in the authenticity and correctness of the information regarding the phenomenon. much emphasis has been placed on observing and documenting heat island magnitudes in cities around the world. In recent years. I. the response to these questions is not obvious.1002/joc. recently. The first scientific observations were documented on this phenomena were by Luke Howard in 1833. environmental quality. A systematic review and scientific critique of methodology in modern urban heat island literature. .Definition and a brief description of the phenomenon.Urban heat island impacts on energy consumption..Causes of urban heat island formation. impacts. and its types (Surface and Atmospheric). . DOI: 10. for example. Although the size of literature about this phenomenon is reasonable enough. To what extent does this literature serve the aims of science? Can its measurements be trusted? So far.2141 750084 | Amr Elesawy 2 . The report will discuss: .1 R e p o r t O b j e c ti v e s This report provides an overview of different types of urban heat islands. and human health. scholars have been questioning the authenticity with which heat island observations have been gathered and reported through history. International Journal of Climatology. Chandler (1962. Modern heat island investigators such as Parry (1956). 2010. . alluded to problems of methodology decades ago. .Methods of mitigating the negative impacts of the phenomenon. published online 15 Apr.URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report Introduction In the modern age of urban climatology. discussion around these same problems has been open and direct. His temperature analysis in and around London. their causes. 1 Stewart. and how grave the impact of it on global warming. and factors that contribute to mitigating their effect. focusing on the Cool Roofs as a possible solution. have shown a city distinctly warmer than its countryside. England. These studies and their estimates of UHI magnitude are unrivalled (incomparable) in their contributions to urban climatology. 1970) and Bohm and Gabl (1978).

.The methods available to moderate them. T. this temperature difference can be as much as 22°F (12°C). Surfaces that were once permeable and moist generally become impermeable and dry. and other infrastructure replace open land and vegetation. a process of natural landscape replacement takes place. roads. and is most apparent when winds are weak.epa.gov/heatislands/about/index. The temperature difference usually is larger at night than during the day.) is a secondary contributor. sunny summer day. This development leads to the formation of urban heat islands.Surface UHI: On a hot. The main causes of the urban heat island are: 1) The modification of the land surface by urban development which uses materials that effectively retain heat.2 With the increase of population. American Meteorological Society. like roofs and pavement.Their impacts. The Energetic Basis of the Urban Heat Island. . Retrieved 200906-19. Heating and cooling equipments in buildings etc.The techniques used to identify and measure them. 4 These two heat island types differ in: . though the effect often decreases as city size decreases. in other words.g. 3 Glossary of Meteorology (2009). "Urban Heat Island". UHI is seen during both summer and winter. Urban Heat Island (UHI) is the phenomenon whereby urban regions experience warmer temperatures than their rural surroundings.Their Formation. . 4 http://www. Two of the distinctive ways of forming HUI are the Surface UHI and the Atmospheric UHI.8 to 5.4°F (1 to 3°C) warmer than its surroundings. 108:1-24. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society.R. 2) Waste heat generated by energy usage (e. and.htm 2 750084 | Amr Elesawy 3 .2 Even smaller cities and towns will produce heat islands. . The annual mean air temperature of a city with one million or more people can be 1.3 Understanding urban heat island (UHI) contamination in the in situ climate record is a complex task because the results are impacted by a wide variety of factors not related to urbanization. D e f i n i ti o n | D e s c r i p ti o n In the urban development. to temperatures 50 to 90°F (27 to 50°C) hotter than Oke. Seasonally. calm night.URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON 1 . 1982. and on a clear. the urban areas tend to modify a greater and greater area of land and have a corresponding increase in the average temperature. Buildings. the sun can heat dry and exposed urban surfaces.

Surfaces in the 5 Berdahl P. 1997. Preliminary Survey of the Solar Reflectance of Cool Roofing Materials. 6 Surface UHIs are typically largest in the summer and lowest in winter.R. 1987. Oke. Atmospheric urban heat islands are often weak during the late morning and throughout the day. Canopy layer UHI: It exists in the layer of air where people live. and T. J. New York. 1 Basic Characteristics of Surface and Atmospheric UHIs 7 We could also mention that both Surface and atmospheric UHIs are interconnected and both have a significant impact on each other. Thermal Remote Sensing of Urban Areas. depends on the properties of urban and rural surfaces. 2. 6 Numbers from Voogt. 7 Oke. Routledge.URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report the air5. Following is a table summarizing the comparison between the main two types of the UHI phenomenon: Tab. however. .A. 86. 750084 | Amr Elesawy 4 . but they tend to be strongest during the day when the sun is shining. the season. The timing of this peak. and they become more marked after sunset due to the slow release of heat from urban infrastructure. the difference in nighttime surface temperatures is typically smaller. and prevailing weather conditions. Boundary Layer Climates. Surface UHI are present day and night. Bretz. Remote Sensing of Environment.R. Energy and Buildings 25:149-158. On average. It s often divided into two different types: 1.Atmospheric UHI: Atmospheric urban heat islands refer to the existence of warmer air in urban areas compared to cooler air in nearby rural surroundings. 2003. while shaded or moist surfaces often in more rural surroundings remain close to air temperatures. (Special issue on Urban Areas): 370-384. at 9 to 18°F (5 to 10°C). the difference in daytime surface temperatures between developed and rural areas is 18 to 27°F (10 to 15°C). Boundary layer UHI: It starts from the rooftop and treetop level and extend up to the point where urban landscapes no longer influence the atmosphere. T. and S. from the ground to below the tops of trees and roofs. due to the changes in the sun s intensity with seasons. because of the variation in radiation and temperature.

such as that shown in Fig.gov/IOTD/view. and estimates based on empirical models.URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report urban setting radiate heat which affects on the atmospheric temperature. They use the data collected to produce thermal images.php?id=7205 750084 | Amr Elesawy 5 . scientists use direct and indirect methods. numerical modeling. 2000. 1 Thermal Image Depicting Surface UHI in Atlanta (Georgia). 2 .8 8 http://earthobservatory. on September 28th. Researchers often use remote sensing.nasa. such as Asphalt) forcing them to store more heat than that in the normal temperatures. to estimate surface temperatures. an indirect measurement technique. Fig. 1. which by turn reflects back on the surface materials (especially dark ones. M e a su rm e n t To identify urban heat islands.

In developed areas. - 750084 | Amr Elesawy 6 . radiating into the relatively cold night sky. which results in elevating surface and air temperatures. Nighttime atmospheric heat islands can have serious health implications for urban residents during heat waves Properties of Surface Materials  Materials commonly used in urban areas for pavement and roofs. surfaces and structures are often at least partially obstructed by objects.  Geometric Impact: The tall buildings within many urban areas provide multiple surfaces for the reflection and absorption of sunlight. and parking lots.Buildings  Buildings Block Surface Heat: The principal reason for the nighttime warming. Reduction of Vegetation in Urban Areas  In rural areas.  Built up communities generally reflect less and absorb more of the sun s energy. thermal emissivity or heat capacity control the ability of the material to have a lower or higher contribution to the increase of the UHI. Trees and vegetation provide shade.  Materials such as solar reflectance. This change in ground cover results in less shade and moisture to keep urban areas cool. urban areas are characterized by dry. Urban geometry influences wind flow. and become large thermal masses that cannot release their heat very readily because of these obstructions.URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report 3 . increasing the efficiency with which urban areas are heated. dark surfaces with high emittance values will stay cooler. This is called the "urban canyon effect". and a given surface s ability to emit long-wave radiation back to space. This absorbed heat results in an increase in surface temperatures and thus contribute to the formation of surface and atmospheric UHIs. energy absorption. roads. the air above urban centers is typically warmer than air over rural areas. impervious surfaces.  In contrast. sidewalks. Ca u se s There are several causes of an urban heat island (UHI). also urban areas evaporate less water. such as concrete and asphalt. Briefly stated as follows: . because they will release heat more readily. vegetation and open land are dominant. which lowers surface temperatures and reduces temperatures through evapotranspiration . such as neighboring buildings. For example. have significantly different thermal bulk properties (including heat capacity and thermal conductivity) and surface Radiative properties (Albedo and Emissivity) than the surrounding rural areas. such as roofs. Especially at night.

excessive heat exposure contributed to more than 8. such as children. especially during summer. Extreme Heat: A Prevention Guide to Promote Your Personal Health and Safety. 10 Akbari. Sensitive populations. 10 Urban heat islands increase overall electricity demand. and appliances. . weather. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 108 (455): 1 24. and a variety of other manmade sources. non-fatal heat stroke. which contributes to the increase of the UHI as well as the urban energy budget. such as lengthening the plant-growing season.0% for every (0. Research shows that electricity demand for cooling increases 1. lightning. This causes a change in the energy balance of the urban area. H. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that from 1979 2003. This figure exceeds the number of mortalities resulting from hurricanes. industrial facilities.High Pollution Levels  Various forms of pollution change the Radiative properties of the atmosphere.000 premature deaths in the United States. which generally occurs on hot summer weekday afternoons. respiratory difficulties. lights. heat cramps and exhaustion. Oke (1982). . 11 Center for Disease Control and Prevention. older adults. starting from (20 to 25°C). which are periods of unusually hot.6°C) increase in air temperatures. Excessive heat events are particularly dangerous and can result in above-average rates of mortality. particularly in the winter. floods. and earthquakes combined. can affect a community s environment and quality of life. While some heat island impacts seem positive. and those with existing health conditions. 750084 | Amr Elesawy 7 . are at particular risk from these events.9 - 4 . Heat islands can also exacerbate the impact of heat waves. 251K). tornadoes.Impact on Human Health and Comfort Increased daytime temperatures. and often humid. reduced nighttime cooling. R.5 2. and heat-related mortality. "The energetic basis of the urban heat island". Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. often leading to higher temperatures than surrounding rural areas. 2006. 2005.11 9 T. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island Mitigation (PDF) (19 pp. and higher air pollution levels associated with urban heat islands can affect human health by contributing to general discomfort. when offices and homes are running cooling systems. suggesting that 5 10% of community-wide demand for electricity is used to compensate for the heat island effect.Impact on Energy Consumption Increased summertime temperatures in cities increase energy demand for cooling. air conditioners. most impacts are negative and include: .URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report Anthropogenic heat  Refers to the heat generated by cars. U H I I m pa c t Increased temperatures from UHIs. as well as peak demand.

. Stormwater 3(2):48-40. even fatal to aquatic life. remove air pollutants. Green roads: research into permeable pavers.epa. and improvements to building and road materials.htm 750084 | Amr Elesawy 8 . such as the level of precursor emissions in the air and wind speed and direction.Impact on Water Quality High pavement and rooftop surface temperatures can heat extra storm water.Trees. Although prevailing weather patterns.13 This heated storm water generally becomes excess.Impact on Air Quality Urban heat islands raise demand for electrical energy in summer. and topography are beyond the influence of local policy. Increased use of fossil-fuel-powered plants also increases emissions of greenhouse gases. especially the metabolism and reproduction of many aquatic species. and lakes.URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report . increased temperatures can directly increase the rate of ground-level ozone formation. 5 . and land use design projects. and mercury (Hg).gov/heatislands/mitigation/index. improve storm-water 12 13 http://www.htm#2 James. nitrogen oxides (NOx). rivers. Companies that supply electricity typically rely on fossil fuel power plants to meet much of this demand.gov/heatislands/impacts/index. which in turn leads to an increase in air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions. climate. carbon monoxide (CO). particulate matter (PM). Rapid temperature changes in aquatic ecosystems resulting from warm storm water runoff can be particularly stressful.epa. and green roofs They can reduce heating and cooling energy use and associated air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. W. fine particulate matter. more ground-level ozone will form as the environment becomes sunnier and hotter. Ground-level ozone is formed when NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight and hot weather. If all other variables are equal. U H I M i t i g a ti o n Will the urban areas benefit from heat island reduction? The answer depends on a number of factors some within and some outside of a community's control. and acid rain. such as carbon dioxide (CO2). 2002. Water temperature affects all aspects of aquatic life. vegetation. These pollutants are harmful to human health and also contribute to complex air quality problems such as the formation of ground-level ozone (smog). geography. Tests have shown that pavements that are (38°C) can elevate initial rainwater temperature from roughly (21ºC) to over (35ºC). help lower the risk of heat-related illnesses and deaths.12 In addition to their impact on energy-related emissions. which contribute to global climate change. The primary pollutants from power plants include sulfur dioxide(SO2). landscaping. including vegetation. which drains into storm sewers and raises water temperatures as it is released into streams. decision makers can select a range of energy-saving strategies that will generate multiple benefits.14 Following are some of the most effective UHI mitigation strategies: . 14 http://www. ponds.

a single cool roof will mainly result in benefits to the building owner and occupants. For example. and greenhouse gas emissions. Later in the report.URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report control and water quality. and solid waste generation due to less frequent re-roofing. 750084 | Amr Elesawy 9 . . peak electricity demand. though. For example. installing a permeable pavement parking lot that includes shade trees can extend the longevity of the pavement and vegetation.Cool roofs They lower cooling energy use. . improve aesthetic qualities. increase surface durability. reduce noise levels. create habitats. Community-wide cool roof installations. heat-related incidents. and reduce noise. cool pavements can improve storm-water management and water quality. Widespread implementation of these mitigation strategies also provides additional benefits. air pollution. occupants and to the community at large scales.15 Using these strategies in combination can enhance their effectiveness. has the potential to provide savings to the building owner. 15 Ibid. resulting in multiple benefits associated with cooler summertime air. this mitigation technique will be discussed with more depth. and increase property values. air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.Cool pavements They have the potential of indirectly reducing energy consumption. enhance nighttime illumination. Depending on the technology used. as a large number of cool roofs can reduce air temperatures.

and S.com/cool-roof. 492K). Sarah. while its Thermal Emittance is the ability to radiate absorbed. reducing roof temperatures. 19 Bretz. Energy and Buildings 25 (2): 159-167. Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies. Paper LBNL-50451. Fig. Bretz.18 Therefore.URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report COOL ROOFS Are the roofs characterized with high Albedo Solar Reflectance as well as high thermal emittance. H. the net energy saving of cool roofs varies depending on climate. Hashem Akbari (1997). the energy savings of cool roofs can diminish over time due to Albedo degradation and soiling. industrial. infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths of the sun. or non-reflected solar energy.php Levinson. S. 17 16 750084 | Amr Elesawy 10 . 2 Scheme showing the difference in behavior between Cool and Hot Roofs. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. R. These two characteristics help reflect sunlight and emit heat away from a building. Konopacki. Without a proper maintenance program to keep the material clean. temperature and the Urban Heat Islands Phenomenon. Solar Reflectance of the cool roofs is the ability to reflect the visible.1016/S0378-7788(96)01005-5. Akbari. first I ll start by explaining how their properties and roofing materials fit and contribute within the cycle of solar radiation. Inclusion of Cool Roofs in Nonresidential Title 24 Prescriptive Requirements (PDF) (64 pp. 2002.17 Cool roofs achieve cooling energy savings in hot summers but can increase heating energy load during cold winters. This part of the report discusses the following: http://www.19 In order to understand how cool roofing work. 18 United States Environmental Protection Agency (2011). and office buildings) or the steep-sloped roofs used in many residences and retail buildings.. doi:10. Cool roofs may be installed on low-slope roofs (such as the flat or gently sloping roofs typically found on commercial. "Long-term performance of high albedo roof coatings".custombiltmetals. 16 Cool roofing products are made of highly reflective and emissive materials that can remain approximately 50 to 60°F (28-33°C) cooler than traditional materials during peak summer weather.

Paper LBNL-40673. 2004.Solar Reflectance Solar reflectance. 2004. Berkeley. H. S. A. n. research reveals that conventional roofs can be 55 to 85°F (31-47°C) hotter than the air on any given day. especially in the visible and infrared (heat) wavelengths. Kriner. Desjarlais. Gartland. S. Akbari. Gartland. W. Traditional roofing materials have low solar reflectance of 5 to 15 percent. Research has shown that cool roofs with both high reflectance and high emittance reach peak temperatures of only 110 to 115°F (43-46°C) in the summer sun.e. Toronto. Akbari. it gives off as much heat as it receives). Demonstration of Energy Savings of Cool Roofs. Bare metal or metallic surfaced roofs have high reflectance and low thermal emittance and can warm to (66 -77°C). Any surface exposed to radiant energy will get hotter until it reaches thermal equilibrium (i.Thermal Emittance Although solar reflectance is the most important property in determining a material s contribution to urban heat islands. CA.. Konopacki. Nonetheless. When exposed to sunlight. Rainer.URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report P ro p e r t i e s o f Co o l R o of s .1. These peak values vary by local conditions. or albedo. Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies: Cool Roofs. because the high-emittance surface gives off its heat more readily. Solar reflectance measurement methods have been developed in order to determine how well a material reflects energy at each solar energy wavelength.d. Measured Energy Savings and Demand Reduction from a Reflective Roof Membrane on a Large Retail Store in Austin. and S. . thermal emittance is also a part of the equation. 2001. A material s thermal emittance determines how much heat it will radiate per unit area at a given temperature. which means they absorb 85 to 95 percent of the energy reaching them instead of reflecting the energy back out to the atmosphere. then calculating the weighted average of these values. The coolest roof materials have a high solar reflectance of more than 65 percent. while cool roofs tend to stay within 10 to 20°F (6-11°C) of the background temperature.A. CIB World Building Congress. how readily a surface gives up heat. that is. 750084 | Amr Elesawy 11 . Berkeley. absorbing and transferring to the building 35 percent or less of the energy that reaches them. and H. standard black asphalt roofs can reach (74 -85°C) at midday during the summer. Conventional roof surfaces have low reflectance but high thermal emittance. D. 21 These temperature ranges are compiled from the following individual reports: Konopacki.4 Temperature Effects Solar reflectance and thermal emittance have noticeable effects on surface temperature. Ontario. is the percentage of solar energy reflected by a surface. Miller. 1998. Paper LBNL-47149.S. Cool Roof Energy Savings Evaluation for City of Tucson. and I. a surface with high emittance will reach thermal equilibrium at a lower temperature than a surface with low emittance. May 1-7.. L. Parker. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. CA..20 These materials reflect radiation across the entire solar spectrum. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Cool Metal Roofing Tested for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability. . L.21 20 United States Environmental Protection Agency (2011).

a New York City simulation predicted near-surface air temperature reductions for various cool roof mitigation scenarios. or green planted roofs. Goldberg. The roof can be made reflective by applying a solar reflective coating to its surface.3°C) and ranged from 0. Hodges. S. The important distinction is that elastomeric coatings provide a waterproofing membrane. Cementitious coatings contain cement particles. 2006. B. Atlanta. and Light Surfaces. An asphalt roof only reflects between 6 and 26% of solar radiation.org/wiki/Cool_roof 22 750084 | Amr Elesawy 12 . C. Parshall. Averaged over all times of day. Lynn. American Meteorological Society. The city-wide. Both types have a solar reflectance of 65 percent or higher when new and have a thermal emittance of 80 to 90 percent or more. W. Some coatings contain both cement particles and polymers. L. J. 23 http://en. for example. Elastomeric coatings include polymers. can reflect 80 percent or more of the sun s rays and emit at least 70% of the solar radiation that the building absorbs. achieve some of the highest reflectance and emittance measurements of which roofing materials are capable.wikipedia. Mitigating New York City s Heat Island with Urban Forestry. and S. Sixth Symposium on the Urban Environment and Forum on Managing our Physical and Natural Resources. average reduction was (0. 23  Coated roofs This type of intervention works also for retrofitting.8°C) in six specific study areas within the city.  Green roofs Green roofs provide a thermal mass layer which helps reducing the flow of heat Rosenzweig.URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report These reduced surface temperatures from cool roofs can lower air temperature.4 . R. which are added to reduce brittleness and improve adhesion. which are inherently reflective. Cox. GA. Gaffin.2°C).22 Co o l R o o f T y p e s Cool roofs can be categorized in two difference manners: . resulting in greater heat transfer to the building interior and greater demand for air conditioning..7 to (0. For example. Solecki. Living Roofs. the model predicted a city-wide temperature reduction of (0. while cementitious coatings are pervious and rely on the underlying roofing material for waterproofing. roofs made of materials that have been coated with a solar reflective coating.  Inherently cool roofs White vinyl roofs. There are two main types of cool roof coatings: Cementitious and Elastomeric.0. The study assumed 50percent adoption of cool roofs on available roof space and ran models to evaluate the resulting temperature changes. 3:00 p. A roof made of thermoplastic white vinyl.m.Material Cool roofs for commercial and industrial buildings fall into one of three categories: roofs made from inherently cool roofing materials.

Levinson. These roofs are found on the majority of commercial. for it could change the orientation of studies implemented for remedying the phenomenon s negative impact. 25 http://news. regarding the Urban Heat Island phenomenon claim that.25 How correct or false this piece of information is. and multifamily buildings. Cool Planet" (PowerPoint Slides). It is usually defined as having no more than 2 inches (5 cm) of vertical rise over 12 inches (30 cm) of horizontal run. not decrease. low-sloped roofs use built-up roofing or a membrane. global warming. Ronnen (2010). warehouse.html 24 750084 | Amr Elesawy 13 .3-0. Steep-sloped roofs have inclines greater than a 2-inch rise over a 12-inch run. Retrieved 10 December 2011. These roofs are found most often on residences and retail commercial buildings and are generally visible from the street.Geometry Depending on the geometry of the roof.24 Because of the lower solar reflectance. The solar reflectance of green roofs varies depending on the plant types (generally 0. as well as some single-family homes. The absorbed heat in the green roofs is trapped by the greenhouse effect and then cooled by evapotranspiration . if all the roofs in urban areas were painted white. office. is a matter of scientific research and discussion.stanford. green roofs reflect less sunlight and absorb more solar heat than white roofs. Low-sloped and steep-sloped roofs use different roofing materials. . Traditionally. and the primary cool roof options are coatings and single-ply membranes.5). retail. Co o l R o o f s Co n t r i bu t i o n Co n f l i c t Recent works executed by researchers from Stanford University. with only enough incline to provide drainage. A low-sloped roof is essentially flat. Cool Cities.URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report into a building. it would increase.edu/news/2011/october/urban-heat-islands-101911. there are two categories: low-sloped and steep-sloped. industrial. "Cool Roofs.

but how much influence these urban "heat islands" have on global warming has been a matter of debate. it would increase. International Journal of Climatology. not decrease. and an emerging body of research and pilot projects are helping scientists. Black carbon is a component of the soot created by burning fossil fuels and biofuels and is highly efficient at absorbing sunlight. Modern heat island investigators such as Parry (1956). published online 15 Apr. Jacobson. Chandler (1962. the response to these questions is not obvious.2141 27 http://news. To what extent does this literature serve the aims of science? Can its measurements be trusted? So far. Interest in cool pavements has been growing. community interest and concern regarding them has been more recent. and cool roofs.html 26 750084 | Amr Elesawy 14 . recently.stanford. which heats the atmosphere. 1970) and Bohm and Gabl (1978). green roofs. for example." said Mark Z. Although the size of literature about this phenomenon is reasonable enough. discussion around these same problems has been open and direct. "Between 2 and 4 percent of the gross global warming since the Industrial Revolution may be due to urban heat islands. Stewart. I.26 Heat emanating from cities called the "urban heat island" effect is not a significant contributor to global warming. engineers. alluded to problems of methodology decades ago. In recent years. showing that it is modest compared with what greenhouse gases contribute to global warming. a professor of civil and environmental engineering who led the study. D. He and his students compared this with the greenhouse gas contribution to gross warming of about 79 percent and the black carbon contribution of about 18 percent.. They also concluded that if all the roofs in urban areas were painted white.1002/joc. DOI: 10. Cities release more heat to the atmosphere than the rural vegetated areas around them. scholars have been questioning the authenticity with which heat island observations have been gathered and reported through history. This increased attention to heat-related environment and health issues has helped to advance the development of heat island reduction strategies. global warming. mainly trees and vegetation.edu/news/2011/october/urban-heat-islands-101911.27 This was quoted from the study by Stanford researchers. A systematic review and scientific critique of methodology in modern urban heat island literature. Stanford researchers have found. which has quantified the contribution of the heat islands for the first time.URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report CONCLUSION Although urban climatologists have been studying urban heat islands for decades. and practitioners to better understand the interactions between pavements and the urban climate. 2010.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 1982. Routledge. 2003. and T. L.gov/heatislands/mitigation/index.epa. [3] Glossary of Meteorology (2009).A.1016/S0378-7788(96)01005-5. Paper LBNL-40673. [20] United States Environmental Protection Agency (2011).nasa. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. [21] These temperature ranges are compiled from the following individual reports: Konopacki.com/cool-roof. [10] Akbari. Remote Sensing of Environment. The Energetic Basis of the Urban Heat Island. J. Gartland.gov/heatislands/about/index. Energy and Buildings 25:149-158. 2006. 1987. 492K). Extreme Heat: A Prevention Guide to Promote Your Personal Health and Safety. S.R.R. I. A systematic review and scientific critique of methodology in modern urban heat island literature. Konopacki. 2002. Inclusion of Cool Roofs in Nonresidential Title 24 Prescriptive Requirements (PDF) (64 pp. Demonstration of Energy Savings of Cool Roofs. ] Stewart. Energy and Buildings 25 (2): 159-167.URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report BIBLIOGRAPHY [1. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. [11] Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Hashem Akbari (1997). H. [7] Oke. Paper LBNL50451. Stormwater 3(2):48-40. [6] Numbers from Voogt. R. Oke (1982). [12] http://www.epa. R. 251K). Berkeley.htm [5] Berdahl P. and S. 108:1-24. published online 15 Apr. CA.2141 [2] Oke. American Meteorological Society. Thermal Remote Sensing of Urban Areas. doi:10. Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies: Cool Roofs. 1998. Boundary Layer Climates.R.. 750084 | Amr Elesawy 15 .1002/joc. 2002. "Urban Heat Island". [14] http://www.php?id=7205 [9] T. W. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.htm#2 [13] James. DOI: 10. Oke. International Journal of Climatology. [18] United States Environmental Protection Agency (2011).gov/IOTD/view. "The energetic basis of the urban heat island". 1997. New York. 2005. Rainer.htm [15] Ibid. H. [4] http://www. "Long-term performance of high albedo roof coatings". [19] Bretz. Akbari.custombiltmetals. Bretz. D. T. Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 108 (455): 1 24. Sarah. S.gov/heatislands/impacts/index. 2010. T. H.. and I. and S. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island Mitigation (PDF) (19 pp. Bretz. [16] http://www. [8] http://earthobservatory..php [17] Levinson.epa. Green roads: research into permeable pavers. Akbari. Preliminary Survey of the Solar Reflectance of Cool Roofing Materials. Retrieved 2009-06-19. 86. (Special issue on Urban Areas): 370-384.

Goldberg. Ronnen (2010). Retrieved 10 December 2011. Parker. C. and H. J. D. W.. Cox. S. and S.1002/joc. n. 2006. W.d. DOI: 10. L.URBAN HEAT ISLAND PHENOMENON Individual Report Gartland.. A systematic review and scientific critique of methodology in modern urban heat island literature. Berkeley. Gaffin. CA. D.wikipedia. Kriner. Solecki. [23] http://en. Desjarlais. Paper LBNL-47149. Hodges. Measured Energy Savings and Demand Reduction from a Reflective Roof Membrane on a Large Retail Store in Austin.edu/news/2011/october/urban-heat-islands-101911. S. I. [22] Rosenzweig.S. May 1-7. Konopacki. 2004. Cool Cities.html [26] Stewart. American Meteorological Society. A. 2001. L. CIB World Building Congress. Parshall. Mitigating New York City s Heat Island with Urban Forestry. Cool Roof Energy Savings Evaluation for City of Tucson..stanford. Living Roofs. R. Lynn. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. "Cool Roofs.2141 [27] http://news. [25] http://news. 2004. Atlanta.A. and Light Surfaces. Sixth Symposium on the Urban Environment and Forum on Managing our Physical and Natural Resources. and S.edu/news/2011/october/urban-heat-islands-101911.stanford. Cool Metal Roofing Tested for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability.html 750084 | Amr Elesawy 16 . published online 15 Apr. International Journal of Climatology.org/wiki/Cool_roof [24] Levinson. Cool Planet" (PowerPoint Slides). Miller. Toronto. Akbari. Ontario. 2010. GA. B.

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